Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 64156

200
114665
Effect of Supply Frequency on Pre-Breakdown and Breakdown Phenomena in Unbridged Vacuum Gaps
Abstract:
This paper presents experimental results leading towards a better understanding of pre-breakdown and breakdown behavior of vacuum gaps under variable frequency alternating excitations. The frequency variation is in the range of 30 to 300 Hz in steps of 10 Hz for a fixed gap spacing of 0.5 mm. The results indicate that the pre-breakdown currents show an inverse relation with the breakdown voltage in general though erratic behavior was observed over a certain range of frequencies. A breakdown voltage peak was observed at 130 Hz. This was pronounced when the electrode pair was of stainless steel and less pronounced when copper and aluminum electrodes were used. The experimental results are explained based on F-N emission, I-F emission, and also thermal interaction due to quasi-continuous shower of anode micro-particles. Further, it is speculated that the ostensible cause for time delay between voltage and current peaks is due to the presence of neutral molecules in the gap.
199
73298
Soft Ground Improved by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with Vacuum and Thermal Preloading
Abstract:
This study focuses on behaviors of improved soft clay using prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) combined with vacuum and electro-osmotic preloading. Large-scale consolidations of reconstituted soft Bangkok clay were conducted for PVD improvement with vacuum (vacuum-PVD), and vacuum combined with heat (vacuum-thermo-PVD). The research revealed that vacuum-thermo-PVD gives high efficiency of the consolidation rate compared to the vacuum-PVD. In addition, the magnitude of settlement of the specimen improved by the vacuum-thermo-PVD is higher than the vacuum-PVD because the assistance of heat causes the collapse of the clay structure. Particularly, to reach 90% degree of consolidation, the thermal-vacuum-PVD reduced about 58% consolidation time compared to the vacuum-PVD. The increase in consolidation rate is resulted from the increase in horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, the reduction of the smear effect expressed by the ratio of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the undisturbed zone, kh, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the smeared zone, ks. Furthermore, the shear strength, Su, increased about 100% when compared using the vacuum-thermal-PVD to the vacuum PVD. In addition, numerical simulations gave reasonable results compared to the laboratory data.
198
87841
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design
Abstract:
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.
197
85398
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design
Abstract:
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.
196
87842
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design
Abstract:
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.
195
115179
Inverted Geometry Ceramic Insulators in High Voltage Direct Current Electron Guns for Accelerators
Abstract:
High-energy nuclear physics experiments performed at the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility require a beam of spin-polarized ps-long electron bunches. The electron beam is generated when a circularly polarized laser beam illuminates a GaAs semiconductor photocathode biased at hundreds of kV dc inside an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The photocathode is mounted on highly polished stainless steel electrodes electrically isolated by means of a conical-shape ceramic insulator that extends into the vacuum chamber, serving as the cathode electrode support structure. The assembly is known as a dc photogun, which has to simultaneously meet the following criteria: high voltage to manage space charge forces within the electron bunch, ultra-high vacuum conditions to preserve the photocathode quantum efficiency, no field emission to prevent gas load when field emitted electrons impact the vacuum chamber, and finally no voltage breakdown for robust operation. Over the past decade, JLab has tested and implemented the use of inverted geometry ceramic insulators connected to commercial high voltage cables to operate a photogun at 200kV dc with a 10 cm long insulator, and a larger version at 300kV dc with 20 cm long insulator. Plans to develop a third photogun operating at 400kV dc to meet the stringent requirements of the proposed International Linear Collider are underway at JLab, utilizing even larger inverted insulators. This contribution describes approaches that have been successful in solving challenging problems related to breakdown and field emission, such as triple-point junction screening electrodes, mechanical polishing to achieve mirror-like surface finish and high voltage conditioning procedures with Kr gas to extinguish field emission.
194
10540
Structure Design of Vacuum Vessel with Large Openings for Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test
Abstract:
Space environment simulator is a facility used to conduct thermal test for spacecraft, and vacuum vessel is the main body of it. According to the requirements for thermal tests of the spacecraft and its solar array panels, the primary vessel and the side vessels are designed to be a combinative structure connected with aperture, which ratio reaches 0.7. Since the vacuum vessel suffers 0.1MPa external pressure during the process of thermal test, in order to ensure the simulator’s reliability and safety, it’s necessary to calculate the vacuum vessel’s intensity and stability. Based on the impact of large openings to vacuum vessel structure, this paper explored the reinforce design and analytical way of vacuum vessel with large openings, using a large space environment simulator’s vacuum vessel design as an example. Tests showed that the reinforce structure is effective to fulfill the requirements of external pressure and the gravity. This ensured the reliability of the space environment simulator, providing a guarantee for developing the spacecraft.
193
66896
Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices
Abstract:
The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.
192
52370
Study on Breakdown Voltage Characteristics of Different Types of Oils with Contaminations
Abstract:
Since long time ago, petroleum-based mineral oils have been used for liquid insulation in high voltage equipments. Mineral oils are widely used as insulation for transmission and distribution power transformers, capacitors and other high voltage equipment. Petroleum-based insulating oils have excellent dielectric properties such as high electric field strength, low dielectric losses and good long-term performance. Due to environmental consideration, an attempt to search the alternate liquid insulation is required. The influence of particles on the voltage breakdown in insulating oil and other liquids has been recognized for many years. Particles influence both AC and DC voltage breakdown in insulating oil. Experiments are conducted under AC voltage. The breakdown process starts with a microscopic bubble, an area of large distance where ions or electrons initiate avalanches. Insulating liquids drive their dielectric strength from the much higher density compare to gases. Experiments are carried out under High Voltage AC (HVAC) in different types of oils namely castor oil, vegetable oil and mineral oil. The Breakdown Voltage (BDV) with presence of moisture and particle contamination in different types of oils is studied. The BDV of vegetable oil is better when compared to other oils without contamination. The BDV of mineral oil is better when compared to other types of oils in presence of contamination.
191
46474
Construction Technology of Modified Vacuum Pre-Loading Method for Slurry Dredged Soil
Abstract:
Slurry dredged soil at coastal area has a high water content, poor permeability, and low surface intensity. Hence, it is infeasible to use vacuum preloading method to treat this type of soil foundation. For the special case of super soft ground, a floating bridge is first constructed on muddy soil and used as a service road and platform for implementing the modified vacuum preloading method. The modified technique of vacuum preloading and its construction process for the super soft soil foundation improvement is then studied. Application of modified vacuum preloading method shows that the technology and its construction process are highly suitable for improving the super soft soil foundation in coastal areas.
190
72593
Theoretical Study of Flexible Edge Seals for Vacuum Glazing
Abstract:
The development of vacuum glazing represents a significant advancement in the area of low heat loss glazing systems with the potential to substantially reduce building heating and cooling loads. Vacuum glazing consists of two or more glass panes hermetically sealed together around the edge with a vacuum gap between the panes. To avoid the glass panes from collapsing and touching each other under the influence of atmospheric pressure an array of support pillars is provided between the glass panes. A high level of thermal insulation is achieved by evacuating the spaces between the glass panes to a very low pressure which greatly reduces conduction and convection within the space; therefore heat transfer through this kind of glazing is significantly lower when compared with conventional insulating glazing. However, vacuum glazing is subject to inherent stresses due to atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials which can lead to fracture of the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. A flexible edge seal has been proposed to minimise the impact of these issues. In this paper, vacuum glazing system with rigid and flexible edge seals is theoretically studied and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
189
48208
Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors
Abstract:
Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.
188
71414
Electrical Power Distribution Reliability Improvement by Retrofitting 4.16 kV Vacuum Contactor in Badak LNG Plant
Abstract:
This paper objective is to assess the power distribution reliability improvement by retrofitting obsolete vacuum contactor. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. To support plant operational, Badak LNG is equipped with 4.16 kV switchgear for supplying the storage and loading facilities, utilities facilities, and train facilities. However, there is a problem in two switch gears of sixteen switch gears. The problem is the obsolescence issue in its vacuum contactor. Not only that, but the same switchgear also has suffered from electrical fault due to contact fingering misalignment. In order to improve the reliability in switchgear, the vacuum contactor retrofit project is done. The retrofit will introduce new vacuum contactor design. The comparison between existing design and the new design is presented in this paper. Meanwhile, The reliability assessment and calculation are performed using software Reliasoft 7.
187
49273
Current Developments in Flat-Plate Vacuum Solar Thermal Collectors
Abstract:
Vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors offer several advantages over other collectors namely the excellent optical and thermal characteristics they exhibit due to a combination of their wide surface area and high vacuum thermal insulation. These characteristics can offer a variety of applications for industrial process heat as well as for building integration as they are much thinner than conventional collectors making installation possible in limited spaces. However, many technical challenges which need to be addressed to enable wide scale adoption of the technology still remain. This paper will discuss the challenges, expectations and requirements for the flat-plate vacuum solar collector development. In addition, it will provide an overview of work undertaken in Ulster University, Loughborough University, and the University of Warwick on flat-plate vacuum solar thermal collectors. Finally, this paper will present a detailed experimental investigation on the development of a vacuum panel with a novel sealing method which will be used to accommodate a novel slim hydroformed solar absorber.
186
52531
Unsteady Characteristics Investigation on the Precessing Vortex Breakdown and Energy Separation in a Vortex Tube
Abstract:
In this paper, the phenomenon of vortex breakdown in a vortex tube was analyzed within the scope of unsteady character in swirl flows. A 3-D Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) closed by the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) was adopted to simulate the large-scale vortex structure in vortex tube, and the numerical model was verified by the steady results. The swirl number was calculated for the vortex tube and the flow field was classed as strong swirl flow. According to the results, a time-dependent spiral flow field gyrates around a central recirculation zone which is precessing around the axis of the tube, and manifests the flow structure is the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown. The vortex breakdown is crucial for the formation of the central recirculation zone (CRZ), a further discussion was about the affection on CRZ with the different external conditions of vortex tube, the study on the unsteady characters was expected to hope to design of vortex tube and analyze the energy separation effect.
185
9941
Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage
Abstract:
In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period, vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal content was significantly lower (P< 0.05) in vacuum packed sausage compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was 1.85 µg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 µg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94 µg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.
184
81731
Iranian Refinery Vacuum Residue Upgrading Using Microwave Irradiation: Effects of Catalyst Type and Amount
Authors:
Abstract:
Microwave irradiation is an innovative technology in the petroleum industry. This kind of energy has been considered to convert vacuum residue of oil refineries into useful products. The advantages of microwaves energy are short time, fast heating, high energy efficiency, and precise process control. In this paper, the effects of catalyst type and amount have been investigated on upgrading of vacuum residue using microwave irradiation. The vacuum residue used in this research is from Tehran oil refinery, Iran. Additives include different catalysts, active carbon as sensitizer, and sodium borohydride as a solid hydrogen donor. Various catalysts contain iron, nickel, molybdenum disulfide, iron oxide and copper. The amount of catalysts in two cases of presence and absence of sodium borohydride have been evaluated. The objective parameters include temperature, asphaltene, viscosity, and API. The specifications of vacuum residue are API, 8.79, viscosity, 16391 cSt (60°C), asphaltene, 13.3 wt %. The results show that there is a significant difference between the effects of catalysts. Among the used catalysts, Fe powder is the best catalyst for upgrading vacuum residue using microwave irradiation and resulted in asphaltene reduction, 31.3 %; viscosity reduction, 76.43 %; and 23.43 % in API increase.
183
17132
Complex Shaped Prepreg Part Drapability Using Vacuum Bagging
Authors:
Abstract:
Complex shaped parts manufactured using out of autoclave prepreg vacuum bagging has a high quality finish. This is not only due to in the control of resin to fibre ratio in prepregs, but also to a reduction in fibre misalignment, slippage and stresses occurring within plies during compaction. In a bid to further reduce deformation modes and control failure modes, we carried experiments where, we introduced wetted fabrics within a prepreg plybook during compaction. Here are presented the results obtained from the vacuum bagging of a complex shaped part. The shape is that of a turbine fan blade with smooth curves all throughout ending with sharp edged angles. The quality of the final part made from this blade is compared to that of the same blade made from standard vacuum bagging process of prepregs, without introducing wetted fabrics.
182
54112
Working Mode and Key Technology of Thermal Vacuum Test Software for Spacecraft Test
Abstract:
A universal software platform is developed for improving the defects in the practical one. This software platform has distinct advantages in modularization, information management, and the interfaces. Several technologies such as computer technology, virtualization technology, network technology, etc. are combined together in this software platform, and four working modes are introduced in this article including single mode, distributed mode, cloud mode, and the centralized mode. The application area of the software platform is extended through the switch between these working modes. The software platform can arrange the thermal vacuum test process automatically. This function can improve the reliability of thermal vacuum test.
181
73759
Fabrication of High-Power AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode with Field Plate Design
Abstract:
In this letter, we demonstrate high-performance AlGaN/GaN planar Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on the silicon substrate with field plate structure for increasing breakdown voltage VB. A low turn-on resistance RON (3.55 m&Omega;-cm2), low reverse leakage current (&lt; 0.1 &micro;A) at -100 V, and high reverse breakdown voltage VB (&gt; 1.1 kV) SBD has been fabricated. A virgin SBD exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 615 V, and with the field plate technology device exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 1525 V (the anode&ndash;cathode distance was LAC = 40 &micro;m). Devices without the field plate design exhibit a Baliga&rsquo;s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 60.2 MW/cm2, whereas devices with the field plate design show a Baliga&rsquo;s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 340.9 MW/cm2 (the anode&ndash;cathode distance was LAC = 20 &micro;m).
180
69639
Quantifying Freeway Capacity Reductions by Rainfall Intensities Based on Stochastic Nature of Flow Breakdown
Abstract:
<p class="Abstract">This study quantifies a decrement in freeway capacity during rainfall. Traffic and rainfall data were gathered from Highway Agencies and Wunderground weather service. Three inter-urban freeway sections and its nearest weather stations were selected as experimental sites. Capacity analysis found reductions of maximum and mean pre-breakdown flow rates due to rainfall. The Kruskal-Wallis test also provided some evidence to suggest that the variance in the pre-breakdown flow rate is statistically insignificant. Potential application of this study lies in the operation of real time traffic management schemes such as Variable Speed Limits (VSL), Hard Shoulder Running (HSR), and Ramp Metering System (RMS), where speed or flow limits could be set based on a number of factors, including rainfall events and their intensities.
179
82860
Non-Perturbative Vacuum Polarization Effects in One- and Two-Dimensional Supercritical Dirac-Coulomb System
Abstract:
There is now a lot of interest to the non-perturbative QED-effects, caused by diving of discrete levels into the negative continuum in the supercritical static or adiabatically slowly varying Coulomb fields, that are created by the localized extended sources with Z > Z_cr. Such effects have attracted a considerable amount of theoretical and experimental activity, since in 3+1 QED for Z > Z_cr,1 ≈ 170 a non-perturbative reconstruction of the vacuum state is predicted, which should be accompanied by a number of nontrivial effects, including the vacuum positron emission. Similar in essence effects should be expected also in both 2+1 D (planar graphene-based hetero-structures) and 1+1 D (one-dimensional ‘hydrogen ion’). This report is devoted to the study of such essentially non-perturbative vacuum effects for the supercritical Dirac-Coulomb systems in 1+1D and 2+1D, with the main attention drawn to the vacuum polarization energy. Although the most of works considers the vacuum charge density as the main polarization observable, vacuum energy turns out to be not less informative and in many respects complementary to the vacuum density. Moreover, the main non-perturbative effects, which appear in vacuum polarization for supercritical fields due to the levels diving into the lower continuum, show up in the behavior of vacuum energy even more clear, demonstrating explicitly their possible role in the supercritical region. Both in 1+1D and 2+1D, we explore firstly the renormalized vacuum density in the supercritical region using the Wichmann-Kroll method. Thereafter, taking into account the results for the vacuum density, we formulate the renormalization procedure for the vacuum energy. To evaluate the latter explicitly, an original technique, based on a special combination of analytical methods, computer algebra tools and numerical calculations, is applied. It is shown that, for a wide range of the external source parameters (the charge Z and size R), in the supercritical region the renormalized vacuum energy could significantly deviate from the perturbative quadratic growth up to pronouncedly decreasing behavior with jumps by (-2 x mc^2), which occur each time, when the next discrete level dives into the negative continuum. In the considered range of variation of Z and R, the vacuum energy behaves like ~ -Z^2/R in 1+1D and ~ -Z^3/R in 2+1D, exceeding deeply negative values. Such behavior confirms the assumption of the neutral vacuum transmutation into the charged one, and thereby of the spontaneous positron emission, accompanying the emergence of the next vacuum shell due to the total charge conservation. To the end, we also note that the methods, developed for the vacuum energy evaluation in 2+1 D, with minimal complements could be carried over to the three-dimensional case, where the vacuum energy is expected to be ~ -Z^4/R and so could be competitive with the classical electrostatic energy of the Coulomb source.
178
2509
Causes Analysis of Vacuum Consolidation Failure to Soft Foundation Filled by Newly Dredged Mud
Abstract:
For soft foundation filled by newly dredged mud, after improved by Vacuum Preloading Technology (VPT), the soil strength was increased only a little, the effective improved depth was small, and the ground bearing capacity is still low. To analyze the causes in depth, it was conducted in laboratory of several comparative single well model experiments of VPT. It was concluded: (1) it mainly caused serious clogging problem and poor drainage performance in vertical drains of high content of fine soil particles and strong hydrophilic minerals in dredged mud, too fast loading rate at the early stage of vacuum preloading (namely rapidly reaching-80kPa) and too small characteristic opening size of the filter of the existed vertical drains; (2) it commonly reduced the drainage efficiency of drainage system, in turn weaken vacuum pressure in soils and soil improvement effect of the greater partial loss and friction loss of vacuum pressure caused by larger curvature of vertical drains and larger transfer resistance of vacuum pressure in horizontal drain.
177
93497
The Effect of Glass Thickness on Stress in Vacuum Glazing
Abstract:
Heat transfer through multiple pane windows can be reduced by creating a vacuum pressure less than 0.1 Pa between the glass panes, with low emittance coatings on one or more of the internal surfaces. Fabrication of vacuum glazing (VG) requires the formation of a hermetic seal around the periphery of the glass panes together with an array of support pillars between the panes to prevent them from touching under atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials induce stress which can affect the integrity of the glazing. Several parameters define the stresses in VG including the glass thickness, pillar specifications, glazing dimensions and edge seal configuration. Inherent stresses in VG can result in fractures in the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. In this study, stress in VG with different glass thicknesses is theoretically studied using Finite Element Modelling (FEM). Based on the finding in this study, suggestions are made to address problems resulting from the use of thinner glass panes in the fabrication of VG. This can lead to the development of high performance, light and thin VG.
176
19366
Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate
Abstract:
Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m•K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.
175
69758
Influence of Vacuum Pressure on the Thermal Bonding Energy of Water in Wood
Abstract:
This paper takes into consideration the influence of bonding energy of water on energy demand of vacuum wood drying using the specific method of obtaining sorption isotherms. The experiment was carried out on oak wood at vacuum pressures of: 0.7 bar, 0.5bar and 0.3bar. The experimental work was done to determine a mathematical equation between the moisture content and energy of water-bonding. This equation helps in finding the average amount of energy of water-bonding necessary in calculation of energy consumption by use of the equation of heat balance in real drying chambers. It is concluded that the energy of water-bonding is large enough to be included into consideration. This energy increases at lower values of moisture content, when drying process approaches to the end, and its average values are lower on lower pressure.
174
28419
Alternative Animal Feed Additive Obtain with Different Drying Methods from Carrot Unsuitable for Human Consumption
Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine that carrot powder obtain by different drying methods (oven and vacuum-freeze dryer) of carrot unfit for human consumption that whether feed additives in animal nutrition or not. Carrots randomly divided 2 groups. First group was dried by using oven, second group was by using vacuum freeze dryer methods. Dried carrot prepared from fresh carrot was analysed nutrient matter (energy, crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, beta carotene, mineral concentration and colour). The differences between groups in terms of energy, crude protein, ash, Ca and Mg was not significant (P> 0,05). Crude oil, P, beta carotene content and colour values (L, a, b) with vacuum-freeze dryer group was greater than oven group (P< 0,05). Consequently, carrot powder obtained by drying the vacuum-freeze dryer method can be used as a source of carotene.
173
128852
Three Dimensional Analysis of Cubesat Thermal Vacuum Test
Abstract:
Thermal vacuum testing target is to qualify the space system and ensure its operability under harsh space environment. The functionality of the cubesat was checked at extreme orbit conditions. Test was performed for operational and nonoperational modes. Analysis is done to simulate the cubesat thermal cycling inside thermal vacuum chamber. Comsol Multiphysics finite element is used to solve three dimensional problem for the cubesat inside TVAC. Three dimensional CAD model is done using Autodesk Inventor program. The boundary conditions were applied from the actual shroud temperature. The input heat load variation with time is considered to solve the transient three dimensional problem. Results show that the simulated temperature profiles are within an acceptable range from the real testing data.
172
6109
Design of the Fiber Lay-Up for the Composite Wind Turbine Blade in VARTM
Abstract:
The wind turbine blade sustains various kinds of loadings during the operating and parking state. Due to the increasing size of the wind turbine blade, it is important to arrange the composite materials in a sufficient way to reach the optimal utilization of the material strength. In the fabrication process of the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, the fiber content of the turbine blade depends on the vacuum pressure. In this study, a design of the fiber layup for the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding is conducted to achieve the efficient utilization the material strength. This design is for the wind turbine blade consisting of shell skins with or without the spar structure.
171
19368
Manufacturing of Vacuum Glazing with Metal Edge Seal
Abstract:
Vacuum glazing (VG) is a super insulator, which is able to greatly improve the energy efficiency of building. However, a significant amount of heat loss occurs through the welded edge of conventional VG. The joining method should be improved for further application and commercialization. For this purpose VG with metal edge seal is conceived. In this paper, the feasibility of joining stainless steel and soda lime glass using glass solder is assessed numerically and experimentally. In the case of very thin stainless steel, partial joining with glass is identified, which need further improvement for practical application.
170
3329
RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method
Abstract:
Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.
169
97819
Effect of Permeability on Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Laminate Produced by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process
Abstract:
Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is one of the manufacturing technique that is viable for production of fiber reinforced polymer composite components suitable for aerospace, marine and commercial applications. However, the repeatable quality of the product can be achieved by critically fixing the process parameters such as Vacuum Pressure (VP) and permeability of the preform. The present investigation is aimed at studying the effect of permeability for production of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) components with consistent quality. The VARTM mould is made with an acrylic transparent top cover to observe and record the resin flow pattern. Six layers of randomly placed glass fiber under five different vacuum pressures VP1 = 0.013, VP2 = 0.026, VP3 = 0.039, VP4 = 0.053 and VP5 = 0.066 MPa were studied. The laminates produced by this process under the above mentioned conditions were characterized with ASTM D procedures so as to study the effect of these process parameters on the quality of the laminate. Moreover, as mentioned there is a considerable effect of permeability on the impact strength and the void content in the laminates under different vacuum pressures. SEM analysis of the impact tested fractured GFRP composites showed the bonding of fiber and matrix.
168
128917
A Different Cosmology: A Summary
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper summarizes a new model of cosmology based on the idea of a universe with time-varying curvature dominated by vacuum energy acting as its own source. In this model, the universe began with an exponential Plank era inflation before transitioning to a spacetime described by Einstein’s equations. While no explicit model of the Plank era is yet known, a number of properties are established that the vacuum of that era must have exhibited. In particular, it is shown that structures came into existence during that inflation that were later responsible for all cosmic structures. A new solution of Einstein's equations incorporating time-varying curvature is presented which predicts that the scaling was initially power law with a parameter of gamma = 0.5 before transitioning to a present-day scaling that is undergoing an exponential acceleration. A formula relating the curvature to the vacuum energy density is appears as part of the solution. A non-conventional model of nucleosynthesis provides a solution of the matter/antimatter asymmetry problem and a non-standard origin of the CMB. The CMB power spectrum is shown to be a consequence of large structures in the vacuum that became superclusters and of uncertainties embedded in the vacuum during the initial inflation. Using Einstein’s equations, it is also shown that so-called dark matter is, in fact, vacuum energy. Keywords— Big bang nucleosynthesis, Cosmic microwave background, Dark energy, Dark matter, Evolution of the universe, Inflation
167
10218
Decreasing of Oil Absorption in Vacuum Fried Mango Chips by Using Hydrocolloids
Abstract:
Objective of this study was to investigate hydrocolloids (pectin, carboxyl methylcellulose, and alginate) for their influences on the oil absorption in vacuum fried mango chips. Usage of hydrocolloids significantly (p≤0.05) affected fried mango oil uptake. Control samples (without hydrocolloids) had high fat content at 24.57g/100g whereas other samples, treated with 0.5g pectin/100ml water exhibited the highest decrease of oil absorption. Fat content of chips, treated with 0.5 g pectin /100ml was 14.01g/100g. With this concentration of pectin at 0.5 g /100ml, fat content could be reduced by 43%. Moreover, chips treated with 0.5 g pectin/100ml water had the highest sensory scores (color, appearance, crispiness and overall acceptability). These results showed that pectin was the most effective hydrocolloid for low fat vacuum fried mango chips production.
166
69565
Research on Level Adjusting Mechanism System of Large Space Environment Simulator
Abstract:
Space environment simulator is a device for spacecraft test. KM8 large space environment simulator built in Tianjing Space City is the largest as well as the most advanced space environment simulator in China. Large deviation of spacecraft level will lead to abnormally work of the thermal control device in spacecraft during the thermal vacuum test. In order to avoid thermal vacuum test failure, level adjusting mechanism system is developed in the KM8 large space environment simulator as one of the most important subsystems. According to the level adjusting requirements of spacecraft’s thermal vacuum tests, the four fulcrums adjusting model is established. By means of collecting level instruments and displacement sensors data, stepping motors controlled by PLC drive four supporting legs simultaneous movement. In addition, a PID algorithm is used to control the temperature of supporting legs and level instruments which long time work under the vacuum cold and black environment in KM8 large space environment simulator during thermal vacuum tests. Based on the above methods, the data acquisition and processing, the analysis and calculation, real time adjustment and fault alarming of the level adjusting mechanism system are implemented. The level adjusting accuracy reaches 1mm/m, and carrying capacity is 20 tons. Debugging showed that the level adjusting mechanism system of KM8 large space environment simulator can meet the thermal vacuum test requirement of the new generation spacecraft. The performance and technical indicators of the level adjusting mechanism system which provides important support for the development of spacecraft in China have been ahead of similar equipment in the world.
165
73292
Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water
Abstract:
As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.
164
85317
An Investigation into Sealing Materials for Vacuum Glazing
Abstract:
Vacuum glazing is an innovative transparent thermal insulator that has application in high performance window, especially in renewable energy. Different materials as well as sealing methods have been adopted to seal windows with different temperatures. The impact of temperatures on sealing layers has been found to have significant effects on the microstructure of the seal. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of sealing materials specifically glass powder and flux compound (borax) for vacuum glazing. The findings of the experiment conducted show that the sealing material was rigid with some leakage around the edge, and we found that this could be stopped by enhancing the uniformity of the seal within the periphery. Also, we found that due to the intense tensile stress from the oven surface temperature of the seal at 200 0C, a crack was observed at the side of the glass. Based on the above findings, this study concludes that a glass powder with a lower melting temperature of below 250 0C with the addition of an adhesive (borax flux) should be used for future vacuum seals.
163
90195
The Tribological Behaviors of Vacuum Gas Nitriding Titanium and Steel Substrates at Different Process Temperatures
Authors:
Abstract:
Metal nitrides show excellence tribological properties and they used for especially on machine parts. In this work, the vacuum gas nitriding proses were applied to the titanium, D2 and 52100 steel substrates at three different proses temperatures (500 °C, 600°C and 700 °C). Structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the samples were characterized. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were conducted to determine structural properties. Microhardness test and pin-on-disc wear test were made to observe tribological properties. Coefficient of friction, wear rate and wear traces were examined comparatively. According to the test results, the process temperature very effective parameter for the vacuum gas nitriding method.
162
107225
Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy
Abstract:
Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.
161
50789
Development of a Rice Fortification Technique Using Vacuum Assisted Rapid Diffusion for Low Cost Encapsulation of Fe and Zn
Abstract:
To address the micronutrient deficiencies in the Asian region, the World Food Program in its current mandate highlights the requirement of employing efficient fortification of micronutrients in rice, under the program 'Scaling-up Rice Fortification in Asia'. The current industrial methods of rice fortification with micronutrients are not promising due to poor permeation or retention of fortificants. This study was carried out to develop a method to improve fortification of micronutrients in rice by removing the air barriers for diffusing micronutrients through the husk. For the purpose, soaking stage of paddy was coupled with vacuum (- 0.6 bar) for different time periods. Both long and short grain varieties of paddy (BG 352 and BG 358, respectively) initially tested for water uptake during hot soaking (70 °C) under vacuum (28.5 and 26.15%, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of non-vacuum conditions (25.24 and 25.45% respectively), exhibiting the effectiveness of water diffusion into the rice grains through the cleared pores under negative pressure. To fortify the selected micronutrients (iron and zinc), paddy was vacuum-soaked in Fe2+ or Zn2+ solutions (500 ppm) separately for one hour, and continued soaking for another 3.5 h without vacuum. Significantly (P< 0.05) higher amounts of Fe2+ and Zn2+ were observed throughout the soaking period, in both short and long grain varieties of rice compared to rice treated without vacuum. To achieve the recommended limits of World Food Program standards for fortified iron (40-48 mg/kg) and zinc (60-72 mg/kg) in rice, soaking was done with different concentrations of Fe2+ or Zn2+ for varying time periods. For both iron and zinc fortifications, hot soaking (70 °C) in 400 ppm solutions under vacuum (- 0.6 bar) during the first hour followed by 2.5 h under atmospheric pressure exhibited the optimum fortification (Fe2+: 46.59±0.37 ppm and Zn2+: 67.24±1.36 ppm) with a greater significance (P < 0.05) compared to the controls (Fe2+: 38.84±0.62 ppm and Zn2+: 52.55±0.55 ppm). This finding was further confirmed by the XRF images, clearly showing a greater fixation of Fe2+ and Zn2+ in the rice grains under vacuum treatment. Moreover, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among both Fe2+ and Zn2+ contents in fortified rice even after polishing and washing, confirming their greater retention. A seven point hedonic scale showed that the overall acceptability for both iron and zinc fortified rice were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the parboiled rice without fortificants. With all the drawbacks eliminated, per kilogram cost will be less than US$ 1 for both iron and zinc fortified rice. The new method of rice fortification studied and developed in this research, can be claimed as the best method in comparison to other rice fortification methods currently deployed.
160
8634
Compromising of Vacuum Sewerage System in Developing Regions and the Impact on Environmet
Abstract:
Leakage in sewerage system can cause groundwater and soil contamination in urban areas, especially in area with a high groundwater table. This is a serious problem in small villages in developing countries that rely on ground water as a source for irrigation and drinking purposes. In the developed countries, the recent trend in areas with low population densities is vacuum sewerage system, which is environmentally safer than conventional gravity system, protecting public health, preventing exfiltration to the ground water, very easily applied in a relatively short time and can cope with a faster expansion of the urbanized areas. The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of using vacuum sewerage in developing country, such as Egypt. Knowledge of local conditions can determine the most suitable sewer system for a specific region. Technical, environmental and financial comparisons between conventional sewerage system and vacuum sewerage system were held using statistical analysis. Different conditions, such as population densities, geometry of area, and ground water depths were evaluated. Sample comprising of 30 Egyptian villages was selected, where a complete design for conventional sewerage system and vacuum sewerage system was done. Based on this study, it is recommended from the environmental point of view to construct the vacuum sewerage system in such villages with low population densities; however, it is not economic for all cases. From financial point of view, vacuum sewerage system was a good competitor to conventional systems in flat areas and areas with high groundwater table. The local market supplying of the construction equipment especially collection chambers will greatly affect the investment cost. Capacity building and social mobilization will also play a great role in sustainability of this system. At the end, it is noteworthy that environmental sustainability and public health are more important than the financial aspects.
159
8812
A Rapid and Cost-Effective Approach to Manufacturing Modeling Platform for Fused Deposition Modeling
Abstract:
This study presents a cost-effective approach for rapid fabricating modeling platforms utilized in fused deposition modeling system. A small-batch production of modeling platforms about 20 pieces can be obtained economically through silicone rubber mold using vacuum casting without applying the plastic injection molding. The air venting systems is crucial for fabricating modeling platform using vacuum casting. Modeling platforms fabricated can be used for building rapid prototyping model after sandblasting. This study offers industrial value because it has both time-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.
158
67571
Preservation of Sensitive Biological Products: An Insight into Conventional and Upcoming Drying Techniques
Abstract:
Several drying techniques are used to preserve sensitive substances such as probiotic lactic acid bacteria. With the aim to better understand differences between these processes, this work gives new insights into structural variations resulting from different preservation methods and their impact on product quality and storage stability. Industrially established methods (freeze drying, spray drying) were compared to upcoming vacuum, microwave-freeze, and microwave-vacuum drying. For freeze and microwave-freeze dried samples, survival and activity maintained 100%, whereas vacuum and microwave-vacuum dried cultures achieved 30-40% survival. Spray drying yielded in lowest viability. The results are directly related to temperature and oxygen content during drying. Interestingly, most storage stable products resulted from vacuum and microwave-vacuum drying due to denser product structures as determined by helium pycnometry and SEM images. Further, lower water adsorption velocities were responsible for lower inactivation rates. Concluding, resulting product structures as well as survival rates and storage stability mainly depend on the type of water removal instead of energy input. Microwave energy compared to conductive heating did not lead to significant differences regarding the examined factors. Correlations could be proven for three investigated microbial strains. The presentation will be completed by an overview on the energy efficiency of the presented methods.
157
61069
Molecular Clustering and Velocity Increase in Converging-Diverging Nozzle in Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Abstract:
A molecular dynamics simulation in a converging-diverging nozzle was performed to study molecular collisions and their influence to average flow velocity according to a variety of vacuum levels. The static pressures and the dynamic pressure exerted by the molecule collision on the selected walls were compared to figure out the intensity variances of the directional flows. With pressure differences constant between the entrance and the exit of the nozzle, the numerical experiment was performed for molecular velocities and directional flows. The result shows that the velocities increased at the nozzle exit as the vacuum level gets higher in that area because less molecular collisions.
156
55259
Discontinuous Spacetime with Vacuum Holes as Explanation for Gravitation, Quantum Mechanics and Teleportation
Abstract:
Hole Vacuum theory is based on discontinuous spacetime that contains vacuum holes. Vacuum holes can explain gravitation, some laws of quantum mechanics and allow teleportation of matter. All massive bodies emit a flux of holes which curve the spacetime; if we increase the concentration of holes, it leads to length contraction and time dilation because the holes do not have the properties of extension and duration. In the limited case when space consists of holes only, the distance between every two points is equal to zero and time stops - outside of the Universe, the extension and duration properties do not exist. For this reason, the vacuum hole is the only particle in physics capable of describing gravitation using its own properties only. All microscopic particles must &#39;jump&#39; continually and &#39;vibrate&#39; due to the appearance of holes (impassable microscopic &#39;walls&#39; in space), and it is the cause of the quantum behavior. Vacuum holes can explain the entanglement, non-locality, wave properties of matter, tunneling, uncertainty principle and so on. Particles do not have trajectories because spacetime is discontinuous and has impassable microscopic &#39;walls&#39; due to the simple mechanical motion is impossible at small scale distances; it is impossible to &#39;trace&#39; a straight line in the discontinuous spacetime because it contains the impassable holes. Spacetime &#39;boils&#39; continually due to the appearance of the vacuum holes. For teleportation to be possible, we must send a body outside of the Universe by enveloping it with a closed surface consisting of vacuum holes. Since a material body cannot exist outside of the Universe, it reappears instantaneously in a random point of the Universe. Since a body disappears in one volume and reappears in another random volume without traversing the physical space between them, such a transportation method can be called teleportation (or Hole Teleportation). It is shown that Hole Teleportation does not violate causality and special relativity due to its random nature and other properties. Although Hole Teleportation has a random nature, it can be used for colonization of extrasolar planets by the help of the method called &#39;random jumps&#39;: after a large number of random teleportation jumps, there is a probability that the spaceship may appear near a habitable planet. We can create vacuum holes experimentally using the method proposed by Descartes: we must remove a body from the vessel without permitting another body to occupy this volume.
155
12965
Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique
Abstract:
A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35°C by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.
154
50639
The Constraint of Machine Breakdown after a Match up Scheduling of Paper Manufacturing Industry
Authors:
Abstract:
In the process of manufacturing, a machine breakdown usually forces a modified flow shop out of the prescribed state, this strategy reschedules part of the initial schedule to match up with the pre-schedule at some point with the objective to create a schedule that is reliable with the other production planning decisions like material flow, production and suppliers by utilizing a critical decision-making concept. We propose a rescheduling strategy and a match-up point that will have a determination procedure through an advanced feedback control mechanism to increase both the schedule quality and stability. These approaches are compared with alternative re-scheduling methods under different experimental settings.
153
35815
An Investigation of Vegetable Oils as Potential Insulating Liquid
Abstract:
While choosing insulating oil, characteristic features such as thermal cooling, endurance, efficiency and being environment-friendly should be considered. Mineral oils are referred as petroleum-based oil. In this study, vegetable oils investigated as an alternative insulating liquid to mineral oil. Dissipation factor, breakdown voltage, relative dielectric constant and resistivity changes with the frequency and voltage of mineral, rapeseed and nut oils were measured. Experimental studies were performed according to ASTM D924 and IEC 60156 standards.
152
58713
Modelling of Lunar Lander’s Thruster’s Exhaust Plume Impingement in Vacuum
Abstract:
This paper presents the modelling of rocket exhaust plume flow field and exhaust plume impingement in vacuum for the liquid apogee engine and attitude control thrusters of the lunar lander. Analytic formulations for rarefied gas kinetics has been taken as reference for modelling the plume flow field. The plume has been modelled as high speed, collision-less, axi-symmetric gas jet, expanding into vacuum and impinging at a normally set diffusive circular plate. Specular reflections have not been considered for the present study. Different parameters such as number density, temperature, pressure, flow velocity, heat flux etc., have been calculated and have been plotted against and compared to Direct Simulation Monte Carlo results. These analyses have provided important information for the placement of critical optical instruments and design of optimal thermal insulation for the hardware that may come in contact with the thruster exhaust.
151
52417
A Statistical Model for the Dynamics of Single Cathode Spot in Vacuum Cylindrical Cathode
Abstract:
Dynamics of cathode spot has become a major part of vacuum arc discharge with its high academic interest and wide application potential. In this article, using a three-dimensional statistical model, we simulate the distribution of the ignition probability of a new cathode spot occurring in different magnetic pressure on old cathode spot surface and at different arcing time. This model for the ignition probability of a new cathode spot was proposed in two typical situations, one by the pure isotropic random walk in the absence of an external magnetic field, other by the retrograde motion in external magnetic field, in parallel with the cathode surface. We mainly focus on developed relationship between the ignition probability density distribution of a new cathode spot and the external magnetic field.
150
56556
Study on Shelf Life and Textural Properties of Minimal Processed Mixed Fruits
Abstract:
Minimally processed fruits have the attributes of convenience and fresh like quality. In minimally processed products, the cells of the tissue are alive, and the essential nutrients and flavours are retained. Some of the procedures include washing, trimming, sorting, cutting, slicing and shredding. Fruits such as pineapple and guava were taken for the study of textural properties for a period of five days. After the performance of various unit operations 50g cubes of pineapple and guava has been weighed. For determining the textural properties, samples were taken in which set of 12 samples were treated by using 1% citric acid solution and dried for 5 minutes the remaining set of 12 samples were untreated. In set of treated samples 6 were vacuum packed and stored in the refrigerator, and the other sample was normally stored. For untreated samples was done in a similar way. In texture profile analysis the force required for 1cm penetration of 2mm cylindrical needle inside the fruits were recorded for all packages. It was observed that guava the fresh sample had a force of penetration of 3250mm and as the days increased the force decreased to 357.4 mm for vacuum packed refrigerated storage. In the case of pineapple, the force of penetration of the fresh sample was 2325mm which was decreased to 26.3mm on the fourth day and very low at the fifth day for vacuum packed refrigerated storage. But in case of untreated samples, the fruits were spoiled may be because of no pre-treatment and packaging. Comparatively, it was found that vacuum packed refrigerated samples had higher shelf life than normal packed samples in ambient conditions.
149
13387
Electrochemical Regeneration of GIC Adsorbent in a Continuous Electrochemical Reactor
Abstract:
Arvia™ introduced a novel technology consisting of adsorption followed by electrochemical regeneration with a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent that takes place in a single unit. The adsorbed species may lead to the formation of intermediate by-products products due to incomplete mineralization during electrochemical regeneration. Therefore, the investigation of breakdown products due to incomplete oxidation is of great concern regarding the commercial applications of this process. In the present paper, the formation of the chlorinated breakdown products during continuous process of adsorption and electrochemical regeneration based on a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent has been investigated.
148
53747
Fabrication and Analysis of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS)
Abstract:
In this paper, the structure of N-channel VDMOS was designed and analyzed using Silvaco TCAD tools by varying N+ source doping concentration, P-Body doping concentration, gate oxide thickness and the diffuse time. VDMOS is considered to be ideal power switches due to its high input impedance and fast switching speed. The performance of the device was analyzed from the Ids vs Vgs curve. The electrical characteristics such as threshold voltage, gate oxide thickness and breakdown voltage for the proposed device structures were extarcted. Effect of epitaxial layer on various parameters is also observed.
147
56007
Characterization of A390 Aluminum Alloy Produced at Different Slow Shot Speeds Using Assisted Vacuum High-Pressure Die Casting
Abstract:
Under different slow shot speeds in vacuum assisted high pressure die casting (VHPDC) process, plate-shaped specimens of hypereutectic A390 aluminum alloy were produced. According to the results, the vacuum pressure inside the die cavity increased linearly with the increasing slow shot speed at the beginning of mold filling. Meanwhile, it was found that the tensile properties of vacuum die castings were deteriorated by the porosity content. In addition, the average primary Si size varies between 14µm to 23µm, which has a binary functional relationship with the slow shot speeds. Due to the vacuum effect, the castings were treated by T6 heat treatment. After heat treatment, microstructural morphologies revealed that needle-shaped and thin-flaked eutectic Si particles became rounded while Al2Cu dissolved into α-Al matrix. For the as-received sample in-situ tensile test, microcracks firstly initiate at the primary Si particles and propagated along Al matrix with a transgranular fracture mode. In contrast, for the treated sample, the crack initiated at the Al2Cu particles and propagated along Al grain boundaries with an intergranular fracture mode. In-situ three bending test, microcracks firstly formed in the primary Si particles for both samples. Subsequently, the cracks between primary Si linked along Al grain boundaries in as received sample. In contrast, the cracks in primary Si linked through the solid lines in Al matrix. Furthermore, the fractography revealed that the fracture mechanism has evolved from brittle transgranular fracture to a fracture mode with many dimples after heat treatment.
146
29825
Electrical Analysis of Corn Oil as an Alternative to Mineral Oil in Power Transformers
Abstract:
In insulation and cooling of power transformers various liquids are used. Mineral oils have wide availability and low cost. However, they have a poor biodegradability potential and lower fire point in comparison with other insulating liquids. Use of a liquid having high biodegradability is important due to environmental consideration. This paper investigates edible corn oil as an alternative to mineral oil. Various properties of mineral and corn oil like breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, relative dielectric constant, power loss and resistivity were measured according to different standards.
145
85856
Using Squeezed Vacuum States to Enhance the Sensitivity of Ground Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers beyond the Standard Quantum Limit
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper reviews the impact of quantum noise on modern gravitational wave interferometers and explains how squeezed vacuum states are used to push the noise below the standard quantum limit. With the first detection of gravitational waves from a pair of colliding black holes in September 2015 and subsequent detections including that of gravitational waves from a pair of colliding neutron stars, the ground-based interferometric gravitational wave observatories LIGO and VIRGO have opened the era of gravitational-wave and multi-messenger astronomy. Improving the sensitivity of the detectors is of paramount importance to increase the number and quality of the detections, fully exploiting this new information channel about the universe. Although still in the commissioning phase and not at nominal sensitivity, these interferometers are designed to be ultimately limited by a combination of shot noise and quantum radiation pressure noise, which define an envelope known as the standard quantum limit. Despite the name, this limit can be beaten with the use of advanced quantum measurement techniques, with the use of squeezed vacuum states being currently the most mature and promising. Different strategies for implementation of the technology in the large-scale detectors, in both their frequency-independent and frequency-dependent variations, are presented, together with an analysis of the main technological issues and expected sensitivity gain.
144
2536
Operation Parameters of Vacuum Cleaned Filters
Abstract:
For vacuum cleaned dust filters, used e. g. in textile industry, there exist no calculation methods to determine design parameters (e. g. traverse speed of the nozzle, filter area...). In this work a method to calculate the optimum traverse speed of the nozzle of an industrial-size flat dust filter at a given mean pressure drop and filter face velocity was elaborated. Well-known equations for the design of a cleanable multi-chamber bag-house-filter were modified in order to take into account a continuously regeneration of a dust filter by a nozzle. Thereby, the specific filter medium resistance and the specific cake resistance values are needed which can be derived from filter tests under constant operation conditions. A lab-scale filter test rig was used to derive the specific filter media resistance value and the specific cake resistance value for vacuum cleaned filter operation. Three different filter media were tested and the determined parameters were compared to each other.
143
111148
Numerical Study of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Operating at Sub-atmospheric Conditions
Abstract:
Fluidization at vacuum pressure has been a topic that is of growing research interest. Several industrial applications (such as drying, extractive metallurgy, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can potentially take advantage of vacuum pressure fluidization. Particularly, the fine chemical industry requires processing under safe conditions for thermolabile substances, and reduced pressure fluidized beds offer an alternative. Fluidized beds under vacuum conditions provide optimal conditions for treatment of granular materials where the reduced gas pressure maintains an operational environment outside of flammability conditions. The fluidization at low-pressure is markedly different from the usual gas flow patterns of atmospheric fluidization. The different flow regimes can be characterized by the dimensionless Knudsen number. Nevertheless, hydrodynamics of bubbling vacuum fluidized beds has not been investigated to author&rsquo;s best knowledge. In this work, the two-fluid numerical method was used to determine the impact of reduced pressure on the fundamental properties of a fluidized bed. The slip flow model implemented by Ansys Fluent User Defined Functions (UDF) was used to determine the interphase momentum exchange coefficient. A wide range of operating pressures was investigated (1.01, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 and 0.03 Bar). The gas was supplied by a uniform inlet at 1.5Umf and 2Umf. The predicted minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the operating pressure has a notable impact on the bed properties and its hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it also shows that the existing Gorosko correlation that predicts bed expansion is not applicable under reduced pressure conditions.
142
30251
An Advanced Match-Up Scheduling Under Single Machine Breakdown
Abstract:
When a machine breakdown forces a Modified Flow Shop (MFS) out of the prescribed state, the proposed strategy reschedules part of the initial schedule to match up with the preschedule at some point. The objective is to create a new schedule that is consistent with the other production planning decisions like material flow, tooling and purchasing by utilizing the time critical decision making concept. We propose a new rescheduling strategy and a match-up point determination procedure through a feedback mechanism to increase both the schedule quality and stability. The proposed approach is compared with alternative reactive scheduling methods under different experimental settings.
141
1337
Simulation of I–V Characteristics of Lateral PIN Diode on Polysilicon Films
Abstract:
In this paper, a bedimensional simulation program of the electric characteristics of reverse biased lateral polysilicon PIN diode is presented. In this case we have numerically solved the system of partial differential equations formed by Poisson's equation and both continuity equations that take into account the effect of impact ionization. Therefore we will obtain the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of the reverse-biased structure which may include the effect of breakdown.The geometrical model assumes that the polysilicon layer is composed by a succession of defined mean grain size crystallites, separated by lateral grain boundaries which are parallel to the metallurgic junction.
140
96963
Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam
Abstract:
This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.
139
64345
Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Complex Injuries of the Limbs
Abstract:
Introduction: As severe open injuries are more and more frequent in modern traumatology, threatening not only the integrity of the affected limb but even the life of the patients, new methods desired to cope with the consequences of these traumas were described. Vacuum therapy is one such method which has been described as enhancing healing in trauma with extensive soft-tissue injuries, included those with septic complications. Material and methods: Authors prospectively analyze 15 patients with severe lower limb trauma with MESS less than 6, with considerable soft tissue loss following initial debridement and fracture fixation. The patients needed serial debridements and vacuum therapy was applied after delayed healing due to initial severity of the trauma, for an average period of 12 days (7 - 23 days).In 7 cases vacuum therapy was applied for septic complications. Results: Within the study group, there were no local complications; secondary debridements were performed for all the patients and vacuum system was re-installed after these debridements. No amputations were needed. Medical records were reviewed in order to compare the outcome of the patients: the hospital stay, anti-microbial therapy, time to healing of the bone and soft tissues (there is no standard group to be compared with) and the result showed considerable improvements in the outcome of the patients. Conclusion: Vacuum therapy improves healing of the soft tissues, including those infected; hospital stay and the number of secondary necessary procedures are reduced. Therefore it is considered a valuable support in treating trauma of the limbs with severe soft tissue injuries.
138
32470
Development of Work Breakdown Structure for EVMS in South Korea
Abstract:
In the construction site, the cost and schedules are the most important management elements. Despite efforts to integrated management the cost and schedule, WBS classification is struggling to differ from each other. The cost and schedule can be integrated and can be managed due to the characteristic of the detail system in the case of Korea around the axis of pressure and official fixture system. In this research, the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) integrating the cost and schedules around in government office construction, WBS which can be used in common was presented in order to analyze the detail system of the public institution construction and improve. As to this method, the efficient administration of not only the link application of the cost and schedule but also construction project is expected.
137
89664
Matrix Composites Reinforced with Modified Graphene Oxide Based on Alumina and Their Investigation
Abstract:
In present work, effect of adding modified graphene oxide (mGO) to ultrafine α-Al₂O₃ and to - α-Al₂O₃-ZrO₂-Y₂O₃ on mechanical properties and the microstructure of the composite materials was investigated. These materials were developed by hot pressing (OXY-GON High-Temperature Vacuum Furnace System with 30 Ton Press Capability (Model № FR210-30T-A-200-EVC). It was shown that α-Al₂O₃-ZrO₂-Y₂O₃/mGO composite obtained by hot pressing in vacuum atmosphere at the sintering temperature of 1450⁰C is characterized by nonporosity, crack resistance, high scale of hardness and fracture toughness. Also, models of these performed composites were constructed and optimized by density functional theory (DFT) and calculated their atomistic and electronic structure and energetics. It was shown that the properties of the interface Al-O-C bond can be expected to be essentially independent of the number of GO layers in the alumina matrix composites reinforced with modified GO. During the work, the following devices have been used: high-temperature vacuum furnace, glow box, electronic scanning microscopes Nikon ECLIPSE LV 150, Analysette 12 Dyna sizer, planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, SHIMADZU Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, X-ray diffractometer DRON-3M, optical microscope NMM-800TRF.
136
1333
Control Algorithm Design of Single-Phase Inverter For ZnO Breakdown Characteristics Tests
Abstract:
ZnO voltage dependent resistor was widely used as components of the electrical system for over-voltage protection. It has a wide application prospect in superconducting energy-removal, generator de-excitation, overvoltage protection of electrical & electronics equipment. At present, the research for the application of ZnO voltage dependent resistor stop, it uses just in the field of its nonlinear voltage current characteristic and overvoltage protection areas. There is no further study over the over-voltage breakdown characteristics, such as the combustion phenomena and the measure of the voltage/current when it breakdown, and the affect to its surrounding equipment. It is also a blind spot in its application. So, when we do the feature test of ZnO voltage dependent resistor, we need to design a reasonable test power supply, making the terminal voltage keep for sine wave, simulating the real use of PF voltage in power supply conditions. We put forward the solutions of using inverter to generate a controllable power. The paper mainly focuses on the breakdown characteristic test power supply of nonlinear ZnO voltage dependent resistor. According to the current mature switching power supply technology, we proposed power control system using the inverter as the core. The power mainly realize the sin-voltage output on the condition of three-phase PF-AC input, and 3 control modes (RMS, Peak, Average) of the current output. We choose TMS320F2812M as the control part of the hardware platform. It is used to convert the power from three-phase to a controlled single-phase sin-voltage through a rectifier, filter, and inverter. Design controller produce SPWM, to get the controlled voltage source via appropriate multi-loop control strategy, while execute data acquisition and display, system protection, start logic control, etc. The TMS320F2812M is able to complete the multi-loop control quickly and can be a good completion of the inverter output control.
135
3491
Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown
Abstract:
This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.
134
33223
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Lyophilization Using Vacuum-Induced Freezing
Abstract:
Lyophilization, also called freeze-drying, is an important dehydration technique mainly used for pharmaceuticals. Food industry also uses lyophilization when it is important to retain most of the nutritional quality, taste, shape and size of dried products and to extend their shelf life. Vacuum-Induced during freezing cycle (VI) has been used in order to control ice nucleation and, consequently, to reduce the time of primary drying cycle of pharmaceuticals preserving quality properties of the final product. This procedure has not been applied in freeze drying of foods. The present work aims to investigate the effect of VI on the lyophilization drying time, final moisture content, density and reconstitutional properties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) slices (MS) and mango pulp-maltodextrin dispersions (MPM) (30% concentration of total solids). Control samples were run at each freezing rate without using induced vacuum. The lyophilization endpoint was the same for all treatments (constant difference between capacitance and Pirani vacuum gauges). From the experimental results it can be concluded that at the high freezing rate (0.4°C/min) reduced the overall process time up to 30% comparing process time required for the control and VI of the lower freeze rate (0.1°C/min) without affecting the quality characteristics of the dried product, which yields a reduction in costs and energy consumption for MS and MPM freeze drying. Controls and samples treated with VI at freezing rate of 0.4°C/min in MS showed similar results in moisture and density parameters. Furthermore, results from MPM dispersion showed favorable values when VI was applied because dried product with low moisture content and low density was obtained at shorter process time compared with the control. There were not found significant differences between reconstitutional properties (rehydration for MS and solubility for MPM) of freeze dried mango resulting from controls, and VI treatments.
133
50181
Negative Pressures of Ca. -20 MPA for Water Enclosed into a Metal Berthelot Tube under a Vacuum Condition
Abstract:
Negative pressures of liquids have been expected to contribute many kinds of technology. Nevertheless, experiments for subjecting liquids which have not too small volumes to negative pressures are difficult even now. The reason of the difficulties is because the liquids tend to generate cavities easily. In order to remove cavitation nuclei, an apparatus for enclosing water into a metal Berthelot tube under vacuum conditions was developed. By using the apparatus, negative pressures for water rose to ca. -20 MPa. This is the highest value for water in metal Berthelot tubes. Results were explained by a traditional crevice model. Keywords
132
76714
Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane
Abstract:
Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.
131
11850
Dried Venison Quality Parameters Changes during Storage
Abstract:
The aim of the current research was to determine quality parameters changes of dried venison during storage. Protein, fat and moisture content dynamics as well microbiological quality was analyzed. For the experiments the meat (0.02×4.00×7.00 cm) pieces were marinated in “teriyaki sauce” marinade (composition: teriyaki sauce, sweet and sour sauce, taco sauce, soy sauce, American BBQ sauce hickory, sesame oil, garlic, garlic salt, tabasco red pepper sauce) at 4±2°C temperature for 48±1h. Sodium monophosphate (E339) was also added in part of marinade to improve the meat textural properties. After marinating, meat samples were dried in microwave-vacuum drier MUSSON–1, packaged in vacuum pouches made from polymer film (PA/PE) with barrier properties and storage for 4 months at 18±1°C temperature in dark place. Dried venison samples were analyzed after 0, 35, 91 and 112 days of storage. During the storage total plate counts of dried venison samples significantly (p< 0.05) increased. No significant differences in the content of protein, fat and moisture were detected when analyzing dried meat samples during storage and comparing them with the chemical parameters of just dried meat.
130
25868
Experimental and Numerical Performance Analysis for Steam Jet Ejectors
Abstract:
The steam ejectors are the heart of most of the desalination systems that employ vacuum. The systems that employ low grade thermal energy sources like solar energy and geothermal energy use the ejector to drive the system instead of high grade electric energy. The jet-ejector is used to create vacuum employing the flow of steam or air and using the severe pressure drop at the outlet of the main nozzle. The present work involves developing a one dimensional mathematical model for designing jet-ejectors and transform it into computer code using Engineering Equation solver (EES) software. The model receives the required operating conditions at the inlets and outlet of the ejector as inputs and produces the corresponding dimensions required to reach these conditions. The one-dimensional model has been validated using an existed model working on Abu-Qir power station. A prototype has been designed according to the one-dimensional model and attached to a special test bench to be tested before using it in the solar desalination pilot plant. The tested ejector will be responsible for the startup evacuation of the system and adjusting the vacuum of the evaporating effects. The tested prototype has shown a good agreement with the results of the code. In addition a numerical analysis has been applied on one of the designed geometry to give an image of the pressure and velocity distribution inside the ejector from a side, and from other side, to show the difference in results between the two-dimensional ideal gas model and real prototype. The commercial edition of ANSYS Fluent v.14 software is used to solve the two-dimensional axisymmetric case.
129
38288
Improving Overall Equipment Effectiveness of CNC-VMC by Implementing Kobetsu Kaizen
Abstract:
TPM methodology is a proven approach to increase Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) of machine. OEE is an established method to monitor and improve the effectiveness of manufacturing process. OEE is a product of equipment availability, performance efficiency and quality performance of manufacturing operations. The paper presents a project work for improving OEE of CNC-VMC in a manufacturing industry with the help of TPM tools Kaizen and Autonomous Maintenance. The aim of paper is to enhance OEE by minimizing the breakdown and re-work, increase availability, performance and quality. The calculated OEE of bottle necking machines for 4 months is lower of 53.3%. Root Cause Analysis RCA tools like fishbone diagram, Pareto chart are used for determining the reasons behind low OEE. While Tool like Why-Why analysis is use for determining the basis reasons for low OEE. Tools like Kaizen and Autonomous Maintenance are effectively implemented on CNC-VMC which eliminate the causes of breakdown and prevent from reoccurring. The result obtains from approach shows that OEE of CNC-VMC improved from 53.3% to 73.7% which saves an average sum of Rs.3, 19,000.
128
22202
Improvement of Egyptian Vacuum Distillates by Solvent Dewaxing
Abstract:
De-waxing of vacuum distillates by using solvent was investigated in the present study. The present work deals with studying solvent dewaxing system which have been developed to give better dewaxing performance with respect to the important factors in the choice of solvents which are good solubility of oil in the solvent and low solubility of wax in the solvent. In this study, solvent dewaxing process using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and toluene are used for Egyptian vacuum distillates using two types of distillates. The effect of varying the composition of(MEK to toluene) on the percent yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index at 20 and 70°C, viscosity at 40 and 100°C, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced for the two types of distillates (I & II) were evaluated. In the present study, the operating conditions of solvent dewaxing using MEK toluene mixture achieved the best pour point at -15°C for distillate I at (1:1) solvent composition mixture. At the same ratio of MEK to toluene the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.871 to 0.8802, with refractive index of 1.84. Percent yield of 65% for oil was obtained. The results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. The effect of temperature was also investigated and the best temperature was -20°C.
127
96692
Preparation of Nb Silicide-Based Alloy Powder by Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation (HDH) Reaction
Abstract:
The Nb silicide-based alloy has the excellent high-temperature strength and relatively lower density than the Ni-based superalloy; therefore, it has been receiving a lot of attention for the next generation high-temperature material. To enhance the high temperature creep property and oxidation resistance, Si was added to the Nb-based alloy, resulting in a multi-phase microstructure with metal solid solution and silicide phase. Since the silicide phase has a low machinability due to its brittle nature, it is necessary to fabricate components using the powder metallurgy. However, powder manufacturing techniques for the alloys have not yet been developed. In this study, we tried to fabricate Nb-based alloy powder by the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reaction. The Nb-based alloy ingot was prepared by vacuum arc melting and it was annealed in the hydrogen atmosphere for the hydrogenation. After annealing, the hydrogen concentration was increased from 0.004wt% to 1.22wt% and Nb metal phase was transformed to Nb hydride phase. The alloy after hydrogenation could be easily pulverized into powder by ball milling due to its brittleness. For dehydrogenation, the alloy powders were annealed in the vacuum atmosphere. After vacuum annealing, the hydrogen concentration was decreased to 0.003wt% and Nb hydride phase was transformed back to Nb metal phase.
126
19362
Investigation of Long-Term Thermal Insulation Performance of Vacuum Insulation Panels with Various Enveloping Methods
Abstract:
To practically apply vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) to buildings or home appliances, VIPs have demanded long-term lifespan with outstanding insulation performance. Service lives of VIPs enveloped with Al-foil and three-layer Al-metallized envelope are calculated. For Al-foil envelope, the service life is longer but edge conduction is too large compared with the Al metallized envelope. To increase service life even more, the proposed double enveloping method and metal-barrier-added enveloping method are further analyzed. The service lives of the VIP to employ two enveloping methods are calculated. Also, pressure increase and thermal insulation performance characteristics are investigated. For the metal- barrier-added enveloping method, effective thermal conductivity increase with time is close to that of Al-foil envelope, especially, for getter-inserted VIPs. For the double enveloping method, if water vapor is perfectly adsorbed, the effect of service life enhancement becomes much greater. From these methods, the VIP can be guaranteed for the service life of more than 20 years.
125
95822
Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-Conditioning
Abstract:
The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet the set indoor condition that consumes a considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for the next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was set up to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, the coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has promising potential in the dehumidification process.
124
102490
Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-conditioning
Abstract:
The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet set indoor condition that consumes considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was setup to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has a promising potential in dehumidification process.
123
102489
Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-conditioning
Abstract:
The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet set indoor condition that consumes considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was setup to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has a promising potential in dehumidification process.
122
102488
Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-conditioning
Abstract:
The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet set indoor condition that consumes considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was setup to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has a promising potential in dehumidification process.
121
30150
The Effects of Nanoemulsions Based on Commercial Oils for the Quality of Vacuum-Packed Sea Bass at 2±2°C
Abstract:
Food scientists and researchers have paid attention to develop new ways for improving the nutritional value of foods. The application of nanotechnology techniques to the food industry may allow the modification of food texture, taste, sensory attributes, coloring strength, processability, and stability during shelf life of products. In this research, the effects of nanoemulsions based on commercial oils for vacuum-packed sea bass fillets stored at 2±2°C were investigated in terms of the sensory, chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acids (FFA), pH, water holding capacity (WHC)) and microbiological qualities (total anaerobic bacteria and total lactic acid bacteria). Physical properties of emulsions (viscosity, the particle size of droplet, thermodynamic stability, refractive index, and surface tension) were determined. Nanoemulsion preparation method was based on high energy principle, with ultrasonic homojenizator. Sensory analyses of raw fish showed that the demerit points of the control group were found higher than those of treated groups. The sensory score (odour, taste and texture) of the cooked fillets decreased with storage time, especially in the control. Results obtained from chemical and microbiological analyses also showed that nanoemulsions significantly (p< 0.05) decreased the values of biochemical parameters and growth of bacteria during storage period, thus improving quality of vacuum-packed sea bass.
120
44753
Evaluation of the Improve Vacuum Blood Collection Tube for Laboratory Tests
Abstract:
Laboratory tests is a significant part for the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of diseases. Blood collection is a simple process, but can be a potential cause of pre-analytical errors. Vacuum blood collection tubes used to collect and store the blood specimens is necessary for accurate test results. The purpose of this study was to validate Improve serum separator tube(SST) (Guanzhou Improve Medical Instruments Co., Ltd, China) for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing. Blood specimens were collected from 100 volunteers in three different serum vacuum tubes (Greiner SST , Becton Dickinson SST , Improve SST). The specimens were evaluated for 16 routine chemistry tests using TBA-200FR NEO (Toshiba Medical Co. JAPAN). The results were statistically analyzed by paired t-test and Bland-Altman plot. For stability test, the initial results for each tube were compared with results of 72 hours preserved specimens. Their clinical availability was evaluated by biological Variation of Ricos data bank. Paired t-test analysis revealed that AST, ALT, K, Cl showed statistically same results but calcium (CA), phosphorus(PHOS), glucose(GLU), BUN, uric acid(UA), cholesterol(CHOL), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), total bilirubin(TB), ALP, creatinine(CRE), sodium(NA) were different(P < 0.05) between Improve SST and Greiner SST. Also, CA, PHOS, TP, TB, AST, ALT, NA, K, Cl showed statistically the same results but GLU, BUN, UA, CHOL, ALB, ALP, CRE were different between Improve SST and Becton Dickinson SST. All statistically different cases were clinically acceptable by biological Variation of Ricos data bank. Improve SST tubes showed satisfactory results compared with Greiner SST and Becton Dickinson SST. We concluded that the tubes are acceptable for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing.
119
34225
To Study the Effect of Drying Temperature Towards Extraction of Aquilaria subintegra Dry Leaves Using Vacuum Far Infrared
Abstract:
This article based on effect of temperature towards extraction of Aquilaria Subintegra. Aquilaria Subintegra which its main habitat is in Asia-tropical and particularly often found in its native which is Thailand. There is claim which is Aquilaria Subintegra contains antipyretic properties that helps fight fever. Research nowadays also shown that paracetamol consumed bring bad effect towards consumers. This sample will first dry using Vacuum Far Infrared which provides better drying than conventional oven. Soxhlet extractor used to extract oil from sample. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer used to analyze sample to determine its compound. Objective from this research was to determine the active ingredients that exist in the Aquilaria Subintegra leaves and to determine whether compound of Acetaminophen exist or not inside the leaves. Moisture content from 400C was 80%, 500C was 620% and 600C was 36%. The greater temperature resulting lower moisture content inside sample leaves. 7 components were identified in sample T=400C while only 5 components were identified in sample at T=50C and T=60C. Four components were commonly identified in three sample which is 1n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (z,z,z), Vitamin E and Squalene. Further studies are needed with new series of temperature to refine the best results.
118
81809
A Regression Model for Predicting Sugar Crystal Size in a Fed-Batch Vacuum Evaporative Crystallizer
Abstract:
Crystal size distribution is of great importance in the sugar factories. It determines the market value of granulated sugar and also influences the cost of production of sugar crystals. Typically, sugar is produced using fed-batch vacuum evaporative crystallizer. The crystallization quality is examined by crystal size distribution at the end of the process which is quantified by two parameters: the average crystal size of the distribution in the mean aperture (MA) and the width of the distribution of the coefficient of variation (CV). Lack of real-time measurement of the sugar crystal size hinders its feedback control and eventual optimisation of the crystallization process. An attractive alternative is to use a soft sensor (model-based method) for online estimation of the sugar crystal size. Unfortunately, the available models for sugar crystallization process are not suitable as they do not contain variables that can be measured easily online. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a regression model for estimating the sugar crystal size as a function of input variables which are easy to measure online. This has the potential to provide real-time estimates of crystal size for its effective feedback control. Using 7 input variables namely: initial crystal size (Lo), temperature (T), vacuum pressure (P), feed flowrate (Ff), steam flowrate (Fs), initial super-saturation (S0) and crystallization time (t), preliminary studies were carried out using Minitab 14 statistical software. Based on the existing sugar crystallizer models, and the typical ranges of these 7 input variables, 128 datasets were obtained from a 2-level factorial experimental design. These datasets were used to obtain a simple but online-implementable 6-input crystal size model. It seems the initial crystal size (Lₒ) does not play a significant role. The goodness of the resulting regression model was evaluated. The coefficient of determination, R² was obtained as 0.994, and the maximum absolute relative error (MARE) was obtained as 4.6%. The high R² (~1.0) and the reasonably low MARE values are an indication that the model is able to predict sugar crystal size accurately as a function of the 6 easy-to-measure online variables. Thus, the model can be used as a soft sensor to provide real-time estimates of sugar crystal size during sugar crystallization process in a fed-batch vacuum evaporative crystallizer.
117
43488
Performance Comparison of Situation-Aware Models for Activating Robot Vacuum Cleaner in a Smart Home
Abstract:
We assume an IoT-based smart-home environment where the on-off status of each of the electrical appliances including the room lights can be recognized in a real time by monitoring and analyzing the smart meter data. At any moment in such an environment, we can recognize what the household or the user is doing by referring to the status data of the appliances. In this paper, we focus on a smart-home service that is to activate a robot vacuum cleaner at right time by recognizing the user situation, which requires a situation-aware model that can distinguish the situations that allow vacuum cleaning (Yes) from those that do not (No). We learn as our candidate models a few classifiers such as naïve Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression that can map the appliance-status data into Yes and No situations. Our training and test data are obtained from simulations of user behaviors, in which a sequence of user situations such as cooking, eating, dish washing, and so on is generated with the status of the relevant appliances changed in accordance with the situation changes. During the simulation, both the situation transition and the resulting appliance status are determined stochastically. To compare the performances of the aforementioned classifiers we obtain their learning curves for different types of users through simulations. The result of our empirical study reveals that naïve Bayes achieves a slightly better classification accuracy than the other compared classifiers.
116
68753
Sintering Properties of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-5Al-2.5Fe
Abstract:
In this study, Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy was prepared by powder metallurgy. The elemental titanium, aluminum, and iron powders were mechanically alloyed for 10 h in a vacuum atmosphere. A stainless steel jar and stainless steel balls were used for mechanical alloying. The alloyed powders were then sintered by vacuum hot pressing at 950 &deg;C for a soaking time of 30 minutes. Pure titanium was also sintered at the same conditions for comparison of mechanical properties and microstructural behavior. The samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, and optical microscopy. Results showed that, after mechanical alloying, a homogeneous distribution of the elements was obtained, and desired a-b structure was determined. Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy was successfully produced, and the alloy showed enhanced mechanical properties compared to the commercial pure titanium.
115
80955
Effect of Three Drying Methods on Antioxidant Efficiency and Vitamin C Content of Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract
Abstract:
Moringa oleifera is a plant containing many nutrients that are mostly concentrated within the leaves. Commonly, the separation process of these nutrients involves solid-liquid extraction followed by evaporation and drying to obtain a concentrated extract, which is rich in proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, and other essential nutrients that can be used in the food industry. In this work, three drying methods were used, which involved very different temperature and pressure conditions, to evaluate the effect of each method on the vitamin C content and the antioxidant efficiency of the extracts. Solid-liquid extractions of the leaves (LE) were carried out by employing an ethanol solution (35 % v/v) at 50 °C for 2 hours. The resulting extracts were then dried i) in a convective oven (CO) at 100 °C and at an atmospheric pressure of 750 mbar for 8 hours, ii) in a vacuum evaporator (VE) at 50 °C and at 300 mbar for 2 hours, and iii) in a freeze-drier (FD) at -40 °C and at 0.050 mbar for 36 hours. The antioxidant capacity (EC50, mg solids/g DPPH˙) of the dry solids was calculated by the free radical inhibition method employing DPPH˙ at 517 nm, resulting in a value of 2902.5 ± 14.8 for LE, 3433.1 ± 85.2 for FD, 3980.1 ± 37.2 for VE, and 8123.5 ± 263.3 for CO. The calculated antioxidant efficiency (AE, g DPPH˙/(mg solids·min)) was 2.920 × 10-5 for LE, 2.884 × 10-5 for FD, 2.512 × 10-5 for VE, and 1.009 × 10-5 for CO. Further, the content of vitamin C (mg/L) determined by HPLC was 59.0 ± 0.3 for LE, 49.7 ± 0.6 for FD, 45.0 ± 0.4 for VE, and 23.6 ± 0.7 for CO. The results indicate that the convective drying degrades vitamin C and antioxidant efficiency to 40% and 34% of the initial value, respectively, while vacuum drying to 76% and 86%, and freeze-drying to 84% and 98%, respectively.
114
81116
Effect of Three Drying Methods on Antioxidant Efficiency and Vitamin C Content of Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract
Abstract:
Moringa oleifera is a plant containing many nutrients that are mostly concentrated within the leaves. Commonly, the separation process of these nutrients involves solid-liquid extraction followed by evaporation and drying to obtain a concentrated extract, which is rich in proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, and other essential nutrients that can be used in the food industry. In this work, three drying methods were used, which involved very different temperature and pressure conditions, to evaluate the effect of each method on the vitamin C content and the antioxidant efficiency of the extracts. Solid-liquid extractions of the leaves (LE) were carried out by employing an ethanol solution (35 % v/v) at 50 °C for 2 hours. The resulting extracts were then dried i) in a convective oven (CO) at 100 °C and at an atmospheric pressure of 750 mbar for 8 hours, ii) in a vacuum evaporator (VE) at 50 °C and at 300 mbar for 2 hours, and iii) in a freeze-drier (FD) at -40 °C and at 0.050 mbar for 36 hours. The antioxidant capacity (EC50, mg solids/g DPPH˙) of the dry solids was calculated by the free radical inhibition method employing DPPH˙ at 517 nm, resulting in a value of 2902.5 ± 14.8 for LE, 3433.1 ± 85.2 for FD, 3980.1 ± 37.2 for VE, and 8123.5 ± 263.3 for CO. The calculated antioxidant efficiency (AE, g DPPH˙/(mg solids·min)) was 2.920 × 10-5 for LE, 2.884 × 10-5 for FD, 2.512 × 10-5 for VE, and 1.009 × 10-5 for CO. Further, the content of vitamin C (mg/L) determined by HPLC was 59.0 ± 0.3 for LE, 49.7 ± 0.6 for FD, 45.0 ± 0.4 for VE, and 23.6 ± 0.7 for CO. The results indicate that the convective drying degrades vitamin C and antioxidant efficiency to 40% and 34% of the initial value, respectively, while vacuum drying to 76% and 86%, and freeze-drying to 84% and 98%, respectively.
113
18710
A Two-Stage Process for the Sustainable Production of Aliphatic Polyesters
Abstract:
A "green" process was studied for the preparation of partially renewable aliphatic polyesters based on 1,4-butanediol and 1,8-octanediol with various diacids and derivatives, namely diethyl succinate, adipic acid, sebacic acid, 1,12-dodecanedioic acid and 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid. A first step of enzymatic prepolymerization was carried out in the presence of two different solvents, toluene and diphenylether, applying molecular sieves and vacuum, respectively, to remove polycondensation by-products. Poly(octylene adipate) (PE 8.6), poly(octylene dodecanate)(PE 8.12) and poly(octylene tetradecanate) (PE 8.14) were firstly enzymatically produced in toluene using molecular sieves giving however, low-molecular-weight products. Thereafter, the synthesis of PE 8.12 and PE 8.14 was examined under optimized conditions using diphenylether as solvent and a more vigorous by-product removal step, such as application of vacuum. Apart from these polyesters, the optimized process was also implemented for the production of another long-chain polyester-poly(octylene sebacate) (PE 8.10) and a short-chain polyester-poly(butylene succinate) (PE 4.4). Subsequently, bulk post-polymerization in the melt or solid state was performed. SSP runs involved absence of biocatalyst and reaction temperatures (T) in the vicinity of the prepolymer melting point (Tm-T varied between 15.5 up to 4oC). Focusing on PE 4.4 and PE 8.12, SSP took place under vacuum or flowing nitrogen leading to increase of the molecular weight and improvement of the end product physical appearance and thermal properties.
112
56669
Thermal Vacuum Chamber Test Result for CubeSat Transmitter
Abstract:
CubeSat in low earth orbit (LEO) mainly uses ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter with fixed radio frequency (RF) output power to download the telemetry and the payload data. The transmitter consumes large amount of electrical energy during the transmission considering the limited satellite size of a CubeSat. A transmitter with power control ability is designed to achieve optimize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and efficient power consumption. In this paper, the thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC) test is performed to validate the performance of the UHF band transmitter with power control capability. The TVAC is used to simulate the satellite condition in the outer space environment. The TVAC test was conducted at the Laboratory of Spacecraft Environment Interaction Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan. The TVAC test used 4 thermal cycles starting from +60°C to -20°C for the temperature setting. The pressure condition inside chamber was less than 10-5Pa. During the test, the UHF transmitter is integrated in a CubeSat configuration with other CubeSat subsystem such as on board computer (OBC), power module, and satellite structure. The system is validated and verified through its performance in terms of its frequency stability and the RF output power. The UHF band transmitter output power is tested from 0.5W to 2W according the satellite mode of operations and the satellite power limitations. The frequency stability is measured and the performance obtained is less than 2 ppm in the tested operating temperature range. The test demonstrates the RF output power is adjustable in a thermal vacuum condition.
111
57076
Atmospheric CO2 Capture via Temperature/Vacuum Swing Adsorption in SIFSIX-3-Ni
Abstract:
Carbon dioxide capture has attracted the attention of many governments, industries and scientists over the last few decades, due to the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 composition, with several studies being conducted in this area over the last few years. In many of these studies, CO2 capture in complex Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) cycles has been associated with high energy consumption despite the promising capture performance of such processes. The purpose of this study is the economic capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide for its transformation into a clean type of energy. A single column Temperature /Vacuum Swing Adsorption (TSA/VSA) process is proposed as an alternative option to multi column Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) processes. The proposed adsorbent is SIFSIX-3-Ni, a newly developed MOF (Metal Organic Framework), with extended CO2 selectivity and capacity. There are three stages involved in this paper: (i) SIFSIX-3-Ni is synthesized and pelletized and its physical and chemical properties are examined before and after the pelletization process, (ii) experiments are designed and undertaken for the estimation of the diffusion and adsorption parameters and limitations for CO2 undergoing capture from the air; and (iii) the CO2 adsorption capacity and dynamical characteristics of SIFSIX-3-Ni are investigated both experimentally and mathematically by employing a single column TSA/VSA, for the capture of atmospheric CO2. This work is further supported by a technical-economical study for the estimation of the investment cost and the energy consumption of the single column TSA/VSA process. The simulations are performed using gProms.
110
99221
Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector
Abstract:
In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m&sup2; of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.
109
78452
Features of Composites Application in Shipbuilding
Abstract:
Specific features of ship structures, made from composites, i.e. simultaneous shaping of material and structure, large sizes, complicated outlines and tapered thickness have defined leading role of technology, integrating test results from material science, designing and structural analysis. Main procedures of composite shipbuilding are contact molding, vacuum molding and winding. Now, the most demanded composite shipbuilding technology is the manufacture of structures from fiberglass and multilayer hybrid composites by means of vacuum molding. This technology enables the manufacture of products with improved strength properties (in comparison with contact molding), reduction of production duration, weight and secures better environmental conditions in production area. Mechanized winding is applied for the manufacture of parts, shaped as rotary bodies – i.e. parts of ship, oil and other pipelines, deep-submergence vehicles hulls, bottles, reservoirs and other structures. This procedure involves processing of reinforcing fiberglass, carbon and polyaramide fibers. Polyaramide fibers have tensile strength of 5000 MPa, elastic modulus value of 130 MPa and rigidity of the same can be compared with rigidity of fiberglass, however, the weight of polyaramide fiber is 30% less than weight of fiberglass. The same enables to the manufacture different structures, including that, using both – fiberglass and organic composites. Organic composites are widely used for the manufacture of parts with size and weight limitations. High price of polyaramide fiber restricts the use of organic composites. Perspective area of winding technology development is the manufacture of carbon fiber shafts and couplings for ships. JSC ‘Shipbuilding & Shiprepair Technology Center’ (JSC SSTC) developed technology of dielectric uncouplers for cryogenic lines, cooled by gaseous or liquid cryogenic agents (helium, nitrogen, etc.) for temperature range 4.2-300 K and pressure up to 30 MPa – the same is used for separating components of electro physical equipment with different electrical potentials. Dielectric uncouplers were developed, the manufactured and tested in accordance with International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Technical specification. Spiral uncouplers withstand operating voltage of 30 kV, direct-flow uncoupler – 4 kV. Application of spiral channel instead of rectilinear enables increasing of breakdown potential and reduction of uncouplers sizes. 95 uncouplers were successfully the manufactured and tested. At the present time, Russian the manufacturers of ship composite structures have started absorption of technology of manufacturing the same using automated prepreg laminating; this technology enables the manufacture of structures with improved operational specifications.
108
73990
Features of Composites Application in Shipbuilding
Abstract:
Specific features of ship structures, made from composites, i.e. simultaneous shaping of material and structure, large sizes, complicated outlines and tapered thickness have defined leading role of technology, integrating test results from material science, designing and structural analysis. Main procedures of composite shipbuilding are contact molding, vacuum molding and winding. Now, the most demanded composite shipbuilding technology is the manufacture of structures from fiberglass and multilayer hybrid composites by means of vacuum molding. This technology enables the manufacture of products with improved strength properties (in comparison with contact molding), reduction of production duration, weight and secures better environmental conditions in production area. Mechanized winding is applied for the manufacture of parts, shaped as rotary bodies – i.e. parts of ship, oil and other pipelines, deep-submergence vehicles hulls, bottles, reservoirs and other structures. This procedure involves processing of reinforcing fiberglass, carbon and polyaramide fibers. Polyaramide fibers have tensile strength of 5000 MPa, elastic modulus value of 130 MPa and rigidity of the same can be compared with rigidity of fiberglass, however, the weight of polyaramide fiber is 30% less than weight of fiberglass. The same enables to the manufacture different structures, including that, using both – fiberglass and organic composites. Organic composites are widely used for the manufacture of parts with size and weight limitations. High price of polyaramide fiber restricts the use of organic composites. Perspective area of winding technology development is the manufacture of carbon fiber shafts and couplings for ships. JSC ‘Shipbuilding & Shiprepair Technology Center’ (JSC SSTC) developed technology of dielectric uncouplers for cryogenic lines, cooled by gaseous or liquid cryogenic agents (helium, nitrogen, etc.) for temperature range 4.2-300 K and pressure up to 30 MPa – the same is used for separating components of electro physical equipment with different electrical potentials. Dielectric uncouplers were developed, the manufactured and tested in accordance with International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Technical specification. Spiral uncouplers withstand operating voltage of 30 kV, direct-flow uncoupler – 4 kV. Application of spiral channel instead of rectilinear enables increasing of breakdown potential and reduction of uncouplers sizes. 95 uncouplers were successfully the manufactured and tested. At the present time, Russian the manufacturers of ship composite structures have started absorption of technology of manufacturing the same using automated prepreg laminating; this technology enables the manufacture of structures with improved operational specifications.
107
52606
Analytical Model for Vacuum Cathode Arcs in an Oblique Magnetic Field
Abstract:
In the last decade, the nature of cathode spot splitting and the current per spot depended on an oblique magnetic field was investigated. This model for cathode current splitting is developed that we have investigated with relationship the magnetic pressures produced by kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and changed with an external magnetic field. We propose a theoretical model that has been established to an external magnetic field with components normal and tangential to the cathode surface influenced on magnetic pressure strength. We mainly focus on developed to understand the current per spot influenced with the tangential magnetic field strength and normal magnetic field strength.
106
54963
Simulation of Cure Kinetics and Process-Induced Stresses in Carbon Fibre Composite Laminate Manufactured by a Liquid Composite Molding Technique
Abstract:
Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM), a cost effective method of Liquid Composite Molding (LCM), is a single step process where the resin, at atmospheric pressure, is infused through a preform that is maintained under vacuum. This hydrodynamic pressure gradient is responsible for the flow of resin through the dry fabric preform. The current study has a slight variation to traditional VARTM, wherein, the resin infuses through the fabric placed on a heated mold to reduce its viscosity. The saturated preform is subjected to a cure cycle where the resin hardens as it undergoes curing. During this cycle, an uneven temperature distribution through the thickness of the composite and excess exothermic heat released due to different cure rates result in non-uniform curing. Additionally, there is a difference in thermal expansion coefficient between fiber and resin in a given plane and between adjacent plies. All these effects coupled with orthotropic coefficient of thermal expansion of the composite give rise to process-induced stresses in the laminate. Such stresses lead to part deformation when the laminate tries to relieve them as the part is released off the mold. The current study looks at simulating resin infusion, cure kinetics and the structural response of composite laminate subject to process-induced stresses.
105
75095
Effect of Three Drying Methods on Antioxidant Efficiency and Vitamin C Content of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract
Abstract:
Moringa oleifera is a plant containing many nutrients that are mostly concentrated within the leaves. Commonly, the separation process of these nutrients involves solid-liquid extraction followed by evaporation and drying to obtain a concentrated extract, which is rich in proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, and other essential nutrients that can be used in the food industry. In this work, three drying methods were used, which involved very different temperature and pressure conditions, to evaluate the effect of each method on the vitamin C content and the antioxidant efficiency of the extracts. Solid-liquid extractions of Moringa leaf (LE) were carried out by employing an ethanol solution (35% v/v) at 50 &deg;C for 2 hours. The resulting extracts were then dried i) in a convective oven (CO) at 100 &deg;C and at an atmospheric pressure of 750 mbar for 8 hours, ii) in a vacuum evaporator (VE) at 50 &deg;C and at 300 mbar for 2 hours, and iii) in a freeze-drier (FD) at -40 &deg;C and at 0.050 mbar for 36 hours. The antioxidant capacity (EC50, mg solids/g DPPH) of the dry solids was calculated by the free radical inhibition method employing DPPH˙ at 517 nm, resulting in a value of 2902.5 &plusmn; 14.8 for LE, 3433.1 &plusmn; 85.2 for FD, 3980.1 &plusmn; 37.2 for VE, and 8123.5 &plusmn; 263.3 for CO. The calculated antioxidant efficiency (AE, g DPPH/(mg solids&middot;min)) was 2.920 &times; 10-5 for LE, 2.884 &times; 10-5 for FD, 2.512 &times; 10-5 for VE, and 1.009 &times; 10-5 for CO. Further, the content of vitamin C (mg/L) determined by HPLC was 59.0 &plusmn; 0.3 for LE, 49.7 &plusmn; 0.6 for FD, 45.0 &plusmn; 0.4 for VE, and 23.6 &plusmn; 0.7 for CO. The results indicate that the convective drying preserves vitamin C and antioxidant efficiency to 40% and 34% of the initial value, respectively, while vacuum drying to 76% and 86%, and freeze-drying to 84% and 98%, respectively.
104
62233
Charging-Vacuum Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection Technology in the Application of Space Products Leak Testing and Error Control
Abstract:
Because of the consistency of pressure direction, more short cycle, and high sensitivity, Charging-Vacuum helium mass spectrometer leak testing technology is the most popular leak testing technology for the seal testing of the spacecraft parts, especially the small and medium size ones. Usually, auxiliary pump was used, and the minimum detectable leak rate could reach 5E-9Pa•m3/s, even better on certain occasions. Relative error is more important when evaluating the results. How to choose the reference leak, the background level of helium, and record formats would affect the leak rate tested. In the linearity range of leak testing system, it would reduce 10% relative error if the reference leak with larger leak rate was used, and the relative error would reduce obviously if the background of helium was low efficiently, the record format of decimal was used, and the more stable data were recorded.
103
81221
Investigation on the Properties of Particulate Reinforced AA2014 Metal Matrix Composite Materials Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Method
Abstract:
Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites have gained more importance in automotive, aeronautical and defense industries due to their specific properties like as low density, high strength and stiffness, good fatigue strength, dimensional stability at high temperature and acceptable tribological properties. In this study, 2014 Aluminium alloy used as a matrix material and B₄C and SiC were selected as reinforcements components. For production of composites materials, vacuum infiltration method was used. In the experimental studies, the reinforcement volume ratios were defined by mixing as totally 10% B₄C and SiC. Aging treatment (T6) was applied to the specimens. The effect of T6 treatment on hardness was determined by using Brinell hardness test method. The effects of the aging treatment on microstructure and chemical structure were analysed by making XRD, SEM and EDS analysis on the specimens.
102
53809
Metaphysics of the Unified Field of the Universe
Abstract:
The Unified Field Theory has been an area of intensive research since many decades. This paper focuses on philosophy and metaphysics of unified field theory at Planck scale - and its relationship with super string theory and Quantum Vacuum Dynamic Physics. We examined the epistemology of questions such as - (1) what is the Unified Field of universe? (2) can it actually - (a) permeate the complete universe - or (b) be localized in bound regions of the universe - or, (c) extend into the extra dimensions? - -or (d) live only in extra dimensions? (3) What should be the emergent ontological properties of Unified field? (4) How the universe is manifesting through its Quantum Vacuum energies? (5) How is the space time metric coupled to the Unified field? We present a number of ansatz - which we outline below. It is proposed that the unified field possesses consciousness as well as a memory - a recording of past history - analogous to ‘Consistent Histories’ interpretation of quantum mechanics. We proposed Planck scale geometry of Unified Field with circle like topology and having 32 energy points on its periphery which are the connected to each other by 10 dimensional meta-strings which are sources for manifestation of different fundamentals forces and particles of universe through its Quantum Vacuum energies. It is also proposed that the sub energy levels of ‘Conscious Unified Field’ are used for the process of creation, preservation and rejuvenation of the universe over a period of time by means of negentropy. These epochs can be for the complete universe, or for localized regions such as galaxies or cluster of galaxies. It is proposed that Unified field operates through geometric patterns of its Quantum Vacuum energies - manifesting as various elementary particles by giving spins to zero point energy elements. Epistemological relationship between unified field theory and super-string theories is examined. Properties of ‘consciousness’ and 'memory' cascades from universe, into macroscopic objects - and further onto the elementary particles - via a fractal pattern. Other properties of fundamental particles - such as mass, charge, spin, iso-spin also spill out of such a cascade. The manifestations of the unified field can reach into the parallel universes or the ‘multi-verse’ and essentially have an existence independent of the space-time. It is proposed that mass, length, time scales of the unified theory are less than even the Planck scale - and can be called at a level which we call that of 'Super Quantum Gravity (SQG)'.
101
1886
Application of Digital Image Correlation Technique on Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process and Performance Evaluation of the Produced Materials
Abstract:
Vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) is a promising manufacture process for making large and complex fiber reinforced composite structures. However, the complexity of the flow of the resin in the infusion stage usually leads to nonuniform property distribution of the produced composite part. In order to control the flow of the resin, the situation of flow should be mastered. For the safety of the usage of the produced composite in practice, the understanding of the property distribution is essential. In this paper, we did some trials on monitoring the resin infusion stage and evaluation for the fiber volume fraction distribution of the VARTM produced composite using the digital image correlation methods. The results show that 3D-DIC is valid on monitoring the resin infusion stage and it is possible to use 2D-DIC to estimate the distribution of the fiber volume fraction on a FRP plate.
100
5521
Density Determination by Dilution for Extra Heavy Oil Residues Obtained Using Molecular Distillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction as Upgrading and Refining Process
Abstract:
Density is a bulk physical property that indicates the quality of a petroleum fraction. It is also a useful property to estimate various physicochemical properties of fraction and petroleum fluids; however, the determination of density of extra heavy residual (EHR) fractions by standard methodologies, (ASTM D70) shows limitations for samples with higher densities than 1.0879 g/cm3. For this reason, a dilution methodology was developed in order to determinate density for those particular fractions, 87 (EHR) fractions were obtained as products of the fractionation of Colombian typical Vacuum Distillation Residual Fractions using molecular distillation (MD) and extraction with Solvent N-hexane in Supercritical Conditions (SFEF) pilot plants. The proposed methodology showed reliable results that can be demonstrated with the standard deviation of repeatability and reproducibility values of 0.0031 and 0.0061 g/ml respectively. In the same way, it was possible to determine densities in fractions EHR up to 1.1647g/cm3 and °API values obtained were ten times less than the water reference value.
99
53277
Ground State Phases in Two-Mode Quantum Rabi Models
Abstract:
We study two models describing a single two-level system coupled to two boson field modes in either a parallel or orthogonal setup. Both models may be feasible for experimental realization through Raman adiabatic driving in cavity QED. We study their ground state configurations; that is, we find the quantum precursors of the corresponding semi-classical phase transitions. We found that the ground state configurations of both models present the same critical coupling as the quantum Rabi model. Around this critical coupling, the ground state goes from the so-called normal configuration with no excitation, the qubit in the ground state and the fields in the quantum vacuum state, to a ground state with excitations, the qubit in a superposition of ground and excited state, while the fields are not in the vacuum anymore, for the first model. The second model shows a more complex ground state configuration landscape where we find the normal configuration mentioned above, two single-mode configurations, where just one of the fields and the qubit are excited, and a dual-mode configuration, where both fields and the qubit are excited.
98
74654
AI Peer Review Challenge: Standard Model of Physics vs 4D GEM EOS
Abstract:
Natural evolution of ATP cognitive systems is to meet AI peer review standards. ATP process of axiom selection from Mizar to prove a conjecture would be further refined, as in all human and machine learning, by solving the real world problem of the proposed AI peer review challenge: Determine which conjecture forms the higher confidence level constructive proof between Standard Model of Physics SU(n) lattice gauge group operation vs. present non-standard 4D GEM EOS SU(n) lattice gauge group spatially extended operation in which the photon and electron are the first two trace angular momentum invariants of a gravitoelectromagnetic (GEM) energy momentum density tensor wavetrain integration spin-stress pressure-volume equation of state (EOS), initiated via 32 lines of Mathematica code. Resulting gravitoelectromagnetic spectrum ranges from compressive through rarefactive of the central cosmological constant vacuum energy density in units of pascals. Said self-adjoint group operation exclusively operates on the stress energy momentum tensor of the Einstein field equations, introducing quantization directly on the 4D spacetime level, essentially reformulating the Yang-Mills virtual superpositioned particle compounded lattice gauge groups quantization of the vacuum—into a single hyper-complex multi-valued GEM U(1) × SU(1,3) lattice gauge group Planck spacetime mesh quantization of the vacuum. Thus the Mizar corpus already contains all of the axioms required for relevant DeepMath premise selection and unambiguous formal natural language parsing in context deep learning.
97
23986
The Effects of Sous Vide Technology Combined with Different Herbals on Sensorial and Physical Quality of Fish Species Caught in the Northern Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea
Abstract:
In this study, sous vide technology were treated with different herbs into different fish species which were caught from northern Aegean and Marmara Sea. Before samples were packaged under vacuum, herbs had been cut and added at the same ratio into the package. Samples were sliced, the weight of each sample was about 150 g, and packaged under vacuum. During the storage period at 4ºC, taste, odor, texture properties of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by trained panelists. Meanwhile, the effect of different herbs on pH values of the samples was investigated. These results were correlated with sensorial results. Furthermore, the effects of different herbs on L, a, b values of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by color measurement. All sensorial results indicated that the values of samples treated with herbs were higher than that of the control group. Color measurement results and pH values were found parallel with sensorial results.
96
27437
Beyond the “Breakdown” of Karman Vortex Street
Abstract:
A numerical analysis of flow over a heated circular cylinder is done in this paper. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes, and energy equation within the Boussinesq approximation along with continuity equation are solved using hybrid FEM-FVM technique. The density gradient created due to the heating of the cylinder will induce buoyancy force, opposite to the direction of action of acceleration due to gravity, g. In the present work, the flow direction and the direction of buoyancy force are taken as same (vertical flow configuration), so that the buoyancy force accelerates the mean flow past the cylinder. The relative dominance of the buoyancy force over the inertia force is characterized by the Richardson number (Ri), which is one of the parameter that governs the flow dynamics and heat transfer in this analysis. It is well known that above a certain value of Reynolds number, Re (ratio of inertia force over the viscous forces), the unsteady Von Karman vortices can be seen shedding behind the cylinder. The shedding wake patterns could be seriously altered by heating/cooling the cylinder. The non-dimensional shedding frequency called the Strouhal number is found to be increasing as Ri increases. The aerodynamic force coefficients CL and CD are observed to change its value. In the present vertical configuration of flow over the cylinder, as Ri increases, shedding frequency gets increased and suddenly drops down to zero at a critical value of Richardson number. The unsteady vortices turn to steady standing recirculation bubbles behind the cylinder after this critical Richardson number. This phenomenon is well known in literature as "Breakdown of the Karman Vortex Street". It is interesting to see the flow structures on further increase in the Richardson number. On further heating of the cylinder surface, the size of the recirculation bubble decreases without loosing its symmetry about the horizontal axis passing through the center of the cylinder. The separation angle is found to be decreasing with Ri. Finally, we observed a second critical Richardson number, after which the the flow will be attached to the cylinder surface without any wake behind it. The flow structures will be symmetrical not only about the horizontal axis, but also with the vertical axis passing through the center of the cylinder. At this stage, there will be a "single plume" emanating from the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. We also observed the transition of the plume is a strong function of the Richardson number.
95
33971
Experimental Investigation on Activated Carbon Based Cryosorption Pump
Abstract:
Cryosorption pumps are considered to be safe, quiet and ultra-high vacuum production pumps which have their application from Semiconductor industries to ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] units. The principle of physisorption of gases over highly porous materials like activated charcoal at cryogenic temperatures (below -1500°C) is involved in determining the pumping speed of gases like Helium, Hydrogen, Argon and Nitrogen. This paper aims at providing detailed overview of development of Cryosorption pump which is the modern ultra-high vacuum pump and characterization of different activated charcoal materials that optimizes the performance of the pump. Different grades of charcoal were tested in order to determine the pumping speed of the pump and were compared with commercially available Varian cryopanel. The results for bare panel, bare panel with adhesive, cryopanel with pellets, and cryopanel with granules were obtained and compared. The comparison showed that cryopanel adhered with small granules gave better pumping speeds than large sized pellets.
94
91914
Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance
Abstract:
The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.
93
62140
Assessment of Commercial Antimicrobials Incorporated into Gelatin Coatings and Applied to Conventional Heat-Shrinking Material for the Prevention of Blown Pack Spoilage in Vacuum Packaged Beef Cuts
Abstract:
One of the primary spoilage issues associated with vacuum-packed beef products is blown pack spoilage (BPS) caused by the psychrophilic spore-forming strain of Clostridium spp. Spores derived from this organism can be activated after heat-shrinking (eg. 90°C for 3 seconds). To date, research into the control of Clostridium spp in beef packaging is limited. Active packaging in the form of antimicrobially-active coatings may be one approach to its control. Antimicrobial compounds may be incorporated into packaging films or coated onto the internal surfaces of packaging films using a carrier matrix. Three naturally-sourced, commercially-available antimicrobials, namely; Auranta FV (AFV) (bitter oranges extract) from Envirotech Innovative Products Ltd, Ireland; Inbac-MDA (IMDA) from Chemital LLC, Spain, mixture of different organic acids and sodium octanoate (SO) from Sigma-Aldrich, UK, were added into gelatin solutions at 2 concentrations: 2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) against Clostridium estertheticum (DSMZ 8809). These gelatin solutions were coated onto the internal polyethylene layer of cold plasma treated, heat-shrinkable laminates conventionally used for meat packaging applications. Atmospheric plasma was used in order to enhance adhesion between packaging films and gelatin coatings. Pouches were formed from these coated packaging materials, and beef cuts which had been inoculated with C. estertheticum were vacuum packaged. Inoculated beef was vacuum packaged without employing active films and this treatment served as the control. All pouches were heat-sealed and then heat-shrunk at 90°C for 3 seconds and incubated at 2°C for 100 days. During this storage period, packs were monitored for the indicators of blown pack spoilage as follows; gas bubbles in drip, loss of vacuum (onset of BPS), blown, the presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and tightly stretched, “overblown” packs/ packs leaking. Following storage and assessment of indicator date, it was concluded that AFV- and SO-containing packaging inhibited the growth of C. estertheticum, significantly delaying the blown pack spoilage of beef primals. IMDA did not inhibit the growth of C. estertheticum. This may be attributed to differences in release rates and possible reactions with gelatin. Overall, active films were successfully produced following plasma surface treatment, and experimental data demonstrated clearly that the use of antimicrobially-active films could significantly prolong the storage stability of beef primals through the effective control of BPS.
92
36138
Modelling Kinetics of Colour Degradation in American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) Extract Concentration
Abstract:
The kinetics of colour changes of American Pokeweed extract, due to concentration by various heating methods was studied. Three different heating/evaporation processes were employed for production of American Pokeweed extract concentrate. The American Pokeweed extract was concentrated to a final 40 °Brix from an initial °Brix of 4 by microwave heating, rotary vacuum evaporator and evaporating at atmospheric pressure. The final American Pokeweed extract concentration of 40 °Brix was achieved in 188, 216 and 320 min by using microwave, rotary vacuum and atmospheric heating processes, respectively. The colour change during concentration processes was investigated. Total colour differences, Hunter L, a and b parameters were used to estimate the extent of colour loss. All Hunter colour parameters decreased with time. The zero-order, first-order and a combined kinetics model were applied to the changes in colour parameters. All models were found to describe the L, a and b-data adequately. Results indicated that variation in TCD followed both first-order and combined kinetics models. This model implied that the colour formation and pigment destruction occurred during concentration processes of American Pokeweed extract.
91
36135
Production of Plum (Prunus Cerasifera) Concentrate as Edible Color and Evaluation of Color Change Kinetics
Abstract:
Improvement of color, as a quality attribute of Plum Concentrate, has been made possible by the increase in knowledge of kinetic of color change. Three different heating/evaporation processes were employed for the production of pPlum juice concentrate. The Plum juice was concentrated to a final 55 °Bx from an initial °Bx of 15 by microwave heating, rotary vacuum evaporator and evaporating at atmospheric pressure. The final Plum juice concentration of 55 °Bx was achieved in 17, 24 and 57 min by using the microwave, rotary vacuum and atmospheric heating processes, respectively. The colour change during concentration processes was investigated. Total colour differences, Hunter L, a and b parameters were used to estimate the extent of colour loss. All Hunter colour parameters decreased with time. The zero-order, first-order and a combined kinetics model were applied to the changes in colour parameters. Results indicated that variation in TCD followed both first-order and combined kinetics models, and parameters L, a and b followed only combined model. This model implied that the colour formation and pigment destruction occurred during concentration processes of plum juice.
90
19468
Construction Unit Rate Factor Modelling Using Neural Networks
Abstract:
Factors affecting construction unit cost vary depending on a country’s political, economic, social and technological inclinations. Factors affecting construction costs have been studied from various perspectives. Analysis of cost factors requires an appreciation of a country’s practices. Identified cost factors provide an indication of a country’s construction economic strata. The purpose of this paper is to identify the essential factors that affect unit cost estimation and their breakdown using artificial neural networks. Twenty-five (25) identified cost factors in road construction were subjected to a questionnaire survey and employing SPSS factor analysis the factors were reduced to eight. The 8 factors were analysed using the neural network (NN) to determine the proportionate breakdown of the cost factors in a given construction unit rate. NN predicted that political environment accounted 44% of the unit rate followed by contractor capacity at 22% and financial delays, project feasibility, overhead and profit each at 11%. Project location, material availability and corruption perception index had minimal impact on the unit cost from the training data provided. Quantified cost factors can be incorporated in unit cost estimation models (UCEM) to produce more accurate estimates. This can create improvements in the cost estimation of infrastructure projects and establish a benchmark standard to assist the process of alignment of work practises and training of new staff, permitting the on-going development of best practises in cost estimation to become more effective.
89
74337
Thermal Behaviors of the Strong Form Factors of Charmonium and Charmed Beauty Mesons from Three Point Sum Rules
Abstract:
In order to understand the nature of strong interactions and QCD vacuum, investigation of the meson coupling constants have an important role. The knowledge on the temperature dependence of the form factors is very important for the interpretation of heavy-ion collision experiments. Also, more accurate determination of these coupling constants plays a crucial role in understanding of the hadronic decays. With the increasing of CM energies of the experiments, researches on meson interactions have become one of the more interesting problems of hadronic physics. In this study, we analyze the temperature dependence of the strong form factor of the BcBcJ/ψ vertex using the three point QCD sum rules method. Here, we assume that with replacing the vacuum condensates and also the continuum threshold by their thermal version, the sum rules for the observables remain valid. In calculations, we take into account the additional operators, which appear in the Wilson expansion at finite temperature. We also investigated the momentum dependence of the form factor at T = 0, fit it into an analytic function, and extrapolate into the deep time-like region in order to obtain a strong coupling constant of the vertex. Our results are consistent with the results existing in the literature.
88
77901
Exploring the Strategy to Identify Seed-Specific Acyl-Hydrolases from Arabidopsis thaliana by Activity-Based Protein Profiling
Abstract:
Vegetable oils mainly triacylglycerol (TAG) are an essential nutrient in the human diet as well as one of the major global commodity. There is a pressing need to enhance the yield of oil production to meet the world’s growing demand. Oil content is controlled by the balance between synthesis and breakdown in the cells. Several studies have established to increase the oil content by the overexpression of oil biosynthetic enzymes. Interestingly the significant oil accumulation was observed with impaired TAG hydrolysis. Unfortunately, the structural, as well as the biochemical properties of the lipase enzymes, is widely unknown, and so far, no candidate gene was identified in seeds except sugar-dependent1 (SDP1). Evidence has shown that SDP1directly responsible for initiation of oil breakdown in the seeds during germination. The present study is the identification of seed-specific acyl-hydrolases by activity based proteome profiling (ABPP) using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. The ABPP reveals that around 8 to 10 proteins having the serine hydrolase domain and are expressed during germination of Arabidopsis seed. The N-term sequencing, as well as LC-MS/MS analysis, was performed for the differentially expressed protein during germination. The coding region of the identified proteins was cloned, and lipases activity was assessed with purified recombinant protein. The enzyme assay was performed against various lipid substrates, and we have observed the acylhydrolase activity towards lysophosphatidylcholine and monoacylglycerol. Further, the functional characteristic of the identified protein will reveal the physiological significance the enzyme in oil accumulation.
87
22575
Some Reasons for the Pervasiveness of the Blood Feud among Albanians: An Albanian Phenomenon or Lack of Malfunction of the Judicial Structure
Abstract:
The blood feud or blood-taking is a social obligation to commit murder in order to salvage honor questioned by an earlier murder or moral humiliation. This social obligation is still preserved as a stub among Albanians when honor is violated. By the term honor are understood many things, such as honor to the family, house, guest, property, etc. Many Albanian family members are forced to stay locked up at home because of the blood killing, whereas other families abandon their houses and migrate to other places. Nonetheless, Albanians maintain close ties with their extended families, clans, and tribes and thus chances are high that the violence can beget more violence and without reconciliation of the blood these families will always be endangered. One of the reasons for the pervasiveness of the blood feud is the poor social conditions, political imbroglio and the power vacuum which comes from the corrupted and judiciary system of the state. Contrary to this, Albanian blood feud is not a phenomenon present only to the Albanians, but it also takes place in some other cultures and nations, such as: Chechens, Montenegrins, Serbians, and lately more radical one is between Amman and Israel who are at constant feud.
86
9072
Characterization of Martensitic Stainless Steel Japanese Grade AISI 420A
Abstract:
A study of martensitic stainless steel surgical grade AISI 420A produced in Japan was carried out in this research work. The sample was already annealed at about 898˚C. The sample were subjected to chemical analysis, hardness, tensile and metallographic tests. These tests were performed on as received annealed and heat treated samples. In the annealed condition the sample showed 0HRC. However, on tensile testing, in annealed condition the sample showed maximum elongation. The heat treatment is carried out in vacuum furnace within temperature range 980-1035°C. The quenching of samples was carried out using liquid nitrogen. After hardening, the samples were subjected to tempering, which was carried out in vacuum tempering furnace at a temperature of 220˚C. The hardened samples were subjected to hardness and tensile testing. In hardness testing, the samples showed maximum hardness values. In tensile testing the sample showed minimum elongation. The sample in annealed state showed coarse plates of martensite structure. Therefore, the studied steels can be used as biomaterials.
85
93896
The Effectschemical Treatment on Alkyl Phenol Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite
Abstract:
The aim of this manuscript was to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment of sisal fibre on the mechanical and viscoelastic properties of bio based epoxy/fibre composites. The composite samples were manufactured through a vacuum infusion process by adding alkyl phenols from cashew nutshell liquid (CSNL). Changes in the chemical structure of the sisal fibres resulting from the treatments were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Both alkali and silane treatments produced enhancements in the mechanical properties of sisal fibre bundles. The alkali treatment, when combined with the silane treatment, the mechanical properties of epoxy composites notably improved (13%) in comparison to untreated sisal fibre reinforced composites.This was attributed to an enhanced fibre/matrix interface. The incorporation of CSNL into the sisal/epoxy composite enhanced the fibre-matrix interfacial properties because of the addition of -OH groups to the epoxy matrix. The incorporation of sisal fibre imparts stiffness to the epoxy matrix.
84
19426
Analysis of Combined Heat Transfer through the Core Materials of VIPs with Various Scattering Properties
Abstract:
Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) can achieve very low thermal conductivity by evacuating its inner space. Heat transfer in the core materials of highly-evacuated VIP occurs by conduction through the solid structure and radiation through the pore. The effect of various scattering modes in combined conduction-radiation in VIP is investigated through numerical analysis. The discrete ordinates interpolation method (DOIM) incorporated with the commercial code FLUENT® is employed. It is found that backward scattering is more effective in reducing the total heat transfer while isotropic scattering is almost identical with pure absorbing/emitting case of the same optical thickness. For a purely scattering medium, the results agree well with additive solution with diffusion approximation, while a modified term is added in the effect of optical thickness to backward scattering is employed. For other scattering phase functions, it is also confirmed that backwardly scattering phase function gives a lower effective thermal conductivity. Thus, the materials with backward scattering properties, with radiation shields are desirable to lower the thermal conductivity of VIPs.
83
11874
Social Perspectives on Population of People Living Postively; An Indian Scenario, Evidence from Tiruchirappalli
Abstract:
HIV/AIDS is known to affect an individual not only physically but also mentally, socially, and financially. It is a syndrome that builds a vacuum in a person affecting his/her life as a whole.
82
24596
Investigation on Corrosion Behavior of Copper Brazed Joints
Abstract:
DHP (Deoxidized High Phosphorus )copper is widely used in various heat transfer units such as, air conditioners refrigerators, evaporators and condensers. Copper sheets and tubes (ISODHP) were brazed with four different brazing alloys. Corrosion resistances of the joints were examined by polarization and salt spray tests. The selected fillers consisted of three silver-based brazing alloys (hard solder); AWS-BCu5 BAg8, DINLAg30, and a copper-based filler AWS BCuP2. All the joints were brazed utilizing four different brazing processes including furnace brazing under argon, vacuum, air atmosphere and torch brazing. All of the fillers were used with and without flux. The microstructure of the brazed sheets was examined using both optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness and leak tests were carried out on all the brazed tubes. In all three silver brazing alloys selective and galvanic corrosion were observed in filler metals, but in copper phosphor alloys the copper adjacent to the joints were noticeably corroded by pitting method. Microstructure of damaged area showed selective attack of copper lamellae as well. Interfacial attack was observed along boundaries as well as copper attack within the filler metal itself. It was found that the samples brazed with BAg5 filler metal using vacuum furnace show a higher resistance to corrosion. They also have a good ductility in the brazed zone.
81
3544
Device for Thermal Depolymerisation of Organic Substrates Prior to Methane Fermentation
Abstract:
This publication presents a device designed to depolymerise and structurally change organic substrate, for use in agricultural biogas plants or sewage treatment plants. The presented device consists of a heated tank equipped with an inlet valve for the crude substrate and an outlet valve for the treated substrate. The system also includes a gas conduit, which is at its tip equipped with a high-pressure solenoid valve and a vacuum relief solenoid valve. A conduit behind the high-pressure solenoid valve connects to the vacuum tank equipped with the outlet valve. The substrate introduced into the device is exposed to agents such as high temperature and cavitation produced by abrupt, short-term reduction of pressure within the heated tank. The combined effect of these processes is substrate destruction rate increase of about 20% when compared to using high temperature alone, and about 30% when compared to utilizing only cavitation. Energy consumption is greatly reduced, as the pressure increase is generated by heating the substrate. Thus, there is a 18% reduction of energy consumption when compared to a device designed to destroy substrate through high temperature alone, and a 35% reduction if compared to using cavitation as the only means of destruction.
80
93687
Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nano-Platelets Coated Carbon-Fiber Composites
Abstract:
Carbon-fiber epoxy composites show extremely high modulus and strength in the uniaxial direction. However, they are prone to fail under low load in transverse direction due to the weak nature of the interface between the carbon-fiber and epoxy. In the current study, we have coated graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) on the carbon-fibers in an attempt to strengthen the interface/interphase between the fiber and the matrix. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) has been used to make the laminates of eight cross-woven fabrics. Tensile, flexural and fracture toughness tests have been performed on pristine carbon-fiber composite (P-CF), GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (GNP-CF) and functionalized-GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (F-GNP-CF). The tensile strength and flexural strength values are pretty similar for P-CF and GNP-CF. The micro-structural examination of the GNP coated carbon-fibers, as well as the fracture surfaces, have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micrographs reveal the deposition of GNPs onto the carbon fibers in transverse and longitudinal direction. Fracture surfaces show the debonding and pull outs of the carbon fibers in P-CF and GNP-CF samples.
79
19718
Design of Self-Heating Containers Using Sodium Acetate Trihydrate for Chemical Energy – Food Products
Abstract:
Long ago heating of food was only related to fire or electricity. Heating and storage of consumer foods were satisfied by the use of vacuum thermo flaks, electric heating cans and DC powered heating cans. But many of which did not sustain the heat for a long period of time and were impractical for remote areas. The use of chemical energy for heating foods directed us to think about the applications of exothermic reactions as a source of heat. Initial studies of calcium oxide showed desirability but not feasible because the reaction was uncontrollable and irreversible. In this research work we viewed at crystallization of super saturated sodium acetate trihydrate solution. Supersaturated sodium acetate trihydrate has a freezing point of 540 C (1300 F), but it observed to be stable as a liquid at much lower temperatures. Mechanical work is performed to create an active chemical energy zone within the working fluid, when crystallization process is initiated. Due to this the temperature rises to its freezing point which in turn heats the contents in the storage container. Present work endeavor to design a self-heating storage container is suitable for consumer dedications.
78
82204
A Prototype for Biological Breakdown of Plastic Bags in Desert Areas
Abstract:
Globally, humans produce millions of tons of waste per year. An important percentage of this waste is plastic, which frequently ends up in landfills and oceans. During the last decades, the greatest plastics production in history have been made, a few amount of this plastic is recycled, the rest ending up as plastic pollution in soils and seas. Plastic pollution is disastrous for the environment, affecting essential species, quality of consumption water, and some economic activities such as tourism, in different parts of the world. Due to its durability and decomposition on micro-plastics, animals and humans are accumulating a variety of plastic components without having clear their effects on human health, economy, and wildlife. In dry regions as the Atacama Desert, up to 95% of the water consumption comes from underground reservoirs, therefore preventing the soil pollution is an urgent need. This contribution focused on isolating, genotyping and optimizing microorganisms that use plastic waste as the only source of food to construct a batch-type bioreactor able to degrade in a faster way the plastic waste before it gets the desert soils and groundwater consumed by people living in this areas. Preliminary results, under laboratory conditions, has shown an improved degradation of polyethylene when three species of bacteria and three of fungi act on a selected plastic material. These microorganisms have been inoculated in dry soils, initially lacking organic matter, under environmental conditions in the laboratory. Our team designed and constructed a prototype using the natural conditions of the region and the best experimental results.
77
78831
Theoretical Analysis of Photoassisted Field Emission near the Metal Surface Using Transfer Hamiltonian Method
Abstract:
A model calculation of photoassisted field emission current (PFEC) by using transfer Hamiltonian method will be present here. When the photon energy is incident on the surface of the metals, such that the energy of a photon is usually less than the work function of the metal under investigation. The incident radiation photo excites the electrons to a final state which lies below the vacuum level; the electrons are confined within the metal surface. A strong static electric field is then applied to the surface of the metal which causes the photoexcited electrons to tunnel through the surface potential barrier into the vacuum region and constitutes the considerable current called photoassisted field emission current. The incident radiation is usually a laser beam, causes the transition of electrons from the initial state to the final state and the matrix element for this transition will be written. For the calculation of PFEC, transfer Hamiltonian method is used. The initial state wavefunction is calculated by using Kronig-Penney potential model. The effect of the matrix element will also be studied. An appropriate dielectric model for the surface region of the metal will be used for the evaluation of vector potential. FORTRAN programme is used for the calculation of PFEC. The results will be checked with experimental data and the theoretical results.
76
57640
Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice
Abstract:
Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the effects of rice flour concentration and retrogradation treatment on the physical properties of instant Sinlek brown rice. The native rice flour, gelatinized rice flour, and flour gels retrograded under 4 &deg;C for 3 and 7 days were investigated. From the statistical results, significant differences between native and retrograded flour were observed. The concentration of rice flour was the main factor influencing the swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties. With the increase in rice flour content from 10 to 15%, swelling power, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased; but, solubility, pasting temperature, peak time, breakdown, and setback increased. The peak time, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased as the storage period increased from 3 to 7 days. The retrograded rice flour powders had lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and final viscosity than the gelatinized and native flour powders. Reduction of starch viscosity by gelatinization and controlling starch retrogradation could allow for increased quantities of rice flour in instant rice beverages. Also, the treatment could increase the energy and nutrient densities of rice beverages without affecting the viscosity of this product.
75
39982
Vortex Flows under Effects of Buoyant-Thermocapillary Convection
Abstract:
A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze vortex flows in a free surface cylinder, driven by the independent rotation and differentially heated boundaries. As a basic uncontrolled isothermal flow, we consider configurations which exhibit steady axisymmetric toroidal type vortices which occur at the free surface; under given rates of the bottom disk uniform rotation and for selected aspect ratios of the enclosure. In the isothermal case, we show that sidewall differential rotation constitutes an effective kinematic means of flow control: the reverse flow regions may be suppressed under very weak co-rotation rates, while an enhancement of the vortex patterns is remarked under weak counter-rotation. However, in this latter case, high rates of counter-rotation reduce considerably the strength of the meridian flow and cause its confinement to a narrow layer on the bottom disk, while the remaining bulk flow is diffusion dominated and controlled by the sidewall rotation. The main control parameters in this case are the rotational Reynolds number, the cavity aspect ratio and the rotation rate ratio defined. Then, the study proceeded to consider the sensitivity of the vortex pattern, within the Boussinesq approximation, to a small temperature gradient set between the ambient fluid and an axial thin rod mounted on the cavity axis. Two additional parameters are introduced; namely, the Richardson number Ri and the Marangoni number Ma (or the thermocapillary Reynolds number). Results revealed that reducing the rod length induces the formation of on-axis bubbles instead of toroidal structures. Besides, the stagnation characteristics are significantly altered under the combined effects of buoyant-thermocapillary convection. Buoyancy, induced under sufficiently high Ri, was shown to predominate over the thermocapillay motion; causing the enhancement (suppression) of breakdown when the rod is warmer (cooler) than the ambient fluid. However, over small ranges of Ri, the sensitivity of the flow to surface tension gradients was clearly evidenced and results showed its full control over the occurrence and location of breakdown. In particular, detailed timewise evolution of the flow indicated that weak thermocapillary motion was sufficient to prevent the formation of toroidal patterns. These latter detach from the surface and undergo considerable size reduction while moving towards the bulk flow before vanishing. Further calculations revealed that the pattern reappears with increasing time as steady bubble type on the rod. However, in the absence of the central rod and also in the case of small rod length l, the flow evolved into steady state without any breakdown.
74
23000
Learning a Bayesian Network for Situation-Aware Smart Home Service: A Case Study with a Robot Vacuum Cleaner
Abstract:
The smart home environment backed up by IoT (internet of things) technologies enables intelligent services based on the awareness of the situation a user is currently in. One of the convenient sensors for recognizing the situations within a home is the smart meter that can monitor the status of each electrical appliance in real time. This paper aims at learning a Bayesian network that models the causal relationship between the user situations and the status of the electrical appliances. Using such a network, we can infer the current situation based on the observed status of the appliances. However, learning the conditional probability tables (CPTs) of the network requires many training examples that cannot be obtained unless the user situations are closely monitored by any means. This paper proposes a method for learning the CPT entries of the network relying only on the user feedbacks generated occasionally. In our case study with a robot vacuum cleaner, the feedback comes in whenever the user gives an order to the robot adversely from its preprogrammed setting. Given a network with randomly initialized CPT entries, our proposed method uses this feedback information to adjust relevant CPT entries in the direction of increasing the probability of recognizing the desired situations. Simulation experiments show that our method can rapidly improve the recognition performance of the Bayesian network using a relatively small number of feedbacks.
73
31668
Single Atom Manipulation with 4 Scanning Tunneling Microscope Technique
Abstract:
Nanoelectronics, for example the calculating circuits integrating at molecule scale logic gates, atomic scale circuits, has been constructed and investigated recently. A major challenge is their functional properties characterization because of the connecting problem from atomic scale to micrometer scale. New experimental instruments and new processes have been proposed therefore. To satisfy a precisely measurement at atomic scale and then connecting micrometer scale electrical integration controller, the technique improvement is kept on going. Our new machine, a low temperature high vacuum four scanning tunneling microscope, as a customer required instrument constructed by Omicron GmbH, is expected to be scaling down to atomic scale characterization. Here, we will present our first testified results about the performance of this new instrument. The sample we selected is Au(111) surface. The measurements have been taken at 4.2 K. The atomic resolution surface structure was observed with each of four scanners with noise level better than 3 pm. With a tip-sample distance calibration by I-z spectra, the sample conductance has been derived from its atomic locally I-V spectra. Furthermore, the surface conductance measurement has been performed using two methods, (1) by landing two STM tips on the surface with sample floating; and (2) by sample floating and one of the landed tips turned to be grounding. In addition, single atom manipulation has been achieved with a modified tip design, which is comparable to a conventional LT-STM.
72
110565
Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Mechanical Strength and Physical Properties in Engineered Quartz Stone
Abstract:
Engineered quartz stone is a composite material comprising approximately 90 wt.% fine quartz aggregate with a variety of particle size ranges and `10 wt.% unsaturated polyester resin (UPR). In this study, the objective is to investigate the influence of particle size distribution on mechanical strength and physical properties of the engineered stone slabs. For this purpose, granular quartz with two particle size ranges of 63-200 µm and 100-300 µm were used individually and mixed with a difference in ratios of mixing. The void volume of each granular packing was measured in order to define the amount of filler; quartz powder with the size of less than 38 µm, and UPR required filling inter-particle spaces. Test slabs were prepared using vibration-compression under vacuum. The study reports that both impact strength and flexural strength of samples increased as the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm increased. On the other hand, the values of water absorption rate, apparent density and abrasion resistance were not affected by the particle size distribution owing to vacuum compaction. It is found that increasing the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm caused the higher porosity. This led to increasing in the amount of the binder paste needed. It is also observed that homogeneity in the slabs was improved with the particle size range of 63-200 µm.
71
15848
Effect of Composition on Work Hardening Coefficient of Bismuth-Lead Binary Alloy
Abstract:
In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported. In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.
70
17283
Water Vapor Oxidization of NiO for a Hole Transport Layer in All Inorganic QD-LED
Abstract:
Quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) have been considered as the next generation display and lighting devices due to their excellent color purity, photo-stability solution process possibility and good device stability. Currently typical quantum dot light emitting diodes contain organic layers such as PEDOT:PSS and PVK for charge transport layers. To make quantum dot light emitting diodes (QD-LED) more stable, it is required to replace those acidic and relatively unstable organic charge transport layers with inorganic materials. Therefore all inorganic and solution processed quantum dot light emitting diodes can potentially be a solution to stable and cost-effective display devices. We studied solution processed NiO films to replace organic charge transport layers that are required for stable all-inorganic based light emitting diodes. The transition metal oxides can be made by various vacuum and solution processes, but the solution processes are considered more cost-effective than vacuum processes. In this work we investigated solution processed NiOx for a hole transport layer (HTL). NiOx, has valence band energy levels of 5.3eV and they are easy to make sol-gel solutions. Water vapor oxidation process was developed and applied to solution processed all-inorganic QD-LED. Turn-on voltage, luminance and current efficiency of QD in this work were 5V, 1800Cd/m2 and 0.5Cd/A, respectively.
69
6258
Graphical Modeling of High Dimension Processes with an Environmental Application
Abstract:
Graphical modeling plays an important role in providing efficient probability calculations in high dimensional problems (computational efficiency). In this paper, we address one of such problems where we discuss fragmenting puff models and some distributional assumptions concerning models for the instantaneous, emission readings and for the fragmenting process. A graphical representation in terms of a junction tree of the conditional probability breakdown of puffs and puff fragments is proposed.
68
11855
Effect of Surface Treatments on the Cohesive Response of Nylon 6/silica Interfaces
Abstract:
Debonding is the one of the fundamental damage mechanisms in particle field composites. This phenomenon gains more importance in nano composites because of the extensive interfacial region present in these materials. Understanding the debonding mechanism accurately, can help in understanding and predicting the response of nano composites as the interface deteriorates. The small length scale of the phenomenon makes the experimental characterization complicated and the results of it, far from real physical behavior. In this study the damage process in nylon-6/silica interface is examined through Molecular Dynamics (MD) modeling and simulations. The silica has been modeled with three forms of surfaces – without any surface treatment, with the surface treatment of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and with Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ) surface treatment. The APTES surface modification used to create functional groups on the silica surface, reacts and form covalent bonds with nylon 6 chains while the HMDZ surface treatment only interacts with both particle and polymer by non-bond interaction. The MD model in this study uses a PCFF force field. The atomic model is generated in a periodic box with a layer of vacuum on top of the polymer layer. This layer of vacuum is large enough that assures us from not having any interaction between particle and substrate after debonding. Results show that each of these three models show a different traction separation behavior. However, all of them show an almost bilinear traction separation behavior. The study also reveals a strong correlation between the length of APTES surface treatment and the cohesive strength of the interface.
67
97038
Combined Effects of Thymol, Carvacrol and Packaging on the Shelf-Life of Marinated Chicken
Abstract:
The demand for marinated chicken worldwide, is continuously growing. To date, limited data on addition of active components of Essential Oils (EOs) to marinades for chicken preservation are available. The antimicrobial effect of carvacrol and thymol, added at 0.4 and 0.8% v/w to marinated fresh chicken, stored in air and under vacuum packaging (VP), for 21 days at 4°C, was examined. The samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, yeasts and molds) and sensory attributes (odor characteristics). Our data supports that among the tested microorganisms, Pseudomonas spp., LAB and B. thermosphacta were the most dominant microbiota in the marinated chicken samples. Additionally, the use of active EOs components, especially the higher concentration (0.8% v/w) in combination with VP, retarded the growth of spoilage microbiota and resulted in a significant reduction of about 2.9-3.1 log cfu/g and a microbiological shelf-life extension of marinated chicken by > 6 days, as judged by TVC data. Interestingly, the combination of active components of EOs at the lower concentration (0.4% v/w) and packaging (air or vacuum) resulted in a significant sensorial shelf-life extension of 15 and >21 days, as compared to the controls’ shelf-life of 9 days. The results of our study demonstrated the potential of the active components, carvacrol and thymol, as natural effective antimicrobial hurdles to control the growth of spoilage microorganisms in marinated chicken meat.
66
16973
Principles of Risk Management in Surgery Department
Abstract:
Surgical procedures aim at preserving human life and improving quality of their life. However, there are many potential risk sources that can cause serious harm to patients. For centuries, managers believed that technical competence of a surgeon is the only key to a successful surgery. But over the past decade, risks are considered in terms of process-based safety procedures, teamwork and inter departmental communication. Aims: This study aims to determine how the process- biased surgical risk management should be done in terms of project management tool named ABS (Activity Breakdown Structure). Settings and Design: This study was conducted in two stages. First, literature review and meeting with professors was done to determine principles and framework of surgical risk management. Next, responsible teams for surgical patient journey were involved in following meeting to develop the process- biased surgical risk management. Methods and Material: This study is a qualitative research in which focus groups with the inductive approach is used. Sampling was performed to achieve representativeness through intensity sampling biased on experience and seniority. Analysis Method used: context analysis of interviews and consensus themes extracted from FDG meetings discussion was the analysis tool. Results: we developed the patient journey process in 5 main phases, 24 activities and 108 tasks. Then, responsible teams, transposition and allocated places for performing determined. Some activities and tasks themes were repeated in each phases like patient identification and records review because of their importance. Conclusions: Risk management of surgical departments is significant as this facility is the hospital’s largest cost and revenue center. Good communication between surgical team and other clinical teams outside surgery department through process- biased perspective could improve safety of patient under this procedure.
65
81770
In vitro α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) with Different Stage of Maturity
Abstract:
Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a medicinal vegetable, which is used traditionally to remedy diabetes. Bitter melon contains several classes of primary and secondary metabolites. In traditional Turkish medicine bitter melon is used for wound healing and treatment of peptic ulcers. Nowadays, bitter melon is used for the treatment of diabetes and ulcerative colitis in many countries. The main constituents of bitter melon, which are responsible for the anti-diabetic effects, are triterpene, protein, steroid, alkaloid and phenolic compounds. In this study total phenolics, total carotenoids and β-carotene contents of mature and immature bitter melons were determined. In addition, in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities of mature and immature bitter melons were studied. Total phenolic contents of immature and mature bitter melon were 74 and 123 mg CE/g bitter melon respectively. Although total phenolics of mature bitter melon was higher than that of immature bitter melon, this difference was not found statistically significant (p > 0.05). Carotenoids, a diverse group of more than 600 naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments, play important roles in many physiological processes both in plants and humans. The total carotenoid content of mature bitter melon was 4.36 fold higher than the total carotenoid content of immature bitter melon. The compounds that have hypoglycaemic effect of bitter melon are steroidal saponins known as charantin, insulin-like peptides and alkaloids. α-Amylase is one of the main enzymes in human that is responsible for the breakdown of starch to more simple sugars. Therefore, the inhibitors of this enzyme can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce the rate of glucose absorption. The immature bitter melon extract showed α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was higher than that of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when IC50 values were compared. In conclusion, the present results provide evidence that aqueous extract of bitter melon may have an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate breakdown enzymes.
64
105284
The Development of a Nanofiber Membrane for Outdoor and Activity Related Purposes
Abstract:
This paper describes the development of a nanofiber membrane for sport and outdoor use at the Technical University of Liberec (TUL) and the following cooperation with a private Czech company which launched this product onto the market. For making this membrane, Polyurethan was electrospun on the Nanospider spinning machine, and a wire string electrode was used. The created nanofiber membrane with a nanofiber diameter of 150 nm was subsequently hydrophobisied using a low vacuum plasma and Fluorocarbon monomer C6 type. After this hydrophobic treatment, the nanofiber membrane contact angle was higher than 125o, and its oleophobicity was 6. The last step was a lamination of this nanofiber membrane with a woven or knitted fabric to create a 3-layer laminate. Gravure printing technology and polyurethane hot-melt adhesive were used. The gravure roller has a mesh of 17. The resulting 3-layer laminate has a water vapor permeability Ret of 1.6 [Pa.m2.W-1] (– measured in compliance with ISO 11092), it is 100% windproof (– measured in compliance with ISO 9237), and the water column is above 10 000 mm (– measured in compliance with ISO 20811). This nanofiber membrane which was developed in the laboratories of the Technical University of Liberec was then produced industrially by a private company. A low vacuum plasma line and a lamination line were needed for industrial production, and the process had to be fine-tuned to achieve the same parameters as those achieved in the TUL laboratories. The result of this work is a newly developed nanofiber membrane which offers much better properties, especially water vapor permeability, than other competitive membranes. It is an example of product development and the consequent fine-tuning for industrial production; it is also an example of the cooperation between a Czech state university and a private company.
63
78082
Degradation of Commercial Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture by Naturally Occurring Facultative Microorganisms via Anaerobic Dechlorination and Aerobic Oxidation
Abstract:
The production and use of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a group of synthetic halogenated hydrocarbons have been restricted worldwide due to its toxicity and categorized as one of the twelve priority persistent organic pollutants (POP) by the Stockholm Convention. Low reactivity and high chemical stability of PCBs have made them highly persistent in the environment and bio-concentration and bio-magnification along the food chain contribute to multiple health impacts in humans and animals. Remediating environments contaminated with PCBs is a challenging task for decades. Use of microorganisms for remediation of PCB contaminated soils and sediments have been widely investigated due to the potential of breakdown these complex contaminants with minimum environmental impacts. To achieve an effective bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated environments, microbes were sourced from environmental samples and tested for their ability to hydrolyze PCBs under different conditions. Comparison of PCB degradation efficiencies of four naturally occurring facultative bacterial cultures isolated through selective enrichment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were simultaneously investigated in minimal salt medium using 50 mg/L Aroclor 1260, a commonly used commercial PCB mixture as the sole source of carbon. The results of a six-week study demonstrated that all the tested facultative Achromobacter, Ochrobactrum, Lysinibacillus and Pseudomonas strains are capable of degrading PCBs under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions while assisting hydrophobic PCBs to make solubilize in the aqueous minimal medium. Overall, the results suggest that some facultative bacteria are capable of effective in degrading PCBs under anaerobic conditions through reductive dechlorination and under aerobic conditions through oxidation. Therefore, use of suitable facultative microorganisms under combined anaerobic-aerobic conditions and combination of such strains capable of solubilization and breakdown of PCBs has high potential in achieving higher PCB removal rates.
62
54290
Assessment of Functional Properties and Antioxidant Capacity Murta (Ugni molinae T.) Berry Subjected to Different Drying Methods
Abstract:
Murta (Ugni molinae T.) is an endemic fruit of Southern Chile, possesses qualities exceptional as its high antioxidants content, that make it increasingly more appreciated for marketing. Dehydration has the potential providing safe food products through the decreased activity water while maintaining their functional properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity (AC), total flavonoid content (TFC), rehydration indexes and texture the dried murta berry. Five drying technologies were used: convective drying, vacuum drying, sun-air drying, infrared drying and freezing-drying. The antioxidant capacity was measured by the ORAC method, CFT was determined by spectrophotometry, rehydration capacity (CR) and water retention (WHC) by gravimetry, texture profile (TPA) by a texture analyzer TA-XT2 and microstructure by SEM. The results showed that the lyophilized murta had smaller losses AC and TFC with values of 2886.27 routine mg rutin/ 100 g dm and 23359.99 μmol ET/100 g dm, respectively. According to the rehydration indexes, these were affected by the drying methods, where the maximum value of WHC was 92.60 g retained water/100 g sample for the vacuum drying, and the lowest value of CR was 1.43 g water absorbed/g dm for the sun-air drying. Furthermore, the microstructure and TPA showed that lyophilized samples had characteristics similar to the fresh sample. Therefore, it is possible to mention that lyophilization achieved greater extent preserving the characteristics of the murta samples, showing that this method can be used in the food industry and encourage the consumption of dried fruit and thus give it greater added value.
61
112060
Psychological Intervention for Partners Post-Stroke: A Case Study
Abstract:
Background and Aims: Relationship breakdown is typical when one partner lives with an acquired brain injury caused by issues like a stroke. Research has found that the perception of relationship satisfaction decreases following such an injury among non-injured partners. Non-injured partners also are found to experience caregiver stress/burden as they immediately have to take the role of a caregiver along with being a partner of the injured. Research has also found that the perception of a continuous relationship, i.e. the perception of the relationship to be essentially the same as it was before the injury, also changes among those caregiving partners. However, there is a lack of available intervention strategies that can help those partners with both individual and relationship difficulties. The aim of this case study was to conduct a pilot test of an intervention aimed to explore whether it is possible to support a partner to experience greater continuity within the relationship poststroke, and what benefits such a change might have. Method: A couple, where one partner experienced an acquired brain injury poststroke were provided with Integrated Behavioural Couples Therapy for 3-months. The intervention addressed goals identified as necessary by the couple and by the formulation of their individual and relationship difficulties, alongside the goal of promoting relationship continuity. Before and after measures were taken using a battery of six questionnaires to evaluate changes in perceptions of continuity, stress, and other aspects of the relationship. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative data showed that relationship continuity was improved after the therapy, as were the measures of stress and other aspects of the relationship. The stress felt by the person with the acquired brain injury also showed some evidence of improvement. Conclusion: The study found that perceptions of relationship continuity can be improved by therapy and that improving these might have a beneficial impact on the stress felt by the carer, their satisfaction with the relationship and overall levels of conflict and closeness within the relationship. The study suggested the value of further research on enhancing perceptions of continuity in the relationship after an acquired brain injury. Currently, the findings of the study have been used to develop a pilot feasibility study to collect substantive evidence on the impact of the intervention on the couples and assess its feasibility and acceptability, which will help in further developing a specific generalized relationship continuity intervention, that will be beneficial in preventing relationship breakdown in the future.
60
40879
Low Frequency Ultrasonic Degassing to Reduce Void Formation in Epoxy Resin and Its Effect on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of the Cured Polymer
Abstract:
The demand for multi-functional lightweight materials in sectors such as automotive, aerospace, electronics is growing, and for this reason fibre-reinforced, epoxy polymer composites are being widely utilized. The fibre reinforcing material is mainly responsible for the strength and stiffness of the composites whilst the main role of the epoxy polymer matrix is to enhance the load distribution applied on the fibres as well as to protect the fibres from the effect of harmful environmental conditions. The superior properties of the fibre-reinforced composites are achieved by the best properties of both of the constituents. Although factors such as the chemical nature of the epoxy and how it is cured will have a strong influence on the properties of the epoxy matrix, the method of mixing and degassing of the resin can also have a significant impact. The production of a fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite will usually begin with the mixing of the epoxy pre-polymer with a hardener and accelerator. Mechanical methods of mixing are often employed for this stage but such processes naturally introduce air into the mixture, which, if it becomes entrapped, will lead to voids in the subsequent cured polymer. Therefore, degassing is normally utilised after mixing and this is often achieved by placing the epoxy resin mixture in a vacuum chamber. Although this is reasonably effective, it is another process stage and if a method of mixing could be found that, at the same time, degassed the resin mixture this would lead to shorter production times, more effective degassing and less voids in the final polymer. In this study the effect of four different methods for mixing and degassing of the pre-polymer with hardener and accelerator were investigated. The first two methods were manual stirring and magnetic stirring which were both followed by vacuum degassing. The other two techniques were ultrasonic mixing/degassing using a 40 kHz ultrasonic bath and a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe. The cured cast resin samples were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and Image J analysis software to study morphological changes, void content and void distribution. Three point bending test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also performed to determine the thermal and mechanical properties of the cured resin. It was found that the use of the 20 kHz ultrasonic probe for mixing/degassing gave the lowest percentage voids of all the mixing methods in the study. In addition, the percentage voids found when employing a 40 kHz ultrasonic bath to mix/degas the epoxy polymer mixture was only slightly higher than when magnetic stirrer mixing followed by vacuum degassing was utilized. The effect of ultrasonic mixing/degassing on the thermal and mechanical properties of the cured resin will also be reported. The results suggest that low frequency ultrasound is an effective means of mixing/degassing a pre-polymer mixture and could enable a significant reduction in production times.
59
4049
Production of Size-Selected Tin Nanoclusters for Device Applications
Abstract:
This work reports on the fabrication of tin nanoclusters by sputtering and inert-gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. This technique allows to fine tune the size and yield of nanoclusters by controlling the nanocluster source parameters. The produced nanoclusters are deposited on SiO2/Si substrate with pre-formed electrical electrodes to produce a nanocluster device. Those devices can be potentially used for gas sensor applications.
58
10459
Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique
Abstract:
This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.
57
70163
Approaches for Minimizing Radioactive Tritium and ¹⁴C in Advanced High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors
Abstract:
High temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are considered as one of the next-generation advanced nuclear reactors, in which porous nuclear graphite is used as neutron moderators, reflectors, structure materials, and cooled by inert helium. Radioactive tritium and ¹⁴C are generated in terms of reactions of thermal neutrons and ⁶Li, ¹⁴N, ¹⁰B impurely within nuclear graphite and the coolant during HTGRs operation. Currently, hydrogen and nitrogen diffusion behavior together with nuclear graphite microstructure evolution were investigated to minimize the radioactive waste release, using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, the BET and mercury standard porosimetry methods. It is found that the peak value of graphite weight loss emerged at 573-673 K owing to nitrogen diffusion from graphite pores to outside when the system was subjected to vacuum. Macropore volume became larger while porosity for mesopores was smaller with temperature ranging from ambient temperature to 1073 K, which was primarily induced by coalescence of the subscale pores. It is suggested that the porous nuclear graphite should be first subjected to vacuum at 573-673 K to minimize the nitrogen and the radioactive 14°C before operation in HTGRs. Then, results on hydrogen diffusion show that the diffusible hydrogen and tritium could permeate into the coolant with diffusion coefficients of > 0.5 × 10⁻⁴ cm²·s⁻¹ at 50 bar. As a consequence, the freshly-generated diffusible tritium could release quickly to outside once formed, and an effective approach for minimizing the amount of radioactive tritium is to make the impurity contents extremely low in nuclear graphite and the coolant. Besides, both two- and three-dimensional observations indicate that macro and mesopore volume along with total porosity decreased with temperature at 50 bar on account of synergistic effects of applied compression strain, sharpened pore morphology, and non-uniform temperature distribution.
56
25862
Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Photoelectric Work Function of Silver-Zinc Oxide Contact Materials
Abstract:
Contact materials used for electrical breakers are often made with silver alloys. Mechanical and thermo dynamical properties as well as electron emission of such complicated alloys present a lack of reliable and accurate experimental data. This paper deals mainly with electron work function (EWF) measurements about silver-metal oxide (Ag-MeO) electrical contacts (Ag-ZnO (92/8), before and after surface heat treatments at 296 K  813 K, under UHV conditions (residual gas pressure of 1.4 x 10-7 mbar). The electron work function (EWF) of silver zinc oxide materials was measured photoelectrically, using both Fowler’s method of isothermal curves and linearized Fowler plots. In this paper, we present the development of a method for measuring photoelectric work function of contact materials. Also reported in this manuscript are the results of experimental work whose purpose has been the buildup of a reliable photoelectric system and associated monochromatic ultra-violet radiations source, and the photoelectric measurement of the electron work functions (EWF) of contact materials. In order to study the influence of annealing temperature on the EWF, a vacuum furnace was used for heating the metallic samples up to 800 K. The EWF of the silver – zinc oxide materials were investigated to study the influence of annealing temperature on the EWF. In the present study, the photoelectric measurements about Ag-ZnO(92/8) contacts have shown a linear decrease of the EWF with increasing temperature, i.e. the temperature coefficient is constant and negative: for the first annealing # 1, in the temperature range [299 K  823 K]. On the contrary, a linear increase was observed with increasing temperature (i.e. , being constant and positive), for the next annealing # 2, in the temperature range [296 K  813 K]. The EWFs obtained for silver-zinc oxide Ag-ZnO(92/8) show an obvious dependence on the annealing temperature which is strongly associated with the evolution of the arrangement on ZnO nano particles on the Ag-ZnO contact surface as well as surface charge distribution.
55
13595
Politicization of India Sri Lanka Fishing Dispute
Abstract:
This research examines the impact of the politicization of the fishing dispute on India-Sri Lanka relations, particularly the influence of internal and party politics. The maritime border is clearly demarcated between India and Sri Lanka. India and Sri Lanka signed bilateral agreements on maritime boundaries in 1974 and 1976 respectively. They signed the United Nations Law of the Sea- III as well. Despite this, fishing disputes persist between the two nations. Tamil Nadu politics is closely linked with Sri Lankan Tamil issues and Tamil Nadu has been playing a significant role in Indo-Lanka relations. This is due to the fact that many Indian trawlers involved in fishing activities in Sri Lankan waters are from Tamil Nadu. The Government of Tamil Nadu is also very concerned about the issue of fishing in Sri Lankan waters. During the ethnic war, Sri Lankan fishermen were restricted on fishing activities in the Northern sea by the Sri Lankan Government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE). This created a vacuum in the Northern sea of Sri Lanka, and Indian trawlers filled the vacuum with the support of the LTTE. After the end of the war, Northern fishermen of Sri Lanka recommenced their fishing activities and realized that the Tamil Nadu trawlers had scooped their fishing resources. The Northern fishermen started to protest the invasion of Indian trawlers and pushed the Sri Lankan Government to stop the Indian trawlers. When Sri Lanka arrested Indian fishermen and confiscated their fishing boats, the Tamil Nadu Government used this as an opportunity to accuse Sri Lanka as having a Sinhalese government, to express feelings of hatred towards Sri Lanka due to the ethnic war against Tamils and tried to increase the voting bank by selling Tamil feelings. Thus, this research finds that Tamil Nadu does not associate this fishing dispute with Tamils in Sri Lanka but with the Sinhalese despite the status quo. This research has covered the Northern fishermen and stakeholders of Sri Lanka and could not do any field research in India due to visa restrictions. However, the researcher tries to balance the gap by referring to secondary sources and a few interviews with Indian scholars.
54
31609
Test Rig Development for Up-to-Date Experimental Study of Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Process
Abstract:
Vacuum evaporation is a reliable and well-proven technology with a wide application range which is frequently used in food, chemical or pharmaceutical industries. Recently, numerous remarkable studies have been carried out to investigate utilization of this technology in the area of wastewater treatment. One of the most successful applications of vacuum evaporation principal is connected with seawater desalination. Since 1950’s, multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) has been the leading technology in this field and it is still irreplaceable in many respects, despite a rapid increase in cheaper reverse-osmosis-based installations in recent decades. MSF plants are conveniently operated in countries with a fluctuating seawater quality and at locations where a sufficient amount of waste heat is available. Nowadays, most of the MSF research is connected with alternative heat sources utilization and with hybridization, i.e. merging of different types of desalination technologies. Some of the studies are concerned with basic principles of the static flash phenomenon, but only few scientists have lately focused on the fundamentals of continuous multi-stage evaporation. Limited measurement possibilities at operating plants and insufficiently equipped experimental facilities may be the reasons. The aim of the presented study was to design, construct and test an up-to-date test rig with an advanced measurement system which will provide real time monitoring options of all the important operational parameters under various conditions. The whole system consists of a conventionally designed MSF unit with 8 evaporation chambers, versatile heating circuit for different kinds of feed water (e.g. seawater, waste water), sophisticated system for acquisition and real-time visualization of all the related quantities (temperature, pressure, flow rate, weight, conductivity, pH, water level, power input), access to a wide spectrum of operational media (salt, fresh and softened water, steam, natural gas, compressed air, electrical energy) and integrated transparent features which enable a direct visual control of selected physical mechanisms (water evaporation in chambers, water level right before brine and distillate pumps). Thanks to the adjustable process parameters, it is possible to operate the test unit at desired operational conditions. This allows researchers to carry out statistical design and analysis of experiments. Valuable results obtained in this manner could be further employed in simulations and process modeling. First experimental tests confirm correctness of the presented approach and promise interesting outputs in the future. The presented experimental apparatus enables flexible and efficient research of the whole MSF process.
53
59584
Interplay of Material and Cycle Design in a Vacuum-Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for Biogas Upgrading
Abstract:
Natural gas is a major energy source in the current global economy, contributing to roughly 21% of the total primary energy consumption. Production of natural gas starting from renewable energy sources is key to limit the related CO2 emissions, especially for those sectors that heavily rely on natural gas use. In this context, biomethane produced via biogas upgrading represents a good candidate for partial substitution of fossil natural gas. The upgrading process of biogas to biomethane consists in (i) the removal of pollutants and impurities (e.g. H2S, siloxanes, ammonia, water), and (ii) the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. Focusing on the CO2 removal process, several technologies can be considered: chemical or physical absorption with solvents (e.g. water, amines), membranes, adsorption-based systems (PSA). However, none emerged as the leading technology, because of (i) the heterogeneity in plant size, ii) the heterogeneity in biogas composition, which is strongly related to the feedstock type (animal manure, sewage treatment, landfill products), (iii) the case-sensitive optimal tradeoff between purity and recovery of biomethane, and iv) the destination of the produced biomethane (grid injection, CHP applications, transportation sector). With this contribution, we explore the use of a technology for biogas upgrading and we compare the resulting performance with benchmark technologies. The proposed technology makes use of a chemical sorbent, which is engineered by RSE and consists of Di-Ethanol-Amine deposited on a solid support made of γ-Alumina, to chemically adsorb the CO2 contained in the gas. The material is packed into fixed beds that cyclically undergo adsorption and regeneration steps. CO2 is adsorbed at low temperature and ambient pressure (or slightly above) while the regeneration is carried out by pulling vacuum and increasing the temperature of the bed (vacuum-temperature swing adsorption - VTSA). Dynamic adsorption tests were performed by RSE and were used to tune the mathematical model of the process, including material and transport parameters (i.e. Langmuir isotherms data and heat and mass transport). Based on this set of data, an optimal VTSA cycle was designed. The results enabled a better understanding of the interplay between material and cycle tuning. As exemplary application, the upgrading of biogas for grid injection, produced by an anaerobic digester (60-70% CO2, 30-40% CH4), for an equivalent size of 1 MWel was selected. A plant configuration is proposed to maximize heat recovery and minimize the energy consumption of the process. The resulting performances are very promising compared to benchmark solutions, which make the VTSA configuration a valuable alternative for biomethane production starting from biogas.
52
60468
Availability Analysis of Process Management in the Equipment Maintenance and Repair Implementation
Abstract:
It is an important issue that the occurring of production downtime and repair costs when machines fail in the machine intensive production industries. In the case of failure of more than one machine at the same time, which machines will have the priority to repair, how to determine the optimal repair time should be allotted for this machines and how to plan the resources needed to repair are the key issues. In recent years, Business Process Management (BPM) technique, bring effective solutions to different problems in business. The main feature of this technique is that it can improve the way the job done by examining in detail the works of interest. In the industries, maintenance and repair works are operating as a process and when a breakdown occurs, it is known that the repair work is carried out in a series of process. Maintenance main-process and repair sub-process are evaluated with process management technique, so it is thought that structure could bring a solution. For this reason, in an international manufacturing company, this issue discussed and has tried to develop a proposal for a solution. The purpose of this study is the implementation of maintenance and repair works which is integrated with process management technique and at the end of implementation, analyzing the maintenance related parameters like quality, cost, time, safety and spare part. The international firm that carried out the application operates in a free region in Turkey and its core business area is producing original equipment technologies, vehicle electrical construction, electronics, safety and thermal systems for the world's leading light and heavy vehicle manufacturers. In the firm primarily, a project team has been established. The team dealt with the current maintenance process again, and it has been revised again by the process management techniques. Repair process which is sub-process of maintenance process has been discussed again. In the improved processes, the ABC equipment classification technique was used to decide which machine or machines will be given priority in case of failure. This technique is a prioritization method of malfunctioned machine based on the effect of the production, product quality, maintenance costs and job security. Improved maintenance and repair processes have been implemented in the company for three months, and the obtained data were compared with the previous year data. In conclusion, breakdown maintenance was found to occur in a shorter time, with lower cost and lower spare parts inventory.
51
113487
Computational Modelling of Epoxy-Graphene Composite Adhesive towards the Development of Cryosorption Pump
Authors:
Abstract:
Cryosorption pump is the best solution to achieve clean, vibration free ultra-high vacuum. Furthermore, the operation of cryosorption pump is free from the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Due to these attributes, this pump is used in the space simulation chamber to create the ultra-high vacuum. The cryosorption pump comprises of three parts (a) panel which is cooled with the help of cryogen or cryocooler, (b) an adsorbent which is used to adsorb the gas molecules, (c) an epoxy which holds the adsorbent and the panel together thereby aiding in heat transfer from adsorbent to the panel. The performance of cryosorption pump depends on the temperature of the adsorbent and hence, on the thermal conductivity of the epoxy. Therefore we have made an attempt to increase the thermal conductivity of epoxy adhesive by mixing nano-sized graphene filler particles. The thermal conductivity of epoxy-graphene composite adhesive is measured with the help of indigenously developed experimental setup in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K, which is generally the operating temperature range of cryosorption pump for efficiently pumping of hydrogen and helium gas. In this article, we have presented the experimental results of epoxy-graphene composite adhesive in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K. We have also proposed an analytical heat conduction model to find the thermal conductivity of the composite. In this case, the filler particles, such as graphene, are randomly distributed in a base matrix of epoxy. The developed model considers the complete spatial random distribution of filler particles and this distribution is explained by Binomial distribution. The results obtained by the model have been compared with the experimental results as well as with the other established models. The developed model is able to predict the thermal conductivity in both isotropic regions as well as in anisotropic region over the required temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K. Due to the non-empirical nature of the proposed model, it will be useful for the prediction of other properties of composite materials involving the filler in a base matrix. The present studies will aid in the understanding of low temperature heat transfer which in turn will be useful towards the development of high performance cryosorption pump.
50
105965
Dispositional Loneliness and Mental Health of the Elderly in Cross River State, Nigeria
Abstract:
The study is predicated on the current trend of the rate of dispositional loneliness experienced by the elderly in society today as a result of the breakdown in the family attachment patterns, loss of close associates, and interpersonal conflicts. The research adopted the ex-post facto research design through a survey data collected from a total of 500 elderly comprising of both retirees and community-based elders. Both the stratified and simple sampling techniques were used to select the sample. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the elderly should be trained in acquiring specific attachment styles as well as be trained in developing appropriate social skills to counter loneliness.
49
31982
Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives
Authors:
Abstract:
The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.
48
59173
Aerodynamic Design Optimization Technique for a Tube Capsule That Uses an Axial Flow Air Compressor and an Aerostatic Bearing
Abstract:
High-speed transportation has become a growing concern. To increase high-speed efficiencies and minimize power consumption of a vehicle, we need to eliminate the friction with the ground and minimize the aerodynamic drag acting on the vehicle. Due to the complexity and high power requirements of electromagnetic levitation, we make use of the air in front of the capsule, that produces the majority of the drag, to compress it in two phases and inject a proportion of it through small nozzles to make a high-pressure air cushion to levitate the capsule. The tube is partially-evacuated so that the air pressure is optimized for maximum compressor effectiveness, optimum tube size, and minimum vacuum pump power consumption. The total relative mass flow rate of the tube air is divided into two fractions. One is by-passed to flow over the capsule body, ensuring that no chocked flow takes place. The other fraction is sucked by the compressor where it is diffused to decrease the Mach number (around 0.8) to be suitable for the compressor inlet. The air is then compressed and intercooled, then split. One fraction is expanded through a tail nozzle to contribute to generating thrust. The other is compressed again. Bleed from the two compressors is used to maintain a constant air pressure in an air tank. The air tank is used to supply air for levitation. Dividing the total mass flow rate increases the achievable speed (Kantrowitz limit), and compressing it decreases the blockage of the capsule. As a result, the aerodynamic drag on the capsule decreases. As the tube pressure decreases, the drag decreases and the capsule power requirements decrease, however, the vacuum pump consumes more power. That’s why Design optimization techniques are to be used to get the optimum values for all the design variables given specific design inputs. Aerodynamic shape optimization, Capsule and tube sizing, compressor design, diffuser and nozzle expander design and the effect of the air bearing on the aerodynamics of the capsule are to be considered. The variations of the variables are to be studied for the change of the capsule velocity and air pressure.
47
17243
Development of Kenaf Cellulose CNT Paper for Electrical Conductive Paper
Abstract:
Kenaf cellulose CNT paper production was for lightweight, high strength and excellent flexibility electrical purposes. Aqueous dispersions of kenaf cellulose and varied weight percentage of CNT were combined with the assistance of PEI solution by using ultrasonic probe. The solution was dried using vacuum filter continued with air drying in condition room for 2 days. Circle shape conductive paper was characterized with Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and therma gravimetric analysis (TGA).
46
14050
Insulation Properties of Rod-Plane Electrode Covered with ATH/SIR Nano-Composite in Dry-Air
Abstract:
One of the latest trends for insulation systems to improve the insulation performance is the use of eco-friendly hybrid insulation using compressed dry-air. Despite the excellent insulation performance of sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) gas, its use has been restricted due to the problems with significant global warming potential (GWP). Accordingly, lightning impulse performance of the hybrid insulation system covered with an aluminum trihydrate/silicone rubber (ATH/SIR) nanocomposite was examined in air at atmospheric pressure and in compressed air at pressures between 0.2 and 0.6 MPa. In the experiments, the most common breakdown path took place along the surface of the covered rod. The insulation reliability after several discharges should be guaranteed in hybrid insulation. On the other hand, the surface of the covered rod was carbonized after several discharges. Therefore, nanoscale ATH can be used as a reinforcement of covered dielectrics to inhibit carbonization on the surface of a covered rod. The results were analyzed in terms of the surface resistivity of the cover dielectrics.
45
14990
Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond
Abstract:
We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.
44
51085
An Application of a Feedback Control System to Minimize Unforeseen Disruption in a Paper Manufacturing Industry in South Africa
Abstract:
Operation management is the key element within the manufacturing process. However, during this process, there are a number of unforeseen disruptions that causes the process to a standstill which are, machine breakdown, employees absenteeism, improper scheduling. When this happens, it forces the shop flow to a rescheduling process and these strategy reschedules only a limited part of the initial schedule to match up with the pre-schedule at some point with the objective to create a new schedule that is reliable which in the long run gets disrupted. In this work, we have developed feedback control system that minimizes any form of disruption before the impact becomes severe, the model was tested in a paper manufacturing industries and the results revealed that, if the disruption is minimized at the initial state, the impact becomes unnoticeable.
43
95935
Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Deposited on Heated Substrate Using Room-Temperature Chemical Solution
Abstract:
The high production cost of the conventional solar cells requires the search for economic methods suitable for solar energy conversion. Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) is one of the most important semiconductors used in photovoltaics, especially in large area solar cells; and can be prepared in a thin film form by a wide variety of deposition techniques. The preparation techniques include vacuum evaporation, sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy. Other techniques, based on chemical solutions, are also used for depositing CdS films with dramatically low-cost compared to other vacuum-based methods. Although this technique is widely used during the last decades, due to simplicity and low-deposition temperature (~100°C), there is still a strong need for more information on the growth process and its relation with the quality of the deposited films. Here, we report on deposition of high-quality CdS thin films; with low-surface roughness ( < 3.0 nm) and sharp optical absorption edge; on low-temperature glass substrates (70°C) using a new method based on the room-temperature chemical solution. In this method, a mixture solution of cadmium acetate and thiourea at room temperature was used under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-VIS transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. The deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed by observation of both, sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Furthermore, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap of the deposited CdS films can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands' alignments between CdS and other light-harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.
42
95393
Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Deposited on Heated Substrate Using Room-Temperature Chemical Solution
Abstract:
The high production cost of the conventional solar cells requires the search for economic methods suitable for solar energy conversion. Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) is one of the most important semiconductors used in photovoltaics, especially in large area solar cells; and can be prepared in a thin film form by a wide variety of deposition techniques. The preparation techniques include vacuum evaporation, sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy. Other techniques, based on chemical solutions, are also used for depositing CdS films with dramatically low-cost compared to other vacuum-based methods. Although this technique is widely used during the last decades, due to simplicity and low-deposition temperature (~100°C), there is still a strong need for more information on the growth process and its relation with the quality of the deposited films. Here, we report on deposition of high-quality CdS thin films; with low-surface roughness ( < 3.0 nm) and sharp optical absorption edge; on low-temperature glass substrates (70°C) using a new method based on the room-temperature chemical solution. In this method, a mixture solution of cadmium acetate and thiourea at room temperature was used under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-VIS transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. The deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed by observation of both, sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Furthermore, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap of the deposited CdS films can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands' alignments between CdS and other light-harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.
41
7796
Using Fly Ash as a Reinforcement to Increase Wear Resistance of Pure Magnesium
Abstract:
In the current study, fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant was used as reinforcement in pure magnesium. The composite materials with different fly ash contents were produced with powder metallurgical methods. Powder mixtures were sintered at 540oC under 30 MPa pressure for 15 minutes in a vacuum assisted hot press. Results showed that increasing ash content continuously increases hardness of the composite. On the other hand, minimum wear damage was obtained at 2 wt. % ash content. Addition of higher level of fly ash results with formation of cracks in the matrix and increases wear damage of the material.
40
35333
Studies on the Effect of Dehydration Techniques, Treatments, Packaging Material and Methods on the Quality of Buffalo Meat during Ambient Temperature Storage
Abstract:
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect dehydration techniques (polyhouse and tray drying), different treatment (SHMP, SHMP+ salt, salt + turmeric), different packaging material (HDPE, combination film), and different packaging methods (air, vacuum, CO2 Flush) on quality of dehydrated buffalo meat during ambient temperature storage. The quality measuring parameters included physico-chemical characteristics i.e. pH, rehydration ratio, moisture content and microbiological characteristics viz total plate content. It was found that the treatment of (SHMP, SHMP + salt, salt + turmeric increased the pH. Moisture Content of dehydrated meat samples were found in between 7.20% and 5.54%.the rehydration ratio of salt+ turmeric treated sample was found to be highest and lowest for controlled meat sample. the bacterial count log TPC/g of salt + turmeric and tray dried was lowest i.e. 1.80.During ambient temperature storage ,there was no considerable change in pH of dehydrated sample till 150 days. however the moisture content of samples increased in different packaging system in different manner. The highest moisture rise was found in case of controlled meat sample HDPE/air packed while the lowest increase was reported for SHMP+ Salt treated Packed by vacuum in combination film packed sample. Rehydration ratio was found considerably affected in case of HDPE and air packed sample dehydrated in polyhouse after 150 days of ambient storage. While there was a very little change in the rehydration ratio of meat samples packed in combination film CO2 flush system. The TPC was found under safe limit even after 150 days of storage. The microbial count was found to be lowest for salt+ turmeric treated samples after 150 days of storage.
39
27975
Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Analysis on Transformer Oil by Correlating It with Various Oil Parameters
Abstract:
Power transformer is one of the most important devices that are used in power station. Due to several fault impending upon it or due to ageing, etc its life gets lowered. So, it becomes necessary to have diagnosis of oil for fault analysis. Due to the chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical stress the insulating material in the power transformer degraded. It is important to regularly assess the condition of oil and the remaining life of the power transformer. In this paper UV-VIS absorption graph area is correlated with moisture content, Flash point, IFT and Density of Transformer oil. Since UV-VIS absorption graph area varies accordingly with the variation in different transformer parameters. So by obtaining the correlation among different oil parameters for oil with respect to UV-VIS absorption area, decay contents of transformer oil can be predicted
38
31716
Modeling the Time-Dependent Rheological Behavior of Clays Used in Fabrication of Ceramic
Abstract:
Many of clays exhibited the thixotropic behavior in which, the apparent viscosity of material decreases with time of shearing at constant shear rate. The structural kinetic model (SKM) was used to characterize the thixotropic behavior of two different kinds of clays used in fabrication of ceramic. Clays selected for analysis represent the fluid and semisolid clays materials. The SKM postulates that the change in the rheological behavior is associated with shear-induced breakdown of the internal structure of the clays. This model for the structure decay with time at constant shear rate assumes nth order kinetics for the decay of the material structure with a rate constant.
37
41197
Desulphurization of Waste Tire Pyrolytic Oil (TPO) Using Photodegradation and Adsorption Techniques
Abstract:
The nature of tires makes them extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer and, therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and, consequently, cannot be remolded into other shapes without serious degradation. Open dumping of tires pollutes the soil, contaminates underground water and provides ideal breeding grounds for disease carrying vermins. The thermal decomposition of tires by pyrolysis produce char, gases and oil. The composition of oils derived from waste tires has common properties to commercial diesel fuel. The problem associated with the light oil derived from pyrolysis of waste tires is that it has a high sulfur content (> 1.0 wt.%) and therefore emits harmful sulfur oxide (SOx) gases to the atmosphere when combusted in diesel engines. Desulphurization of TPO is necessary due to the increasing stringent environmental regulations worldwide. Hydrodesulphurization (HDS) is the commonly practiced technique for the removal of sulfur species in liquid hydrocarbons. However, the HDS technique fails in the presence of complex sulfur species such as Dibenzothiopene (DBT) present in TPO. This study aims to investigate the viability of photodegradation (Photocatalytic oxidative desulphurization) and adsorptive desulphurization technologies for efficient removal of complex and non-complex sulfur species in TPO. This study focuses on optimizing the cleaning (removal of impurities and asphaltenes) process by varying process parameters; temperature, stirring speed, acid/oil ratio and time. The treated TPO will then be sent for vacuum distillation to attain the desired diesel like fuel. The effect of temperature, pressure and time will be determined for vacuum distillation of both raw TPO and the acid treated oil for comparison purposes. Polycyclic sulfides present in the distilled (diesel like) light oil will be oxidized dominantly to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfone via a photo-catalyzed system using TiO2 as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent and finally acetonitrile will be used as an extraction solvent. Adsorptive desulphurization will be used to adsorb traces of sulfurous compounds which remained during photocatalytic desulphurization step. This desulphurization convoy is expected to give high desulphurization efficiency with reasonable oil recovery.
36
43850
Switching Studies on Ge15In5Te56Ag24 Thin Films
Abstract:
Germanium Telluride based quaternary thin film switching devices with composition Ge15In5Te56Ag24, have been deposited in sandwich geometry on glass substrate with aluminum as top and bottom electrodes. The bulk glassy form of the said composition is prepared by melt quenching technique. In this technique, appropriate quantity of elements with high purity are taken in a quartz ampoule and sealed under a vacuum of 10-5 mbar. Then, it is allowed to rotate in a horizontal rotary furnace for 36 hours to ensure homogeneity of the melt. After that, the ampoule is quenched into a mixture of ice - water and NaOH to get the bulk ingot of the sample. The sample is then coated on a glass substrate using flash evaporation technique at a vacuum level of 10-6 mbar. The XRD report reveals the amorphous nature of the thin film sample and Energy - Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms that the film retains the same chemical composition as that of the base sample. Electrical switching behavior of the device is studied with the help of Keithley (2410c) source-measure unit interfaced with Lab VIEW 7 (National Instruments). Switching studies, mainly SET (changing the state of the material from amorphous to crystalline) operation is conducted on the thin film form of the sample. This device is found to manifest memory switching as the device remains &#39;ON&#39; even after the removal of the electric field. Also it is found that amorphous Ge15In5Te56Ag24 thin film unveils clean memory type of electrical switching behavior which can be justified by the absence of fluctuation in the I-V characteristics. The I-V characteristic also reveals that the switching is faster in this sample as no data points could be seen in the negative resistance region during the transition to on state and this leads to the conclusion of fast phase change during SET process. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies are performed on the chosen sample to study the structural changes at the time of switching. SEM studies on the switched Ge15In5Te56Ag24 sample has shown some morphological changes at the place of switching wherein it can be explained that a conducting crystalline channel is formed in the device when the device switches from high resistance to low resistance state. From these studies it can be concluded that the material may find its application in fast switching Non-Volatile Phase Change Memory (PCM) Devices.
35
48379
Kerr Electric-Optic Measurement of Electric Field and Space Charge Distribution in High Voltage Pulsed Transformer Oil
Abstract:
Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.
34
107915
Development of DEMO-FNS Hybrid Facility and Its Integration in Russian Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Abstract:
Development of a fusion-fission hybrid facility based on superconducting conventional tokamak DEMO-FNS runs in Russia since 2013. The main design goal is to reach the technical feasibility and outline prospects of industrial hybrid technologies providing the production of neutrons, fuel nuclides, tritium, high-temperature heat, electricity and subcritical transmutation in Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. The facility should operate in a steady-state mode at the fusion power of 40 MW and fission reactions of 400 MW. Major tokamak parameters are the following: major radius R=3.2 m, minor radius a=1.0 m, elongation 2.1, triangularity 0.5. The design provides the neutron wall loading of ~0.2 MW/m², the lifetime neutron fluence of ~2 MWa/m², with the surface area of the active cores and tritium breeding blanket ~100 m². Core plasma modelling showed that the neutron yield ~10¹⁹ n/s is maximal if the tritium/deuterium density ratio is 1.5-2.3. The design of the electromagnetic system (EMS) defined its basic parameters, accounting for the coils strength and stability, and identified the most problematic nodes in the toroidal field coils and the central solenoid. The EMS generates toroidal, poloidal and correcting magnetic fields necessary for the plasma shaping and confinement inside the vacuum vessel. EMC consists of eighteen superconducting toroidal field coils, eight poloidal field coils, five sections of a central solenoid, correction coils, in-vessel coils for vertical plasma control. Supporting structures, the thermal shield, and the cryostat maintain its operation. EMS operates with the pulse duration of up to 5000 hours at the plasma current up to 5 MA. The vacuum vessel (VV) is an all-welded two-layer toroidal shell placed inside the EMS. The free space between the vessel shells is filled with water and boron steel plates, which form the neutron protection of the EMS. The VV-volume is 265 m³, its mass with manifolds is 1800 tons. The nuclear blanket of DEMO-FNS facility was designed to provide functions of minor actinides transmutation, tritium production and enrichment of spent nuclear fuel. The vertical overloading of the subcritical active cores with MA was chosen as prospective. Analysis of the device neutronics and the hybrid blanket thermal-hydraulic characteristics has been performed for the system with functions covering transmutation of minor actinides, production of tritium and enrichment of spent nuclear fuel. A study of FNS facilities role in the Russian closed nuclear fuel cycle was performed. It showed that during ~100 years of operation three FNS facilities with fission power of 3 GW controlled by fusion neutron source with power of 40 MW can burn 98 tons of minor actinides and 198 tons of Pu-239 can be produced for startup loading of 20 fast reactors. Instead of Pu-239, up to 25 kg of tritium per year may be produced for startup of fusion reactors using blocks with lithium orthosilicate instead of fissile breeder blankets.
33
27580
Proposed Alternative System for Existing Traffic Signal System
Abstract:
Alone with fast urbanization in world, traffic control problem became a big issue in urban construction. Having an efficient and reliable traffic control system is crucial to macro-traffic control. Traffic signal is used to manage conflicting requirement by allocating different sets of mutually compatible traffic movement during distinct time interval. Many approaches have been made proposed to solve this discrete stochastic problem. Recognizing the need to minimize right-of-way impacts while efficiently handling the anticipated high traffic volumes, the proposed alternative system gives effective design. This model allows for increased traffic capacity and reduces delays by eliminating a step in maneuvering through the freeway interchange. The concept proposed in this paper involves construction of bridges and ramps at intersection of four roads to control the vehicular congestion and to prevent traffic breakdown.
32
24649
Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition
Abstract:
Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirms the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.
31
47891
Photo-Thermal Degradation Analysis of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar Module Eva Encapsulation
Abstract:
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation degradation affects the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module. Hotspot formation causes the EVA encapsulation to undergo photothermal deterioration and molecular breakdown by UV radiation. This leads to diffusion of chemical particles into other layers. During outdoor deployment, the EVA encapsulation in the affect region loses its adhesive strength, when this happen the affected region layer undergoes rapid delamination. The presence of photo-thermal degradation is detrimental to PV modules as it causes both optical and thermal degradation. Also, it enables the encapsulant to be more susceptible to chemicals substance and moisture. Our findings show a high concentration of Sodium, Phosphorus and Aluminium which originate from the glass substrate, cell emitter and back contact respectively.
30
4334
Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of Sc, Zr and Sn isotopes from target materials
Abstract:
Non-standard isotopes such as Sc-44/47, Zr-89, and Sn-117mare finding interest is increasing in radiopharmaceutical applications. Methods for the separation of these elements from typical target materials were developed. The methods used in this paper are based on the use of extraction chromatographic resins such as UTEVA, TBP, and DGA resin. Information on the selectivity of the resins (Dw values of selected elements in HCl and HNO3 of varying concentration) will be presented as well as results of the method development such as elution studies, chemical recoveries, and decontamination factors. Developed methods are based on the use of vacuum supported separation allowing for fast and selective separation.
29
53116
Impact of Egypt’s Energy Demand on Oil and Gas Power Systems Environment
Abstract:
This paper will explore the influence of energy sector in Arab Republic of Egypt which has shared its responsibilities of many environmental challenges as the second largest economy in the Middle East (after Iran). Air and water pollution, desertification, inadequate disposal of solid waste and damage to coral reefs are serious problems that influence environmental management in Egypt. The intensive reliance of high population density and strong industrial growth are wearing Egypt&#39;s resources, and the rapidly-growing population has forced Egypt to breakdown agricultural land to residential and relevant use of commercial ingestion. The depletion effects of natural resources impose the government to apply innovation techniques in emission control and focus on sustainability. The cogeneration will be presented to control thermal losses and increase efficiency of energy power system.
28
92408
CuIn₃Se₅ Colloidal Nanocrystals and Its Ink-Coated Films for Photovoltaics
Abstract:
CuIn₃Se₅ material is indexed as ordered vacancy compounds having excellent matching properties with CuInGaSe (CIGS) solar absorber layer. For example, the valence band offset of CuIn₃Se₅ with CIGS is nearly 0.3 eV, and the lattice mismatch is less than 1%, besides the absence of discontinuity in their conduction bands. Thus, CuIn₃Se₅ can work as a passivation layer for repelling holes from CIGS/CdS interface and hence to reduce the interface carriers recombination and consequently enhancing the efficiency of CIGS/CdS solar cells. Theoretically, it was reported earlier that an improvement in the efficiency of p-CIGS-based solar cell with a thin ~100 nm of n-CuIn₃Se₅ layer is expected. Recently, a reported experiment demonstrated significant improvement in the efficiency of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown CIGS solar cells from 13.4 to 14.5% via inserting a thin layer of MBE-grown Cu(In,Ga)₃Se₅ layer at the CdS/CIGS interface. It should be mentioned that CuIn₃Se₅ material in either bulk or thin film form, are usually fabricated by high vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., three-source co-evaporation, RF sputtering, flash evaporation, and molecular beam epitaxy). In addition, achieving photosensitive films of n-CuIn₃Se₅ material is important for new hybrid organic/inorganic structures, where inorganic photo-absorber layer, with n-type conductivity, can form n–p junction with organic p-type material (e.g., conductive polymers). A detailed study of the physical properties of CuIn₃Se₅ is still necessary for better understanding of device operation and further improvement of solar cells performance. Here, we report on the low-cost synthesis of CuIn₃Se₅ material in nano-scale size, with an average diameter ~10nm, using simple solution-based colloidal chemistry. In contrast to traditionally grown bulk tetragonal CuIn₃Se₅ crystals using high Vacuum-based technology, our colloidal CuIn₃Se₅ nanocrystals show cubic crystal structure with a shape of nanoparticles and band gap ~1.33 eV. Ink-coated thin films prepared from these nanocrystals colloids; display n-type character, 1.26 eV band gap and strong photo-responsive behavior with incident white light. This suggests the potential use of colloidal CuIn₃Se₅ as an active layer in all-solution-processed thin film solar cells.
27
78583
Analyzing Concrete Structures by Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a combination of laser ablation and optical emission spectroscopy, which in principle can simultaneously analyze all elements on the periodic table. Materials can be analyzed in terms of chemical composition in a two-dimensional, time efficient and minor destructive manner. These advantages predestine LIBS as a monitoring technique in the field of civil engineering. The decreasing service life of concrete infrastructures is a continuously growing problematic. A variety of intruding, harmful substances can damage the reinforcement or the concrete itself. To insure a sufficient service life a regular monitoring of the structure is necessary. LIBS offers many applications to accomplish a successful examination of the conditions of concrete structures. A selection of those applications are the 2D-evaluation of chlorine-, sodium- and sulfur-concentration, the identification of carbonation depths and the representation of the heterogeneity of concrete. LIBS obtains this information by using a pulsed laser with a short pulse length (some mJ), which is focused on the surfaces of the analyzed specimen, for this only an optical access is needed. Because of the high power density (some GW/cm²) a minimal amount of material is vaporized and transformed into a plasma. This plasma emits light depending on the chemical composition of the vaporized material. By analyzing the emitted light, information for every measurement point is gained. The chemical composition of the scanned area is visualized in a 2D-map with spatial resolutions up to 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. Those 2D-maps can be converted into classic depth profiles, as typically seen for the results of chloride concentration provided by chemical analysis like potentiometric titration. However, the 2D-visualization offers many advantages like illustrating chlorine carrying cracks, direct imaging of the carbonation depth and in general allowing the separation of the aggregates from the cement paste. By calibrating the LIBS-System, not only qualitative but quantitative results can be obtained. Those quantitative results can also be based on the cement paste, while excluding the aggregates. An additional advantage of LIBS is its mobility. By using the mobile system, located at BAM, onsite measurements are feasible. The mobile LIBS-system was already used to obtain chloride, sodium and sulfur concentrations onsite of parking decks, bridges and sewage treatment plants even under hard conditions like ongoing construction work or rough weather. All those prospects make LIBS a promising method to secure the integrity of infrastructures in a sustainable manner.
26
61882
Experimental Study on Drying Parameters of Freeze Drying Systems
Abstract:
In this study, control experiments were made on a freeze drying system of which were built a prototype. In experiments, apple slices in different geometrical shapes were dried and drying curves were gained. Then, the shapes which were the fastest for drying were determined. Twenty samples for each apple shapes were put in the prototype and dried. After the experiments, the humidity ratio of the samples and water activity values of the samples have been obtained. Obtained results show that the prototype is working and by comparing the results the shape which dried fastest was determined.
25
28802
Optimal Replacement Period for a One-Unit System with Double Repair Cost Limits
Abstract:
This paper presents a periodical replacement model for a system, considering the concept of single and cumulative repair cost limits simultaneously. The failures are divided into two types. Minor failure can be corrected by minimal repair and serious failure makes the system breakdown completely. When a minor failure occurs, if the repair cost is less than a single repair cost limit L1 and the accumulated repair cost is less than a cumulative repair cost limit L2, then minimal repair is executed, otherwise, the system is preventively replaced. The system is also replaced at time T or at serious failure. The optimal period T minimizing the long-run expected cost per unit time is verified to be finite and unique under some specific conditions.
24
38170
Lattice Network Model for Calculation of Eddy Current Losses in a Solid Permanent Magnet
Abstract:
Permanently excited machines are set up with magnets that are made of highly energetic magnetic materials. Inherently, the permanent magnets warm up while the machine is operating. With an increasing temperature, the electromotive force and hence the degree of efficiency decrease. The reasons for this are slot harmonics and distorted armature currents arising from frequency inverter operation. To prevent or avoid demagnetizing of the permanent magnets it is necessary to ensure that the magnets do not excessively heat up. Demagnetizations of permanent magnets are irreversible and a breakdown of the electrical machine is inevitable. For the design of an electrical machine, the knowledge of the behavior of heating under operating conditions of the permanent magnet is of crucial importance. Therefore, a calculation model is presented with which the machine designer can easily calculate the eddy current losses in the magnetic material.
23
7125
Alloying Effect on Hot Workability of M42 High Speed Steel
Abstract:
In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0C, 0.2Mn, 3.8Cr, 1.5W, 8.5Co, 9.2Mo, and 1.0V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5 wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12 wt.%, Ti of 0.3 wt.%, Zr of 0.3 wt.%, and Nb of 0.3 wt.% were cast into ingots of 140 mm´ 140 mm´ 330 mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150°C for 1.5 hrs. followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180 °C was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminium and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.
22
20464
The Effectiveness of Rebranding as a Comparative Study of Ghanaian Business Using the Principles of Corporate Rebranding
Abstract:
Rebranding has become a very important strategic tool for companies wanting to succeed in the ever competitive business world using the principles of rebranding Moisescu. Two businesses in Ghana (Ghana Commercial Bank and Vodafone Ghana) have been used to ascertain how rebranding of these organizations was done using the principles in their effort to rebrand themselves and to stay relevant. A secondary research mainly on literature surrounding rebranding, official websites of the organizations under study have also been used extensively. After a basic comparative study undertaken two firms (GCB and VODAFONE) seems to be using the first three principles and reaping from it as provided by Moisescu. This goes to show that rebranding should not be done in vacuum but should be guided by such principles so as to achieve the full potential of any kind of investments made.
21
34983
Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel
Abstract:
In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0 C, 0.2 Mn, 3.8 Cr, 1.5 W, 8.5 Co, 9.2 Mo, and 1.0 V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5 wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12 wt.%, Ti of 0.3 wt.%, Zr of 0.3 wt.%, and Nb of 0.3wt.% were cast into ingots of 140 mm x 140 mm x 330 mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150 °C for 1.5 hr followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180 °C was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminum and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.
20
60248
Investigating Breakdowns in Human Robot Interaction: A Conversation Analysis Guided Single Case Study of a Human-Robot Communication in a Museum Environment
Abstract:
In a single case study, we show how a conversation analysis (CA) approach can shed light onto the sequential unfolding of human-robot interaction. Relying on video data, we are able to show that CA allows us to investigate the respective turn-taking systems of humans and a NAO robot in their dialogical dynamics, thus pointing out relevant differences. Our fine grained video analysis points out occurring breakdowns and their overcoming, when humans and a NAO-robot engage in a multimodally uttered multi-party communication during a sports guessing game. Our findings suggest that interdisciplinary work opens up the opportunity to gain new insights into the challenging issues of human robot communication in order to provide resources for developing mechanisms that enable complex human-robot interaction (HRI).
19
19745
Robust Fault Diagnosis for Wind Turbine Systems Subjected to Multi-Faults
Abstract:
Operations, maintenance and reliability of wind turbines have received much attention over the years due to rapid expansion of wind farms. This paper explores early fault diagnosis scale technique based on a unique scheme of a 5MW wind turbine system that is optimized by genetic algorithm to be very sensitive to faults and resilient to disturbances. A quantitative model based analysis is pragmatic for primary fault diagnosis monitoring assessment to minimize downtime mostly caused by components breakdown and exploit productivity consistency. Simulation results are computed validating the wind turbine model which demonstrates system performance in a practical application of fault type examples. The results show the satisfactory effectiveness of the applied performance investigated in a Matlab/Simulink/Gatool environment.
18
36151
Development of Sb/MWCNT Free Standing Anode for Li-Ion Batteries
Abstract:
Antimony/Multi Walled Carbon nano tube nanocomposite (Sb/MWCNT) is synthesized using ethylene glycol mediated reduction process. Binder free, self-supporting and flexible Sb/MWCNT nanocomposite paper has been prepared by employing the vacuum filtration technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) to evaluate the structure of anode and tested for its performance in a Lithium rechargeable cell. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Sb/MWCNT composite paper anode delivers a specific discharge capacity of ~400 mAh g-1 up to a current density of 100 mA g-1.
17
18297
Observer-based Robust Diagnosis for Wind Turbine System
Abstract:
Operations and maintenance of wind turbine have received much attention by researcher due to rapid expansion of wind farms. This paper explores a novel fault diagnosis that is designed and optimized to be very sensitive to faults and robust to disturbances. The faults considered are the sensor faults of which the augmented observer is considered to enlarge faults and to be robust to disturbance. A qualitative model based analysis is proposed for early fault diagnosis to minimize downtime mostly caused by components breakdown and exploit productivity. Simulation results are computed validating the models provided which demonstrates system performance using practical application of fault type examples. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed techniques investigated in a Matlab/Simulink environment.
16
1553
Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes
Abstract:
A 'clean' black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a 'dirty black hole'. In this paper, The effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the greybody factor of a dirty black hole to be less than that of a clean black hole.
15
6214
Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation
Abstract:
Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to Nano-Aluminum Trihydrate (ATH) was confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nano-filler dispersion state. The LSR nano-composite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The DC insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without filler.
14
6211
Chitin Degradation in Pseudomonas fluorescens
Abstract:
Chitin, the second most abundant bio-polymer in nature after cellulose, composed of β (1→4) linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is a major structural component in the cell walls of fungi and the shells of crustaceans. Chitin and its derivatives are gaining importance of economic value due to its biological activity and its industrial and biomedical applications. There are several methods to hydrolyze chitin to NAG, but they are typically expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Chitinase which catalyzes the breakdown of chitin to NAG has received much attention owing to its various applications in biotechnology. The presented research examines the ability of the versatile soil microbe, Pseudomonas fluorescens grown in chitin medium to produce chitinase and a variety of value-added products under abiotic stress. We have found that with high pH, Pseudomonas fluorescens enable to metabolize chitin more than with neutral pH and the overexpression of chitinase was also increased. P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) assay for NAG production will be monitored and a combination of sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gels will be used to monitor the proteomic and metabolomic changes as a result of the abiotic stress. The bioreactor of chitinase will also be utilized.
13
30306
Temperature-Dependent Post-Mortem Changes in Human Cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT): An Approach in Determining Postmortem Interval
Abstract:
Globally approximately 55.3 million people die each year. In the India there were 95 lakh annual deaths in 2013. The number of deaths resulted from homicides, suicides and unintentional injuries in the same period was about 5.7 lakh. The ever-increasing crime rate necessitated the development of methods for determining time since death. An erroneous time of death window can lead investigators down the wrong path or possibly focus a case on an innocent suspect. In this regard a research was carried out by analyzing the temperature dependent degradation of a Cardiac Troponin-T protein (cTnT) in the myocardium postmortem as a marker for time since death. Cardiac tissue samples were collected from (n=6) medico-legal autopsies, (in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow India) after informed consent from the relatives and studied post-mortem degradation by incubation of the cardiac tissue at room temperature (20±2 OC), 12 0C, 25 0C and 37 0C for different time periods ((~5, 26, 50, 84, 132, 157, 180, 205, and 230 hours). The cases included were the subjects of road traffic accidents (RTA) without any prior history of disease who died in the hospital and their exact time of death was known. The analysis involved extraction of the protein, separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and visualization by Western blot using cTnT specific monoclonal antibodies. The area of the bands within a lane was quantified by scanning and digitizing the image using Gel Doc. The data shows a distinct temporal profile corresponding to the degradation of cTnT by proteases found in cardiac muscle. The disappearance of intact cTnT and the appearance of lower molecular weight bands are easily observed. Western blot data clearly showed the intact protein at 42 kDa, two major (27 kDa, 10kDa) fragments, two additional minor fragments (32 kDa) and formation of low molecular weight fragments as time increases. At 12 0C the intensity of band (intact cTnT) decreased steadily as compared to RT, 25 0C and 37 0C. Overall, both PMI and temperature had a statistically significant effect where the greatest amount of protein breakdown was observed within the first 38 h and at the highest temperature, 37 0C. The combination of high temperature (37 0C) and long Postmortem interval (105.15 hrs) had the most drastic effect on the breakdown of cTnT. If the percent intact cTnT is calculated from the total area integrated within a Western blot lane, then the percent intact cTnT shows a pseudo-first order relationship when plotted against the log of the time postmortem. These plots show a good coefficient of correlation of r = 0.95 (p=0.003) for the regression of the human heart at different temperature conditions. The data presented demonstrates that this technique can provide an extended time range during which Postmortem interval can be more accurately estimated.
12
70951
Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation with MFI Zeolite Membranes
Abstract:
Nowadays, water scarcity may be considered one of the most important and serious questions concerning our community: in fact, there is a remarkable mismatch between water supply and water demand. Exploitation of natural fresh water resources combined with higher water demand has led to an increased requirement for alternative water resources. In this context, desalination provides such an alternative source, offering water otherwise not accessible for irrigational, industrial and municipal use. Considering the various drawbacks of the polymeric membranes, zeolite membranes represent a potential device for water desalination owing to their high thermal and chemical stability. In this area wide attention was focused on the MFI (silicalite, ZSM-5) membranes, having a pore size lower (about 5.5 Å) than the major kinetic diameters of hydrated ions. In the present work, a scale-up for the preparation of supported silicalite membranes was performed. Therefore, tubular membranes 30 cm long were synthesized by using the secondary growth method coupled with the cross flow seeding procedure. The secondary growth presents two steps: seeding and growth of zeolite crystals on the support. This process, decoupling zeolite nucleation from crystals growth, permits to control the conditions of each step separately. The seeding procedure consists of a cross-flow filtration through a porous support coupled with the support rotation and tilting. The combination of these three different aspects allows a homogeneous and uniform coverage of the support with the zeolite seeds. After characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, the prepared membranes were tested by means of single gas permeation and then by Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) using both deionized water and NaCl solutions. The experimental results evidenced the possibility to perform the scale up for the preparation of almost defect free silicalite membranes. VMD tests indicated the possibility to prepare membranes that exhibit interesting performance in terms of fluxes and salt rejections for concentrations from 0.2 M to 0.9 M. Furthermore, it was possible to restore the original performance of the membrane after an identified cleaning procedure. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) for funding the research Project 895/33 entitled ‘Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite Membranes for Water Treatment’.
11
22593
Dielectric Behavior of 2D Layered Insulator Hexagonal Boron Nitride
Abstract:
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been used as a substrate and gate dielectric for graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). Using a graphene/h-BN/TiN (channel/dielectric/gate) stack, key material properties of h-BN were investigated i.e. dielectric strength and tunneling behavior. Work function difference between graphene and TiN results in spontaneous p-doping of graphene through a multi-layer h-BN flake. However, at high levels of current stress, n-doping of graphene is observed, possibly due to the charge transfer across the thin h-BN multi layer. Neither Direct Tunneling (DT) nor Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling (FNT) was observed in TiN/h-BN/Au hetero structures with h-BN showing two distinct volatile conduction states before breakdown. Hexagonal boron nitride emerges as a material of choice for gate dielectrics in GFETs because of robust dielectric properties and high tunneling barrier.
10
72041
Computer Fraud from the Perspective of Iran's Law and International Documents
Abstract:
One of the modern crimes against property and ownership in the cyber-space is the computer fraud. Despite being modern, the aforementioned crime has its roots in the principles of religious jurisprudence. In some cases, this crime is compatible with the traditional regulations and that is when the computer is considered as a crime commitment device and also some computer frauds that take place in the context of electronic exchanges are considered as crime based on the E-commerce Law (approved in 2003) but the aforementioned regulations are flawed and until recent years there was no comprehensive law in this regard; yet after some years the Computer Crime Act was approved in 2009/26/5 and partly solved the problem of legal vacuum. The present study intends to investigate the computer fraud according to Iran's Computer Crime Act and by taking into consideration the international documents.
9
69683
Nanofluidic Cell for Resolution Improvement of Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy
Abstract:
Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is a growing area with a broad range of applications from physics and chemistry to material engineering and biology, in which it is possible to image in-situ unseen phenomena. For this, a nanofluidic device is used to insert the nanoflow with the sample inside the microscope in order to keep the liquid encapsulated because of the high vacuum. In the last years, Si3N4 windows have been widely used because of its mechanical stability and low imaging contrast. Nevertheless, the pressure difference between the inside fluid and the outside vacuum in the TEM generates bulging in the windows. This increases the imaged fluid volume, which decreases the signal to noise ratio (SNR), limiting the achievable spatial resolution. With the proposed device, the membrane is fortified with a microstructure capable of stand higher pressure differences, and almost removing completely the bulging. A theoretical study is presented with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations which provide a deep understanding of the membrane mechanical conditions and proves the effectiveness of this novel concept. Bulging and von Mises Stress were studied for different membrane dimensions, geometries, materials, and thicknesses. The microfabrication of the device was made with a thin wafer coated with thin layers of SiO2 and Si3N4. After the lithography process, these layers were etched (reactive ion etching and buffered oxide etch (BOE) respectively). After that, the microstructure was etched (deep reactive ion etching). Then the back side SiO2 was etched (BOE) and the array of free-standing micro-windows was obtained. Additionally, a Pyrex wafer was patterned with windows, and inlets/outlets, and bonded (anodic bonding) to the Si side to facilitate the thin wafer handling. Later, a thin spacer is sputtered and patterned with microchannels and trenches to guide the nanoflow with the samples. This approach reduces considerably the common bulging problem of the window, improving the SNR, contrast and spatial resolution, increasing substantially the mechanical stability of the windows, allowing a larger viewing area. These developments lead to a wider range of applications of liquid TEM, expanding the spectrum of possible experiments in the field.
8
37937
New Findings on the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of Aluminium
Abstract:
The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a particular electrochemical process to produce protective oxide ceramic coatings on light-weight metals (Al, Mg, Ti). When applied to aluminum alloys, the resulting PEO coating exhibit improved wear and corrosion resistance because thick, hard, compact and adherent crystalline alumina layers can be achieved. Several investigations have been carried out to improve the efficiency of the PEO process and one particular way consists in tuning the suitable electrical regime. Despite the considerable interest in this process, there is still no clear understanding of the underlying discharge mechanisms that make possible metal oxidation up to hundreds of µm through the ceramic layer. A key parameter that governs the PEO process is the numerous short-lived micro-discharges (micro-plasma in liquid) that occur continuously over the processed surface when the high applied voltage exceeds the critical dielectric breakdown value of the growing ceramic layer. By using a bipolar pulsed current to supply the electrodes, we previously observed that micro-discharges are delayed with respect to the rising edge of the anodic current. Nevertheless, explanation of the origin of such phenomena is still not clear and needs more systematic investigations. The aim of the present communication is to identify the relationship that exists between this delay and the mechanisms responsible of the oxide growth. For this purpose, the delay of micro-discharges ignition is investigated as the function of various electrical parameters such as the current density (J), the current pulse frequency (F) and the anodic to cathodic charge quantity ratio (R = Qp/Qn) delivered to the electrodes. The PEO process was conducted on Al2214 aluminum alloy substrates in a solution containing potassium hydroxide [KOH] and sodium silicate diluted in deionized water. The light emitted from micro-discharges was detected by a photomultiplier and the micro-discharge parameters (number, size, life-time) were measured during the process by means of ultra-fast video imaging (125 kfr./s). SEM observations and roughness measurements were performed to characterize the morphology of the elaborated oxide coatings while XRD was carried out to evaluate the amount of corundum -Al203 phase. Results show that whatever the applied current waveform, the delay of micro-discharge appearance increases as the process goes on. Moreover, the delay is shorter when the current density J (A/dm2), the current pulse frequency F (Hz) and the ratio of charge quantity R are high. It also appears that shorter delays are associated to stronger micro-discharges (localized, long and large micro-discharges) which have a detrimental effect on the elaborated oxide layers (thin and porous). On the basis of the results, a model for the growth of the PEO oxide layers will be presented and discussed. Experimental results support that a mechanism of electrical charge accumulation at the oxide surface / electrolyte interface takes place until the dielectric breakdown occurs and thus until micro-discharges appear.
7
113114
Polysulfide as Active ‘Stealth’ Polymers with Additional Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Abstract:
Since 40 years, poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been the gold standard in biomaterials and drug delivery, because of its combination of chemical and biological inertness. However, the possibility of its breakdown under oxidative conditions and the demonstrated development of anti-PEG antibodies highlight the necessity to develop carriers based on materials with increased stability in a challenging biological environment. Here, we describe the synthesis of polysulfide via anionic ring-opening polymerization. In vitro, the synthesized polymer was characterized by low toxicity and a level of complement activation (in human plasma) and macrophage uptake slightly lower than PEG and poly (2‐methyl-2‐oxazoline) (PMOX), of a similar size. Importantly, and differently from PEG, on activated macrophages, the synthesized polymer showed a strong and dose-dependent ROS scavenging activity, which resulted in the corresponding reduction of cytokine production. Therefore, the results from these studies show that polysulfide is highly biocompatible and are potential candidates to be used as an alternative to PEG for various applications in nanomedicine.
6
2428
The Control System Architecture of Space Environment Simulator
Abstract:
This article mainly introduces the control system architecture of space environment simulator, simultaneously also briefly introduce the automation control technology of industrial process and the measurement technology of vacuum and cold black environment. According to the volume of chamber, the space environment simulator is divided into three types of small, medium and large. According to the classification and application of space environment simulator, the control system is divided into the control system of small, medium, large space environment simulator and the centralized control system of multiple space environment simulators.
5
107127
Development of Perovskite Quantum Dots Light Emitting Diode by Dual-Source Evaporation
Abstract:
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are steadily becoming the new standard for luminescent display devices because of their energy efficiency and relatively low cost, and the purity of the light they emit. Our research focuses on the optical properties of the lead halide perovskite CsPbBr₃ and its family that is showing steadily improving performances in LEDs and solar cells. The objective of this work is to investigate CsPbBr₃ as an emitting layer made by physical vapor deposition instead of the usual solution-processed perovskites, for use in LEDs. The deposition in vacuum eliminates any risk of contaminants as well as the necessity for the use of chemical ligands in the synthesis of quantum dots. Initial results show the versatility of the dual-source evaporation method, which allowed us to create different phases in bulk form by altering the mole ratio or deposition rate of CsBr and PbBr₂. The distinct phases Cs₄PbBr₆, CsPbBr₃ and CsPb₂Br₅ – confirmed through XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and X-ray diffraction analysis – have different optical properties and morphologies that can be used for specific applications in optoelectronics. We are particularly focused on the blue shift expected from quantum dots (QDs) and the stability of the perovskite in this form. We already obtained proof of the formation of QDs through our dual source evaporation method with electron microscope imaging and photoluminescence testing, which we understand is a first in the community. We also incorporated the QDs in an LED structure to test the electroluminescence and the effect on performance and have already observed a significant wavelength shift. The goal is to reach 480nm after shifting from the original 528nm bulk emission. The hole transport layer (HTL) material onto which the CsPbBr₃ is evaporated is a critical part of this study as the surface energy interaction dictates the behaviour of the QD growth. A thorough study to determine the optimal HTL is in progress. A strong blue shift for a typically green emitting material like CsPbBr₃ would eliminate the necessity of using blue emitting Cl-based perovskite compounds and could prove to be more stable in a QD structure. The final aim is to make a perovskite QD LED with strong blue luminescence, fabricated through a dual-source evaporation technique that could be scalable to industry level, making this device a viable and cost-effective alternative to current commercial LEDs.
4
41777
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) of CNC Turning Center
Abstract:
Today, the CNC turning center becomes an important machine tool for manufacturing industry worldwide. However, as the breakdown of a single CNC turning center may result in the production of an entire plant being halted. For this reason, operations and preventive maintenance have to be minimized to ensure availability of the system. Indeed, improving the availability of the CNC turning center as a whole, objectively leads to a substantial reduction in production loss, operating, maintenance and support cost. In this paper, fault tree analysis (FTA) method is used for reliability analysis of CNC turning center. The major faults associated with the system and the causes for the faults are presented graphically. Boolean algebra is used for evaluating fault tree (FT) diagram and for deriving governing reliability model for CNC turning center. Failure data over a period of six years has been collected and used for evaluating the model. Qualitative and quantitative analysis is also carried out to identify critical sub-systems and components of CNC turning center. It is found that, at the end of the warranty period (one year), the reliability of the CNC turning center as a whole is around 0.61628.
3
6905
Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure Interconnects
Abstract:
The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h- BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h- BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.
2
39443
Etude 3D Quantum Numerical Simulation of Performance in the HEMT
Abstract:
We present a simulation of a HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) structure with and without a field plate. We extract the device characteristics through the analysis of DC, AC and high frequency regimes, as shown in this paper. This work demonstrates the optimal device with a gate length of 15 nm, InAlN/GaN heterostructure and field plate structure, making it superior to modern HEMTs when compared with otherwise equivalent devices. This improves the ability to bear the burden of the current density passes in the channel. We have demonstrated an excellent current density, as high as 2.05 A/m, a peak extrinsic transconductance of 0.59S/m at VDS=2 V, and cutting frequency cutoffs of 638 GHz in the first HEMT and 463 GHz for Field plate HEMT., maximum frequency of 1.7 THz, maximum efficiency of 73%, maximum breakdown voltage of 400 V, leakage current density IFuite=1 x 10-26 A, DIBL=33.52 mV/V and an ON/OFF current density ratio higher than 1 x 1010. These values were determined through the simulation by deriving genetic and Monte Carlo algorithms that optimize the design and the future of this technology.
1
15805
Microstructure and Hot Deformation Behavior of Fe-20Cr-5Al Alloy
Abstract:
Abstract—High temperature deformation behavior of cast Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 1100 to 1200oC. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 300×300×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Tensile strength of cast Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy was 4 MPa at 1200oC. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 13 MPa at 1100oC. Elongation also increased from 18 to 80% with temperature decreased from 1200oC to 1100oC. Microstructure observation revealed that M23C6 carbide was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix.