Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 60546

Critical Heights of Sloped Unsupported Trenches in Unsaturated Sand
Workers are often required to enter unsupported trenches during the construction process, which may present serious risks. Trench failures can result in death or damage to adjacent properties, therefore trenches should be excavated with extreme precaution. Excavation work is often done in unsaturated soils, where the critical height (i.e. maximum depth that can be excavated without failure) of unsupported trenches can be more reliably estimated by considering the influence of matric suction. In this study, coupled stress/pore-water pressure analyses are conducted to investigate the critical height of sloped unsupported trenches considering the influence of pore-water pressure redistribution caused by excavating. Four different wall slopes (1.5V:1H, 2V:1H, 3V:1H, and 90°) and a vertical trench with the top 0.3 m sloped 1:1 were considered in the analyses with multiple depths of the ground water table in a sand. For comparison, the critical heights were also estimated using the limit equilibrium method for the same excavation scenarios used in the coupled analyses.
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.
Design and Modeling of Light Duty Trencher
From the earliest time of humankind, the trenches were used for water to flow along and for soldiers to hide in during enemy attacks. Now a day due to civilization, the needs of the human being become endless, and the living condition becomes sophisticated. The unbalance between the needs and resource obligates them to find the way to manage this condition. The attempt to use the scares resource in very efficient and effective way makes the trench an endeavor practice in the world in all countries. A trencher is a construction equipment used to dig trenches, especially for laying pipes or cables, installing drainage, irrigation, installing fencing, and in preparation for trench warfare. It is a machine used to make a ditch by cutting the soil ground and effectively used in agricultural irrigation. The most common types of trencher are wheel trencher, chain trencher, micro trencher, portable trencher. In Ethiopia people have been trenching the ditch for many purposes and the tools they are using are Pickaxe, Shovel and some are using Micro Excavators. The adverse effect of using traditional equipment is, time and energy consuming, less productive, difficult and more man power is required. Hence it is necessary to design and produce low price, and simple machine to narrow this gap. Our objective is to design and model a light duty trencher that is used for trenching the ground or soil for making ditch and used for agricultural, ground cabling, ground piping, and drainage system. The designed machine trenches, maximum of 1-meter depth, 30 cm width, and the required length. The working mechanism is fully hydraulic, and the engine with 12.7 hp will provide suitable power for the pump that delivers 23 l/min at 1500 rpm to drive hydraulic motors and actuators.
Searching the Efficient Frontier for the Coherent Covering Location Problem
In this article, we will try to find an efficient boundary approximation for the bi-objective location problem with coherent coverage for two levels of hierarchy (CCLP). We present the mathematical formulation of the model used. Supported efficient solutions and unsupported efficient solutions are obtained by solving the bi-objective combinatorial problem through the weights method using a Lagrangean heuristic. Subsequently, the results are validated through the DEA analysis with the GEM index (Global efficiency measurement).
Impact of Integrated Watershed Management Programme Based on Four Waters Concept: A Case Study of Sali Village, Rajasthan State of India
Integrated watershed management programme based on 'Four Water Concept' was implemented in Sali village, in Jaipur District, Rajasthan State of India . The latitude 26.7234486 North and longitude 75.023876 East are the geocoordinate of the Sali. 'Four Waters Concept' is evolved by integrating the 'Four Waters', viz. rain water, soil moisture, ground water and surface water This methodology involves various water harvesting techniques to prevent the runoff of water by treatment of catchment, proper utilization of available water harvesting structures, renovation of the non-functional water harvesting structures and creation of new water harvesting structures. The case study included questionnaire survey from farmers and continuous study of village for two years. The total project area is 6153 Hac, and the project cost is Rs. 92.25 million. The sanctioned area of Sali Micro watershed is 2228 Hac with an outlay of Rs. 10.52 million. Watershed treatment activities such as water absorption trench, continuous contour trench, field bunding, check dams, were undertaken on agricultural lands for soil and water conservation. These measures have contributed in preventing runoff and increased the perennial availability of water in wells. According to the survey, water level in open wells in the area has risen by approximately 5 metres after the introduction of water harvesting structures. The continuous availability of water in wells has increased the area under irrigation and helped in crop diversification. Watershed management activities have brought the changes in cropping patterns and crop productivity. It helped in transforming 567 Hac culturable waste land into culturable arable land in the village. The farmers of village have created an additional income from the increased crop production. The programme also assured the availability of water during peak summers for the day to day activities of villagers. The outcomes indicate that there is positive impact of watershed management practices on the water resource potential as well the crop production of the area. This suggests that persistent efforts in this direction may lead to sustainability of the watershed.
Application of Micro-Tunneling Technique to Rectify Tilted Structures Constructed on Cohesive Soil
Foundation differential settlement and supported structure tilting is an occasionally occurred engineering problem. This may be caused by overloading, changes in ground soil properties or unsupported nearby excavations. Engineering thinking points directly toward the logic solution for such problem by uplifting the settled side. This can be achieved with deep foundation elements such as micro-piles and macro-piles™, jacked piers and helical piers, jet grouted soil-crete columns, compaction grout columns, cement grouting or with chemical grouting, or traditional pit underpinning with concrete and mortar. Although, some of these techniques offer economic, fast and low noise solutions, many of them are quite the contrary. For tilted structures, with limited inclination, it may be much easier to cause a balancing settlement on the less-settlement side which shall be done carefully in a proper rate. This principal has been applied in Leaning Tower of Pisa stabilization with soil extraction from the ground surface. In this research, the authors attempt to introduce a new solution with a different point of view. So, micro-tunneling technique is presented in here as an intended ground deformation cause. In general, micro-tunneling is expected to induce limited ground deformations. Thus, the researchers propose to apply the technique to form small size ground unsupported holes to produce the target deformations. This shall be done in four phases: •Application of one or more micro-tunnels, regarding the existing differential settlement value, under the raised side of the tilted structure. •For each individual tunnel, the lining shall be pulled out from both sides (from jacking and receiving shafts) in slow rate. •If required, according to calculations and site records, an additional surface load can be applied on the raised foundation side. •Finally, a strengthening soil grouting shall be applied for stabilization after adjustment. A finite element based numerical model is presented to simulate the proposed construction phases for different tunneling positions and tunnels group. For each case, the surface settlements are calculated and induced plasticity points are checked. These results show the impact of the suggested procedure on the tilted structure and its feasibility. Comparing results also show the importance of the position selection and tunnels group gradual effect. Thus, a new engineering solution is presented to one of the structural and geotechnical engineering challenges.
Graphene-Oxide-Supported Coal-Layered Double Hydroxides: Synthesis and Characterizations
Nanosheets for cobalt-layered double hydroxide (Co-Al-LDH)/GO were successfully synthesized with different Co:M g:Al ratios (0:3:1, 1.5:1.5:1, and 3:0:1). The layered double hydroxide structure and morphology were determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature prgrammed reduction (TPR) of Co-Al-LDH showed reduction peaks at lower temperature which indicates the ease reducibility of this particular sample. The thermal behaviour was studied using thermal graviemetric technique (TG), and the BET-surface area was determined using N2 physisorption at -196°C. The C-C coupling reaction was carried out over all the investigated catalysts. The Mg–Al LDH catalyst without Co ions is inactive, but the isomorphic substitution of Mg by Co ions (Co:Mg:Al = 1.5:1.5:1) in the cationic sheet resulted in 88% conversion of iodobenzene under reflux. LDH/GO hybrid is up to 2 times higher activity than for the unsupported LDH.
Preliminary Seismic Hazard Mapping of Papua New Guinea
In this study the level of seismic hazard in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) was calculated for return period of 475 years, using modeled seismic sources and assigned ground-motion equations. The calculations were performed for bedrock site conditions (Vs30=760 m/s). From the results it is evident that the seismic hazard reaches its maximum level (i.e. PGA≈1g for 475 yr return period) at the Huon Peninsula and southern New Britain regions. Disaggregation analysis revealed that moderate to large earthquakes occurring along the New Britain Trench mainly control the level of hazard at these locations. The open-source computer program OpenQuake developed by Global Earthquake Model foundation was used for the seismic hazard computations. It should be emphasized that the presented results are still preliminary and should not be interpreted as our final assessment of seismic hazard in PNG.
Suitability Assessment of Water Harvesting and Land Restoration in Catchment Comprising Abandoned Quarry Site in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Water resource management and land degradation are among the critical issues threatening the suitable livability of many cities in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Rapid expansion of urban areas and fast growing population has increased the pressure on water security. On the other hand, the large transformation of natural green cover and agricultural land loss to settlement and industrial activities such as quarrying is contributing to environmental concerns. Integrated water harvesting is considered to play a crucial role in terms of providing alternative water source to insure water security and helping to improve soil condition, agricultural productivity and regeneration of ecosystem. Moreover, it helps to control stormwater runoff, thus reducing flood risks and pollution, thereby improving the quality of receiving water bodies and the health of inhabitants. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of applying integrated water harvesting approaches as a provision for water source and enabling land restoration in Jemo river catchment consisting of abandoned quarry site adjacent to a settlement area that is facing serious water shortage in western hilly part of Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. The abandoned quarry site, apart from its contribution to the loss of aesthetics, has resulted in poor water infiltration and increase in stormwater runoff leading to land degradation and flooding in the downstream. Application of GIS and multi-criteria based analysis are used for the assessment of potential water harvesting technologies considering the technology features and site characteristics of the case study area. Biophysical parameters including precipitation, surrounding land use, surface gradient, soil characteristics and geological aspects are used as site characteristic indicators and water harvesting technologies including retention pond, check dam, agro-forestation employing contour trench system were considered for evaluation with technical and socio-economic factors used as parameters in the assessment. The assessment results indicate the different suitability potential among the analyzed water harvesting and restoration techniques with respect to the abandoned quarry site characteristics. Application of agro-forestation with contour trench system with the revegetation of indigenous plants is found to be the most suitable option for reclamation and restoration of the quarry site. Successful application of the selected technologies and strategies for water harvesting and restoration is considered to play a significant role to provide additional water source, maintain good water quality, increase agricultural productivity at urban peri-urban interface scale and improve biodiversity in the catchment. The results of the study provide guideline for decision makers and contribute to the integration of decentralized water harvesting and restoration techniques in the water management and planning of the case study area.
Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry
Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.
A Failure Criterion for Unsupported Boreholes in Poorly Cemented Granular Formations
The breakage of bonding between sand particles and their dislodgment from the borehole wall are among the main factors resulting in a borehole failure in poorly cemented granular formations. The grain debonding usually precedes the borehole failure and it can be considered as a sign that the onset of the borehole collapse is imminent. Detecting the bonding breakage point and introducing an appropriate failure criterion will play an important role in borehole stability analysis. To study the influence of different factors on the initiation of sand bonding breakage at the borehole wall, a series of laboratory tests was designed and conducted on poorly cemented sand samples. The total absorbed strain energy per volume of material up to the point of the observed particle debonding was computed. The results indicated that the particle bonding breakage point at the borehole wall was reached both before and after the peak strength of the thick-walled hollow cylinder specimens depending on the stress path and cement content. Three different cement contents and two borehole sizes were investigated to study the influence of the bonding strength and scale on the particle dislodgment. Test results showed that the stress path has a significant influence on the onset of the sand bonding breakage. It was shown that for various stress paths, there is a near linear relationship between the absorbed energy and the normal effective mean stress.
Developing a Spatial Decision Support System for Rationality Assessment of Land Use Planning Locations in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam
In Vietnam, land use planning is the most important and powerful tool of the government for sustainable land use and land management. Nevertheless, many of land use planning locations are facing protests from surrounding households due to environmental impacts. In addition, locations are planned completely based on the subjective decisions of planners who are unsupported by tools or scientific methods. Hence, this research aims to assist the decision-makers in evaluating the rationality of planning locations by developing a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) using approaches of Geographic Information System (GIS)-based technology, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) multi-criteria-based technique and Fuzzy set theory. An ArcGIS Desktop add-ins named SDSS-LUPA was developed to support users analyzing data and presenting results in friendly format. The Fuzzy-AHP method has been utilized as analytic model for this SDSS. There are 18 planned locations in Hung Ha district (Thai Binh province, Vietnam) as a case study. The experimental results indicated that the assessment threshold higher than 0.65 while the 18 planned locations were irrational because of close to residential areas or close to water sources. Some potential sites were also proposed to the authorities for consideration of land use planning changes.
Case Study: Geomat Installation against Slope Erosion
Erosion (soil erosion) is a phenomenon in which the soil on the slope surface is exposed to natural influences such as wind, rainfall, etc. in open areas. The most natural solution to prevent erosion is to plant surfaces exposed to erosion. However, proper ground and natural conditions must be provided in order for planting to occur. Erosion is prevented in a fast and natural way and the loss of soil is reduced mostly. Lead to allowing plants to hold onto the soil with its three-dimensional and hollow structure are as follows: The types of geomat called MacMat that is used in a case study in Turkey in order to prevent water carry over due to rainfall. The geosynthetic combined with double twisted steel wire mesh. That consists of 95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated double twisted steel wire based that is a reinforced MacMat (geosynthetic three-dimensional erosion control mat) obtained by a polypropylene consisted (mesh type 8x10-Wire diam. 2.70 mm–95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated). That is developed by the progress of the technology. When using reinforced MacMat on top clay liners, fixing pins should not be used as they will rupture the mats. Mats are simply anchored (J Type) in the top trench and, if necessary, in intermediate berm trenches. If the slope angle greater than 20°, it is necessary to use additional rebar depending soil properties also. These applications may have specific technical and installation requirements. In that project, the main purpose is erosion control after that is greening. There is a slope area around the factory which is located in Gebze, İstanbul.
Parameters Identification and Sensitivity Study for Abrasive WaterJet Milling Model
This work is part of STEEP Marie-Curie ITN project, and it focuses on the identification of unknown parameters of the proposed generic Abrasive WaterJet Milling (AWJM) PDE model, that appears as an ill-posed inverse problem. The necessity of studying this problem comes from the industrial milling applications where the possibility to predict and model the final surface with high accuracy is one of the primary tasks in the absence of any knowledge of the model parameters that should be used. In this framework, we propose the identification of model parameters by minimizing a cost function, measuring the difference between experimental and numerical solutions. The adjoint approach based on corresponding Lagrangian gives the opportunity to find out the unknowns of the AWJM model and their optimal values that could be used to reproduce the required trench profile. Due to the complexity of the nonlinear problem and a large number of model parameters, we use an automatic differentiation software tool (TAPENADE) for the adjoint computations. By adding noise to the artificial data, we show that in fact the parameter identification problem is highly unstable and strictly depends on input measurements. Regularization terms could be effectively used to deal with the presence of data noise and to improve the identification correctness. Based on this approach we present results in 2D and 3D of the identification of the model parameters and of the surface prediction both with self-generated data and measurements obtained from the real production. Considering different types of model and measurement errors allows us to obtain acceptable results for manufacturing and to expect the proper identification of unknowns. This approach also gives us the ability to distribute the research on more complex cases and consider different types of model and measurement errors as well as 3D time-dependent model with variations of the jet feed speed.
Efficacy of Ergonomics Ankle Support on Squatting Pushing Skills during the Second Stage of Labor
Objective: To compare the pushing experiences and birth outcomes of three different pushing positions during the second stage of labor. The three positions were: semi-recumbent, squatting, and squatting with the aid of ergonomically designed ankle supports. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. Data were collected from 168 primiparous women in their 38th to 42nd gestational week. None of the participants received epidural analgesia during labor and all were free of pregnancy and labor-related complications. Intervention: During labor, after full cervical dilation and when the fetal head had descended to at least the +1 station and had turned to the occiput anterior position, the experimental group was asked to push in the squatting position while wearing the ergonomically designed ankle supports; comparison group A was asked to push in the squatting position without the use of these supports; and comparison group B was asked to push in a standard semi-recumbent position. Measures: The participants completed a demographic and obstetrics datasheet, the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ-SF), and the Labor Pushing Experience scale within 4-hours postpartum. Conclusion: In terms of delivery time, the duration between the start of pushing to crowning for the experimental group (squatting with ankle supports) averaged 25.52 minutes less (F =6.02, p< .05) than the time for comparison group B (semi-recumbent). Furthermore, the duration between the start of pushing to infant birth averaged 25.21 minutes less for the experimental group than for comparison group B (F =6.14, p< .05). Moreover, the experimental group had a lower average VAS pain score (5.05±3.22) than comparison group B and the average McGill pain score for the experimental group was lower than both comparison groups (F=18.12, p< .001). In summary, the participants in the group that delivered from a squatting position with ankle supports had better labor pushing experiences than their peers in the comparison groups. Results: In comparison to both unsupported squatting and semi-recumbent pushing, squatting with the aid of ergonomically designed ankle supports reduced pushing times, ameliorated labor pain, and improved the pushing experience. Clinical application and suggestion: The squatting with ankle-support intervention introduced in the present study may significantly reduce tiredness and difficulties in maintaining balance as well as increase pushing efficiency. Thus, this intervention may reduce the caring needs of women during the second stage of labor. This intervention may be introduced in midwifery education programs and in clinical practice as a method to improve the care of women during the second stage of labor.
The Geochemical Characteristic and Tectonic Setting of Mezoic-Cenozoic Volcanic and Granitic Rocks in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia
During 1989–1993, the Geological Research and Development Center (recent Geological Survey Institute) Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia was the collaboration with British Geological Survey, the United Kingdom to do technical assistance in order to collect data of geology in Sumatra Island. The overall corporation of technical programs was larger concern in stratigraphy, geochemical and age-dating studies. Availability of new data has been stimulated to reassessment of tectonic evolution of Sumatra Island. The study area located in Southern Sumatra within at latitudes 0°-6° S and 99°40’-106’00 E longitudes. The study tectonic is situated within along South Western margin of Sunda land, The Southeast Asia Continental extension arc of the Eurasian Plate and formed as part of Sunda Arc. The oceanic crust of Indian-Australian plate recently is being oblique subduction along the Sunda Trench off the West coast Sumatra. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic of the volcanic and granitic rocks can be divided into northern and southern plutons, defining a series subparallel, controlled by fault, northwest-southeast trending belts, some of the plutons are deformed and under-formed. They are widely exposed along the south-eastern side of the Barisan mountain. Based on the characteristic of minerals and crystallography, rocks found in this study area were granite, granitic, monzogranite and andesitic-Basaltic Volcanic Rock. It belongs to calc Alkaline was predominantly metalumina, I-Type Granite, Volcanic arc granites, Syncollisonal Granites (Syn_COLG) and tholeiitic basalt. It was formed since 169±5 to 20±1 Ma. The origin of magmas in interpreted to be derived from partial melting of igneous rock. The occurrence of the gratoid and volcanic rocks supposed to be closely related to the subduction of the Australian-Hindia oceanic crust beneath the Eurasia/Sunda land Continental Crust as Volcanic arc or continental margin granitic and shown youngest to the southwest. The subduction process having probably been different in position between one terrane to others led to the occurrence of segmentation subduction system. The positional discontinuities of the subduction are probably caused by the difference in time of emplacement and mechanism of volcanic and granitic rock between segments.
A Comparison of Tsunami Impact to Sydney Harbour, Australia at Different Tidal Stages
Sydney Harbour is an iconic location with a dense population and low-lying development. On the east coast of Australia, facing the Pacific Ocean, it is exposed to several tsunamigenic trenches. This paper presents a component of the most detailed assessment of the potential for earthquake-generated tsunami impact on Sydney Harbour to date. Models in this study use dynamic tides to account for tide-tsunami interaction. Sydney Harbour&rsquo;s tidal range is 1.5 m, and the spring tides from January 2015 that are used in the modelling for this study are close to the full tidal range. The tsunami wave trains modelled include hypothetical tsunami generated from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 MW from the Puysegur and New Hebrides trenches as well as representations of the historical 1960 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku events. All wave trains are modelled for the peak wave to coincide with both a low tide and a high tide. A single wave train, representing a 9.0 MW earthquake at the Puysegur trench, is modelled for peak waves to coincide with every hour across a 12-hour tidal phase. Using the hydrodynamic model ANUGA, results are compared according to the impact parameters of inundation area, depth variation and current speeds. Results show that both maximum inundation area and depth variation are tide dependent. Maximum inundation area increases when coincident with a higher tide, however, hazardous inundation is only observed for the larger waves modelled: NH90high and P90high. The maximum and minimum depths are deeper on higher tides and shallower on lower tides. The difference between maximum and minimum depths varies across different tidal phases although the differences are slight. Maximum current speeds are shown to be a significant hazard for Sydney Harbour; however, they do not show consistent patterns according to tide-tsunami phasing. The maximum current speed hazard is shown to be greater in specific locations such as Spit Bridge, a narrow channel with extensive marine infrastructure. The results presented for Sydney Harbour are novel, and the conclusions are consistent with previous modelling efforts in the greater area. It is shown that tide must be a consideration for both tsunami modelling and emergency management planning. Modelling with peak tsunami waves coinciding with a high tide would be a conservative approach; however, it must be considered that maximum current speeds may be higher on other tides.
Diagnostic Delays and Treatment Dilemmas: A Case of Drug-Resistant HIV and Tuberculosis
Introduction: We report a case of delayed diagnosis of extra-pulmonary INH-mono-resistant Tuberculosis (TB) in a South African patient with drug-resistant HIV. Case Presentation: A 36-year old male was initiated on 1st line (NNRTI-based) anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in September 2009 and switched to 2nd line (PI-based) ART in 2011, according to local guidelines. He was following up at the outpatient wellness unit of a public hospital, where he was diagnosed with Protease Inhibitor resistant HIV in March 2016. He had an HIV viral load (HIVVL) of 737000 copies/mL, CD4-count of 10 cells/µL and presented with complaints of productive cough, weight loss, chronic diarrhoea and a septic buttock wound. Several investigations were done on sputum, stool and pus samples but all were negative for TB. The patient was treated with antibiotics and the cough and the buttock wound improved. He was subsequently started on a 3rd-line ART regimen of Darunavir, Ritonavir, Etravirine, Raltegravir, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in May 2016. He continued losing weight, became too weak to stand unsupported and started complaining of abdominal pain. Further investigations were done in September 2016, including a urine specimen for Line Probe Assay (LPA), which showed M. tuberculosis sensitive to Rifampicin but resistant to INH. A lymph node biopsy also showed histological confirmation of TB. Management and outcome: He was started on Rifabutin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol in September 2016, and Etravirine was discontinued. After 6 months on ART and 2 months on TB treatment, his HIVVL had dropped to 286 copies/mL, CD4 improved to 179 cells/µL and he showed clinical improvement. Pharmacy supply of his individualised drugs was unreliable and presented some challenges to continuity of treatment. He successfully completed his treatment in June 2017 while still maintaining virological suppression. Discussion: Several laboratory-related factors delayed the diagnosis of TB, including the unavailability of urine-lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and urine-GeneXpert (GXP) tests at this facility. Once the diagnosis was made, it presented a treatment dilemma due to the expected drug-drug interactions between his 3rd-line ART regimen and his INH-resistant TB regimen, and specialist input was required. Conclusion: TB is more difficult to diagnose in patients with severe immunosuppression, therefore additional tests like urine-LAM and urine-GXP can be helpful in expediting the diagnosis in these cases. Patients with non-standard drug regimens should always be discussed with a specialist in order to avoid potentially harmful drug-drug interactions.
Solar Power Generation in a Mining Town: A Case Study for Australia
Climate change is a pertinent issue facing governments and societies around the world. The industrial revolution has resulted in a steady increase in the average global temperature. The mining and energy production industries have been significant contributors to this change prompting government to intervene by promoting low emission technology within these sectors. This paper initially reviews the energy problem in Australia and the mining sector with a focus on the energy requirements and production methods utilised in Western Australia (WA). Renewable energy in the form of utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV) provides a solution to these problems by providing emission-free energy which can be used to supplement the existing natural gas turbines in operation at the proposed site. This research presents a custom renewable solution for the mining site considering the specific township network, local weather conditions, and seasonal load profiles. A summary of the required PV output is presented to supply slightly over 50% of the towns power requirements during the peak (summer) period, resulting in close to full coverage in the trench (winter) period. Dig Silent Power Factory Software has been used to simulate the characteristics of the existing infrastructure and produces results of integrating PV. Large scale PV penetration in the network introduce technical challenges, that includes; voltage deviation, increased harmonic distortion, increased available fault current and power factor. Results also show that cloud cover has a dramatic and unpredictable effect on the output of a PV system. The preliminary analyses conclude that mitigation strategies are needed to overcome voltage deviations, unacceptable levels of harmonics, excessive fault current and low power factor. Mitigation strategies are proposed to control these issues predominantly through the use of high quality, made for purpose inverters. Results show that use of inverters with harmonic filtering reduces the level of harmonic injections to an acceptable level according to Australian standards. Furthermore, the configuration of inverters to supply active and reactive power assist in mitigating low power factor problems. Use of FACTS devices; SVC and STATCOM also reduces the harmonics and improve the power factor of the network, and finally, energy storage helps to smooth the power supply.
Analyzing Temperature and Pressure Performance of a Natural Air-Circulation System
Perturbations in global environments and temperatures have heightened the urgency of creating cost-efficient, energy-neutral building techniques. Structural responses to this thermal crisis have included designs (including those of the building standard PassivHaus) with airtightness, window placement, insulation, solar orientation, shading, and heat-exchange ventilators as potential solutions or interventions. Limitations in the predictability of the circulation of cooled air through the ambient temperature gradients throughout a structure are one of the major obstacles facing these enhanced building methods. A diverse range of air-cooling devices utilizing varying technologies is implemented around the world. Many of them worsen the problem of climate change by consuming energy. Using natural ventilation principles of air buoyancy and density to circulate fresh air throughout a building with no energy input can combat these obstacles. A unique prototype of an energy-neutral air-circulation system was constructed in order to investigate potential temperature and pressure gradients related to the stack effect (updraft of air through a building due to changes in air pressure). The stack effect principle maintains that since warmer air rises, it will leave an area of low pressure that cooler air will rush in to fill. The result is that warmer air will be expelled from the top of the building as cooler air is directed through the bottom, creating an updraft. Stack effect can be amplified by cooling the air near the bottom of a building and heating the air near the top. Using readily available, mostly recyclable or biodegradable materials, an insulated building module was constructed. A tri-part construction model was utilized: a subterranean earth-tube heat exchanger constructed of PVC pipe and placed in a horizontally oriented trench, an insulated, airtight cube aboveground to represent a building, and a solar chimney (painted black to increase heat in the out-going air). Pressure and temperature sensors were placed at four different heights within the module as well as outside, and data was collected for a period of 21 days. The air pressures and temperatures over the course of the experiment were compared and averaged. The promise of this design is that it represents a novel approach which directly addresses the obstacles of air flow and expense, using the physical principle of stack effect to draw a continuous supply of fresh air through the structure, using low-cost and readily available materials (and zero manufactured energy). This design serves as a model for novel approaches to creating temperature controlled buildings using zero energy and opens the door for future research into the effects of increasing module scale, increasing length and depth of the earth tube, and shading the building. (Model can be provided).
Persistent Organic Pollutant Level in Challawa River Basin of Kano State, Nigeria
Almost every type of industrial process involves the release of trace quantity of toxic organic and inorganic compound that up in receiving water bodies, this study was aimed at assessing the Persistent Organic Pollutant Level in Challawa River Basin of Kano State, Nigeria. And the research formed the basis of identifying the presence of PCBs and PAHs in receiving water bodies in the study area, assessing the PCBs and PAHs concentration in receiving water body of Challawa system, evaluate the concentration level of PCBs and PAHs in fishes in the study area, determine the concentration level of PCBs and PAHs in crops irrigated in the study area as well as compare the concentration of PCBs and PAHs with the acceptable limit set by Nigerian, EU, U.S and WHO standard. Data were collected using reconnaissance survey, site inspection, field survey, laboratory experiment as well as secondary data source. A total of 78 samples were collected through stratified systematic random sampling (i.e., 26 samples for each of water, crops and fish) three sampling points were chosen and designated A, B and C along the stretch of the river (i.e. up, middle, and downstream) from Yan Danko Bridge to Tambirawa bridge. The result shows that the Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was not detected while, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was detected in the whole samples analysed at the trench of Challawa River basin in order to assess the contribution of human activities to global environmental pollution. The total concentrations of ΣPAH and ΣPCB ranges between 0.001 to 0.087mg/l and 0.00 to 0.00mg/l of water samples While, crops samples ranges between 2.0ppb to 8.1ppb and fish samples ranges from 2.0 to 6.7ppb.The whole samples are polluted because most of the parameters analyzed exceed the threshold limits set by WHO, Nigerian, U.S and EU standard. The analytical results revealed that some chemicals are present in water, crops and fishes are significantly very high at Zamawa village which is very close to Challawa industrial estate and also is main effluent discharge point and drinking water around study area is not potable for consumption. Analysis of Variance was obtained by Bartlett’s test performance. There is only significant difference in water because the P < 0.05 level of significant, But there is no difference in crops concentration they have the same performance, likes wise in the fishes. It is said to be of concern to health hazard which will increase incidence of tumor related diseases such as skin, lungs, bladder, gastrointestinal cancer, this show there is high failure of pollution abatement measures in the area. In conclusion, it can be said that industrial activities and effluent has impact on Challawa River basin and its environs especially those that are living in the immediate surroundings. Arising from the findings of this research some recommendations were made the industries should treat their liquid properly by installing modern treatment plants.
Wetting Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures by Gigahertz Acoustic Reflectometry
Wetting efficiency of microstructures or nanostructures patterned on Si wafers is a real challenge in integrated circuits manufacturing. In fact, bad or non-uniform wetting during wet processes limits chemical reactions and can lead to non-complete etching or cleaning inside the patterns and device defectivity. This issue is more and more important with the transistors size shrinkage and concerns mainly high aspect ratio structures. Deep Trench Isolation (DTI) structures enabling pixels’ isolation in imaging devices are subject to this phenomenon. While low-frequency acoustic reflectometry principle is a well-known method for Non Destructive Test applications, we have recently shown that it is also well suited for nanostructures wetting characterization in a higher frequency range. In this paper, we present a high-frequency acoustic reflectometry characterization of DTI wetting through a confrontation of both experimental and modeling results. The acoustic method proposed is based on the evaluation of the reflection of a longitudinal acoustic wave generated by a 100 µm diameter ZnO piezoelectric transducer sputtered on the silicon wafer backside using MEMS technologies. The transducers have been fabricated to work at 5 GHz corresponding to a wavelength of 1.7 µm in silicon. The DTI studied structures, manufactured on the wafer frontside, are crossing trenches of 200 nm wide and 4 µm deep (aspect ratio of 20) etched into a Si wafer frontside. In that case, the acoustic signal reflection occurs at the bottom and at the top of the DTI enabling its characterization by monitoring the electrical reflection coefficient of the transducer. A Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) model has been developed to predict the behavior of the emitted wave. The model shows that the separation of the reflected echoes (top and bottom of the DTI) from different acoustic modes is possible at 5 Ghz. A good correspondence between experimental and theoretical signals is observed. The model enables the identification of the different acoustic modes. The evaluation of DTI wetting is then performed by focusing on the first reflected echo obtained through the reflection at Si bottom interface, where wetting efficiency is crucial. The reflection coefficient is measured with different water / ethanol mixtures (tunable surface tension) deposited on the wafer frontside. Two cases are studied: with and without PFTS hydrophobic treatment. In the untreated surface case, acoustic reflection coefficient values with water show that liquid imbibition is partial. In the treated surface case, the acoustic reflection is total with water (no liquid in DTI). The impalement of the liquid occurs for a specific surface tension but it is still partial for pure ethanol. DTI bottom shape and local pattern collapse of the trenches can explain these incomplete wetting phenomena. This high-frequency acoustic method sensitivity coupled with a FDTD propagative model thus enables the local determination of the wetting state of a liquid on real structures. Partial wetting states for non-hydrophobic surfaces or low surface tension liquids are then detectable with this method.
Application of Alumina-Aerogel in Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology
Dependence of global economics on fossil fuels has led to a large growth in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Among the various GHGs, carbon dioxide is the main contributor to the greenhouse effect due to its huge emission amount. To mitigate the threatening effect of CO₂, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies have been studied widely in recent years. For the combustion processes, three main CO₂ capture techniques have been proposed such as post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion. Post-combustion is the most commonly used CO₂ capture process as it can be readily retrofit into the existing power plants. Multiple advantages have been reported for the post-combustion by solid sorbents such as high CO₂ selectivity, high adsorption capacity, and low required regeneration energy. Chemical adsorption of CO₂ over alkali-metal-based solid sorbents such as K₂CO₃ is a promising method for the selective capture of diluted CO₂ from the huge amount of nitrogen existing in the flue gas. To improve the CO₂ capture performance, K₂CO₃ is supported by a stable and porous material. Al₂O₃ has been employed commonly as the support and enhanced the cyclic CO₂ capture efficiency of K₂CO₃. Different phases of alumina can be obtained by setting the calcination temperature of boehmite at 300, 600 (γ-alumina), 950 (δ-alumina) and 1200 °C (α-alumina). By increasing the calcination temperature, the regeneration capacity of alumina increases, while the surface area reduces. However, sorbents with lower surface areas have lower CO₂ capture capacity as well (except for the sorbents prepared by hydrophilic support materials). To resolve this issue, a highly efficient alumina-aerogel support was synthesized with a BET surface area of over 2000 m²/g and then calcined at a high temperature. The synthesized alumina-aerogel was impregnated on K₂CO₃ based on 50 wt% support/K₂CO₃, which resulted in the preparation of a sorbent with remarkable CO₂ capture performance. The effect of synthesis conditions such as types of alcohols, solvent-to-co-solvent ratios, and aging times was investigated on the performance of the support. The best support was synthesized using methanol as the solvent, after five days of aging time, and at a solvent-to-co-solvent (methanol-to-toluene) ratio (v/v) of 1/5. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of operating parameters such as carbonation temperature and H₂O-to-CO₂ flowrate ratio on the CO₂ capture capacity. The maximum CO₂ capture capacity, at the optimum amounts of operating parameters, was 7.2 mmol CO₂ per gram K₂CO₃. Cyclic behavior of the sorbent was examined over 20 carbonation and regenerations cycles. The alumina-aerogel-supported K₂CO₃ showed a great performance compared to unsupported K₂CO₃ and γ-alumina-supported K₂CO₃. Fundamental performance analyses and long-term thermal and chemical stability test will be performed on the sorbent in the future. The applicability of the sorbent for a bench-scale process will be evaluated, and a corresponding process model will be established. The fundamental material knowledge and respective process development will be delivered to industrial partners for the design of a pilot-scale testing unit, thereby facilitating the industrial application of alumina-aerogel.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis in Younger Children: A Qualitative Analysis of Families’ Experiences of the Condition and Perspective on Treatment
Background: Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is characterised by persistent, disabling fatigue. Health services see patients below the age of 12. This age group experience high levels of disability, with low levels of school attendance, high levels of fatigue, anxiety, functional disability and pain. CFS/ME interventions have been developed for adolescents, but the developmental needs of younger children suggest treatment should be tailored to this age group. Little is known about how intervention should be delivered to this age group, and further work is needed to explore this. Qualitative research aids patient-centered design of health intervention. Methods: Five to 11-year-olds and their parents were recruited from a specialist CFS/ME service. Semi-structured interviews explored the families’ experience of the condition and perspectives on treatment. Interactive and arts-based methods were used. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Qualitative Results: 14 parents and 7 children were interviewed. Early analysis of the interviews revealed the importance of the social-ecological setting of the child, which led to themes being developed in the context of Systems Theory. Theme one relates to the level of the child, theme two the family system, theme three the organisational and societal systems, and theme four cuts-across all levels. Theme1: The child’s capacity to describe, understand and manage their condition. Younger children struggled to describe their internal experiences, such as physical symptoms. Parents felt younger children did not understand some concepts of CFS/ME and did not have the capabilities to monitor and self-regulate their behaviour, as required by treatment. A spectrum of abilities was described; older children (10-11-year-olds) were more involved in clinical sessions and had more responsibility for self-management. Theme2: Parents’ responsibility for managing their child’s condition. Parents took responsibility for regulating their child’s behaviour in accordance with the treatment programme. They structured their child’s environment, gave direct instructions to their child, and communicated the needs of their child to others involved in care. Parents wanted their child to experience a 'normal' childhood and took steps to shield their child from medicalization, including diagnostic labels and clinical discussions. Theme3: Parental isolation and the role of organisational and societal systems. Parents felt unsupported in their role of managing the condition and felt negative responses from primary care health services and schools were underpinned by a lack of awareness and knowledge about CFS/ME in younger children. This sometimes led to a protracted time to diagnosis. Parents felt that schools have the potential important role in managing the child’s condition. Theme4: Complexity and uncertainty. Many parents valued specialist treatment (which included activity management, physiotherapy, sleep management, dietary advice, medical management and psychological support), but felt it needed to account for the complexity of the condition in younger children. Some parents expressed uncertainty about the diagnosis and the treatment programme. Conclusions: Interventions for younger children need to consider the 'systems' (family, organisational and societal) involved in the child’s care. Future research will include interviews with clinicians and schools supporting younger children with CFS/ME.
The Development of the Geological Structure of the Bengkulu Fore Arc Basin, Western Edge of Sundaland, Sumatra, and Its Relationship to Hydrocarbon Trapping Mechanism
The Bengkulu Basin is part of the Sunda Arc system, which is a classic convergent type margin that occur around the southern rim of the Eurasian continental (Sundaland) plate. The basin is located between deep sea trench (Mentawai Outer Arc high) and the volvanic/ magmatic Arc of the Barisan Mountains Range. To the northwest it is bounded by Padang High, to the northest by Barisan Mountains (Sumatra Fault Zone) to the southwest by Mentawai Fault Zone and to the southeast by Semangko High/ Sunda Strait. The stratigraphic succession and tectonic development can be broadly divided into four stage/ periods, i.e Late Jurassic- Early Cretaceous, Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, Middle Miocene-Late Miocene and Pliocene-Plistocene, which are mainly controlled by the development of subduction activities. The Pre Tertiary Basement consist of sedimentary and shallow water limestone, calcareous mudstone, cherts and tholeiitic volcanic rocks, with Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous in age. The sedimentation in this basin is depend on the relief of the Pre Tertiary Basement (Woyla Terrane) and occured into two stages, i.e. transgressive stage during the Latest Oligocene-Early Middle Miocene Seblat Formation, and the regressive stage during the Latest Middle Miocene-Pleistocene (Lemau, Simpangaur and Bintunan Formations). The Pre-Tertiary Faults were more intensive than the overlying cover, The Tertiary Rocks. There are two main fault trends can be distinguished, Northwest–Southwest Faults and Northeast-Southwest Faults. The NW-SE fault (Ketaun) are commonly laterally persistent, are interpreted to the part of Sumatran Fault Systems. They commonly form the boundaries to the Pre Tertiary basement highs and therefore are one of the faults elements controlling the geometry and development of the Tertiary sedimentary basins.The Northeast-Southwest faults was formed a conjugate set to the Northwest–Southeast Faults. In the earliest Tertiary and reactivated during the Plio-Pleistocene in a compressive mode with subsequent dextral displacement. The Block Faulting accross these two sets of faults related to approximate North–South compression in Paleogene time and produced a series of elongate basins separated by basement highs in the backarc and forearc region. The Bengkulu basin is interpreted having evolved from pull apart feature in the area southwest of the main Sumatra Fault System related to NW-SE trending in dextral shear.Based on Pyrolysis Yield (PY) vs Total Organic Carbon (TOC) diagram show that Seblat and Lemau Formation belongs to oil and Gas Prone with the quality of the source rocks includes into excellent and good (Lemau Formation), Fair and Poor (Seblat Formation). The fine-grained carbonaceous sediment of the Seblat dan Lemau Formations as source rocks, the coarse grained and carbonate sediments of the Seblat and Lemau Formations as reservoir rocks, claystone bed in Seblat and Lemau Formation as caprock. The source rocks maturation are late immature to early mature, with kerogen type II and III (Seblat Formation), and late immature to post mature with kerogen type I and III (Lemau Formation). The burial history show to 2500 m in depthh with paleo temperature reached 80oC. Trapping mechanism occur during Oligo–Miocene and Middle Miocene, mainly in block faulting system.