Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66727

Diffraction-Based Immunosensor for Dengue NS1 Virus
The dengue fever belongs to the world’s major cause of death, especially in the tropical areas. In the Philippines, the number of dengue cases during the first half of 2015 amounted to more than 50,000. In 2012, the total number of cases of dengue infection reached 132,046 of which 701 patients died. Dengue Nonstructural 1 virus (Dengue NS1 virus) is a recently discovered biomarker for the early detection of dengue virus. It is present in the serum of the dengue virus infected patients even during the earliest stages prior to the formation of dengue virus antibodies. A biosensor for the dengue detection using NS1 virus was developed for faster and accurate diagnostic tool. Biotinylated anti-dengue virus NS1 was used as the receptor for dengue virus NS1. Using the Diffractive Optics Technology (dotTM) technique, real time binding of the NS1 virus to the biotinylated anti-NS1 antibody is observed. The dot®-Avidin sensor recognizes the biotinylated anti-NS1 and this served as the capture molecule to the analyte, NS1 virus. The increase in the signal of the diffractive intensity signifies the binding of the capture and the analyte. The LOD was found to be 3.87 ng/mL while the LOQ is 12.9 ng/mL. The developed biosensor was also found to be specific for the NS1 virus.
A Comparative Study of Virus Detection Techniques
The growing number of computer viruses and the detection of zero day malware have been the concern for security researchers for a large period of time. Existing antivirus products (AVs) rely on detecting virus signatures which do not provide a full solution to the problems associated with these viruses. The use of logic formulae to model the behaviour of viruses is one of the most encouraging recent developments in virus research, which provides alternatives to classic virus detection methods. In this paper, we proposed a comparative study about different virus detection techniques. This paper provides the advantages and drawbacks of different detection techniques. Different techniques will be used in this paper to provide a discussion about what technique is more effective to detect computer viruses.
Zika Virus NS5 Protein Potential Inhibitors: An Enhanced in silico Approach in Drug Discovery
The re-emerging Zika virus is an arthropod-borne virus that has been described to have explosive potential as a worldwide pandemic. The initial transmission of the virus was through a mosquito vector, however, evolving modes of transmission has allowed the spread of the disease over continents. The virus already been linked to irreversible chronic central nervous system (CNS) conditions. The concerns of the scientific and clinical community are the consequences of Zika viral mutations, thus suggesting the urgent need for viral inhibitors. There have been large strides in vaccine development against the virus but there are still no FDA-approved drugs available. Rapid rational drug design and discovery research is fundamental in the production of potent inhibitors against the virus that will not just mask the virus, but destroy it completely. In silico drug design allows for this prompt screening of potential leads, thus decreasing the consumption of precious time and resources. This study demonstrates an optimized and proven screening technique in the discovery of two potential small molecule inhibitors of Zika virus Methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This in silico “per-residue energy decomposition pharmacophore” virtual screening approach will be critical in aiding scientists in the discovery of not only effective inhibitors of Zika viral targets, but also a wide range of anti-viral agents.
Biopsy Proven Polyoma (BK) Virus in Saudi Kidney Recipients – Prevalence, Clinicopathological Features and Clinico-Pathological Correlations
Objectives: To study the prevalence, clinicopathological features, risk factors and outcome of biopsy proven polyoma (BK) virus infection among Saudi kidney transplant recipients and compare them to negative BK virus group. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all the patients with biopsy-proven polyoma (BK) virus infection in King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh between 2005 and 2011. The details of clinical presentation, the indication for kidney biopsy, the laboratory findings at presentation, the natural history of the disease, thepathological findings, the prognosis as well as the response to therapy were all recorded. Results: Kidney biopsy was performed in 37 cases of unexplained graft dysfunction. BK virus was found in 10 (27%). Out of those 10, 3 (30%) ended with graft failure. BK virus occurred in all patients who received ATG induction therapy 100% versus 59.3% in the non BK virus patients (p=0.06). Furthermore, the risk of BK virus was much less in those who received acyclovir as an anti-viral prophylaxis as compared to those who did not receive it (p=0.01). Also, patients with BK virus weighed much less (mean 46.7±20.6 Kgs) than those without BK virus at time of transplantation (mean 64.3±12.1). Graft survival was better among deceased donor kidneys compared to living ones (P=0.016) and with older age (P=0.005). Conclusion: Our findings suggest the involvement of ATG induction therapy, the lack of antiviral prophylaxis therapy and lower weight at transplant as significant risk factors for the development of BK virus infection.
Household Low Temperature MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) Virus Inactivation Using a Hot Bubble Column Evaporator
The MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) virus was used as a surrogate to estimate the inactivation rates for enteric viruses when using a hot air bubble column evaporator (HBCE) system in the treatment of household wastewater. In this study, we have combined MS2 virus surface charging properties with thermal inactivation rates, using an improved double layer plaque assay technique, in order to assess the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water. When bubbling a continuous flow of dry air, at 200°C, only heats the aqueous solution in the bubble column to about 50°C. Viruses are not inactivated by this solution temperature, as confirmed separately from water bath heating experiments. Hence, the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water appeared to be caused entirely by collisions between the hot air bubbles and the virus organisms. This new energy efficient treatment for water reuse applications can reduce the thermal energy required to only 25% (about 113.7 kJ/L) of that required for boiling (about 450 kJ/L).
Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Das-Elisa Method in Georgia
Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus strain. Selection of resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015- 2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DASELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY (21.4%) and PLRV (19.7%) virus presence in collected samples was relatively high compared to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentrations. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia) and PVM virus (3.12%) was characterized with low prevalence. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9% of samples were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the results it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infections are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term control of potato viral infection, especially seed-potatoes, must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.
Eradication of Apple mosaic virus from Corylus avellana L. via Cryotherapy and Confirmation of Virus-Free Plants via Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is an ilarvirus causing harmful damages and product loses in many plant species. Because of xylem and phloem vessels absence, plant meristem tissues used for meristem cultures are virus-free, but sometimes only meristem cultures are not sufficient for virus elimination. Cryotherapy, a new method based on cryogenic techniques, is used for virus elimination. In this technique, 0.1-0.3mm meristems are excised from organized shoot apex of a selected in vitro donor plant and these meristems are frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using suitable cryogenic technique. The aim of this work was to develop an efficient procedure for ApMV-free hazelnut via cryotherapy technique and confirmation of virus-free plants using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR technique. 100% virus free plantlets were obtained using droplet-vitrification method involved cold hardening in vitro cultures of hazelnut, 24 hours sucrose preculture of meristems on MS medium supplemented with 0.4M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets.
Global Analysis of HIV Virus Models with Cell-to-Cell
Recent experimental studies have shown that HIV can be transmitted directly from cell to cell when structures called virological synapses form during interactions between T cells. In this article, we describe a new within-host model of HIV infection that incorporates two mechanisms: infection by free virions and the direct cell-to-cell transmission. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of the model. We show that if the basic reproduction number R0 1, the virus is cleared and the disease dies out; if R0 > 1, the virus persists in the host. We also prove that the unique positive equilibrium attracts all positive solutions under additional assumptions on the parameters.
Chikungunya Virus Infection among Patients with Febrile Illness Attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
Background: Chikungunya (CHIK) virus, a previously anecdotally described arbovirus, is now assuming a worldwide public health burden. The CHIK virus infection is characterized by potentially life threatening and debilitating arthritis in addition to the high fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache and rash. Method: Three hundred and seventy (370) serum samples were collected from outpatients with febrile illness attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, and was used to detect for Chikungunya (CHIK) virus IgG and IgM antibodies using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). Result: Out of the 370 sera tested, 39 (10.5%) were positive for presence of CHIK virus antibodies. A total of 24 (6.5%) tested positive for CHIK virus IgM only while none (0.0%) was positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG only and 15 (4.1%) of the serum samples were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. A significant difference (p< 0.0001) was observed in the distribution of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to gender. The males had prevalence of 8.5% IgM antibodies as against 4.6% observed in females. On the other hand 4.6% of the females were positive for concurrent CHIK virus IgG and IgM antibodies when compared to a prevalence of 3.4% observed in males. Only the age groups ≤ 60 years and the undisclosed age group were positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG and/or IgM antibodies. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies among the study subjects Analysis of the prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to clinical presentation (as observed by Clinicians) of the patients revealed that headache and fever were the most frequently encountered ailments. Conclusion: The CHIK virus IgM and concurrent IgM and IgG antibody prevalence rates of 6.5% and 4.1% observed in this study indicates a current infection and the lack of IgG antibody alone observed shows that the infection is not endemic but sporadic. Recommendation: Further studies should be carried to establish the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus infection vis-à-vis vector dynamics in the study area. A comprehensive study need to be carried out on the molecular characterization of the CHIK virus circulating in Nigeria with a view to developing CHIK virus vaccine.
DNA Vaccine Study against Vaccinia Virus Using In vivo Electroporation
The adverse reactions of current live smallpox vaccines and potential use of smallpox as a bioterror weapon have heightened the development of new effective vaccine for this infectious disease. In the present study, DNA vaccine vector was produced which was optimized for expression of the vaccinia virus L1 antigen in the mouse model. A plasmid IgM-tL1R, which contains codon-optimized L1R gene, was constructed and fused with an IgM signal sequence under the regulation of a SV40 enhancer. The expression and secretion of recombinant L1 protein was confirmed in vitro 293 T cell. Mice were administered the DNA vaccine by electroporation and challenged with vaccinia virus. We observed that immunization with IgM-tL1R induced potent neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge. Isotyping studies reveal that immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibody predominated after the immunization, indicative of a T helper type 1 response. Our results suggest that an optimized DNA vaccine, IgM-tL1R, can be effective in stimulating anti-vaccinia virus immune response and provide protection against lethal orthopoxvirus challenge.
The Ebola Virus Disease and Its Outbreak in Nigeria
The Ebola virus disease (EVD); also Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus as a fever, sore throat, muscle pain, and headaches. Then, vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The first death in Nigeria was reported on 25 July 2014: a Liberian-American with Ebola flew from Liberia to Nigeria and died in Lagos soon after arrival. As part of the effort to contain the disease, possible contacts were monitored –353 in Lagos and 451 in Port Harcourt On 22 September, the World Health Organisation reported a total of 20 cases, including eight deaths. The WHO's representative in Nigeria officially declared Nigeria Ebola-free on 20 October after no new active cases were reported in the follow-up contact. This paper looks at the Ebola Virus in general and the measures taken by Nigeria to combat its spread.
In vitro Antiviral Activity of Ocimum sanctum against Animal Viruses
Ocimum sanctum, a well known medicinal plant is used for various alignments in Ayurvedic medicines. It was found to be effective in treating the humans suffering from different viral infections like chicken pox, small pox, measles and influenza. In addition, curative effect of the plant in malignant patients was also reported. In the present study, leaves of this plant were screened against animal viruses i.e. Bovine Herpes Virus-type-1 (BHV-1), Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). BHV-1 and FMDV were screened in MDBK and BHK cell lines respectively using cytopathic inhibition test. While NDV was propagated in chick embryo fibroblast culture and tested by haemagglutination inhibition test. Maximum non toxic dose of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves was calculated by MTT assay in all the cell cultures and nontoxic doses were used for antiviral activity against viruses. 98.4% and 85.3% protection were recorded against NDV and BHV-1 respectively. However, Ocimum sanctum extract failed to show any inhibitory effect on the cytopathic effect caused by FMD virus. It can be concluded that Ocimum sanctum is a very effective remedy for curing viral infections in animals also.
Negative RT-PCR in a Newborn Infected with Zika Virus: A Case Report
Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome is an entity composed by a variety of birth defects presented in newborns that have been exposed to the Zika Virus during pregnancy. The syndrome characteristic features are severe microcephaly, cerebral tissue abnormalities, ophthalmological abnormalities such as uveitis and chorioretinitis, arthrogryposis, clubfoot deformity and muscular tone abnormalities. The confirmatory test is the Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) associated to the physical findings. Here we present the case of a newborn with microcephaly whose mother presented a confirmed Zika Virus infection during the third trimester of pregnancy, despite of the evident findings and the history of Zika infection the RT-PCR in amniotic and cerebrospinal fluid of the newborn was negative. RT-PCR has demonstrated a low sensibility in samples with low viral loads, reason why, we propose a clinical diagnosis in patients with clinical history of Zika Virus infection during pregnancy accompanied by evident clinical manifestations of the child.
Inhibition of Mixed Infection Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Virus by Fullerene Compound
Background and aims: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is very often associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection but HIV patients are treated with a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs which are toxic. The use of an antiviral drug which will be active against both viruses like ferrovir found in our previous studies is rather actual. Earlier we had shown that Fullerene poly-amino capronic acid (FPACA) was active in case of monoinfection of HIV-1 or HSV-1. The aim of the study was to analyze the efficiency of FPACA against mixed infection of HIV and HSV. Methods: The peripheral blood lymphocytes, CEM, MT-4 cells were simultaneously infected with HIV-1 and HSV-1. FPACA was added 1 hour before infection. Cells viability was detected by MTT assay, virus antigens detected by ELISA, syncytium formation detected by microscopy. The different multiplicity of HIV-1/HSV-1 ratio was used. Results: The double viral HIV-1/HSV-1 infection was more cytopathic comparing with monoinfections. In mixed infection by the HIV-1/HSV-1 concentration of HIV-1 antigens and syncytium formations increased by 1,7 to 2,3 times in different cells in comparison with the culture infected with HIV-1 alone. The concentration of HSV-1 increased by 1,5-1,7 times, respectively. Administration of FPACA (1 microg/ml) protected cells: HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:1) – 80,1%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:4) – 57,2%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:8) – 46,3 %; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:16) – 17,0%. Virus’s antigen levels were also reduced. Syncytium formation was totally inhibited in all cases of mixed infection. Conclusion: FPACA showed antiviral activity in case of mixed viral infection induced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus. The effect of viral inhibition increased with the multiplicity of HIV-1 in the inoculum. The mechanism of FPACA action is connected with the blocking of the virus particles adsorption to the cells and it could be suggested that it can have an antiviral activity against some other viruses too. Now FPACA could be considered as a potential drug for treatment of HIV disease complicated with opportunistic herpes viral infection.
Prevalence Determination of Hepatitis D Virus Genotypes among HBsAg Positive Patients in Kerman Province of Iran
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg in Kerman province of Iran. This cross-sectional study a total of 400 patients with HBV infection attending the clinic center of Besat from 2012 to 2014 were included. We carried out ELISA to detect anti-HDV antibodies. Those testing positive were analyzed further for HDV-RNA and for genotyping using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and RT-nested PCR- sequencing. Among 400 patients in this study, 67 cases (16.75 %) were containing anti-HDV antibody which we found HDV RNA in just 7 (1.75%) serum samples. Analysis of these 7 positive HDV showed that all of them have genotype I. According to current study the HDV prevalence in Kerman is higher than the reported prevalence of 6.6% for Iran as a whole and clade 1 (genotype 1) is the predominant clade of HDV in Kerman.
Infectivity of Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) to Various Tsetse Species
Several tsetse fly species (Diptera: Glossinidae) in natural or colonized populations can be infected with the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), a circular dsDNA virus (Hytrosaviridae). The virus infection is mainly asymptomatic but, in some species under certain conditions, the infection can produce salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms. In the laboratory colonized tsetse, flies with SGH have reduced fertility, which negatively affects colony performance. Therefore, a high prevalence of SGH in insect mass rearing represents a major challenge for tsetse control using the sterile insect technique. The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of Glossina pallidipes SGHV infection in various tsetse species on mortality and productivity and its impact on the symbiotic bacteria. Hypertropied salivary glands (SG) were collected from G. pallidipes into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to prepare suspension; 2 µl aliquots were injected into adults of several tsetse species (G. pallidipes (Gp), G. p. gambiensis (Gpg), G. brevipalpis (Gb), G. morsitans morsitans (Gmm), G. morsitans centralis (Gmc) and G. fuscipes (Gf)) and the change in virus and symbiont titers were analyzed using qPCR. The development of SGH in the F1 was detected by dissection 10 days after emergence and virus infection was confirmed by PCR. The impact of virus infection on fly mortality and productivity was recorded. 2 µl aliquots were also injected into 3rd instar larvae of the different species and the adult SGs assayed by PCR for virus. Virus positive SGs from each species were homogenized in PBS and pooled within species for injection into larvae of the same species. Flies injected with PBS were used as control. Injecting teneral flies with SGHV caused increasing virus titer over time in all species but no SGH was detected. Dissection of the F1 also showed no development of SGH except in Gp (the homologous host). Injection of SGHV did not have any impact on the prevalence of the tsetse symbionts, but an increase in Sodalis titer was observed correlated with fly age regardless of virus infection. The virus infection had a negative impact on productivity and mortality. SGHV injection into larvae of the different species produced SGHV infected glands in the adults determined by PCR with a rate of 60%, 27%, 16%, 7% and 7% for Gp, Gf, Gpg, Gmm and Gmc, respectively. Virus positive SGs observed in the heterologous species were smaller than SGH found in Gp. No virus positive SG was detected by PCR in Gb and no SGH was observed in any adults except in Gp. Injecting virus suspension from the virus positive SGs into conspecific larvae did not produce any adults with infected SGs (except in Gp). SGHV can infect all tested tsetse species. Although the virus can infect and increase in titer in other tsetse species and affect fly mortality and productivity, no vertical virus transmission was observed in other tsetse species with might indicate a transmission barrier in these species, and virus collected from flies injected as larvae was not infective by injection.
Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa Destructor in the Local Honey Bee Colonies Apis mellifera intermissa in Algeria
Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) is considered as the most prevalent virus that dangerous the honeybee health worldwide today. In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of the virus on honeybees (Apis mellifera intermissa) mortality in Algeria and we conducted the study on samples collected from the central area in the country. We used PCR for the diagnoses of the (DWV) in the diagnosis. The results had shown a high infestation in the sampled colonies and it represented 42% of the total sample. In this study, we found a clear role of both Varroa destructor mite and DWV on hive mortality in the experimented apiary. Further studies need to be conducted in order to give soled recommendations to the beekeepers, decision makers and stockholders of the Algerian beekeeping sector.
Molecular Detection of Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fevers in Rodents in the South-West of Korea
Background: Many pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers of medical and veterinary importance have been identified and isolated from rodents in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Objective: We investigated the prevalence of emerging viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and flaviviruses, from wild rodents. Methods: Striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius, (n=39) were captured during 2014-2015 in the south-west of ROK. Using molecular methods, lung samples were evaluated for SFTS virus, HFRS virus and flavivirus, and seropositivity was evaluated in the blood. Results: A high positive rate of Hantavirus (46.2%) was detected in A.agrarius lungs by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-N-PCR). The monthly prevalence of HFRS virus was 16.7% in October, 86.7% in November and 25% in August of the following year (p < 0.001). Moreover, 17.9% of blood samples were serologically positive for Hantavirus antibodies. The most prevalent strain in A. agrarius was Hantaan virus. All samples were positive for neither SFTS nor flavivirus. Conclusion: Hantan virus was detected in 86.7% of A. agrarius in November (autumn), and thus, virus shedding from A. agrarius can increase the risk of humans contracting HFRS. These findings may help to predict and prevent disease outbreaks in ROK.
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Water Filter for Virus Pathogen Removal
Diseases caused by contaminated drinking water are the worldwide problem, which leads to the death and severe illnesses for hundreds of millions million people each year. There is an urgent need for efficient water treatment techniques for virus pathogens removal. The aim of the research was to develop safe and economic solution, which help with the water treatment. In this study, the synthesis of copper-based multi-walled carbon nanotube composites is described. Proposed solution utilize combination of a low-cost material with a high active surface area and copper antiviral properties. Removal of viruses from water was possible by adsorption based on electrostatic interactions of negatively charged virus with a positively charged filter material.
Dual-functional Peptide With Defective Interfering Genes Protecting Mice From Avian and Seasonal Influenza Virus Infection
Limited efficacy of current antivirals and antiviral-resistant mutations impair anti-influenza treatment. Here, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antiviral effect of three defective interfering genes (DIG-3) of influenza virus. Virus replication was significantly reduced in 293T and A549 cells transfected with DIG-3. Mice transfected with DIG-3 encoded by jetPEI-vector, as prophylaxis and therapeutics against A(H7N7) virus respectively, had significantly better survivals (80% and 50%) than control mice (0%). We further developed a dual-functional peptide TAT-P1, which delivers DIG-3 with high transfection efficiency and concomitantly exerts antiviral activity by preventing endosomal acidification. TAT-P1/DIG-3 was more effective than jetPEI/DIG-3 in treating A(H7N7) or A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice and showed potent prophylactic protection on A(H7N7) or A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice. The addition of P1 peptide, preventing endosomal acidification, could enhance the protection of TAT-P1/DIG-3 on A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice. Dual-functional TAT-P1 with DIG-3 can effectively protect or treat mice infected by avian and seasonal influenza virus infection.
Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method in Georgia
Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus stain. Selection resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according to potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015-2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), M (PVM), S (PVS), X (PVX), Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY and PLRV virus presence respectively: 21.4% and 19.7% in collected samples was relatively high comparing to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentration. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia). With low prevalence was (3.12%) characterized PVM virus. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9 % of patterns were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the result it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infection are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term work on potato virus control, where relatively frequent replacement of seed-potatoes must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.
Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method in Georgia
Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus stain. Selection resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according to potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015-2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), M (PVM), S (PVS), X (PVX), Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY and PLRV virus presence respectively: 21.4% and 19.7% in collected samples was relatively high comparing to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentration. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia). With low prevalence was (3.12%) characterized PVM virus. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9 % of patterns were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the result it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infection are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term work on potato virus control, where relatively frequent replacement of seed-potatoes must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.
Molecular Epidemiologic Distribution of HDV Genotypes among Different Ethnic Groups in Iran: A Systematic Review
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg among different ethnic groups of Iran. This systematic review study reviews the results of different studies which examined 2000 Iranian patients with HBV infection from 2010 to 2015. Among 2000 patients in this study, 16.75 % were containing anti-HDV antibody and HDV RNA was found in just 1.75% cases. All of positive cases also have genotype I.
Negative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Newborn Infected with Zika Virus
Background: Zika virus is an arthropod-borne pathogen that targets neural progenitor cells. Viral cerebritis can affect cerebral embryogenesis resulting in neurological abnormalities. The virus is transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, sexual contact, saliva, urine, breast milk, blood transfusion and during pregnancy. Since 2015 existing evidence has highlighted the wide range of congenital defects associated with the acquisition of Zika virus in utero being microcephaly the most known. The mechanism by which the virus induces microcephaly remains under study, although, the literature suggests Zika virus dysregulates cell cycle, transcription and apoptotic pathways in neural progenitor cells leading to reduced growth and hence microcephaly. Zika virus infection can be diagnosed by serology through IgM ELISA and RNA detection by RT-PCR which is more specific. Case report: Here we expose the case of a newborn of a mother with confirmed Zika infection during her first trimester of pregnancy. An ultrasonography at 28, five weeks of gestation showed microcephaly (-3 SD), dandy walker variant, bilaterally ventriculomegaly and calcifications. A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus was done in the mother with a positive result. The newborn presented at birth with hypertelorism, short neck, microcephaly, micrognathia, long nasal bridge and hypoplastic maxillar, all features compatible with congenital Zika virus infection. RT-PCR was done in cerebrospinal fluid with a negative result. Conclusion: Taking into account the infant symptoms and the recent epidemic of Zika Virus we diagnosed congenital Zika infection, we suggest physicians should analyze not only the newborn molecular tests but also should suspect the infection when the clinical features are typical and the mother has a confirmed Zika infection.
The Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viral Infections among Autopsy Cases in Jordan
Background: Morgues are high-risk areas for the spread of infection from the cadavers to the staff during the postmortem examination. Infection can spread from corpses to workers by the airborne route, by direct contact, or from needle and sharp object injuries. Objective: Knowledge about the prevalence of these infections among autopsies is prudent to appreciate any risk of transmission and to further enforce safety measures. Method: A total of 242 autopsies were tested. Age ranged from 3 days to 94 years (median 75.5 years, mean 45.3 (21.9 ± SD)). There were 172 (71%) males. Results: The cause of death was considered natural in 137 (56.6%) cases, accidental in 89 (36.8%), homicidal in 9 (3.7%), suicidal in 4 (1.7%), and unknown in 3 (1.2%). Hepatitis B surface antigen was positive in 5 (2.1%) cases. Hepatitis C virus antibody was detected in 5 (2.1%) cases and the hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction was positive in 2 of them (0.8%). HIV antibody was not detected in any of the cases. Conclusions: Autopsies can be associated with exposure to blood borne viruses. Autopsies performed during the study period were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody. Positive tests were subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. There is low prevalence of infections with these viruses in our autopsy cases. However, the risk of transmission remains a threat. Healthcare workers in the forensic departments should adhere to standard precautions.
Inactivation Kinetics of DNA and RNA Viruses by Ozone-Air Mixture in a Flow Mixer
Virucidal activity of ozone is well known: dissolved in water it kill viruses very fast. The virucidal capacity of ozone in ozone-air mixture is less known. The goal of the study was to investigate the virucidal potentials of the ozone–air mixture and kinetics of virus inactivation. Materials and methods. Ozone (O3 ) was generated from oxygen with ozonizer ( 1.0 – 75.0 mg\l). The ozone concentration was determined by the spectrophotometric methods. Virus contaminated samples were placed into the flowing reactor. Viruses: poliovirus type 1, vaccine strain (Sabin) and adenovirus, type 5, were obtained from the State virus collection. Titrations of viruses were carried out in appropriate cell cultures. CxT value ( mg\l x min) was calculated. Results. Metallic, polycarbonic and fiber “Kevlar” samples were contaminated with virus, dried and treated with ozone-air mixture in the flowing reactor. Kinetics of poliovirus inactivation: in 15 min at 5.0 mg\l -2.0 lg TCID50 inhibition , in 15 min at 10 mg\l – 2.5 lg TCID50 , 4.0 lg TCID50 inactivation of poliovirus was achieved after 75min at ozone concentration 20.0mg\l (99.99%). ( CxT = 75, 150 and 1500 mg\l x min on all three types of surfaces). It was found that the inactivation of poliovirus was more effective when the virus contaminated samples were wet (in 15 min at 20mg\l inhibition of virus in dry samples was 2.0 TCID50 , in wet samples – 4.0 TCID50). Adenovirus was less resistant to ozone treatment then poliovirus: 4.0 lg TCID50 inhibition was observed after 30 min of the treatment with ozone at 20mg\l ( CxT mg\l x min = 300 for adenovirus as for poliovirus it was 1500). Conclusion. It was found that ozone-air mixture inactivates viruses at rather high concentrations (compared to the reported effect of ozone dissolved in water). Despite of that there is a difference in the resistance to ozone action between viruses – poliovirus is more resistant then adenovirus-ozone-air mixture can be used for disinfection of large rooms. The maintaining of the virus-contaminated surfaces in wet condition allow to decrease the ozone load for virus inactivation.
Cloning, Expression and Protein Purification of AV1 Gene of Okra Leaf Curl Virus Egyptian Isolate and Genetic Diversity between Whitefly and Different Plant Hosts
Begomoviruses are economically important plant viruses that infect dicotyledonous plants and exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here, replicative form was isolated from Okra, Cotton, Tomato plants and whitefly infected with Begomoviruses. Using coat protein specific primers (AV1), the viral infection was verified with amplicon at 450 bp. The sequence of OLCuV-AV1 gene was recorded and received an accession number (FJ441605) from Genebank. The phylogenetic tree of OLCuV was closely related to Okra leaf curl virus previously isolated from Cameroon and USA with nucleotide sequence identity of 92%. The protein purification was carried out using His-Tag methodology by using Affinity Chromatography. The purified protein was separated on SDS-PAGE analysis and an enriched expected size of band at 30 kDa was observed. Furthermore, RAPD and SDS-PAGE were used to detect genetic variability between different hosts of okra leaf curl virus (OLCuV), cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCuV) and the whitefly vector. Finally, the present study would help to understand the relationship between the whitefly and different economical crops in Egypt.
Broad Protection against Avian Influenza Virus by Using a Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Expressing a Mosaic Hemagglutinin
A critical failure in our preparedness for an influenza pandemic is the lack of a universal vaccine. Influenza virus strains diverge by 1 to 2% per year, and commercially available vaccines often do not elicit protection from one year to the next, necessitating frequent formulation changes. This represents a major challenge to the development of a cross-protective vaccine that can protect against circulating viral antigenic diversity. We have constructed a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that expresses an H5N1 mosaic hemagglutinin (H5M) (MVA-H5M). This mosaic was generated in silico using 2,145 field-sourced H5N1 isolates. A single dose of MVA-H5M provided 100% protection in mice against clade 0, 1, and 2 avian influenza viruses and also protected against seasonal H1N1 virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34). It also provided short-term (10 days) and long-term (6 months) protection post vaccination. Both neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific CD4+and CD8+ T cells were still detected at 5 months post vaccination, suggesting that MVA-H5M provides long-lasting immunity.
Host Cell Membrane Lipid Rafts Are Required for Influenza A Virus Adsorption to Host Cell Surface
Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Previous studies suggest that influenza hemagglutinin is essential for viral attachment to host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Studies also reported selective nature of Influenza virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding. However, the detailed mechanism of Influenza A Virus (IAV) binding to host cell membrane and entry inside the host remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated if host membrane lipid rafts play any significant role in early life cycle events of influenza A virus. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol and Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin was used to remove membrane cholesterol. We observed co-localization of Influenza A Virus to lipid rafts by visualization of known lipid raft marker GM1 on host cell membrane. Co-localization suggest direct involvement of these micro-domain in initiation of IAV life cycle. We found significant reduction in influenza A virus adsorption in raft disrupted target host cells indicating poor binding and attachment in absence of coherent membrane rafts. Taken together, the results of present study provide evidence for critical involvement of host lipid rafts and its constituents in adsorption process of Influenza A Virus and suggests crucial involvement in other early events of IAV life cycle. The present study opens a new domain to study influenza virus-host interaction and to combat flu at the very early steps of viral life cycle.
A Mathematical Model for Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Impact of Vaccination on Its Dynamics
This paper describes a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to evaluate the potential impact of vaccination and treatment on its dynamics. We used a compartmental model expressed by a set of differential equations based on the characteristic of HBV transmission. With these, we find the threshold quantity R0, then find the local asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease free and endemic equilibrium.
Unexplored Anti-HCV Potential of Lichen rangiferinus: An in Vitro Study over Virus Cultures
Treatments against Hepatitis-C virus (HCV) are already available, but the current high cost of such treatments limit them to wealthy patients only. Hence our current study is aimed at the rectification of HCV infection by using Lichen rangiferinus (LRE) extract in in vitro cultures. Anti-HCV activity of the given extract was evaluated using the virus grown in cell culture (HCVcc). Two control inhibitors, erlotinib and telaprevir, were systematically included in each experiment. At the end of the incubation period, we evaluated cell viability and viral replication. The LRE inhibited the growth of HCV in a dose dependent manner.
Genome Sequencing of Infectious Bronchitis Virus QX-Like Strain Isolated in Malaysia
Respiratory diseases are the most important infectious diseases affecting poultry worldwide. One of the avian respiratory virus of global importance causing significant economic losses is Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). The virus causes a wide spectrum disease known as Infectious Bronchitis (IB), affecting not only the respiratory system but also the kidney and the reproductive system, depending on its strain. IB and Newcastle disease are two of the most prevalent diseases affecting poultry in Malaysia. However, a study on the molecular characterization of Malaysian IBV is lacking. In this study, an IBV strain IBS130 which was isolated in 2015 was fully sequenced using next-gene sequencing approach. Sequence analysis of IBS130 based on the complete genome, polyprotein 1ab and S1 genes were compared with other IBV sequences available in Genbank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). IBV strain IBS130 is characterised as QX-like strain based on whole genome and S1 gene sequence analysis. Comparisons of the virus with other IBV strains showed that the nucleotide identity ranged from 67% to 99.2%, depending on the region analysed. The similarity in whole genome nucleotide ranging from 84.9% to 90.7% with the least similar was from Singapore strains (84.9%) and highly similar with China QX-like strains. Meanwhile, the similarity in polyprotein 1ab ranging from 85.3% to 89.9% with the least similar to Singapore strains (85.3%) and highly similar with Mass strains from USA.
Diverse Sensitivity to Ultraviolet Radiation of DNA and RNA Viruses
The bactericidal effect of UV radiation is known for long time and widely used for inactivation of pathogens but for viruses it is not so uniform. Due to a wide variety of viruses their sensitivity to UV radiation is quite different and not quite predictable. The goal of the study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of UV radiation ( 254 nm) of the viruses of social importance (HIV), as well as test-viruses (poliovirus, adenovirus) used for the evaluation of the viral inactivation efficacy of germicides. Methods: DNA viruses- adenovirus, type 5; Herpes simplex virus (HSV), type 1, and RNA viruses–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), type 1 and poliovirus, type 1 (Sabin strain) were obtained from State collection of viruses ( The D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology). The source of UV radiation was a 15-watt low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (over 60% 254nm). The samples of 5cm2 were placed direct under the UV lamp flow (h-0.3m). Log reduction value was used as a marker for the rate of virus inactivation. Results: The data obtained indicate that poliovirus (one of the viruses most resistant to chemical germicides) and HSV are rather sensitive to UV radiation ( D90 =250-311 J/m2). Adenovirus is much more resistant to UV radiation (750 J/m2 ). The kinetics of adenovirus inactivation : 0 min- 5.0 lg TCID50, 10 min - 5,0, 15 min -4,0, 30 min – 3.5, 60 min – 1,0, 75 min -0,5 lg TCID50, 90 min –virus not detectable. HIV is most resistant to UV radiation among the studied viruses. It takes more than 4 hrs to inactivate the virus on the surface. D90 = 2000 J/m2 Conclusion: The results of the study show that there is no direct dependence between sensitivity to UV light and the size of the virion or presence\absence of the envelope of the virus. Poliovirus and adenovirus are small viruses (20-30nm poliovirus and 70-90nm adenovirus) and both are non-enveloped viruses but adenovirus 3-fold more resistant to UV radiation than poliovirus. It can be expected that viruses with more complicate structure, like Herpes virus (200nm) or HIV (80-100 nm), would be more sensitive to UV light. However, the very high resistance of HIV to UV radiation needs further investigation. The diverse resistance of the different viruses to UV radiation should be taken into the account when UV light is used to inactivate infectious viruses in hospitals and other public environments.
Prerequisites for the Acquisition of Mammalian Pathogenicity by Influenza A Virus with a Prototypic Avian PB2 Gene
The polymerase of avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a heterotrimer composed of PB2, PB1 and PA. PB2 plays a role in overcoming the host barrier; however, the genetic prerequisites for avian PB2 to acquire mammalian pathogenic mutations have not been well elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that key amino acid mutations (I66M, I109V and I133V, collectively referred to as MVV) of prototypic avian PB2 increase the replication efficiency of recombinant PR8 virus carrying the mutated PB2 in both avian and mammalian hosts. The MVV mutations caused no weight loss in mice, but they did allow replication in infected lungs, and the viruses acquired fatal mammalian pathogenic mutations such as Q591R/K, E627K, or D701N in the infected lungs. The MVV mutations are located at the interfaces of the trimer and are predicted to increase the strength of this structure. Thus, gaining MVV mutations might be the first step for AIV to acquire mammalian pathogenicity. These results provide new insights into the evolution of AIV in birds and mammals.
Mathematical Model of the Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 in Heterosexual Relations with and without Condom Usage in a College Population
This paper uses mathematical modeling to show the spread of Herpes Simplex type-2 with and without the usage of condoms in a college population. The model uses four differential equations to calculate the data for the simulation. The dt increment used is one week. It also runs based on a fixated period. The period chosen was five years to represent time spent in college. The average age of the individual is 21, once again to represent the age of someone in college. In the total population, there are almost two times as many women who have Herpes Simplex Type-2 as men. Additionally, Herpes Simplex Type-2 does not have a known cure. The goal of the model is to show how condom usage affects women’s chances of receiving the virus in the hope of being able to reduce the number of women infected. In the end, the model demonstrates that condoms offer significant protection to women from the virus. Since fewer women are infected with the virus when condoms are used, in turn, fewer males are infected. Since Herpes Simplex Type-2 affects the carrier for their whole life, a small decrease of infections could lead to large ramifications over time. Specifically, a small decrease of infections at a young age, such as college, could have a very big effect on the long-term number of people infected with the virus.
An In-silico Pharmacophore-Based Anti-Viral Drug Development for Hepatitis C Virus
Millions of people worldwide suffer from Hepatitis C, one of the fatal diseases. Interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are the available treatments for patients with Hepatitis C, but these treatments have their own side-effects. Our research focused on the development of an orally taken small molecule drug targeting the proteins in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), which has lesser side effects. Our current study aims to the Pharmacophore based drug development of a specific small molecule anti-viral drug for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Drug designing using lab experimentation is not only costly but also it takes a lot of time to conduct such experimentation. Instead in this in silico study, we have used computer-aided techniques to propose a Pharmacophore-based anti-viral drug specific for the protein domains of the polyprotein present in the Hepatitis C Virus. This study has used homology modeling and ab initio modeling for protein 3D structure generation followed by pocket identification in the proteins. Drug-able ligands for the pockets were designed using de novo drug design method. For ligand design, pocket geometry is taken into account. Out of several generated ligands, a new Pharmacophore is proposed, specific for each of the protein domains of HCV.
Using Baculovirus Expression Vector System to Express Envelop Proteins of Chikungunya Virus in Insect Cells and Mammalian Cells
Currently, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes has distributed from Africa to Southeast Asia, South America, and South Europe. However, little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and there are no licensed vaccines or specific antiviral treatments for the disease caused by CHIKV. Baculovirus has been recognized as a novel vaccine vector with attractive characteristic features of an optional vaccine delivery vehicle. This approach provides the safety and efficacy of CHIKV vaccine. In this study, bi-cistronic recombinant baculoviruses vAc-CMV-CHIKV26S-Rhir-EGFP and vAc-CMV-pH-CHIKV26S-Lir-EGFP were produced. Both recombinant baculovirus can express EGFP reporter gene in insect cells to facilitate the recombinant virus isolation and purification. Examination of vAc-CMV-CHIKV26S-Rhir-EGFP and vAc-CMV-pH-CHIKV26S-Lir-EGFP showed that this recombinant baculovirus could induce syncytium formation in insect cells. Unexpectedly, the immunofluorescence assay revealed the expression of E1 and E2 of CHIKV structural proteins in insect cells infected by vAc-CMV-CHIKV26S-Rhir-EGFP. This result may imply that the CMV promoter can induce the transcription of CHIKV26S in insect cells. There are also E1 and E2 expression in mammalian cells transduced by vAc-CMV-CHIKV26S-Rhir-EGFP and vAc-CMV-pH-CHIKV26S-Lir-EGFP. The expression of E1 and E2 proteins of insect and mammalian cells was validated again by Western blot analysis. The vector construction with dual tandem promoters, which is polyhedrin and CMV promoter, has higher expression of the E1 and E2 of CHIKV structural proteins than the vector construction with CMV promoter only. Most of the E1 and E2 proteins expressed in mammalian cells were glycosylated. In the future, the expression of structural proteins of CHIKV in mammalian cells is expected can form virus-like particle, so it could be used as a vaccine for chikungunya virus.
Representative Concentration Pathways Approach on Wolbachia Controlling Dengue Virus in Aedes aegypti
Wolbachia is recently developed as the natural enemy of Dengue virus (DENV). It inhibits the replication of DENV in Aedes aegypti. Both DENV and its vector, Aedes aegypty, are sensitive to climate factor especially temperature. The changing of climate has a direct impact on temperature which means changing the vector transmission. Temperature has been known to effect Wolbachia density as it has an ideal temperature to grow. Some scenarios, which are known as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), have been developed by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to predict the future climate based on greenhouse gases concentration. These scenarios are applied to mitigate the future change of Aedes aegypti migration and how Wolbachia could control the virus. The prediction will determine the schemes to release Wolbachia-injected Aedes aegypti to reduce DENV transmission.
Serological and Molecular Detection of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus in the Major Potato Growing Areas of Saudi Arabia
Potato is considered as one of the most important and potential vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), genus Alfamovirus, family Bromoviridae is among the broad spread of viruses in potato. During spring and fall growing seasons of potato in 2015 and 2016, several field visits were conducted in the four major growing areas of potato cultivation (Riyadh-Qaseem-Hail-Hard). The presence of AMV was detected in samples using ELISA, dot blot hybridization and/or RT-PCR. The highest occurrence of AMV was observed as 18.6% in Qaseem followed by Riyadh with 15.2% while; the lowest infection rates were recorded in Hard and Hail, 8.3 and 10.4%, respectively. The sequences of seven isolates of AMV obtained in this study were determined and the sequences were aligned with the other sequences available in the GenBank database. Analyses confirmed the low variability among AMV isolated in this study, which means that all AMV isolates may originate from the same source. Due to high incidence of AMV, other economic susceptible crops may become affected by high incidence of this virus in potato crops. This requires accurate examination of potato seed tubers to prevent the spread of the virus in Saudi Arabia. The obtained results indicated that the hybridization and ELISA are suitable techniques in the routine detection of AMV in a large number of samples while RT-PCR is more sensitive and essential for molecular characterization of AMV.
Critical Role of Lipid Rafts in Influenza a Virus Binding to Host Cell
Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Influenza A Virus (IAV) surface protein hemagglutinin is known to play an important role in viral attachment to the host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Selective nature of Influenza A virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding has been explored in depth. However, the detailed mechanism of IAV binding to host cell membrane and entry into the host remains elusive. In the present study we investigated the role of lipid rafts in early life cycle events of IAV. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol by Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin. Using GM1, a well-known lipid raft marker, we were able to observe co-localization of IAV on lipid rafts on the host cell membrane. This experiment suggests a direct involvement of lipid rafts in the initiation of the IAV life cycle. Upon disruption of lipid rafts by Methyl-b-cyclodextrin, we observed a significant reduction in IAV binding on the host cell surface indicating a significant decrease in virus attachment to coherent membrane rafts. Our results provide proof that host lipid rafts and their constituents play an important role in the adsorption of IAV. This study opens a new avenues in IAV virus-host interactions to combat infection at a very early steps of the viral lifecycle.
Virus Diseases of Edible Seed Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Aksaray Province
Cucurbits (the Cucurbitaceae family) include 119 genera and 825 species distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The major cultivated cucurbit species such as melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum.&Nakai) are important vegetable crops worldwide. Squash is grown for fresh consuming, as well as its seeds are used as a snack in Turkey like some Mediterranean countries and Germany, Hungary, Austria and China. Virus diseases are one of the most destructive diseases on squash which is grown for seeds in Aksaray province. In this study, it was aimed to determine the virus infections in major squash growing areas in Aksaray province. Totally 153 plant samples with common virus symptoms like mosaic, curling, blistering, mottling, distortion, shoestring, stunting and vine decline were collected from squash plants during 2014. In this study, DAS-ELISA method is used for identifying the virus infections on the plant samples. According to the results of the DAS-ELISA 84.96 % of plant samples were infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic Potyvirus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic Potyvirus-2 (WMV-2), Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV), Papaya ringspot Potyvirus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) and Squash mosaic Comovirus (SqMV). ZYMV was predominant in the research area with the ratio of 66.01 %. WMV-2 was the second important virus disease in the survey area, it was detected on the samples at the ratio of 57.51 %. Also, mixed infections of those virus infections were detected commonly in squash. Especially, ZYMV+WMV-2 mixed infections were common. Cucumber green mottle mosaic Tobamovirus (CGMMV) was not present in the research area.
Isolation and Elimination of Latent and Productive Herpes Simplex Virus from the Sacral and Trigeminal Ganglions
There is an immediate need for alternative anti-herpetic treatment options effective for both primary infections and reoccurring reactivations of herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Alternatives currently approved for the purposes of clinical administration includes antivirals and a reduced set of nucleoside analogues. The present article tests a treatment based on a systemic understanding of how the herpes virus affects cell inhibition and breakdown and targets different phases of the viral cycle, including the entry stage, reproductive cross mutation, and cell-to-cell infection. The treatment consisted of five immunotherapeutic core compounds (5CC), which were hypothesized to be capable of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies. The tested 5CC were noted as being functional in the application of eliminating the DNA synthesis of herpes viral interferon (IFN) - induced cellular antiviral response. They were here found to neutralize antiviral reproduction by blocking cell-to-cell infection. The activity of the 5CC was tested on RC-37 in vitro using an assay plaque reduction and in vivo against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5CC was 0.0009% for HSV-1 plaque formation and 0.0008% for HSV-2 plaque formation. Further tests were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to anti-herpetic drugs in Vero cells after virus entry. There were high-level markers of the 5CC virucidal activity in the viral suspension of HSV-1 and HSV-2. These concentrations of the 5CC are nontoxic and reduced plaque formation by 98.2% for HSV-1 and 93.0% for HSV-2. Virus HSV-1 and HSV-2 titers were reduced significantly by 5CC to the point of being negative, ranging 0.01–0.09 in 72%. The results concluded the 5CC as being an effective treatment option for the herpes simplex virus.
Development of Nanoparticulate Based Chimeric Drug Delivery System Using Drug Bioconjugated Plant Virus Capsid on Biocompatible Nanoparticles
The plant virus capsid protein based nanoparticles are extensively studied for their application in biomedical research for development of nanomedicines and drug delivery systems. We have developed a chimeric drug delivery system by controlled in vitro assembly of separately bioconjugated fluorescent dye (as reporting molecule), folic acid (as receptor binding biomolecule for targeted delivery) and doxorubicin (as anticancer drug) using modified EDC NHS chemistry on heterologously overexpressed (E. coli) capsid proteins of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). This chimeric vehicle was further encapsidated on gold nanoparticles (20nm) coated with 5≠ thiolated DNA probe to neutralize the positive charge of capsid proteins. This facilitates the in vitro assembly of modified capsid subunits on the gold nanoparticles to develop chimeric GNPs encapsidated targeted drug delivery system. The bioconjugation of functionalities, number of functionality on capsid subunits as well as virus like nanoparticles, structural stability and in vitro assembly were confirmed by SDS PAGE, relative absorbance, MALDI TOF, ESI-MS, Circular dichroism, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, zeta particle size analyzer and TEM imaging. This vehicle was stable at pH 4.0 to 8.0 suitable for many organelles targeting. This in vitro assembled chimeric plant virus like particles could be suitable for ideal drug delivery vehicles for subcutaneous cancer treatment and could be further modified for other type of cancer treatment by conjugating other functionalities (targeting, drug) on capsids.
Ultrasensitive Hepatitis B Virus Detection in Blood Using Nano-Porous Silicon Oxide: Towards POC Diagnostics
Early diagnosis of infection like Hep-B virus in blood is important for low cost medical treatment. For this purpose, it is desirable to develop a point of care device which should be able to detect trace quantities of the target molecule in blood. In this paper, we report a nanoporous silicon oxide sensor which is capable of detecting down to 1fM concentration of Hep-B surface antigen in blood without the requirement of any centrifuge or pre-concentration. This has been made possible by the presence of resonant peak in the sensitivity characteristics. This peak is observed to be dependent only on the concentration of the specific antigen and not on the interfering species in blood serum. The occurrence of opposite impedance change within the pores and at the bottom of the pore is responsible for this effect. An electronic interface has also been designed to provide a display of the virus concentration.
Metamorphic Computer Virus Classification Using Hidden Markov Model
A metamorphic computer virus uses different code transformation techniques to mutate its body in duplicated instances. Characteristics and function of new instances are mostly similar to their parents, but they cannot be easily detected by the majority of antivirus in market, as they depend on string signature-based detection techniques. The purpose of this research is to propose a Hidden Markov Model for classification of metamorphic viruses in executable files. In the proposed solution, portable executable files are inspected to extract the instructions opcodes needed for the examination of code. A Hidden Markov Model trained on portable executable files is employed to classify the metamorphic viruses of the same family. The proposed model is able to generate and recognize common statistical features of mutated code. The model has been evaluated by examining the model on a test data set. The performance of the model has been practically tested and evaluated based on False Positive Rate, Detection Rate and Overall Accuracy. The result showed an acceptable performance with high average of 99.7% Detection Rate.
Isolation and Characterization White Spot Syndrome Protein Envelope Protein 19 from Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Vanname Shrimp is one of the high yielding varieties that are more resistant to virus attacks. However, now this shrimp more death due to virus attack such as white spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Various efforts have done to prevent the disease, like immunostimulatory, probiotics, and vaccine. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope protein VP19 gene is important because of its involvement in the system infection of shrimp. This study aimed to isolate and characterize an envelope protein VP19 – encoding gene of WSSV using WSSV infected Vanname Shrimp sample from some areas in South Sulawesi (Pangkep, Barru and Pinrang). The genomic of DNA were isolated from shrimp muscle using DTAB-CTAB method. Isolation of gene encoding envelope protein VP19 WSSV ws successfully performed with the results of the length of DNA fragment was 387 bp. The results of homology analysis using BLASTn homology suggested that these isolates genes from Barru, Pangkep and Pinrang have closest relationship with isolates from Mexican.
Multidrug Therapies For HIV: Hybrid On-Off, Hysteresis On-Off Control and Simple STI
This paper deals with the comparison of three control techniques: the hysteresis on-off control (HyOOC), the hybrid on-off control (HOOC) and the simple Structured Treatment Interruptions (sSTI). These techniques are applied to the mathematical model developed by Kirschner and Webb. To compare these techniques we use a cost functional that minimize the wild-type virus population and the mutant virus population, but the main objective is to minimize the systemic cost of treatment and maximize levels of healthy CD4+ T cells. HyOOC, HOOC, and sSTI are applied to the drug therapies using a reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors; simulations show that these controls maintain the uninfected cells in a small, bounded neighborhood of a pre-specified level. The controller HyOOC and HOOC are designed by appropriate choice of virtual equilibrium points.
Serological Assay and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus in Infected Patients in Zanjan Province
Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a public health problem, is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the Hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Liver cancer, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver are the outcomes of chronic infection with HCV. HCV isolates show significant heterogeneity in genetics around the world. Therefore, determining HCV genotypes is a vital step in determining prognosis and planning therapeutic strategies. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of 136 patients were collected and analyzed for anti-HCV antibodies using ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Then, positive samples were exposed to RT-PCR, which was performed under standard condition. Afterwards, they investigated for genotyping using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), and HCV genotype 2.0 line probe assay (LiPA). Results: Samples indicated 216 bp bands on 2% agarose gel. Analyses of the results demonstrated that the most dominant subtype was 3a with frequency of 38.26% in Zanjan Province followed by subtypes of 1b, 1a, 2, and 4 with frequencies of 25.73%, 22.05%, 5.14%, and 4.41%, respectively. The frequency of unknown HCV genotypes was 4.41%. Conclusions: According to the results, it was found that HCV high prevalent genotype in Zanjan is subtype 3a. Analysis of the results provides identification of certain HCV genotypes, and these valuable findings could affect the type and duration of the treatment.
Molecular Detection and Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Libya
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus which causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Recently, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreak of respiratory distress associated with high mortality and dramatic drop in egg production. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were analyzed for several poultry viruses. IBV was detected using SYBR Green I real-time PCR detection based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Sequence analysis of the partial N gene indicated high similarity (~ 94%) to IBV strain 3382/06 that was isolated from Taiwan. Even though the IBV strain 3382/06 is more similar to that of the Mass type H120, the isolate has been implicated associated with intertypic recombinant of 3 putative parental IBV strains namely H120, Taiwan strain 1171/92 and China strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Complete sequencing and antigenicity studies of the Libya IBV strains are currently underway to determine the evolution of the virus and its importance in vaccine induced immunity. In this paper, we documented for the first time the presence of possibly variant IBV strain from Libya which required a dramatic change in the vaccination program.
Programmed Cell Death in Datura and Defensive Plant Response toward Tomato Mosaic Virus
Programmed cell death resembles a real nature active defense in Datura metel against TMV after three days of virus infection. Physiological plant response was assessed for asymptomatic healthy and symptomatic infected detached leaves. The results indicated H2O2 and Chlorophyll-a as the most potential parameters. Chlorophyll-a was considered the only significant predictor variant for the H2O2 dependent variant with a P value of 0.001 and R-square of 0.900. The plant immune response was measured within three days of virus infection using the cutoff value of H2O2 (61.095 lmol/100 mg) and (63.201 units) for the tail moment in the Comet Assay. Their percentage changes were 255.12% and 522.40% respectively which reflects the stress of virus infection in the plant. Moreover, H2O2 showed 100% specificity and sensitivity in the symptomatic infected group using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). All tested parameters in the symptomatic infected group had significant correlations with twenty-five positive and thirty-one negative correlations where the P value was < 0.05 and 0.01. Chlorophyll-a parameter had a crucial role of highly significant correlation between total protein and salicylic acid. Contrarily, this correlation with tail moment unit was (r = _0.930, P < 0.01) where the P value was < 0.01. The strongest significant negative correlation was between Chlorophyll-a and H2O2 at P < 0.01, while moderate negative significant correlation was seen for Chlorophyll-b where the P value < 0.05. The present study discloses the secret of the three days of rapid transient production of activated oxygen species (AOS) that was enough for having potential quantitative physiological parameters for defensive plant response toward the virus.
The Origin, Diffusion and a Comparison of Ordinary Differential Equations Numerical Solutions Used by SIR Model in Order to Predict SARS-CoV-2 in Nordic Countries
SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently one of the most infectious pathogens for humans. It started in China at the end of 2019 and now it is spread in all over the world. The origin and diffusion of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, is analysed based on the discussion of viral phylogeny theory. With the aim of understanding the spread of infection in the affected countries, it is crucial to modelize the spread of the virus and simulate its activity. In this paper, the prediction of coronavirus outbreak is done by using SIR model without vital dynamics, applying different numerical technique solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We find out that ABM and MRT methods perform better than other techniques and that the activity of the virus will decrease in April but it never cease (for some time the activity will remain low) and the next cycle will start in the middle July 2020 for Norway and Denmark, and October 2020 for Sweden, and September for Finland.
Epstein, Barr Virus Alters ATM-Dependent DNA Damage Responses in Germinal Centre B-Cells during Early Infection
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human tumours of B-cell origin. The demonstration that a proportion of Hodgkin lymphomas and all Burkitt’s lymphomas harbour EBV suggests that the virus contributes to the development of these malignancies. However, the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis remain largely unknown. To determine whether EBV causes DNA damage and alters DNA damage response in cells of EBV-driven lymphoma origin, Germinal Centre (GC) B cells were infected with EBV and DNA damage responses to gamma ionising radiation (IR) assessed at early time points (12hr – 72hr) after infection and prior to establishment of lymphoblastoid (LCL) cell lines. In the presence of EBV, we observed induction of spontaneous DNA DSBs and downregulation of ATM-dependent phosphorylation in response to IR. This downregulation coincided with reduced ability of infected cells to repair IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks, as measured by the kinetics of gamma H2AX, a marker of double-strand breaks, and by the tail moment of the comet assay. Furthermore, we found that alteration of DNA damage responses coincided with the expression of LMP-1 protein. The presence of the EBV virus did not affect the localization of the ATM-dependent DNA repair proteins to sites of damage but instead lead to an increased expression of PP5, a phosphatase that regulates ATM function. The impact of the virus on DNA repair was most prominent 24h after infection, suggesting that this time point is crucial for the viral establishment in B cells. Our results suggest that during an early infection EBV virus dampens crucial cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks which facilitate successful viral infection, but at the same time might provide the mechanism for tumor development.
Detection of Viral-Plant Interaction Using Some Pathogenesis Related Protein Genes to Identify Resistant Genes against Potato LeafRoll Virus and Potato Virus Y in Egyptian Isolates
Viral RNAs of both potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) were extracted from infected potato leaves collected from different Egyptian regions. Differential Display Polymerase Chain Reaction (DD-PCR) using (Endogluconase, β-1,3-glucanases, Chitinase, Peroxidase and Polyphenol oxidase) primers (forward strand) for was performed. The obtained data revealed different banding patterns depending on the viral type and the region of infection. Regarding PLRV, a 58 up regulated and 19 down regulated genes were detected, while, 31 up regulated and 14 down regulated genes were observed in case of PVY. Based on the nucleotide sequencing, variable phylogenetic relationships were reported for the three sequenced genes coding for: Induced stolen tip protein, Disease resistance RPP-like protein and non-specific lipid-transfer protein. In a complementary approach, using the quantitative Real-time PCR, the expressions of PRs genes understudy were estimated in the infected leaves by PLRV and PVY of three potato cultivars (Spunta, Diamont and Cara). The infection with both viruses inhibited the expressions of the five PRs genes. On the contrary, infected leaves by PLRV or PVY elevated the expression of some defense genes. This interaction also may be enhanced and/or inhibited the expression of some genes responsible for the plant defense mechanisms.
A Small-Molecular Inhibitor of Influenza Virus via Disrupting the PA and PB1 Interaction of the Viral Polymerase
Assembly of the heterotrimeric polymerase complex of influenza virus from the individual subunits PB1, PA, and PB2 is a prerequisite for viral replication, in which the interaction between the N-terminal of PB1 (PB1N) and the C terminal of PA (PAC) may be a desired target for antiviral development. In this study, we first compared the feasibility of high throughput screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescence polarization (FP) assay. Among the two, ELISA was demonstrated to own broader dynamic range so that it was used for screening inhibitors, which blocked PA and PB1 interaction. Several binding inhibitors of PAC-PB1N were identified and subsequently tested for the antiviral efficacy. Apparently, 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-7-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-ol, designated ANA-1, was found to be a strong inhibitor of PAC-PB1N interaction and act as a potent antiviral agent against the infections of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9 and H9N2 subtypes, in cell cultures. Intranasal administration of ANA-1 protected mice from lethal challenge and reduced lung viral loads in H1N1 virus infected BALB/c mice. Docking analyses predicted that ANA-1 bound to an allosteric site of PAC, which would cause conformational changes thereby disrupting the PAC-PB1N interaction. Overall, our study has identified a novel compound with potential to be developed as an anti-influenza drug.
Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) by PCR Technique in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) in Babylon City
Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the major pathogens of respiratory tract infections (RTI) among infants and children in the world. They are classified in family Paramyxoviridae and sub-family Pneumovirinae. The current work aimed to detect the role of RSV in the lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in Hilla, Iraq. The samples were collected from 50 children who were admitted to hospital suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). 50 nasal and pharyngeal swabs were taken from patients at the period from January 2010 till April 2011, hospitalized in Hilla Maternity and Children Hospital. The results showed that the proportion of children infected with hRSV accounted for 24% 12/50 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) when they tested by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Analysis of Peoples' Adherence to Safety Measures that Curb Ebola Virus Diseases in Nigeria (A Case Study of State of Osun)
Ebola virus Diseases outbreak in Nigeria caused a lot of concerns considering the mode of transmission and no known cure discovered. Therefore a lot of safety measures were taken which eventually led to the eradication of the virus in Nigeria. This therefore attempted to determine the various safety measures, how socio-economic characteristic of the people affected adherence to safety measures. And provide reasonable recommendations for total eradication of the virus, future outbreak and general environmental safety Data were collected with the aid of well structured questionnaires and administered 180 randomly selected of the state and oral interview was also utilize. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive tools and inferential statistics vis-a-vis regression analysis. Finding showed that 70.5% was strongly adhere to almost all the measures, 15.2% was fairly advent, 3% was poorly observing the selected measures while 1.3% was in different. 65% of the respondents was strongly aware of the advent of ebola virus diseases, 20% was fairly in awareness, 8.5% was poorly in awareness while 6.55% was in aware of any disease outbreak. Safety measures put forwards were; hand washing, use of hand sanitize-rs, no shaking of hands non-consumption of wildlife games(Bush Meat) and general health and environmental safety measures. It was recommended that policy instrument to increase peoples income will accelerate eradication of diseases as this will enable households to pay for monetary safety measures, health and environmental education, in form of talk shop, workshop, lectures could be organised at the political ward levels, schools, market women, religious bodies functional unions and mass media.
Facile Synthetic Process for Lamivudine and Emtricitabine
Cis-Nucleosides mainly lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) are an important tool in the treatment of Human immune deficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human T-Lymotropoic virus (HTLV). Lamivudine and emtricitabine are potent nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTI). These two drugs are synthesized by a four-stage process from the starting materials: menthyl glyoxylate hydrate and 1,4-dithane-2,5-diol to produce the 5-hydroxy oxathiolane which upon acetylation with acetic anhydride to yield 5-acetoxy oxathiolane. Then glycosylation of this acetyl product with silyl protected nucleoside to produce the intermediate. The reduction of this intermediates can provide the final targets. Although there are several different methods reported for the synthesis of lamivudine and emtricitabine as a single enantiomer, we required an efficient route, which was suitable for large-scale synthesis to support the development of these compounds. In this process, we successfully prepared the intermediates of lamivudine and emtricitabine without using any solvents and catalyst, thus promoting the green synthesis. All the synthesized compound were confirmed by TLC, GC, Mass, NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito
This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.
Development of Transgenic Tomato Immunity to Pepino Mosaic Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus by Gene Silencing Approach
Viral diseases of tomato crops result in heavy yield losses and may even jeopardize the production of these crops. Classical tomato breeding for disease resistance against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), leads to partial resistance associated with a number of recessive genes. To author’s best knowledge Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) genetic resistance is not yet available. The generation of viral resistance by means of genetic engineering was reported and implemented for many crops, including tomato. Transgenic resistance against viruses is based, in most cases, on Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS), an endogenous mechanism which destroys the virus genome. In this work, we developed immunity against PepMV and TYLCV in a tomato based on a PTGS mechanism. Tomato plants were transformed with a hairpin-construct-expressed transgene-derived double-strand-RNA (tr-dsRNA). In the case of PepMV, the binary construct harbored three consecutive fragments of the replicase gene from three different PepMV strains (Italian, Spanish and American), to provide resistance against a range of virus strains. In the case of TYLCV, the binary vector included three consecutive fragments of the IR, V2 and C2 viral genes constructed in a hairpin configuration. Selected transgenic lines (T0) showed a high accumulation of transgene siRNA of 21-24 bases, and T1 transgenic lines showed complete immunity to PepMV and TYLCV. Graft inoculation displayed immunity of the transgenic scion against PepMV and TYLCV. The study presents the engineering of resistance in tomato against two serious diseases, which will help in the production of high-quality tomato. However, unfortunately, these resistant plants have not been implemented due to public ignorance and opposition against breeding by genetic engineering.
A Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Influenza a Virus Acts by Suppressing PA Endonuclease Activity of the Viral Polymerase
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza a virus comprises conserved and independently folded subdomains with defined functionalities. The N-terminal domain of the PA subunit (PAN) harbors the endonuclease function so that it can serve as a desired target for drug discovery. To identify a class of anti-influenza inhibitors that impedes PAN endonuclease activity, a screening approach that integrated the fluorescence resonance energy transfer based endonuclease inhibitor assay with the DNA gel-based endonuclease inhibitor assay was conducted, followed by the evaluation of antiviral efficacies and potential cytotoxicity of the primary hits in vitro and in vivo. A small-molecule compound ANA-0 was identified as a potent inhibitor against the replication of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9 and H9N2, in cell cultures. Combinational treatment of zanamivir and ANA-0 exerted synergistic anti-influenza effect in vitro. Intranasal administration of ANA-0 protected mice from lethal challenge and reduced lung viral loads in H1N1 virus infected BALB/c mice. Docking analyses predicted ANA-0 bound the endonuclease cavity of PAN by interacting with the metal-binding and catalytic residues. In summary, ANA-0 shows potential to be developed to novel anti-influenza agents.
Households’ Willingness to Pay for Environmental and General Health Safety during the Advent of Ebola Virus Diseases in Nigeria
Studies on households’ willingness to pay for environmental and general health safety in the advent of Ebola virus Diseases in Nigeria was carried out. This is aimed at revealing the means by which the virus was eventually eradicated in Nigeria as widely claimed in the media. This study therefore attempted to determine the environmental and general health condition in the State Of Osun, how socio-economic characteristics of the people affected willingness to pay. And also provide platform for the reduction of environmental and general health problems. Data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire and administer 150 randomly selected people of study area, and oral interview was also utilized. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive tools and inferential statistics vis-a-viz regression analysis. Findings showed 92.5% of respondents was aware of ebola virus diseases outbreak in Nigeria, 8.5% was unaware of any disease outbreak. And 65.7% of respondents was strongly willing to pay for environmental and general health safety 27.1% was fairly willing, 5.7% was indifferent and 1.7% was unwilling to pay. 5% rated the level of environmental and general health condition in the area has been good, 53.6% rated theirs has been fair, 33.6% as been poor. The average willingness to pay per household per month were #500.00, #250.00, #150.00 and #100.00 respectively for the four categories. It was recommended that policy instruments to increase peoples' income will accelerate eradication of environmental and general health problems, environmental health education in form of talk shop, workshop, lectures and seminars could be organized at the political ward levels, churches, mosque, and at schools. Environmental and general health safety related information could be disseminated through mass media, market women, and functional unions.
Prevalent Features of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017
Since the first human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in early 2013, 1533 cases of laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) virus infections were reported and confirmed as of September 13, 2017. The fifth epidemic was defined as starting from September 1, 2016, and the number of A(H7N9) cases has surged since the end of December in 2016. On February 18, 2017, the A(H7N9) cases who were infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was reported from Southern China. The HPAI A(H7N9) cases were identified and then an investigation and analyses were conducted to assess whether disease severity in humans has changed with HPAI A(H7N9) compared with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infection. Methods: All confirmed cases with A(H7N9) virus infections reported throughout mainland China from September 1, 2016, to September 13, 2017, were included. Cases' information was extracted from field investigation reports and the notifiable infectious surveillance system to describe the demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used to compare HPAI A(H7N9) cases with all LPAI A(H7N9) cases reported during the fifth epidemic. Results: A total of 27 cases of HPAI A(H7N9) virus were identified infection from five provinces, including Guangxi (44%), Guangdong (33%), Hunan (15%), Hebei (4%) and Shangxi (4%). The median age of cases of HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection was 60 years (range, 15 to 80) and most of them were male (59%) and lived in rural areas (78%). All 27 cases had live poultry related exposures within 10 days before their illness onset. In comparison with LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were significantly more likely to live in rural areas (78% vs. 51%; p = 0.006), have exposure to the sick or dead poultry (56% vs. 19%; p = 0.000), and be hospitalized earlier (median 3 vs. 4 days; p = 0.007). No significant differences were observed in median age, sex, prevalence of underlying chronic medical conditions, median time from illness onset to first medical service seeking, starting antiviral treatment, and diagnosis. Although the median time from illness onset to death (9 vs. 13 days) was shorter and the overall case-fatality proportion (48% vs. 38%) was higher for HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients than for LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection was associated with exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas when visited live poultry market or in the backyard. In the fifth epidemic in mainland China, HPAI A (H7N9) case-patients were hospitalized earlier than LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the mortality of HPAI A (H7N9) case-patients was obviously higher than that of LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, indicating a potential severity change of HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection.
Epidemiological Survey of Feline Leukemia Virus in Domestic Cats on Tsushima Island, Japan: Tsushima Leopard Cats Are at Risk
The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC) Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, designated a National Natural Monument of Japan, inhabits Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. TLC is considered a subspecies of P. bengalensis, and lives only on Tsushima Island. TLCs are threatened by various infectious diseases. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. Therefore, the transmission of FeLV from Tsushima domestic cats (TDCs) to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. We investigated the FeLV infection status of both TDCs and TLCs on Tsushima Island by screening blood samples for FeLV p27 antigen and using PCR to amplify the full-length FeLV env gene. The prevalence of FeLV was 6.4% in TDCs and 0% in TLCs. We also demonstrated that the virus can replicate in the cells of TLCs, suggesting its potential cross-species transmission. The viruses in TDCs were classified as genotype I/clade 3, which is prevalent on a nearby island, based on previous studies of FeLV genotypes and FeLV epidemiology. The FeLV viruses identified on Tsushima Island can be further divided into two lineages within genotype I/clade 3, which are geographically separated in Kamijima and Shimojima, indicating that FeLV may have been transmitted to Tsushima Island at least twice. Monitoring FeLV infection in the TDC and TLC populations is highly recommended as part of the TLC surveillance and management strategy.
The Reality of the Digital Inequality and Its Negative Impact on Virtual Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The South African Perspective
Life as we know it has changed since the global outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and business as usual will not continue. The human impact of the COVID-19 crisis is already immeasurable. Moreover, COVID-19 has already negatively impacted economies, livelihoods and disrupted food systems around the world. The disruptive nature of the Corona virus has affected every sphere of life including the culture and teaching and learning. Right now the majority of education research is based around classroom management techniques that are no longer necessary with digital delivery. Instead there is a great need for new data about how to make the best use of the one-on-one attention that is now becoming possible (Diamandis & Kotler, 2014). The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated an environment where the South African learners are focused to adhere to social distancing in order to minimise the wild spread of the Corona virus. This arrangement forces the student to utilise the online classroom technologies to continue with the lessons. The historical reality is that the country has not made much strides on the closing of the digital divide and this is particularly a common status quo in the deep rural areas. This will prove to be a toll order for most of the learners affected by the Corona Virus to be able to have a seamless access to the online learning facilities. The paper will seek to look deeply into this reality and how the Corona virus has brought us to the reality that South Africa remains a deeply unequal society in every sphere of life. The study will also explore the state of readiness for education system around the online classroom environment.
Estrogen Controls Hepatitis C Virus Entry and Spread through the GPR30 Pathway
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrosis and cirrhosis are more frequent in men and postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women and women receiving hormone replacement therapy, suggesting that β-estradiol (estrogen) plays an innate role in preventing viral infection and liver disease. Estrogen classically acts through nuclear estrogen receptors or, alternatively, through the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 or GPER). We observed a marked decrease in detectable virus when HCV-infected human hepatoma cells were treated with estrogen. The effect was mimicked by both Tamoxifen (Tam) and G1, a GPR30-specific agonist, and was reversed by the GPR30-specific antagonist, G15. Through GPR30, estrogen-mediated the down-regulation of occludin; a tight junction protein and HCV receptor, by promoting activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Activated MMP-9 was secreted in response to estrogen, cleaving occludin in the extracellular Domain D, the motif required for HCV entry and spread. This pathway gives new insight into a novel innate immune pathway and the disparate host-virus responses to HCV demonstrated by the two sexes. Moreover, these data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may have beneficial antiviral properties for HCV-infected postmenopausal women and show promise for new antiviral treatments for both men and women.
Sensing Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals by Virus-Based Structural Colour Nanostructure
The adverse effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has attracted considerable public interests. The benzene-like EDCs structure mimics the mechanisms of hormones naturally occurring in vivo, and alters physiological function of the endocrine system. Although, some of the most representative EDCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and phthalates compounds already have been prohibited to produce and use in many countries, however, PCBs and phthalates in plastic products as flame retardant and plasticizer are still circulated nowadays. EDCs can be released from products while using and discarding, and it causes serious environmental and health issues. Here, we developed virus-based structurally coloured nanostructure that can detect minute EDCs concentration sensitively and selectively. These structurally coloured nanostructure exhibits characteristic angel-independent colors due to the regular virus bundle structure formation through simple pulling technique. The designed number of different colour bands can be formed through controlling concentration of virus solution and pulling speed. The virus, M-13 bacteriophage, was genetically engineered to react with specific ECDs, typically PCBs and phthalates. M-13 bacteriophage surface (pVIII major coat protein) was decorated with benzene derivative binding peptides (WHW) through phage library method. In the initial assessment, virus-based color sensor was exposed to several organic chemicals including benzene, toluene, phenol, chlorobenzene, and phthalic anhydride. Along with the selectivity evaluation of virus-based colour sensor, it also been tested for sensitivity. 10 to 300 ppm of phthalic anhydride and chlorobenzene were detected by colour sensor, and showed the significant sensitivity with about 90 of dissociation constant. Noteworthy, all measurements were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and exhibited clear discrimination ability upon exposure to 2 categories of EDCs (PCBs and phthalates). Because of its easy fabrication, high sensitivity, and the superior selectivity, M-13 bacteriophage-based color sensor could be a simple and reliable portable sensing system for environmental monitoring, healthcare, social security, and so on.
Prolonged Synthesis of Chitin Polysaccharide from Chlorovirus System
Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses contain a gene that encodes a function for chitin synthesis, which is expressed early in viral infection to produce chitin polysaccharide, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked GlcNAc, on the outside of Chlorella cell wall. Interestingly, chlorovirus system is an eco-friendly system which converses CO2 and solar energy from the environment into useful materials. However, infected Chlorella cells are lysed at the final stage of viral infection, and this phenomenon is caused the breaking down of polysaccharide. To postpone the lysing period and prolong the synthesis of chitin polysaccharide on cells, the slow growing virus incorporated with aphidicolin treatment, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, was investigated. In this study, a total of 25 virus isolates from water samples in Japan region were analyzed for CHS (the gene for CH synthase) gene by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The accumulation and appearance of chitin polysaccharide on infected cells were detected by biotinylated chitin-binding proteins WGA (wheat germ agglutinin)-biotin for chitin in conjunction with avidin-Cy 2 or Cy 3 and investigated by fluorescence microscopy, observed as green or yellow fluorescence over the cell surface. Among all chlorovirus isolates, cells infected with CNF1 revealed the accumulation of chitin over the cell surface within 30 min p.i. and continued to accumulate on cells until 4 h p.i. before cell lyses which was 1.6 times longer accumulation period than cells infected with CVK2 (prototype virus). Furthermore, addition of aphidicolin could extend the chitin accumulation on cells infected with CNF1 until 8 h p.i. before cell lyses. Whereas, CVK2-infected cells treated with aphidicolin could prolong the chitin synthesis only for 6 h p.i. before cell lyses. Therefore, chitin synthesis by Chlorella-virus system could be prolonged by using slow-growing viral isolates and with aphidicolin.
West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Canada under Expected Climate Conditions
Background: West Nile virus is increasingly an important public health issue in North America. In Canada, WVN was officially reported in Toronto and Montréal for the first time in 2001. During the last decade, several WNV events have been reported in several Canadian provinces. The main objective of the present study is to update the frequency of the climate conditions favorable to WNV outbreaks in Canada. Method: Statistical frequency analysis has been used to estimate the return period for climate conditions associated with WNV outbreaks for the 1961–2050 period. The best fit is selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and the parameters are estimated using the maximum likelihood approach. Results: Results show that the climate conditions related to the 2002 event, for Montreal and Toronto, are becoming more frequent. For Saskatoon, the highest DD20 events recorded for the last few decades were observed in 2003 and 2007. The estimated return periods are 30 years and 70 years, respectively. Conclusion: The emergence of WNV was related to extremely high DD values in the summer. However, some exceptions may be related to several factors such as virus persistence, vector migration, and also improved diagnosis and reporting levels. It is clear that such climate conditions have become much more common in the last decade and will likely continue to do so over future decades.
The Optical Properties of CdS and Conjugated Cadmium Sulphide-Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus
Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) from group II-IV quantum dots with good optical properties was successfully synthesized by using the simple colloidal method. Capping them with ligand Polyethylinamine (PEI) alters the surface defect of CdS while, thioglycolic acid (TGA) was added to the reaction as a stabilizer. Due to their cytotoxicity, we decided to conjugate them with the protein cage nanoparticles. In this research, we used capsid of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) to package the CdS because they have the potential to serve in drug delivery, cell targeting and imaging. Adding Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) changes the pH of the systems hence the isoelectric charge is adjusted. We have characterized and studied the morphology and the optical properties of CdS and CdS-CCMV by transmitted electron microscopic (TEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, UV lamp and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The results obtained suggest that the protein cage nanoparticles do not affect the optical properties of CdS.
Level of Behavioral Development for Hepatitis C Virus Cases Versus Their Contacts: Does Infection Make a Difference and What Is Beyond?
Hepatitis C virus infection is a public health threat in Egypt. To control infection, efforts should be spent to encourage healthy behavior. This study aimed to assess the level of behavioral development in order to create a positive environment for the adoption of the recommended behaviors. The study was conducted over one year from Jan. 2011 till Jan. 2012. Knowledge, attitude and behavior of 540 HCV patients and 102 of their contacts were assessed and the level of behavioral development was determined. The study revealed that the majority of patients and contacts knew that HCV infection is dangerous with perceived concern for early diagnosis and treatment. More than 75% knew the correct modes of transmission. The assessment showed positive attitudes towards the recommended practices with the intention to adopt those practices. Strategies to create opportunities to continue the recommended behaviors should be adopted together with the reinforcement of social support.
Imidocloprid as a Systemic-Acquired Resistant (SAR) Inducer in Nicotiana tabacum Var. Samsun NN Infected with Tobacco Mild Green Mosaic Virus
Plants have different layers of defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the well-defined defense mechanism in plants is systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against a broad-range of pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in regulation of the SAR pathway. It has been proved that Chemically SA-like compounds can mimic the SA signaling role. Imidocloprid is an insecticide being used to control whiteflies on crop plants. In order to study the possible role of Imidocloprid as an elicitor of SAR in plants, experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design frame with three treatments and duplicates on the detached leaves and whole Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsun NN. plants inoculated with Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV). Compared with the effect of other SAR-inducers such as SA, Imidoclorid conferred a robust SAR induction in the infected plants. The results suggested that Imidocloprid even more powerful than SA can be considered as strong SAR inducer in the infected plants with viruses, which develop the local lesion symptoms.
Reduction of the Cellular Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 by a Mucoadhesive Nasal Spray
New emerging evidence suggests that the nose is the predominant route for entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the host. A virucidal suspension test (conforming in principle to the European Standard EN14476) was conducted to determine whether a commercial liquid gel intranasal spray containing 1% of the mucoadhesive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could inhibit the cellular infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Virus was added to the test product samples and to controls in a 1:8 ratio and mixed with one part bovine serum albumin as an interfering substance. The test samples were pre-equilibrated to 34 ± 2°C (representing the temperature of the nasopharynx) with the temperature maintained at 34 ± 2°C for virus contact times of 1, 5 and 10 minutes. Neutralized aliquots were inoculated onto host cells (Vero E6 cells, ATCC CRL-1586). The host cells were then incubated at 36 ± 2°C for a period of 7 days. The residual infectious virus in both test and controls was detected by viral-induced cytopathic effect. The 50% tissue culture infective dose per mL (TCID50/mL) was determined using the Spearman-Karber method with results reported as the reduction of the virus titer due to treatment with test product, expressed as log10. The controls confirmed the validity of the results with no cytotoxicity or viral interference observed in the neutralized test product samples. The HPMC formulation reduced SARS-CoV-2 titer, expressed as log10TCID50, by 2.30 ( ± 0.17), 2.60 ( ± 0.19), and 3.88 ( ± 0.19) with the respective contact times of 1, 5 and 10 minutes. The results demonstrate that this 1% HPMC gel formulation can reduce the cellular infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with an increasing viral inhibition observed with increasing exposure time. This 1% HMPC gel is well tolerated and can reside, when delivered via nasal spray, for up to one hour in the nasal cavity. We conclude that this intranasal gel spray with 1% HPMC repeat-dosed every few hours may offer an effective preventive or early intervention solution to limit the transmission and impact of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.
Reduction of the Cellular Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 by a Mucoadhesive Nasal Spray
New emerging evidence suggests that the nose is the predominant route for entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the host. A virucidal suspension test (conforming in principle to the European Standard EN14476) was conducted to determine whether a commercial liquid gel intranasal spray containing 1% of the mucoadhesive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could inhibit the cellular infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Virus was added to the test product samples and to controls in a 1:8 ratio and mixed with one part bovine serum albumin as an interfering substance. The test samples were pre-equilibrated to 34 ± 2°C (representing the temperature of the nasopharynx) with the temperature maintained at 34 ± 2°C for virus contact times of 1, 5 and 10 minutes. Neutralized aliquots were inoculated onto host cells (Vero E6 cells, ATCC CRL-1586). The host cells were then incubated at 36 ± 2°C for a period of 7 days. The residual infectious virus in both test and controls was detected by viral-induced cytopathic effect. The 50% tissue culture infective dose per mL (TCID50/mL) was determined using the Spearman-Karber method with results reported as the reduction of the virus titer due to treatment with test product, expressed as log10. The controls confirmed the validity of the results with no cytotoxicity or viral interference observed in the neutralized test product samples. The HPMC formulation reduced SARS-CoV-2 titer, expressed as log10TCID50, by 2.30 ( ± 0.17), 2.60 ( ± 0.19), and 3.88 ( ± 0.19) with the respective contact times of 1, 5 and 10 minutes. The results demonstrate that this 1% HPMC gel formulation can reduce the cellular infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with an increasing viral inhibition observed with increasing exposure time. This 1% HMPC gel is well tolerated and can reside, when delivered via nasal spray, for up to one hour in the nasal cavity. We conclude that this intranasal gel spray with 1% HPMC repeat-dosed every few hours may offer an effective preventive or early intervention solution to limit the transmission and impact of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.
Alleviation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mosquito Cells to Survive Dengue 2 Virus Infection
Dengue viruses (DENVs) are naturally transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors. Mosquito cells usually survive DENV infection, allowing infected mosquitoes to retain an active status for virus transmission. In this study, we found that DENV2 virus infection in mosquito cells causes the unfolded protein response (UPR) that activates the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signal pathway, leading to shutdown of global protein translation in infected cells which was apparently regulated by the PERK signal pathway. According to observation in this study, the PERK signal pathway in DENV2-infected C6/36 cells alleviates ER stress, and reduces initiator and effector caspases, as well as the apoptosis rate via shutdown of cellular proteins. In fact, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2ɑ (eIF2ɑ) by the PERK signal pathway may impair recruitment of ribosomes that bind to the mRNA 5’-cap structure, resulting in an inhibitory effect on canonical cap-dependent cellular protein translation. The resultant pro-survival “byproduct” of infected mosquito cells is undoubtedly advantageous for viral replication. This finding provides insights into elucidating the PERK-mediated modulating web that is actively involved in dynamic protein synthesis, cell survival, and viral replication in mosquito cells.
Antiviral Activity of Interleukin-11 in Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection
Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a well-known anti-inflammatory factor, helps to protect against intestinal epithelium damage caused by physical or chemical factors. However, little is known about the role of IL-11 during viral infection. Herein, high mRNA and protein levels of IL-11 were found in epithelial cells and jejunum of piglets during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and IL-11 expression was positively correlated with the level of viral infection. Pretreatment with recombinant porcine IL-11 (pIL-11) suppressed PEDV replication in Vero E6 cells, while IL-11 knockdown promoted viral infection. Furthermore, pIL-11 inhibited viral infection by preventing PEDV-mediated apoptosis of cells through activating the IL-11/STAT3 signal pathway. Conversely, application of a STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor significantly antagonized the anti-apoptosis function of pIL-11 and counteracted its inhibition of PEDV. Our data suggested that that IL-11 is a novel PEDV-inducible cytokine, and its production enhances the anti-apoptosis ability of epithelial cells against PEDV infection. The potential uses of IL-11 as a novel therapeutic against devastating viral diarrhea in piglets deserves more attention and study.
Phenolic Acids of Plant Origin as Promising Compounds for Elaboration of Antiviral Drugs against Influenza
Introduction: Influenza viruses could infect approximately 5% to 10% of the global human population annually, resulting in serious social and economic damage. Vaccination and etiotropic antiviral drugs are used for the prevention and treatment of influenza. Vaccination is important; however, antiviral drugs represent the second line of defense against new emerging influenza virus strains for which vaccines may be unsuccessful. However, the significant drawback of commercial synthetic anti-flu drugs is the appearance of drug-resistant influenza virus strains. Therefore, the search and development of new anti-flu drugs efficient against drug-resistant strains is an important medical problem for today. The aim of this work was a study of four phenolic acids of plant origin (Gallic, Syringic, Vanillic, and Protocatechuic acids) as a possible tool for treatment against influenza virus. Methods: Phenolic acids; gallic, syringic, vanillic, and protocatechuic have been prepared by extraction from plant tissues and purified using high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation. Avian influenza virus, strain A/Tern/South Africa/1/1961 (H5N3) and human epidemic influenza virus, strain A/Almaty/8/98 (H3N2) resistant to commercial anti-flu drugs (Rimantadine, Oseltamivir) were used for testing antiviral activity. Viruses were grown in the allantoic cavity of 10 days old chicken embryos. The chemotherapeutic index (CTI), determined as the ratio of an average toxic concentration of the tested compound (TC₅₀) to the average effective virus-inhibition concentration (EC₅₀), has been used as a criteria of specific antiviral action. Results: The results of study have shown that the structure of phenolic acids significantly affected their ability to suppress the reproduction of tested influenza virus strains. The highest antiviral activity among tested phenolic acids was detected for gallic acid, which contains three hydroxyl groups in the molecule at C3, C4, and C5 positions. Antiviral activity of gallic acid against A/H5N3 and A/H3N2 influenza virus strains was higher than antiviral activity of Oseltamivir and Rimantadine. gallic acid inhibited almost 100% of the infection activity of both tested viruses. Protocatechuic acid, which possesses 2 hydroxyl groups (C3 and C4) have shown weaker antiviral activity in comparison with gallic acid and inhibited less than 10% of virus infection activity. Syringic acid, which contains two hydroxyl groups (C3 and C5), was able to suppress up to 12% of infection activity. Substitution of two hydroxyl groups by methoxy groups resulted in the complete loss of antiviral activity. Vanillic acid, which is different from protocatechuic acid by replacing of C3 hydroxyl group to methoxy group, was able to suppress about 30% of infection activity of tested influenza viruses. Conclusion: For pronounced antiviral activity, the molecular of phenolic acid must have at least two hydroxyl groups. Replacement of hydroxyl groups to methoxy group leads to a reduction of antiviral properties. Gallic acid demonstrated high antiviral activity against influenza viruses, including Rimantadine and Oseltamivir resistant strains, and could be used as a potential candidate for the development of antiviral drug against influenza virus.
Influenza Virus Circulation among the Population of Kazakhstan in 2012-2014
The role of viral diseases in the general infectious disease incidence increases every year and requires special attention to the problem of interpreting the etiology of infectious agents. Influenza and acute respiratory viral infections are one of the most pressing public health issues. In the period 2012-2014, collection of 419 nasal swabs and 150 blood sera has been carried out in the patient care institutions of the various Kazakhstan regions from patients with symptoms of ARVI and pneumonia. Primary identification of biosamples for the presence of influenza viral antigens in enzyme immunoassay on nitrocellulose membrane gave positive results in 125 swabs (29.8%). Biosample screening in immunofluorescence test revealed the presence of influenza viral antigens against A/H1 in 63 samples (15.0%), A/H3 – in 70 samples (16.7%) and type B – in 9 samples (2.1%). As a result of primary infection, and successive passages in chick embryos and MDCK cell cultures, 38 HAAg were isolated from 419 samples with a clear cytopathic effect and hemagglutination titre in MDCK cell culture within 1:2-1:4, in CE - 1:8-1:256. The infectivity of isolates in chicken embryos were 3.5-6.5 lg EID50/0.2, in MDCK cell culture – 2.5-6.5 lg PFU/ml. Identification of 28 isolates was carried out in inhibition reactions of hemagglutinating activity and neuraminidase activity, showed their belonging to the influenza virus: 26 strains to A/H1N1, one - to A/H3N2, and one - to type B. Serological examination of blood sera for the presence of specific antibodies being an indirect evidence of the performed isolation and contributing to the timely interpretation of the disease etiology in the epidemics takes an important place in the comprehensive study of influenza viruses circulating among people. Serological analyzes were carried out in HAI assay using a kit consisting of 12 reference strains obtained from the WHO centre for reference and research on Influenza (CDC, Atlanta, USA) and three Kazakhstan (A/Almaty/347/09 (H1N1v), A/Almaty/462/11 (H3N2) and B/Almaty/414/10) human influenza viruses that are stored in the laboratory collection. The results of serological analysis of 150 blood sera showed that antihaemagglutinins against the A/H3N2 virus serosubtype were found in 46 samples (49.4%) out of 93 sera collected in 2012-2013. The antibody titres were within 1:160-1:320. 19 sera (20.4%) were seropositive against influenza A/H1N1 virus, the antibodies were observed in titres of 1:20-1:40. Six sera (6.4%) were positive against the influenza A/H1N1+A/H3N2 virus (mixed infection); the antibodies were recorded in titres of 1:20-1:40. Antihaemagglutinins against influenza type B virus were detected only in five sera (5.4%). The results of analysis of 57 sera collected in 2014 showed that antihaemagglutinins against A/H3N2 virus subtype were detected in 32 blood sera (56.1%) in titres of 1:160-1:640. Ten sera (17.5%) were seropositive against A/H1N1 virus; antihaemagglutinins against influenza type B virus were not detected. Therefore, virological and serological studies have shown that in Kazakhstan, as well as in the world, the influenza viruses A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and influenza B viruses were actively circulating during the epidemic seasons in 2012-2014.
Molecular Characterization, Host Plant Resistance and Epidemiology of Bean Common Mosaic Virus Infecting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)
The identification of virus in cowpea especially potyviruses is confusing. Even though there are several studies on viruses causing diseases in cowpea, difficult to distinguish based on symptoms and serological detection. The differentiation of potyviruses considering as a constraint, the present study is initiated for molecular characterization, host plant resistance and epidemiology of the BCMV infecting cowpea. The etiological agent causing cowpea mosaic was identified as Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) on the basis of RT-PCR and electron microscopy. An approximately 750bp PCR product corresponding to coat protein (CP) region of the virus and the presence of long flexuous filamentous particles measuring about 952 nm in size typical to genus potyvirus were observed under electron microscope. The characterized virus isolate genome had 10054 nucleotides, excluding the 3’ terminal poly (A) tail. Comparison of polyprotein of the virus with other potyviruses showed similar genome organization with 9 cleavage sites resulted in 10 functional proteins. The pairwise sequence comparison of individual genes, P1 showed most divergent, but CP gene was less divergent at nucleotide and amino acid level. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on multiple sequence alignments of the polyprotein nucleotide and amino acid sequences of cowpea BCMV and potyviruses showed virus is closely related to BCMV-HB. Whereas, Soybean variant of china (KJ807806) and NL1 isolate (AY112735) showed 93.8 % (5’UTR) and 94.9 % (3’UTR) homology respectively with other BCMV isolates. This virus transmitted to different leguminous plant species and produced systemic symptoms under greenhouse conditions. Out of 100 cowpea genotypes screened, three genotypes viz., IC 8966, V 5 and IC 202806 showed immune reaction in both field and greenhouse conditions. Single marker analysis (SMA) was revealed out of 4 SSR markers linked to BCMV resistance, M135 marker explains 28.2 % of phenotypic variation (R2) and Polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was ranged from 0.23 to 0.37. The correlation and regression analysis showed rainfall, and minimum temperature had significant negative impact and strong relationship with aphid population, whereas weak correlation was observed with disease incidence. Path coefficient analysis revealed most of the weather parameters exerted their indirect contributions to the aphid population and disease incidence except minimum temperature. This study helps to identify specific gaps in knowledge for researchers who may wish to further analyse the science behind complex interactions between vector-virus and host in relation to the environment. The resistant genotypes identified are could be effectively used in resistance breeding programme.
Preparation and Removal Properties of Hollow Fiber Membranes for Drinking Water
In the present time, we need advanced water treatment technology for separation of virus and bacteria in effluent which occur epidemic and waterborne diseases. Water purification system is mainly divided into two categorizations like reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF). Membrane used in these systems requires higher durability because of operating in harsh condition. Of these, the membrane using in UF system has many advantages like higher efficiency and lower energy consume for water treatment compared with RO system. In many kinds of membrane, hollow fiber type membrane is possible to make easily and to get optimized property by control of various spinning conditions such as temperature of coagulation bath, concentration of polymer, addition of additive, air gap and internal coagulation. In this study, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane was successfully prepared by phase inversion method for separation of virus and bacteria. When we prepare the hollow fiber membrane, we controlled various factors such as the polymer concentration, air gap and internal coagulation to investigate effect to membrane property. Morphology of surface and cross section of membrane were measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Water flux of membrane was measured using test modules. Mean pore diameter of membrane was calculated using rejection of polystyrene (PS) latex beads for separation of virus and bacteria. Flux and mean flow pore diameter of prepared membrane show 1.5 LPM, 0.03 μm at 1.0 kgf/cm2. The bacteria and virus removal performance of prepared UF membranes were over 6 logs.
A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices
Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Molecular Characterization of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Some Cultured Penaeid Shrimps of Coastal Regions in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is earning a lot of foreign currency by exporting shrimp, but this industry is facing a tremendous problem due to the infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). This study was undermined to develop rapid detection method of WSSV. A total of shrimp samples 240 collected from the 12 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, and Bagerhat) were analyzed by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers. In satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna 39, 41 and 29 samples were found WSSV positive respectively. Real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 240 samples were Satkhira 38%, Khulna 47% and Bagerhat 50%. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. Physico-chemical parameters were within the range of fish culture.
Dengue Virus Infection Rate in Mosquitoes Collected in Thailand Related to Environmental Factors
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is the most important Mosquito-borne disease and the major public health problem in Thailand. The most important vector is Aedes aegypti. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and biting rate affect dengue virus infection. The most effective measure for prevention is controlling of vector mosquitoes. In addition, surveillance of field-caught mosquitoes is imperative for determining the natural vector and can provide an early warning sign at risk of transmission in an area. In this study, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were collected in Amphur Muang, Phetchabun Province, Thailand. The mosquitoes were collected in the rainy season and the dry season both indoor and outdoor. During mosquito’s collection, the data of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and breeding sites were observed and recorded. After identified to species, mosquitoes were pooled according to genus/species, and sampling location. Pools consisted of a maximum of 10 Aedes mosquitoes. 70 pools of 675 Aedes aegypti were screened with RT-PCR for flaviviruses. To confirm individual infection for determining True infection rate, individual mosquitoes which gave positive results of flavivirus detection were tested for dengue virus by RT-PCR. The infection rate was 5.93% (4 positive individuals from 675 mosquitoes). The probability to detect dengue virus in mosquitoes at the neighbour’s houses was 1.25 times, especially where distances between neighboring houses and patient’s houses were less than 50 meters. The relative humidity in dengue-infected villages with dengue-infected mosquitoes was significantly higher than villages that free from dengue-infected mosquitoes. Indoor biting rate of Aedes aegypti was 14.87 times higher than outdoor, and biting times of 09.00-10.00, 10.00-11.00, 11.00-12.00 yielded 1.77, 1.46, 0.68mosquitoes/man-hour, respectively. These findings confirm environmental factors were related to Dengue infection in Thailand. Data obtained from this study will be useful for the prevention and control of the diseases.
Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Introduction: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) constitutes a serious dilemma that has an impact on the health of millions of Egyptians. Hepatitis C virus related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC) is a crucial consequence of HCV that represents the third cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Aim of the study: assess the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content as a non-invasive molecular biomarker in hepatitis c virus related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC). Methods: A total of 135 participants were enrolled in the study. Volunteers were assigned to one of three groups equally; a group of HCV related cirrhosis (HCV-cirrhosis), a group of HCV-HCC and a control group of age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers with no evidence of liver disease. mtDNA was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR technique. Results: mtDNA content was lowest in HCV-HCC cases. No statistically significant difference was observed between the group of HCV-cirrhosis and the control group as regards mtDNA level. HCC patients with multi-centric hepatic lesions had significantly lower mtDNA content. On using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff of 34 was assigned for mtDNA content to distinguish between HCV-HCC and HCV-cirrhosis patients who are not yet complicated by malignancy. Lower mtDNA was associated with greater HCC risk on using healthy controls, HCV-cirrhosis, or combining both groups as a reference group. Conclusions: mtDNA content might constitute a non-invasive molecular biomarker that reflects tumor burden in HCV-HCC cases and could be used as a predictor of HCC risk in patients of HCV-cirrhosis. In addition, the non significant difference of mtDNA level between HCV-cirrhosis patients and healthy controls could eliminate the grey zone created by the use of AFP in some cirrhotic patients.
Synthesis of an Organic- Inorganic Salt of (C2H5NO2)2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 was synthesized. Investigation on Anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.
Synthesis of an Organic-Inorganic Salt of (C2H5NO2) 2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 was synthesized. Investigation on Anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.
Synthesis of an Organic-Inorganic Salt of 12-Silicotungstate, (C2H5NO2)2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40, was synthesized. Investigation on the anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.
Isolation and Characterization of Cotton Infecting Begomoviruses in Alternate Hosts from Cotton Growing Regions of Pakistan
Castor bean (Ricinus communis; family Euphorbiaceae) is cultivated for the production of oil and as an ornamental plant throughout tropical regions. Leaf samples from castor bean plants with leaf curl and vein thickening were collected from areas around Okara (Pakistan) in 2011. PCR amplification using diagnostic primers showed the presence of a begomovirus and subsequently the specific pair (BurNF 5’- CCATGGTTGTGGCAGTTGATTGACAGATAC-3’, BurNR 5’- CCATGGATTCACGCACAGGGGAACCC-3’) was used to amplify and clone the whole genome of the virus. The complete nucleotide sequence was determined to be 2,759 nt (accession No. HE985227). Alignments showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (98.8%) with Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV; accession No. JF416947) No. JF416947). The virus in castor beans lacks on intact C2 gene, as is typical of CLCuBuV in cotton. An amplification product of ca. 1.4 kb was obtained in PCR with primers for betasatellites and the complete nucleotide sequence of a clone was determined to be 1373 nt (HE985228). The sequence showed 96.3% nucleotide sequence identity to the recombinant Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB; JF502389). This is the first report of CLCuBuV and its betasatellite infecting castor bean, showing this plant species as an alternate host of the virus. Already many alternate host have been reported from different alternate host like tobacco, tomato, hibiscus, okra, ageratum, Digera arvensis, habiscus, Papaya and now in Ricinus communis. So, it is suggested that these alternate hosts should be avoided to grow near cotton growing regions.
Spatial Distribution of Virus-Transmitting Aphids of Plants in Al Bahah Province, Saudi Arabia
Plant viruses annually cause severe economic losses in crop production and globally, different aphid species are responsible for the transmission of such viruses. Additionally, aphids are also serious pests of trees, and agricultural crops. Al Bahah Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a high native and introduced plant species with a temperate climate that provides ample habitats for aphids. In this study, we surveyed virus-transmitting aphids from the Province to highlight their spatial distributions and hot spot areas for their target control strategies. During our fifteen month's survey in Al Bahah Province, three hundred and seventy samples of aphids were collected using both beating sheets and yellow water pan traps. Consequently, fifty-four aphid species representing 30 genera belonging to four families were recorded from Al Bahah Province. Alarmingly, 35 aphid species from our records are virus transmitting species. The most common virus transmitting aphid species based on number of collecting samples, were Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878), Brachycaudus rumexicolens (Patch, 1917), Uroleucon sonchi (Linnaeus, 1767), Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach, 1843), and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776). The numbers of samples for the forementioned species were 66, 24, 23, 22, and 20, respectively. The widest range of plant hosts were found for M. euphorbiae (39 plant species), B. helichrysi (12 plant species), M. persicae (12 plant species), B. rumexicolens (10 plant species), and U. sonchi (9 plant species). The hottest spot areas were found in Al-Baha, Al Mekhwah and Biljarashi cities of the province on the basis of their abundance. This study indicated that Al Bahah Province has relatively rich aphid diversity due to the relatively high plant diversity in a favorable climatic condition. ArcGIS tools can be helpful for biologists to implement the target control strategies against these pests in the integrated pest management, and ultimately to save money and time.
Evaluation of the Hepatitis C Virus and Classical and Modern Immunoassays Used Nowadays to Diagnose It in Tirana
HCV is a hepatotropic RNA virus, transmitted primarily via the blood route, which causes progressive disease such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV nowadays is a global healthcare problem. A variety of immunoassays including old and new technologies are being applied to detect HCV in our country. These methods include Immunochromatography assays (ICA), Fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), Enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect HCV antibodies in blood serum, which lately is being slowly replaced by more sensitive methods such as rapid automated analyzer chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The aim of this study is to estimate HCV infection in carriers and chronic acute patients and to evaluate the use of new diagnostic methods. This study was realized from September 2016 to May 2018. During this study period, 2913 patients were analyzed for the presence of HCV by taking samples from their blood serum. The immunoassays performed were ICA, FIA, ELFA, ELISA, and CLIA assays. Concluding, 82% of patients taken in this study, resulted infected with HCV. Diagnostic methods in clinical laboratories are crucial in the early stages of infection, in the management of chronic hepatitis and in the treatment of patients during their disease.
Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Influenza a(H3N2) Virus Circulating during the 2010-2011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
This study provides data on the viral diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H3N2) virus isolated in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 80 clinically infected patients in the peak of the 2010-2011 winter seasons were processed for viral diagnosis by RT-PCR. Sequencing of entire HA and NA genes of representative isolates and molecular epidemiological analysis were performed. A total of 06 patients were positive for influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial viruses by RT-PCR assays; out of these only one sample was positive for influenza A(H3N2) by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA gene sequences showed identities higher than 99-98.8 % in both genes. They were also similar to reference isolates in HA sequences (99 % identity) and in NA sequences (99 % identity). Amino acid sequences predicted for the HA gene were highly identical to reference strains. The NA amino acid substitutions identified did not include the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y substitution. Conclusion: Viral isolation and RT-PCR together were useful for diagnosis of the influenza A (H3N2) virus. Variations in HA and NA sequences are similar to those identified in worldwide reference isolates and no drug resistance was found.
Molecular Study of P53- and Rb-Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Breast Cancers
The study was aimed to define the percentage of detection of high-oncogenic risk types of HPV and their genotyping in archival tissue specimens that ranged from apparently healthy tissue to invasive breast cancer by using one of the recent versions of In Situ Hybridization(ISH) 0.2. To find out rational significance of such genotypes as well as over expressed products of mutants P53 and RB genes on the severity of underlying breast cancers. The DNA of HPV was detected in 46.5 % of tissues from breast cancers while HPV DNA in the tissues from benign breast tumours was detected in 12.5%. No HPV positive–ISH reaction was detected in healthy breast tissues of the control group. HPV DNA of genotypes (16, 18, 31 and 33) was detected in malignant group in frequency of 25.6%, 27.1%, 30.2% and 12.4%, respectively. Over expression of p53 was detected by IHC in 51.2% breast cancer cases and in 50% benign breast tumour group, while none of control group showed P53- over expression. Retinoblastoma protein was detected by IHC test in 49.7% of malignant breast tumours, 54.2% of benign breast tumours but no signal was reported in the tissues of control group. The significance prevalence of expression of mutated p53 & Rb genes as well as detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.
Regulation of RON-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Functions by Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 3C
Among various diseases, cancer has become a huge threat to human beings globally. In the context of viral infection, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is ubiquitous in nature world-wide as well as in India. Recepteur d’Origine Nantais (RON) receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) but undetectable in primary B-cells. Biologically, RON expression was found to be essential for EBV transformed LCLs proliferation. In our study, we investigated whether EBV latent antigen EBNA3C is playing a crucial role in regulating RON receptor tyrosine kinase function in EBV-induced malignancies. Interestingly, we observed that expression pattern of RON was modulated by EBNA3C in EBV transformed LCLs compared with EBV negative BJAB cell line by PCR and western blot analysis. Moreover, in the absence of EBNA3C, RON expression was found low in western blot and immunofluorescence analysis and cell proliferation rate was significantly reduced in LCLs by cell viability assays. Therefore, our study clearly indicating the potential role of EBNA3C expressed in EBV-infected B-cells for modulating the functions of oncogenic kinases that leads to EBV induced B-cell transformation.
Expert System: Debugging Using MD5 Process Firewall
An Operating system (OS) is software that manages computer hardware and software resources by providing services to computer programs. One of the important user expectations of the operating system is to provide the practice of defending information from unauthorized access, disclosure, modification, inspection, recording or destruction. Operating system is always vulnerable to the attacks of malwares such as computer virus, worm, Trojan horse, backdoors, ransomware, spyware, adware, scareware and more. And so the anti-virus software were created for ensuring security against the prominent computer viruses by applying a dictionary based approach. The anti-virus programs are not always guaranteed to provide security against the new viruses proliferating every day. To clarify this issue and to secure the computer system, our proposed expert system concentrates on authorizing the processes as wanted and unwanted by the administrator for execution. The Expert system maintains a database which consists of hash code of the processes which are to be allowed. These hash codes are generated using MD5 message-digest algorithm which is a widely used cryptographic hash function. The administrator approves the wanted processes that are to be executed in the client in a Local Area Network by implementing Client-Server architecture and only the processes that match with the processes in the database table will be executed by which many malicious processes are restricted from infecting the operating system. The add-on advantage of this proposed Expert system is that it limits CPU usage and minimizes resource utilization. Thus data and information security is ensured by our system along with increased performance of the operating system.
Analysis of iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neuron Susceptibility to Influenza and Excitotoxicity in Non-Affective Psychosis
H1N1 virus susceptibility of iPSC-derived DA neurons from schizophrenia patients and controls will compared. C57/BL-6 fibroblasts were reprogrammed into iPSCs using a lenti-viral vector containing SOKM genes. Pluripotency verification with the AP assay and immunocytochemistry ensured iPSC presence. The experimental outcome of ISPCs from DA neuron differentiation will be discussed in the Results section. Fibroblasts from patients and controls will be reprogrammed into iPSCs using a sendai-virus vector containing SOKM. IPSCs will be characterized using the AP assay, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. IPSCs will then be differentiated into DA neurons. Gene methylation will be compared for both groups with custom-designed microarrays.
Genetic Characteristics of Chicken Anemia Virus Circulating in Northern Vietnam
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) has a ubiquitous and worldwide distribution in chicken production. Our group previously reported high seroprevalence of CAV in chickens in northern Vietnam. In the present study, 330 tissue samples collected from commercial and breeder chicken farms in eleven provinces in northern Vietnam were tested for the CAV infection. We found that 157 out of 330 (47.58%) chickens were positive with CAV genes by real-time PCR method. Nine CAV strains obtained from the different location and time were forwarded to the full-length sequence of CAV VP1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the Vietnamese CAV vp1 gene indicated that the CAVs circulating in northern Vietnam were divided into three distinct genotypes, II, III, and V, but not clustered with the vaccine strains. Among the three genotypes, genotype III was the major one widely spread in Vietnam, and that included three sub-genotypes, IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc. The Vietnamese CAV strains were closely related to the Chinese, Taiwanese, and USA strains. All the CAV isolates had glutamine at amino acid position 394 in the VP1 gene, suggesting that they might be highly pathogenic strains. One strain was defined to be genotype V, which had not been reported for Vietnamese CAVs. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the pathogenicity of CAV strains circulating in Vietnam.
A Novel Epitope Prediction for Vaccine Designing against Ebola Viral Envelope Proteins
Viral proteins of Ebola viruses belong to one of the best studied viruses; however no effective prevention against EBOV has been developed. Epitope-based vaccines provide a new strategy for prophylactic and therapeutic application of pathogen-specific immunity. A critical requirement of this strategy is the identification and selection of T-cell epitopes that act as vaccine targets. This study describes current methodologies for the selection process, with Ebola virus as a model system. Hence great challenge in the field of ebola virus research is to design universal vaccine. A combination of publicly available bioinformatics algorithms and computational tools are used to screen and select antigen sequences as potential T-cell epitopes of supertypes Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles. MUSCLE and MOTIF tools were used to find out most conserved peptide sequences of viral proteins. Immunoinformatics tools were used for prediction of immunogenic peptides of viral proteins in zaire strains of Ebola virus. Putative epitopes for viral proteins (VP) were predicted from conserved peptide sequences of VP. Three tools NetCTL 1.2, BIMAS and Syfpeithi were used to predict the Class I putative epitopes while three tools, ProPred, IEDB-SMM-align and NetMHCII 2.2 were used to predict the Class II putative epitopes. B cell epitopes were predicted by BCPREDS 1.0. Immunogenic peptides were identified and selected manually by putative epitopes predicted from online tools individually for both MHC classes. Finally sequences of predicted peptides for both MHC classes were looked for common region which was selected as common immunogenic peptide. The immunogenic peptides were found for viral proteins of Ebola virus: epitopes FLESGAVKY, SSLAKHGEY. These predicted peptides could be promising candidates to be used as target for vaccine design.
A Replicon-Baculovirus Model for Efficient Packaging of Hepatitis E Virus RNA and Production of Infectious Virions
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging RNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver disease with a global mortality rate of about 2%. Despite milestone developments in understanding of HEV biology, there is still lack of a robust culture system or animal model. Therefore, in a novel approach, two recombinant-baculoviruses (vBac-ORF2 and vBac-ORF3) that could overexpress HEV ORF2 (structural/capsid) and ORF3 (nonstructural/regulatory) proteins, respectively were constructed. The established HEV-SAR55 (genotype 1) replicon that contained GFP gene, in place of ORF2/ORF3 sequences was in vitro transcribed, and GFP production in RNA transfected S10-3 cells was scored by FACS. Enhanced infectivity, if any, of nascent virions produced by exogenously-supplied ORF2 and viral RNA by co-expression of ORF3 was tested on naïve HepG2 cells. Co-transduction with vBac-ORF2/vBac-ORF3 (108 pfu/microL) produced high amounts of native ORF2/ORF3 in approximately 60% of S10-3 cells, determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western analysis. FACS analysis showed about 9% GFP positivity of S10-3 cells on day6 post-transfection (i.e, day5 post-transduction). Further, FACS scoring indicated that lysates from S10-3 cultures receiving the RNA plus vBac-ORF2 were capable of producing HEV particles with about 4% infectivity in HepG2 cells. However, lysates of cultures co-transduced with vBac-ORF3, were found to further enhance virion infectivity by approximately 17%. This supported a previously proposed role of ORF3 as a minor-structural protein in HEV virion assembly and infectivity. In conclusion, the present model for efficient genomic RNA packaging and production of infectious virions could be a valuable tool to study various aspects of HEV molecular biology, in vitro.
Sweden’s SARS-CoV-2 Mitigation Failure as a Science and Solutions Principle Case Study
Different governments in today’s global pandemic are approaching the challenging and complex issue of mitigating the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus differently while simultaneously considering their national economic and operational bottom lines. One of the most notable successes has been Taiwan's multifaceted virus containment approach, which resulted in a substantially lower incidence rate compared to Sweden’s chief mitigation tactic of herd immunity. From a classic Swiss Cheese Model perspective, integrating more fail-safe layers of defense against the virus in Taiwan’s approach compared to Sweden’s meant that in Taiwan, the government did not have to resort to extreme measures like the national lockdown Sweden is currently contemplating. From an optimized virus spread mitigation solution development standpoint using the Solutions Principle, the Taiwanese and Swedish solutions were desirable economically by businesses that remained open and non-economically or socially by individuals who enjoyed fewer disruptions from what they considered normal before the pandemic. Out of the two, the Taiwanese approach was more feasible long-term from a workforce management and quality control perspective for healthcare facilities and their professionals who were able to provide better, longer, more attentive care to the fewer new positive COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, the Taiwanese approach was more applicable as an overall model to emulate thanks in part to its short-term and long-term multilayered approach, which allows for the kind of flexibility needed by other governments to fully or partially adapt or adopt said, model. The Swedish approach, on the other hand, ignored the biochemical nature of the virus and relied heavily on short-term personal behavioral adjustments and conduct modifications, which are not as reliable as establishing required societal norms and awareness programs. The available international data on COVID-19 cases and the published governmental approaches to control the spread of the coronavirus support a better fit into the Solutions Principle of Taiwan’s Swiss Cheese Model success story compared to Sweden’s.
Determination of the Vaccine Induced Immunodominant Regions of Nucleoprotein Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The CCHFV genome consists of three molecules of negative-sense single-stranded RNA, each encapsulated separately. The virion particle contains viral RNA polymerase (L segment), surface glycoproteins Gn and Gc (Msegment), and a nucleocapsid protein NP (S segment). CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Clinical CCHF was first recognized in Turkey in 2002. The numbers of CCHF cases have gradually increased in Turkey making the virus a public health concern. Between 2002 and 2014, more than 8000 the CCHF cases have been reported in Turkey and mortality rate is around 5%. So, Turkey is one of the countries where the epidemy has become spread to the wider geography and the biggest outbreaks of CCHF have occurred in the world. We have recently developed an inactivated cell-culture based vaccine against CCHF. We have showed that the Balb/c mice immunized with the CCHF vaccine induced the high level of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we aimed to determine the immunodominant regions of nucleoprotein (NP) CCHFV Kelkit06 strain which stimulate T cells. For this purpose, pools of overlapping NP were used for an IFN- γ ELISPOT assay. Balb/c mice were divided into two groups for the experiment. Two groups (n = 10 each) were immunized via the intraperitoneal route with 5, or 10μg of the cell culture-based vaccine. The control group (n = 6) was mock immunized with PBS. Booster injections with the same formulation were given on days 21 and 42 after the first immunization. The higher reactivity against the CCHFV NP pools 31-40 and 80-90 was determined in the two dose groups. In order to analyze the vaccine-induced T cell responses in Balb/c mice immunized with varying doses of the vaccine, we have been also currently working on CD4+, CD8+ and CD3 + T cells by flow cytometry.
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis a Virus Infection among General Population in Central-West Tunisia
In Tunisia, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) represents a public health concern. Due to the progress in sanitation and socio-economic conditions, the epidemiology of HAV has shown dynamic changes over the past years. This study aimed to investigate the current seroprevalence of HAV antibodies (anti-HAV) among the residents of Thala, a rural setting in central-west Tunisia, to determine the age-specific seroprevalence for HAV infection and co-infection with hepatitis C and B virus. A total of 1379 subjects (mean age: 25.0 ± 17.3 years, 555 males/ 824 females) were recruited between January and June 2014. The study population included 95 individuals previously known as hepatitis C positive. Serum samples were collected and screened for the detection of IgG anti-HAV, HBsAg, and HBcAb by the Elisa Test. The overall anti- HAV seroprevalence was about 84.7%. There was no statistically significant difference between males and females. On the 1379 tested individual, 219 were positive for HBcAb, and 67 were positive for HBsAg. IgG anti- HAV were positive in 80.6% of HBsAg-positive patients (54 out of 67), 81.3% of HBcAb-positive patients (178 out of 219), and in 95.8% of HCV-positive patients (91 out of 95). HBV infection and HCV infection were statistically associated with a greater risk of positive anti-HAV antibody (p < 0.001). Our study revealed that Thala represents an intermediate endemicity level and that the introduction of vaccination against HAV in this region is recommended, especially for the hepatitis B or C infected person seronegative for HAV.
Impact of Hepatitis C Virus Chronic Infection on Quality of Life in Egypt
The study aimed at determining the impact of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on patients’ Quality of Life (QoL) , its relation to geographical characteristics of patients, awareness of the disease, treatment regimen, co-morbid psychiatric or other diseases. 457 patients were randomly selected from ten National Treatment Reference Centers of Ministry of Health hospitals from four community locations representing Egypt. Health related QoL assessment questionnaire with the 36-item Short Form used for assessment of the enrolled patients. The study showed no significant difference between HCV patients in different governorates as regards total QoL. Females, illiterate patients and those had bilharziasis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or were depressed had significantly the lowest QoL score. HCV patients who knew the danger of the disease had significant lower mean score of physical and mental health components. Optimal care of overall well-being of HCV patients requires adequate knowledge of their neurological and psychological status. It is important to know that any patient will need to take the time to know that his new physical limitations do not limit him as a person, as soul, no matter what other people are thinking as a positive hopeful attitude is essential for combating HCV.
Identification of Viruses Infecting Garlic Plants in Colombia
Colombian Garlic crops exhibited mild mosaic, yellow stripes, and deformation. This group of symptoms suggested a viral infection. Several viruses belonging to the genera Potyvirus, Carlavirus and Allexivirus are known to infect garlic and lower their yield worldwide, but in Colombia, there are no studies of viral infections in this crop, only leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) has been reported to our best knowledge. In Colombia, there are no management strategies for viral diseases in garlic because of the lack of information about viral infections on this crop, which is reflected in (i) high prevalence of viral related symptoms in garlic fields and (ii) high dispersal rate. For these reasons, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the viral status of garlic in Colombia, which can represent a major threat on garlic yield and quality for this country 55 symptomatic leaf samples were collected for virus detection by RT-PCR and mechanical inoculation. Total RNA isolated from infected samples were subjected to RT-PCR with primers 1-OYDV-G/2-OYDV-G for Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) (expected size 774pb), 1LYSV/2LYSV for LYSV (expected size 1000pb), SLV 7044/SLV 8004 for Shallot latent virus (SLV) (expected size 960pb), GCL-N30/GCL-C40 for Garlic common latent virus (GCLV) (expected size 481pb) and EF1F/EF1R for internal control (expected size 358pb). GCLV, SLV, and LYSV were detected in infected samples; in 95.6% of the analyzed samples was detected at least one of the viruses. GCLV and SLV were detected in single infection with low prevalence (9.3% and 7.4%, respectively). Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses. Four viral complexes were identified: three double infection (64% of analyzed samples) and one triple infection (15%). The most frequent viral complex was SLV + GCLV infecting 48.1% of the samples. The other double complexes identified had a prevalence of 7% (GCLV + LYSV and SLV + LYSV) and 5.6% of the samples were free from these viruses. Mechanical transmission experiments were set up using leaf tissues of collected samples from infected fields, different test plants were assessed to know the host range, but it was restricted to C. quinoa, confirming the presence of detected viruses which have limited host range and were detected in C. quinoa by RT-PCR. The results of molecular and biological tests confirm the presence of SLV, LYSV, and GCLV; this is the first report of SLV and LYSV in garlic plants in Colombia, which can represent a serious threat for this crop in this country.
Serotype Distribution and Demographics of Dengue Patients in a Tertiary Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan During the 2011 Epidemic
A dengue outbreak in Lahore, Pakistan during 2011 was unprecedented in terms of severity and magnitude. This research aims to determine the serotype distribution of dengue virus during this outbreak and classify the patients demographically. 5ml of venous blood was drawn aseptically from 166 patients with dengue-like signs to test for the virus between the months of August to November 2011. The samples were sent to the CDC, Atlanta, Georgia for the purpose of molecular assays to determine their serotype. RT-PCR protocol was performed targeting at the 4 dengue serotypes. Out of 166 cases, dengue infection was detected with RT-PCR in 95 cases, all infected with same serotype DEN-2. 75% of positive cases were males while 25% were females. Most positive patients were in the age range of 16-30 years. 33% positive cases had accompanying bleeding. This is first study during the 2011 dengue epidemic in Lahore that reports DEN-2 as the only prevalent serotype. It also indicates that more infected patients were males, adults, within age range of 16-30 years, peaked in the month of November, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is manifested more in females, Ravi town was heavily hit by dengue virus infection.
Blindness and Deafness, the Outcomes of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in HIV Positive Patient
Concomitant cortical blindness and deafness that follow varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is rare. We describe a case of ophthalmic zoster that caused cortical blindness and deafness after central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A 42-year old, HIV infected woman has developed progressive blurry vision and deafness, 4 weeks after ophthalmic zoster. A physical examination and positive VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggested VZV encephalitis. Complication of VZV encephalitis is considered as the cause of blindness and deafness. In neurological deficit patient especially with a history of herpes zoster, VZV infection should be regarded as the responsible agent in inflammatory disorders of nervous system. The immunocompromised state of patient (including HIV) is as important an agent as VZV infection in developing the disease.
Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Dysplasia and Cancer Samples from Twin Cities in Pakistan
Introduction: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is small DNA virus mostly infecting mucosa and cutaneous keratinocytes. So far, more than 200 Human papillomaviruses are known. HPV have been divided into high- and low-risk on the basis of their oncogenic potential. High risk HPV is considered to be the main etiological cause for cervical cancer. Objective: Current study was designed to screen the local cervical cancer patients from the twin cities of Pakistan for the occurance of high risk HPV. Methodology: A total of 67 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cervical cancer biopsies were obtained from the government hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Cervical cancer biopsies were examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the amplification of a region in the HPV-L1 gene for the general detection of the Papilloma virus and for the genotype specific detection of high risk HPV 16 and 18 using the GP5/GP6 primers and genotype specific primers respectively. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 59 out of 67 samples analyzed. 30 samples showed the presence of HPV16 while 22 samples were positive for HPV 18 . HPV subtype could not be determined in 7 samples. Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.
Human Rabies Survivors in India: Epidemiological, Immunological and Virological Studies
Rabies is an acute encephalitis which is considered 100% fatal despite occasional reports of survivors. However, in recent times more cases of human rabies survivors are being reported. In the last 5 years, there are six laboratories confirmed human rabies survivors in India alone. All cases were children below 15 years and all contracted the disease by dog bites. All of them also had received the full or partial course of rabies vaccination and 4 out of 6 had also received rabies immunoglobulin. All cases were treated in intensive care units in hospitals at Bangalore, Mumbai, Chandigarh, Lucknow and Goa. We report here the results of immunological and virological studies conducted at our laboratory on these patients. The clinical samples that were obtained from these patients were Serum, CSF, nuchal skin biopsy and saliva. Serum and CSF samples were subjected to standard RFFIT for estimation of rabies neutralizing antibodies. Skin biopsy, CSF and saliva were processed by TaqMan real-time PCR for detection of viral RNA. CSF, saliva and skin homogenates were also processed for virus isolation by inoculation of suckling mice. The PBMCs isolated from fresh blood was subjected to ELISPOT assay to determine the type of immune response (Th1/Th2). Both CSF and serum were also investigated for selected cytokines by Luminex assay. The level of antibodies to virus G protein and N protein were determined by ELISA. All survivors had very high titers of RVNA in serum and CSF 100 fold higher than non-survivors and vaccine controls. A five-fold rise in titer could be demonstrated in 4 out of 6 patients. All survivors had a significant increase in antibodies to G protein in both CSF and serum when compared to non-survivors. There was a profound and robust Th1 response in all survivors indicating that interferon gamma could play an important factor in virus clearance. We could isolate viral RNA in only one patient four years after he had developed symptoms. The partial N gene sequencing revealed 99% homology to species I strain prevalent in India. Levels of selected cytokines in CSF and serum did not reveal any difference between survivors and non-survivors. To conclude, survival from rabies is mediated by virus-specific immune responses of the host and clearance of rabies virus from CNS may involve the participation of both Th2 and Th1 immune responses.
Preliminary Prospecting on the Distribution of the Disease of Citrus Tristeza Orchards in the Province of Chlef
A survey was conducted to assess the presence of the virus in Citrus tristeza one of the main citrus regions of Algeria, namely the Chlef region, using the technique of Direct Tissue Print Immunoprinting Assay (DTBIA) and the Double Sandwich ELISA antibodies. A nursery citrus, lumber yards, and commercial orchards, which are the main varieties cultivated citrus were subjected to samples collected samples for laboratory analysis. 0.91% of the plants tested orchards were infected with CTV, while no positive case was detected at the nursery the yard, however, it is reported that an alarming rate of 10,5% of orchards tested at the common Chettia were infected with tristeza virus. The investigation was launched to identify the vector species tristeza revealed the presence of a vector is important Aphis gossypii.
Plasmablastic Lymphoma a New Entity in Patients with HIV Infections
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon, recently described B-cell derived lymphoma that is most commonly seen in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Here we report a case of PBL in a 35 year old man with HIV who presented with multiple subcutaneous swellings all over the body and oral mucosal lesions.The biopsy report was suggestive of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was done which showed, lymphoma cells, positive for MUM1, CD 138, and VS 38. The proliferation index (MIB) was 95%. Final report was consistent with the diagnosis of Plasmablastic Lymphoma. The lesion completely regressed after treatment with systemic chemotherapy. Up to date, only a few cases of plasmablastic lymphoma have been reported from India. Increased frequency of this lymphoma in HIV patients and rarity of the tumour, along with rapid response of the same to chemotherapy, make this case a unique one. Hence the knowledge about this new entity is important for clinicians who deal with HIV patients.
Determining the Effects of Wind-Aided Midge Movement on the Probability of Coexistence of Multiple Bluetongue Virus Serotypes in Patchy Environments
Bluetongue virus (BTV) has 27 serotypes, with some of them coexisting in patchy (different) environments, which make its control difficult. Wind-aided midge movement is a known mechanism in the spread of BTV. However, its effects on the probability of coexistence of multiple BTV serotypes are not clear. Deterministic and stochastic models for r BTV serotypes in n discrete patches connected by midge and/or cattle movement are formulated and analyzed. For the deterministic model without midge and cattle movement, using the comparison principle, it is shown that if the patch reproduction number R0 < 1, i=1,2,...,n, j=1,2,...,r, all serotypes go extinct. If R^j_i0>1, competitive exclusion takes place. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that when the n patches are connected by midge movement, coexistence takes place. To account for demographic and movement variability, the deterministic model is transformed into a continuous-time Markov chain stochastic model. Utilizing a multitype branching process, it is shown that the midge movement can have a large effect on the probability of coexistence of multiple BTV serotypes. The probability of coexistence can be brought to zero when the control interventions that directly kill the adult midges are applied. These results indicate the significance of wind-aided midge movement and vector control interventions on the coexistence and control of multiple BTV serotypes in patchy environments.
Controlled Chemotherapy Strategy Applied to HIV Model
Optimal control can be helpful to test and compare different vaccination strategies of a certain disease. The mathematical model of HIV we consider here is a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the interactions of CD4+T cells of the immune system with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As an early treatment setting, we investigate an optimal chemotherapy strategy where control represents the percentage of effect the chemotherapy has on the system. The aim is to obtain a new optimal chemotherapeutic strategy where an isoperimetric constraint on the chemotherapy supply plays a crucial role. We outline the steps in formulating an optimal control problem, derive optimality conditions and demonstrate numerical results of an optimal control for the model. Numerical results illustrate how such a constraint alters the optimal vaccination schedule and its effect on cell-virus interactions.
Detection and Distribution Pattern of Prevelant Genotypes of Hepatitis C in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western India
Background: Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, which can further lead to cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Worldwide the burden of Hepatitis C infection has become a serious threat to the human race. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has population-specific genotypes and provides valuable epidemiological and therapeutic information. Genotyping and assessment of viral load in HCV patients are important for planning the therapeutic strategies. The aim of the study is to study the changing trends of prevalence and genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Methods: It is a retrospective study; blood samples were collected and tested for anti HCV antibodies by ELISA in Dept. of Microbiology. In seropositive Hepatitis C patients, quantification of HCV-RNA was done by real-time PCR and in HCV-RNA positive samples, genotyping was conducted. Results: A total of 114 patients who were seropositive for Anti HCV were recruited in the study, out of which 79 (69.29%) were HCV-RNA positive. Out of these positive samples, 54 were further subjected to genotype determination using real-time PCR. Genotype was not detected in 24 samples due to low viral load; 30 samples were positive for genotype. Conclusion: Knowledge of genotype is crucial for the management of HCV infection and prediction of prognosis. Patients infected with HCV genotype 1 and 4 will have to receive Interferon and Ribavirin for 48 weeks. Patients with these genotypes show a poor sustained viral response when tested 24 weeks after completion of therapy. On the contrary, patients infected with HCV genotype 2 and 3 are reported to have a better response to therapy.
Comparison of Several Diagnostic Methods for Detecting Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Cattle
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of cattle worldwide caused by Pestivirus genus, Flaviviridae family.The aim of the present study was to comparison several diagnostic methods and determine the prevalence of BVDV infection for the first time in dairy herds of Fars province, Iran. For initial screening, a total of 400 blood samples were randomly collected from 12 industrial dairy herds and analyzed using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR on the buffy coat. In the second step, blood samples and also ear notch biopsies were collected from 100 cattle of infected farms and tested by antigen capture ELISA (ACE), RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results of nested RT-PCR (outer primers 0I100/1400R and inner primers BD1/BD2) was successful in 16 out of 400 buffy coat samples (4%) as acute infection in initial screening. Also, 8 out of 100 samples (2%) were positive as persistent infection (PI) by all of the diagnostic tests similarly including RT-PCR, ACE and IHC on buffy coat, serum and skin samples, respectively. Immunoreactivity for bovine BVDV antigen as brown, coarsely to finely granular was observed within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of epidermis and hair follicles and also subcutaneous stromal cells. These findings confirm the importance of monitoring BVDV infection in cattle of this region and suggest detection and elimination of PI calves for controlling and eradication of this disease.
Molecular Detection of Acute Virus Infection in Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in North India during 2014-2016
Background:This acute gastroenteritis viruses such as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus are mainly responsible for diarrhea in children below < 5 years old. Molecular detection of these viruses is crucially important to the understand development of the effective cure. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of common these viruses in children < 5 years old presented with diarrhea from Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre (Meerut) North India, India Methods: Total 312 fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children duration 3 years: in year 2014 (n = 118), 2015 (n = 128) and 2016 (n = 66) ,< 5 years of age who presented with acute diarrhea at the Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre(Meerut) North India, India. All samples were the first detection by EIA/RT-PCR for rotaviruses, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: In 312 samples from children with acute diarrhea in sample viral agent was found, rotavirus A was the most frequent virus identified (57 cases; 18.2%), followed by Astrovirus in 28 cases (8.9%), adenovirus in 21 cases (6.7%). Mixed infections were found in 14 cases, all of which presented with acute diarrhea (14/312; 4.48%). Conclusions: These viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children
Peptide-Based Platform for Differentiation of Antigenic Variations within Influenza Virus Subtypes (Flutype)
The influenza viruses cause flu epidemics every year and serious pandemics in larger time intervals. The only cost-effective protection against influenza is vaccination. Due to rapid mutation continuously new subtypes appear, what requires annual reimmunization. For a correct vaccination recommendation, the circulating influenza strains had to be detected promptly and exactly and characterized due to their antigenic properties. During the flu season 2016/17, a wrong vaccination recommendation has been given because of the great time interval between identification of the relevant influenza vaccine strains and outbreak of the flu epidemic during the following winter. Due to such recurring incidents of vaccine mismatches, there is a great need to speed up the process chain from identifying the right vaccine strains to their administration. The monitoring of subtypes as part of this process chain is carried out by national reference laboratories within the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). To this end, thousands of viruses from patient samples (e.g., throat smears) are isolated and analyzed each year. Currently, this analysis involves complex and time-intensive (several weeks) animal experiments to produce specific hyperimmune sera in ferrets, which are necessary for the determination of the antigen profiles of circulating virus strains. These tests also bear difficulties in standardization and reproducibility, which restricts the significance of the results. To replace this test a peptide-based assay for influenza virus subtyping from corresponding virus samples was developed. The differentiation of the viruses takes place by a set of specifically designed peptidic recognition molecules which interact differently with the different influenza virus subtypes. The differentiation of influenza subtypes is performed by pattern recognition guided by machine learning algorithms, without any animal experiments. Synthetic peptides are immobilized in multiplex format on various platforms (e.g., 96-well microtiter plate, microarray). Afterwards, the viruses are incubated and analyzed comparing different signaling mechanisms and a variety of assay conditions. Differentiation of a range of influenza subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, as well as fine differentiation of single strains within these subtypes is possible using the peptide-based subtyping platform. Thereby, the platform could be capable of replacing the current antigenic characterization of influenza strains using ferret hyperimmune sera.
Resurgence of Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 during November 2015 - February 2016, Pakistan
Background: To investigate the epidemic resurgent wave of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infections during 2015-16 Influenza season(Nov,15 –Feb,16) we compared epidemiological features of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 associated hospitalizations and deaths during this period in Pakistan. Methods: Respiratory samples were tested using CDC Real-Time RT-PCR protocols. Demographic and epidemiological data was analyzed using SPSS. Risk ratio was calculated between age groups to compare patients that were hospitalized and died due to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 during this period. Results: A total of 1970 specimens were analyzed; influenza virus was detected in 494(25%) samples, including 458(93%) Influenza type A and 36(7%) influenza type B viruses. Amongst influenza A viruses, 351(77%) A(H1N1) pdm09 and 107(23%) were A/H3N2. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 peaked in January 2016 when 250(54%) of tested patients were positive. The resurgent waves increased hospitalizations due to pdmH1N1 as compared to the rest part of the year. Overall 267(76%) A(H1N1) pdm09 cases were hospitalized. Adults ≥18 years showed the highest relative risk of hospitalization (1.2). Median interval of hospitalization and symptom onset was five days for all age groups. During this period, a total of 34 laboratory-confirmed deaths associated with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were reported out of 1970 cases, the case fatality rate was 1.72%. the male to female ratio was 2:1in reported deaths. The majority of the deaths during that period occurred in adults ≥18 years of age. Overall median age of the death cases was 42.8 years with underlying medical conditions. The median number of days between symptom onset was two days. The diagnosis upon admission in influenza-associated fatal cases was pneumonia (53%). Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 9 (26%), eight out of which (88%) required mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The present resurgence of pandemic virus cannot be attributed to a single factor. The prolong cold and dry weather, possibility of drift in virus and absence of annual flu vaccination may have played an integrated role in resurfacing of pandemic virus.
Medical Nutritional Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection with Tuberculosis and Severe Malnutrition: A Case Report
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients have potential nutritional and metabolic problems. HIV is a virus that attacks cells T helper and impairs the function of immune cells. Infected individuals gradually become immunodeficient, results in increased susceptibility to a wide range of infections such as tuberculosis (TB). Malnutrition has destructive effects on the immune system and host defense mechanisms. Effective and proper nutritional therapies are important to improve medical outcomes and quality of life, which is associated with functional improvement. A case of 38-years old man admitted to hospital with loss of consciousness and was diagnosed HIV infection and relapse lung TB with severe malnutrition, fever, oral candidiasis, anemia (6.3 g/dL), severe hypoalbuminemia (1.9 g/dL), severe hypokalemia (2.2 mmol/L), immune depletion (1085 /µL) and elevated liver enzyme (ALT 1198/AST 375 U/L). Nutritional intervention by giving 2300 kcal of energy, protein 2 g/IBW/day, carbohydrate 350 g, fat 104 g through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Supplementations administered are zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, and snakehead fish extract high content of protein albumin (Pujimin®). After 46 days, there are clinical and metabolic improvement in Hb (6.3 to 11.2 g/dL), potassium (2.2 to 3.4 mmol/L), albumin (1.9 to 2.3 g/dL), ALT 1198 to 47/AST 375 to 68 U/L) and improved awareness. In conclusion, nutritional therapy in HIV infection with adequate macronutrients and micronutrients fulfillment and immunonutrition is very important to avoid cachexia and to improve nutritional status and immune disfunction.
A Description Analysis of Mortality Rate of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in China
Background: Since the first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) case was reported in China on 31 March 2013, five epidemics have been observed in China through February 2013 and September 2017. Though the overall mortality rate of H7N9 has remained as high as around 40% throughout the five epidemics, the specific mortality rate in Mainland China varied by provinces. We conducted a descriptive analysis of mortality rates of H7N9 cases to explore the various severity features of the disease and then to provide clues of further analyses of potential factors associated with the severity of the disease. Methods: The data for analysis originated from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Report and Surveillance System (NNIDRSS). The surveillance system and identification procedure for H7N9 infection have not changed in China since 2013. The definition of a confirmed H7N9 case is as same as previous reports. Mortality rates of H7N9 cases are described and compared by time and location of reporting, age and sex, and genetic features of H7N9 virus strains. Results: The overall mortality rate, the male and female specific overall rates of H7N9 is 39.6% (608/1533), 40.3% (432/1072) and 38.2% (176/461), respectively. There was no significant difference between the mortality rates of male and female. The age-specific mortality rates are significantly varied by age groups (χ²=38.16, p < 0.001). The mortality of H7N9 cases in the age group between 20 and 60 (33.17%) and age group of over 60 (51.16%) is much higher than that in the age group of under 20 (5.00%). Considering the time of reporting, the mortality rates of cases which were reported in the first (40.57%) and fourth (42.51%) quarters of each year are significantly higher than the mortality of cases which were reported in the second (36.02%) and third (27.27%) quarters (χ²=75.18, p < 0.001). The geographic specific mortality rates vary too. The mortality rates of H7N9 cases reported from the Northeast China (66.67%) and Westeast China (56.52%) are significantly higher than that of H7N9 cases reported from the remained area of mainland China. The mortality rate of H7N9 cases reported from the Central China is the lowest (34.38%). The mortality rates of H7N9 cases reported from rural (37.76%) and urban (38.96%) areas are similar. The mortality rate of H7N9 cases infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (48.15%) is higher than the rate of H7N9 cases infected with the low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (37.57%), but the difference is not statistically significant. Preliminary analyses showed that age and some clinical complications such as respiratory failure, heart failure, and septic shock could be potential risk factors associated with the death of H7N9 cases. Conclusions: The mortality rates of H7N9 cases varied by age, sex, time of reporting and geographical location in mainland China. Further in-depth analyses and field investigations of the factors associated with the severity of H7N9 cases need to be considered.
Novel Recombinant Betasatellite Associated with Vein Thickening Symptoms on Okra Plants in Saudi Arabia
Betasatellites are small circular single stranded DNA molecules found associated with begomoviruses on field symptomatic plants. Their genome size is about half that of the helper begomovirus, ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 kb. The helper begomoviruses are usually members of the family Geminiviridae. Okra leaves showing vein thickening were collected from okra plants growing in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Total DNA was extracted from leaves and used as a template to amplify circular DNA using rolling circle amplification (RCA) technology. Products were digested with PstI to linearize the helper viral genome(s), and associated DNA satellite(s), yielding a 2.8kbp and 1.4kbp fragment, respectively. The linearized fragments were cloned into the pGEM-5Zf (+) vector and subjected to DNA sequencing. The 2.8 kb fragment was identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus genome, at 2780bp, an isolate closely related to strains reported previously from Saudi Arabia. A clone obtained from the 1.4 kb fragments he 1.4kb was blasted to GeneBank database found to be a betasatellite. The genome of betasatellite was 1357-bp in size. It was found to be a recombinant containing one fragment (877-bp) that shared 91% nt identity with Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite [KM279620], and a smaller fragment [133--bp) that shared 86% nt identity with Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus [JX483708]. This satellite is thus a recombinant between a malvaceous-infecting satellite and a solanaceous-infecting begomovirus.
Surveillance of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Circulating in North India
Introduction: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. Injection drug use and individuals receiving blood and blood products are the primary modes of HCV transmission. Our study aims to establish the prevalent genotypes/ subtypes of HCV circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India, as reported from a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It is a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive 404 HCV RNA positive cases referred to our hospital during September 2014 to April 2017. The study was approved by an institutional ethics committee. Written informed consent was taken from each participant. Clinical and demographic details of these patients were recorded using predesigned questionnaires. All the laboratory testing was carried on stored serum sample of enrolled cases. Genotyping of all 404 strains was done by Sanger’s sequencing of the core region. The phylogenetic analysis of 179 HCV strains with high -quality sequencing data was performed. Results: The distribution of prevalent genotypes/ subtypes as noted in the present study was; Genotype (GT)1a [n-101(25%)], GT1b [n-12(2.9%)], GT1c [1(0.25%)], GT3a [275(68.07%)], GT3b [9(2.2%)], GT3g [2(0.49%)], GT3i [3(0.74%)], and GT4a [1(0.24%)]. HCV genotypes GT2, GT5 and GT6 were not detected from our region. Sequence analysis showed high genotypic variability in HCV GT3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HCV GT3 and GT1 circulating in our region were related to Indian strains reported earlier. Conclusions: HCV genotypes 3a and 1a are commonest circulating genotypes in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India.
Evaluation of Some Trace Elements in Biological Samples of Egyptian Viral Hepatitis Patients under Nutrition Therapy
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis or liver cancer. Disease caused by the hepatitis virus, the virus can cause hepatitis infection, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. A growing body of evidence indicates that many trace elements play important roles in a number of carcinogenic processes that proceed with various mechanisms. To examine the status of trace elements during the development of hepatic carcinoma, we determined the iron, copper, zinc and selenium levels in some biological samples of patients at different stages of viral hepatic disease. We observed significant changes in the iron, copper, zinc and selenium levels in the biological samples of patients hepatocellular carcinoma, relative to those of healthy controls. The mean hair, nail, RBC, serum and whole blood copper levels in patients with hepatitis virus were significantly higher than that of the control group. In contrast the mean iron, zinc, and selenium levels in patients having hepatitis virus were significantly lower than those of the control group. On the basis of this study, we identified the impact of natural supplements to improve the treatment of viral liver damage, using the level of some trace elements such as, iron, copper, zinc and selenium, which might serve as biomarkers for increases survival and reduces disease progression. Most of the elements revealed diverse and random distribution in the samples of the donor groups. The correlation study pointed out significant disparities in the mutual relationships among the trace elements in the patients and controls. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of the element data manifested diverse apportionment of the selected elements in the scalp hair, nail and blood components of the patients compared with the healthy counterparts.
CCR5 as an Ideal Candidate for Immune Gene Therapy and Modification for the Induced Resistance to HIV-1 Infection
Introduction: Cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) is known as a main co-receptor in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Many studies showed 32bp deletion (Δ32) in CCR5 gene, provide natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals. Inducing the resistance mechanism by CCR5 in HIV-1 infected patients eliminated many problems of highly-active-anti retroviral therapy (HAART) drugs like as low safety, side-effects and virus rebounding from latent reservoirs. New treatments solved some restrictions that are based on gene modification and cell therapy. Literature review: The stories of the “Berlin and Boston patients” showed autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT) could provide effective cure of HIV-1 infected patients. Furthermore, gene modification by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) demonstrated another successful result again. Despite the other studies for gene therapy by ∆32 genotype, there is another mutation -CCR5 ∆32/m303- that provides HIV-1 resistant. It is a heterozygote genotype for ∆32 and T→A point mutation at nucleotide 303. These results approved the key role of CCR5 gene. Conclusion: Recent studies showed immune gene therapy and cell therapy could provide effective cure for refractory disease like as HIV. Eradication of HIV-1 from immune system was not observed by HAART, because of reloading virus genome from latent reservoirs after stopping them. It is showed that CCR5 could induce natural resistant to HIV-1 infection by the new approaches based on stem cell transplantation and gene modifying.
Hanta Virus Infection in a Child and Sequelae
There is no reported Hanta Seoul virus infection in children in the UK so far, making it quite challenging for clinicians in diagnosing, predicting and prognosticating the outcome of the infection to patients and parents. We report a case of a ten-year-old girl who presented with pyrexia associated with headache, photophobia and abdominal pain. The family had recently acquired two pet rats six weeks ago. She appeared flushed with peri-oral pallor, coated the strawberry tongue, inflamed tonsils and bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Her liver and splenic edges were palpable. Investigations showed that she was thrombocytopenic with deranged renal and liver functions. An ultrasound abdomen demonstrated a mildly enlarged spleen, peripancreatic lymph node and an acalculous cholecystitis. In view of her clinical presentation, a diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and she was commenced on intravenous benzylpenicillin. The following day she became oliguric, developed significant proteinuria and her renal function deteriorated. Following conservative management, her urine output gradually improved along with her renal function, proteinuria and thrombocytopaenia. Serology for leptospirosis and various other viruses were negative. Following discussion with the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton hanta virus serology was requested and found to be strongly positive for Seoul hanta virus. Following discharge she developed palpitations, fatigue, severe headache and cognitive difficulties including memory loss and difficulties in spelling, reading and mathematics. Extensive investigations including ECG, MRI brain and CSF studies were performed and revealed no significant abnormalities. Since 2012, there have been six cases of acute kidney injury due to Hantavirus infection in the UK. Two cases were from the Humber region and were exposure to wild rats and the other four were exposed to specially bred pet fancy rats. Hanta virus infections can cause mild flu like symptoms but two clinical syndromes are associated with severe disease including haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, which may be associated with thrombocytopenia and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Neuropsychological impairments reported following hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and following Puumala virus infection have been reported. Minor white matter lesions were found in about half of the patients investigated with MRI brain. Seoul virus has a global distribution owing to the dispersal of its carrier host rats, through global trade. Several ports in the region could explain the possible establishment of Seoul virus in local populations of rats in the Yorkshire and Humber region. The risk of infection for occupationally exposed groups is 1-3% compared to 32.9% for specialist pet rat owners. The report highlight’s the importance of routinely asking about pets in the family. We hope to raise awareness of the emergence of hantavirus infection in the UK, particularly in the Yorkshire and Humber region. Clinicians should consider hantavirus infection as a potential cause of febrile illness causing renal impairment in children. Awareness of the possible neuro-cognitive sequele would help the clinicians offer appropriate information and support to children and their families. Contacting Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton is a useful resource for clinicians in UK when they consider unusual infections.
Prediction of Covid-19 Cases and Current Situation of Italy and Its Different Regions Using Machine Learning Algorithm
Since its outbreak in China, the Covid_19 19 disease has been caused by the corona virus SARS N coyote 2. Italy was the first Western country to be severely affected, and the first country to take drastic measures to control the disease. In start of December 2019, the sudden outbreaks of the Coronary Virus Disease was caused by a new Corona 2 virus (SARS-CO2) of acute respiratory syndrome in china city Wuhan. The World Health Organization declared the epidemic a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020,. On February 14, 2020, 49,053 laboratory-confirmed deaths and 1481 deaths have been reported worldwide. The threat of the disease has forced most of the governments to implement various control measures. Therefore it becomes necessary to analyze the Italian data very carefully, in particular to investigates and to find out the present condition and the number of infected persons in the form of positive cases, death, hospitalized or some other features of infected persons will clear in simple form. So used such a model that will clearly shows the real facts and figures and also understandable to every readable person which can get some real benefit after reading it. The model used must includes(total positive cases, current positive cases, hospitalized patients, death, recovered peoples frequency rates ) all features that explains and clear the wide range facts in very simple form and helpful to administration of that country.
West Nile Virus in North-Eastern Italy: Overview of Integrated Surveillance Activities
West Nile virus (WNV) re-emerged in north-eastern Italy in 2008, after ten years from its first appearance in Tuscany. In 2009, a national surveillance programme was implemented, and re-modulated in north-eastern Italy in 2011. Hereby, we present the results of surveillance activities in 2008-2016 in the north-eastern Italian regions, with inferences on WNV epidemiological trend in the area. The re-modulated surveillance programmes aimed at early detecting WNV seasonal reactivation by searching IgM antibodies in horses. In 2013, the surveillance plans were further modified including a risk-based approach. Spatial analysis techniques, including Bernoulli space-time scan-statistics, were applied to the results of 2010–2012 surveillance on mosquitoes, equines, and humans to identify areas where WNV reactivation was more likely to occur. From 2008 to 2016, residential horses tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies on a yearly basis (503 cases), also in areas where WNV circulation was not detected in mosquito populations. Surveillance activities detected 26 syndromic cases in horses, 102 infected mosquito pools and WNV in 18 dead wild birds. Human cases were also recurrently detected in the study area during the surveillance period (68 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease). The recurrent identification of WNV in animals, mosquitoes, and humans indicates the virus has likely become endemic in the area. In 2016, findings of WNV positives in horses or mosquitoes were included as triggers for enhancing screening activities in humans. The evolution of the epidemiological situation prompts for continuous and accurate surveillance measures. The results of the 2013-2016 surveillance indicate that the risk-based approach was effective in early detecting seasonal reactivation of WNV, key factor of the integrated surveillance strategy in endemic areas.
The Pomade for Treatment of Bovine Papilomavirus-Induced Warts in Teats
Bovine Papilloma Virus (BPV)-induced warts can cause mastitis, teat blindness, reduction of milk yield, udder deformities, and a difficulty in getting the teats into the milking machine. Especially, surgical operations cannot be performed in BPV-induced teat warts because of the increased sensitivity of the breast region and small-sized papillomas. Thus, there is a need to find new topical treatment methods. We have developed a pomade for treatment of BPV in cattle. The pomade is consists of lanoline, snakeskin (two special kind of snake), alcohol, vaseline, and ether. Firstly, we determined 46 cattle with teat warts. In the study, BPV antigen was detected in 28 cattle blood samples (61%) by ELISA. The pomade was applied to all BPV infected animals. The regression and recovery of warts were 100% in all animals. We advised using the pomade for treatment of BPV-induced warts in teats.
Factors Associated with Seroconversion of Oral Polio Vaccine among the Children under 5 Year in District Mirpurkhas, Pakistan 2015
Background: Pakistan is one of the two remaining polio-endemic countries, posing a significant public health challenge for global polio eradication due to failure to interrupt polio transmission. Country specific seroprevalence studies help in the evaluation of immunization program performance, the susceptibility of population against polio virus and identification of existing level of immunity with factors that affect seroconversion of the oral polio vaccine (OPV). The objective of the study was to find out factors associated with seroconversion of the OPV among children 6-59 months in Pakistan. Methods: A Hospital based cross-sectional serosurvey was undertaken in May-June 2015 at District Mirpurkhas, Sindh-Pakistan. Total 180 children aged 6–59 months were selected by using systematic random sampling from Muhammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas. Demographic, vaccination history and risk factors information were collected from the parents/guardian. Blood sample was collected and tested for the detection of poliovirus IgG antibodies by using ELISA Kit. The IgG titer
Dissection of Genomic Loci for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas)
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas L. Moench) or lady’s finger is an important vegetable crop belonging to the Malvaceae family. Unfortunately, production and productivity of Okra are majorly affected by Yellow Vein mosaic virus (YVMV). The AO: 189 (resistant parent) X AO: 191(susceptible parent) used for the development of mapping population. The mapping population has 143 individuals (F₂:F₃). Population was characterized by physiological and pathological observations. Screening of 360 DNA markers was performed to survey for parental polymorphism between the contrasting parents’, i.e., AO: 189 and AO: 191. Out of 360; 84 polymorphic markers were used for genotyping of the mapping population. Total markers were distributed into four linkage groups (LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4). LG3 covered the longest span (106.8cM) with maximum number of markers (27) while LG1 represented the smallest linkage group in terms of length (71.2cM). QTL identification using the composite interval mapping approach detected two prominent QTLs, QTL1 and QTL2 for resistance against YVMV disease. These QTLs were placed between the marker intervals of NBS-LRR72-Path02 and NBS-LRR06- NBS-LRR65 on linkage group 02 and linkage group 04 respectively. The LOD values of QTL1 and QTL2 were 5.7 and 6.8 which accounted for 19% and 27% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The findings of this study provide two linked markers which can be used as efficient diagnostic tools to distinguish between YVMV resistant and susceptible Okra cultivars/genotypes. Lines identified as highly resistant against YVMV infection can be used as donor lines for this trait. This will be instrumental in accelerating the trait improvement program in Okra and will substantially reduce the yield losses due to this viral disease.
Infection Control Drill: To Assess the Readiness and Preparedness of Staffs in Managing Suspected Ebola Patients in Tan Tock Seng Hospital Emergency Department
Introduction: The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the west Africa has drawn global concern. With a high fatality rate and direct human-to-human transmission, it has spread between countries and caused great damages for patients and family who are affected. Being the designated hospital to manage epidemic outbreak in Singapore, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) is facing great challenges in preparation and managing of potential outbreak of emerging infectious disease such as Ebola virus disease. Aim: We conducted an infection control drill in TTSH emergency department to assess the readiness of healthcare and allied health workers in managing suspected Ebola patients. It also helps to review current Ebola clinical protocol and work instruction to ensure more smooth and safe practice in managing Ebola patients in TTSH emergency department. Result: General preparedness level of staffs involved in managing Ebola virus disease in TTSH emergency department is not adequate. Knowledge deficits of staffs on Ebola personal protective equipment gowning and degowning process increase the risk of potential cross contamination in patient care. Loopholes are also found in current clinical protocol, such as unclear instructions and inaccurate information, which need to be revised to promote better staff performance in patient management. Logistic issues such as equipment dysfunction and inadequate supplies can lead to ineffective communication among teams and causing harm to patients in emergency situation. Conclusion: The infection control drill identified the need for more well-structured and clear clinical protocols to be in place to promote participants performance. In addition to quality protocols and guidelines, systemic training and annual refresher for all staffs in the emergency department are essential to prepare staffs for the outbreak of Ebola virus disease. Collaboration and communication with allied health staffs are also crucial for smooth delivery of patient care and minimising the potential human suffering, properties loss or injuries caused by disease. Therefore, more clinical drills with collaboration among various departments involved are recommended to be conducted in the future to monitor and assess readiness of TTSH emergency department in managing Ebola virus disease.
Genotyping of G/P No Typable Group a Rotavirus Strains Revealed G2 and G9 Genotype Circulations in Moroccan Children Fully Vaccinated with Rotarix™
Three Moroccan children fully vaccinated with Rotarix™ have been hospitalized for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE) in the pediatric division of the Farabi Hospital, Oujda. Rotavirus G/P genotypes could not be typed because of their delayed crossing threshold (Ct) resolute with a group A rotavirus (RVA) real time RT-PCR. These strains were adapted to cell culture. All viruses replicated and caused extensive cytopathic effects after four or five passages in MA104 cell lines. Significant improvements have been obtained in the amount of viral particles. Each virus multiplied to a high titer (7.5 TCID50/ml). VP7 and VP4 partial gene sequencing revealed distinct genotypes compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Two strains were of G2P[4] genotype whereas the third was G9P[8] genotype. Virus isolation while labor intensive, is recommended as a second test, especially when higher sensitivity for conventional RVA genotyping RT-PCR is needed. VP7 antigenic similarities between these strains and Rotarix were determined.
Biochemical and Antiviral Study of Peptides Isolated from Amaranthus hypochondriacus on Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Replication
Agroindustrial plants such as cereals and pseudo cereals offer a substantial source of biomacromolecules, as they contain large amounts per tissue-gram of proteins, polysaccharides and lipids in comparison with other plants. In particular, Amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds have high levels of proteins in comparison with other cereal and pseudo cereal species, which makes the plant a good source of bioactive molecules such as peptides. Geminiviruses are one principal class of pathogens that causes important economic losses in crops, affecting directly the development and production of the plant. One such virus is the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects mainly Solanacea family plants such as tomato species. The symptoms of the disease are curling of leaves, chlorosis, dwarfing and floral abortion. The aim of this work was to get peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of globulins and albumins from amaranth seeds with specific recognition of the replication origin in the TYLCV genome, and to test the antiviral activity on host plants with the idea to generate a direct control of this viral infection. Globulins and albumins from amaranth were extracted, the fraction was enzymatically digested with papain, and the aromatic peptides fraction was selected for further purification. Six peptides were tested against the replication origin (OR) using affinity assays, surface resonance plasmon and fluorescent titration, and two of these peptides showed high affinity values to the replication origin of the virus, dissociation constant values were calculated and showed specific interaction between the peptide Ampep1 and the OR. An in vitro replication test of the total TYLCV DNA was performed, in which the peptide AmPep1 was added in different concentrations to the system reaction, which resulted in a decrease of viral DNA synthesis when the peptide concentration increased. Also, we showed that the peptide can decrease the complementary DNA chain of the virus in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, confirming that the peptide binds to the OR and that its expected mechanism of action is to decrease the replication rate of the viral genome. In an infection assay, N. benthamiana plants were agroinfected with TYLCV-Israel and TYLCV-Guasave. After confirming systemic infection, the peptide was infiltrated in new infected leaves, and the plants treated with the peptide showed a decrease of virus symptoms and viral titer. In order to confirm the antiviral activity in a commercial crop, tomato plants were infected with TYLCV. After confirming systemic infection, plants were infiltrated with peptide solution as above, and the symptom development was monitored 21 days after treatment, showing that tomato plants treated with peptides had lower symptom rates and viral titer. The peptide was also tested against other begomovirus such as Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV-Guasave), showing a decrease of symptoms in N. benthamiana infected plants. The model of direct biochemical control of TYLCV infection shown in this work can be extrapolated to other begomovirus infections, and the methods reported here can be used for design of antiviral agrochemicals for other plant virus infections.
Assessment of Selected Marine Organisms from Malaysian Coastal Areas for Inhibitory Activity against the Chikungunya Virus
Chikungunya fever is an arboviral disease transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes. It has resulted in epidemics of the disease in tropical countries in the Indian Ocean and South East Asian regions. The recent spread of this disease to the temperate countries such as France and Italy, coupled with the absence of vaccines and effective antiviral drugs make chikungunya fever a worldwide health threat. This study aims to investigate the anti-chikungunya virus activity of selected marine organism samples collected from Malaysian coastal areas, including seaweeds (Caulerpa racemosa, Caulerpa sertularioides and Kappaphycus alvarezii), a soft coral (Lobophytum microlobulatum) and a sponge (Spheciospongia vagabunda). Following lyophilization (oven drying at 40C for K. alvarezii) and grinding to powder form, each sample was subjected to sequential solvent extraction using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and distilled water in order to extract bioactive compounds. The antiviral activity was evaluated using monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells infected with the virus (multiplicity of infection=1). The cell viability was determined by Neutral Red uptake assay. 70% of the 30 extracts showed weak inhibitory activity with cell viability ≤30%. Seven of the extracts exhibited moderate inhibitory activity (cell viability: 31%-69%). These were the chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of C. racemosa; chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of L. microlobulatum; and the chloroform extract of C. sertularioides. Only the hexane and ethanol extracts of L. microlobulatum showed strong inhibitory activity against the virus, resulting in cell viabilities (mean±SD; n=3) of 73.3±2.6% and 79.2±0.9%, respectively. The corresponding mean 50% effective concentrations (EC50) for the extracts were 14.2±0.2 and 115.3±1.2 µg/mL, respectively. The ethanol extract of the soft coral L. microlobulatum appears to hold the most promise for further characterization of active principles as it possessed greater selectivity index (SI>5.6) compared to the hexane extract (SI=2.1).
A Comparative Study of Dengue Fever in Taiwan and Singapore Based on Open Data
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical infectious disease caused by the dengue virus. After infection, symptoms usually start from three to fourteen days. Dengue virus may cause a high fever and at least two of the following symptoms, severe headache, severe eye pain, joint pains, muscle or bone pain, vomiting, feature skin rash, and mild bleeding manifestation. In addition, recovery will take at least two to seven days. Dengue fever has rapidly spread in tropical and subtropical areas in recent years. Several phenomena around the world such as global warming, urbanization, and international travel are the main reasons in boosting the spread of dengue. In Taiwan, epidemics occur annually, especially during summer and fall seasons. On the other side, Singapore government also has announced the amounts number of dengue cases spreading in Singapore. As the serious epidemic of dengue fever outbreaks in Taiwan and Singapore, countries around the Asia-Pacific region are becoming high risks of susceptible to the outbreaks and local hub of spreading the virus. To improve public safety and public health issues, firstly, we are going to use Microsoft Excel and SAS EG to do data preprocessing. Secondly, using support vector machines and decision trees builds predict model, and analyzes the infectious cases between Taiwan and Singapore. By comparing different factors causing vector mosquito from model classification and regression, we can find similar spreading patterns where the disease occurred most frequently. The result can provide sufficient information to predict the future dengue infection outbreaks and control the diffusion of dengue fever among countries.
Induction of HIV-1 Resistance: The New Approaches Based on Gene Modification and Stem Cell Engineering
Introduction: Current anti-retroviral drugs have some restrictions for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy of retroviral drugs is not same in different infected patients and the virus rebound from latent reservoirs after stopping them. Recently, the engineering of stem cells and gene therapy provide new approaches to eliminate some drug problems by induction of resistance to HIV-1. Literature review: Up to now, AIDS-restriction genes (ARGs) were suitable candidate for gene and cell therapies, such as cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5). In this manner, CCR5 provide effective cure in Berlin and Boston patients by inducing of HIV-1 resistance with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is showed that Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) could induce HIV-1 resistance in stem cells of infected patients by homologous recombination or non-end joining mechanism and eliminate virus loading after returning the modified cells. Then, gene modification by HIV restriction factors, as TRIM5, introduced another gene candidate for HIV by interfering in infection process. These gene modifications/editing provided by stem cell futures that improve treatment in refractory disease such as HIV-1. Conclusion: Although stem cell transplantation has some complications, but in compare to retro-viral drugs demonstrated effective cure by elimination of virus loading. On the other hand, gene therapy is cost-effective for an infected patient than retroviral drugs payment in a person life-long. The results of umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation showed that gene and cell therapy will be applied easier than previous treatment of AIDS with high efficacy.
Molecular-Genetics Studies of New Unknown APMV Isolated from Wild Bird in Ukraine
New APMV was isolated from white fronted goose in Ukraine. This isolate was tested serologically using monoclonal antibodies in haemagglutination-inhibition tests against APMV1-9. As the results obtained isolate showed cross reactions with APMV7. Following investigations were provided for the full genome sequencing using random primers and cloning into pCRII-TOPO. Analysis of 100 transformed colonies of E.coli using traditional sequencing gave us possibilities to find only 3 regions, which could identify by BLAST. The first region with the length of 367 bp had 70 % nucleotide sequence identity to the APMV 12 isolate Wigeon/Italy/3920_1/2005 at genome position 2419-2784. Next region (344 bp) had 66 % identity to the same APMV 12 isolate at position 4760-5103. The last region (365 bp) showed 71 % identity to Newcastle disease virus strain M4 at position 12569-12928.
New Isolate of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Infecting Banana
Banana plants showing typical mosaic and yellow stripes on leaves as symptoms were collected from Assiut Governorate in Egypt. The causal agent was identified as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of symptoms, transmission, serology, transmission electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coat protein (CP) gene was amplified using gene specific primers for coat protein (CP), followed by cloning into desired cloning vector for sequencing. In this study the CMV was transmitted into propagation host either by aphid or mechanically. The transmission was confirmed through Direct Antigen Coating Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (DAC-ELISA). Analysis of the 120 deduced amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene revealed that the EG-A strain of CMV shared from 97.50 to 98.33% with those strains belonging to subgroup IA. The cluster analysis grouped the Egyptian isolate with strains Fny and Ri8 belonging sub-group IA. It appears that there occurs a high incidence of CMV infecting banana belonging to IA subgroup in most parts of Egypt.
Trends in the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies in the Period 1991–2012
Objective: Blood stream infections (BSI) are severe, life-threatening illness for immuno compromised patients with hematological malignancies. We report the trend in blood-stream infections in this group of patients in the period 1991-2013. Methods: A total of 4742 blood samples investigated. All blood cultures were incubated in a continuous monitoring system for 7 days before discarding negative. On signaled positive, organism was identified by conventional methods. The Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the indication of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Results: Between 1991 and 2001 the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus) being the most common germs isolated (70,9%) were as Gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp.) – 29,1%. In next decade 2002-2012 the number of Gram-negative bacteria was increased up to 40.2%. It is shown that the incidence of bacteremia was significantly more frequent at the background of detectable Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNA in blood. Over recent years, an increased frequency of micro mycetes was registered in blood of the patients with hematological malignancies (Candida spp. was predominant). Conclusion: Accurate and timely detection of BSI is important in determining appropriate treatment of infectious complications in patients with hematological malignancies. The isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from blood cultures remains a clinical dilemma for physicians and microbiologists. But in many cases this agent is of the clinical significance in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. The role of CMV and EBV in development of bacteremia was demonstrated.
A Multi-Site Knowledge Attitude and Practice Survey of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Nigeria
Background: The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was characterized by fear, misconceptions and irrational behaviors. We conducted a knowledge attitude and practice survey of EVD in Nigeria to inform the institution of effective control measures. Methods: Between July 30th and September 30th 2014, a cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was undertaken among adults of the general population and healthcare workers (HCW) in three states of Nigeria, including Kano, Cross River and Bayelsa states. Demographic information and data on KAP were obtained using a self-administered standardized questionnaire. The percentage KAP scores were categorized as good and poor. Independent predictors of good knowledge of EVD were ascertained using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Out of 1035 study participants with a median age of 32 years, 648 (62.6%) were males, 846 (81.7%) had tertiary education and 441 (42.6%) were HCW. There were 218, 239 and 578 respondents from Bayelsa, Cross Rivers, and Kano states, respectively. The overall median percentage KAP scores and interquartile ranges (IQR) were 79.46% (15.07%), 95.0% (33.33%), and 49.95% (37.50%), respectively. Out of the 1035 respondents, 470 (45.4%), 544(52.56%), and 252 (24.35%) had good KAP of EVD defined using 80%, 90%, and 70% score cut-offs, respectively. Independent predictors of good knowledge of EVD were a HCW (Odds Ratio-OR-2.89, 95% Confidence interval-CI of 1.41-5.90), reporting ‘moderate to high fear of EVD’ (OR-2.15, 95% CI-1.47-3.13) and ‘willingness to modify habit’ (OR-1.68, 95% CI-1.23-2.30). Conclusion: Our results reveal suboptimal EVD-related knowledge, attitude and practice among adults in Nigeria. To effectively control future outbreaks of EVD in Nigeria, there is a need to institute public sensitization programs that improve understanding of EVD and address EVD-related myths and misconceptions, especially among the general population.
In vivo Estimation of Mutation Rate of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus
The Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV, Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) causes persistent infection, plasmacytosis, and formation and deposition of immune complexes in various organs in adult mink, leading to glomerulonephritis, arteritis and sometimes death. The disease has no cure nor an effective vaccine, and identification and culling of mink positive for anti-AMDV antibodies have not been successful in controlling the infection in many countries. The failure to eradicate the virus from infected farms may be caused by keeping false-negative individuals on the farm, virus transmission from wild animals, or neighboring farms. The identification of sources of infection, which can be performed by comparing viral sequences, is important in the success of viral eradication programs. High mutation rates could cause inaccuracies when viral sequences are used to trace back an infection to its origin. There is no published information on the mutation rate of AMDV either in vivo or in vitro. The in vivo estimation is the most accurate method, but it is difficult to perform because of the inherent technical complexities, namely infecting live animals, the unknown numbers of viral generations (i.e., infection cycles), the removal of deleterious mutations over time and genetic drift. The objective of this study was to determine the mutation rate of AMDV on which no information was available. A homogenate was prepared from the spleen of one naturally infected American mink (Neovison vison) from Nova Scotia, Canada (parental template). The near full-length genome of this isolate (91.6%, 4,143 bp) was bidirectionally sequenced. A group of black mink was inoculated with this homogenate (descendant mink). Spleen sampled were collected from 10 descendant mink after 16 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and from anther 10 mink after 176 wpi, and their near-full length genomes were bi-directionally sequenced. Sequences of these mink were compared with each other and with the sequence of the parental template. The number of nucleotide substitutions at 176 wpi was 3.1 times greater than that at 16 wpi (113 vs 36) whereas the estimates of mutation rate at 176 wpi was 3.1 times lower than that at 176 wpi (2.85×10-3 vs 9.13×10-4 substitutions/ site/ year), showing a decreasing trend in the mutation rate per unit of time. Although there is no report on in vivo estimate of the mutation rate of DNA viruses in animals using the same method which was used in the current study, these estimates are at the higher range of reported values for DNA viruses determined by various techniques. These high estimates are logical based on the wide range of diversity and pathogenicity of AMDV isolates. The results suggest that increases in the number of nucleotide substitutions over time and subsequent divergence make it difficult to accurately trace back AMDV isolates to their origin when several years elapsed between the two samplings.
Evidence for Replication of an Unusual G8P[14] Human Rotavirus Strain in the Feces of an Alpine Goat: Zoonotic Transmission from Caprine Species
Background: Rotavirus group A (RVA) strains with G8P[14] specificities are usually detected in calves and goats. However, these strains have been reported globally in humans and have often been characterized as originating from zoonotic transmissions, particularly in area where ruminants and humans live side-by-side. Whether human P[14] genotypes are two-way and can be transmitted to animal species remains to be established. Here we describe VP4 deduced amino-acid relationships of three Moroccan P[14] genotypes originating from different species and the receptiveness of an alpine goat to a human G8P[14] through an experimental infection. Material/methods: the human MA31 RVA strain was originally identified in a four years old girl presenting an acute gastroenteritis hospitalized at the pediatric care unit in Rabat Hospital in 2011. The virus was isolated and propagated in MA104 cells in the presence of trypsin. Ch_10S and 8045_S animal RVA strains were identified in fecal samples of a 2-week-old native goat and 3-week-old calf with diarrhea in 2011 in Bouaarfa and My Bousselham respectively. Genomic RNAs of all strains were subjected to a two-step RT-PCR and sequenced using the consensus primers VP4. The phylogenetic tree for MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 and a set of published P[14] genotypes was constructed using MEGA6 software. The receptivity of MA31 strain by an eight month-old alpine goat was assayed. The animal was orally and intraperitonally inoculated with a dose of 8.5 TCID50 of virus stock at passage level 3. The shedding of the virus was tested by a real time RT-PCR assay. Results: The phylogenetic tree showed that the three Moroccan strains MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 were highly related to each other (100% similar at the nucleotide level). They were clustered together with the B10925, Sp813, PA77 and P169 strains isolated in Belgium, Spain and Italy respectively. The Belgian strain B10925 was the most closely related to the Moroccan strains. In contrast, the 8045_S and Ch_10S strains were clustered distantly from the Tunisian calf strain B137 and the goat strain cap455 isolated in South Africa respectively. The human MA31 RVA strain was able to induce bloody diarrhea at 2 days post infection (dpi) in the alpine goat kid. RVA virus shedding started by 2 dpi (Ct value of 28) and continued until 5 dpi (Ct value of 25) with a concomitant elevation in the body temperature. Conclusions: Our study while limited to one animal, is the first study proving experimentally that a human P[14] genotype causes diarrhea and virus shedding in the goat. This result reinforce the potential role of inter- species transmission in generating novel and rare rotavirus strains such G8P[14] which infect humans.
The Discussion of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Taking Proper Portion of Valacyclovir
Dialysis patients have risk in Zoster virus because of low immune. Valacyclovir (product name: Valtex) 500mg/tab, an anti-zoster virus medicine, is digested in kidney and it has side-effect of nervous system in patients with malfunction kidneys. Although the clinical basis of the proposed administration, we found that patients still have side effects. So we want to explore the appropriate dose of peritoneal dialysis patients. We read small samples of case reports and analyze 8 cases in our hospital, some patients’ Kt/v, match the standard of dialysis, and still go to the toilet, they still have side effect seriously with 500mg portion. The solution to this includes stopping medicine, reduction of medicine, increase of liquid change and timely hemodialysis and all of them speed up the recovery. The safety of medication needs extra attention of medical care employee. If they can tell the doctor if the patient has urine or not in his or her Kt/v, the doctor can prescribe the medicine accordingly. About the limitation, due to the lack of cases and related pharmacokinetics numbers. Therefore, for peritoneal patients, we think 500mg/48hoursis the saves. We also want to remind pharmaceuticals to revise the portion taken by patients, so that the doctor may judge the use.
Lentiviral-Based Novel Bicistronic Therapeutic Vaccine against Chronic Hepatitis B Induces Robust Immune Response
Introduction: Over 360 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), of whom 1 million die each year from HBV-associated liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment options for chronic hepatitis B depend on interferon-α (IFNα) or nucleos(t)ide analogs, which control virus replication but rarely eliminate the virus. Treatment with PEG-IFNα leads to a sustained antiviral response in only one third of patients. After withdrawal of the drugs, the rebound of viremia is observed in the majority of patients. Furthermore, the long-term treatment is subsequently associated with the appearance of drug resistant HBV strains that is often the cause of the therapy failure. Among the new therapeutic avenues being developed, therapeutic vaccine aimed at inducing immune responses similar to those found in resolvers is of growing interest. The high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B necessitates the design of better vaccination strategies capable of eliciting broad-spectrum of cell-mediated immunity(CMI) and humoral immune response that can control chronic hepatitis B. Induction of HBV-specific T cells and B cells by therapeutic vaccination may be an innovative strategy to overcome virus persistence. Lentiviral vectors developed and optimized by THERAVECTYS, due to their ability to transduce non-dividing cells, including dendritic cells, and induce CMI response, have demonstrated their effectiveness as vaccination tools. Method: To develop a HBV therapeutic vaccine that can induce a broad but specific immune response, we generated recombinant lentiviral vector carrying IRES(Internal Ribosome Entry Site)-containing bicistronic constructs which allow the coexpression of two vaccine products, namely HBV T- cell epitope vaccine and HBV virus like particle (VLP) vaccine. HBV T-cell epitope vaccine consists of immunodominant cluster of CD4 and CD8 epitopes with spacer in between them and epitopes are derived from HBV surface protein, HBV core, HBV X and polymerase. While HBV VLP vaccine is a HBV core protein based chimeric VLP with surface protein B-cell epitopes displayed. In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, mice were immunized with lentiviral constructs by intramuscular injection. The T cell and antibody immune responses of the two vaccine products were analyzed using IFN-γ ELISpot assay and ELISA respectively to quantify the adaptive response to HBV antigens. Results: Following a single administration in mice, lentiviral construct elicited robust antigen-specific IFN-γ responses to the encoded antigens. The HBV T- cell epitope vaccine demonstrated significantly higher T cell immunogenicity than HBV VLP vaccine. Importantly, we demonstrated by ELISA that antibodies are induced against both HBV surface protein and HBV core protein when mice injected with vaccine construct (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results highlight that THERAVECTYS lentiviral vectors may represent a powerful platform for immunization strategy against chronic hepatitis B. Our data suggests the likely importance of Lentiviral vector based novel bicistronic construct for further study, in combination with drugs or as standalone antigens, as a therapeutic lentiviral based HBV vaccines. THERAVECTYS bicistronic HBV vaccine will be further evaluated in animal efficacy studies.
Identification and Application of Biocontrol Agents against Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Disease in Gossypium hirsutum under Green House Conditions
Biological control is a novel approach being used in crop protection nowadays. Bacteria like Bacillus and Pseudomonas are reported for this purpose and few of their products are commercially available too. Rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source to isolate bacteria capable of exhibiting properties worthy for selection as biocontrol agent. For this purpose all isolated strains were screened for the activities like phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid (IAA) production and biocontrol against fungi. Two strains S1HL3 and S1HL4 showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously while two other JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 were good inhibitors of fungal pathogens. Through biochemical and molecular characterization these bacteria were identified as P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia and Bacillus respectively. In green house trials of these isolates against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), seven treatments including individual bacterial isolate and consortia were included. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants in which upto 74% CLCuV symptomatic plants exist. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in T7 treated plants where viral load was only 0.4% as compared to control where viral load was upto 74%. This treatment consortium included Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates; S1HL3, S1HL4, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. Principal Component Biplot depicted highly significant correlation between percentage viral load and the disease incidence.
Molecular and Serological Diagnosis of Newcastle and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Broiler in Chicken in Fars Province, Iran
Respiratory diseases are the most important problems in the country&rsquo;s poultry industry, particularly when it comes to broiler flocks. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a species that causes poor performance in growth rate, egg production, and mortality. This pathogen causes a respiratory infection including pulmonary alveolar inflammation, and pneumonia of birds throughout the world. Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, and also, it causes considerable losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous occurrence of ORT and ND and NDV isolation by inoculation in embryonated eggs and confirmed by RT-PCR in broiler chicken flocks in Fars province. In this study, 318 blood and 85 tissue samples (brain, trachea, liver, and cecal tonsils) were collected from 15 broiler chicken farms. Survey serum antibody titers against ORT by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit performed. Evaluation of antibody titer against ND virus is performed by hemagglutination inhibition test. Virus isolation with chick embryo eggs 9-11 and RT-PCR method were carried out. A total of 318 serum samples, 135 samples (42.5%) were positive for antibodies to ORT and titer of HI antibodies against NDV in 122 serum samples (38/4%) were 7-10 (log2) and 61 serum samples (19/2%) had occurrence antibody titer against Newcastle virus and ORT. Results of the present study indicated that 20 tissue samples were positive in embryonated egg and in rapid hemagglutination (HA) test. HI test with specific ND positive serum confirmed that 6 of 20 samples. PCR confirmed that all six samples were positive and PCR products of samples indicated 535-base pair fragments in electrophrosis. Due to the great economic importance of these two diseases in the poultry industry, it is necessary to design and implement a comprehensive plan for prevention and control of these diseases.
Detection of Bcl2 Polymorphism in Patient with Hepatocellular carcinoma
Introduction: Despite advances in the knowledge of the molecular virology of hepatitis C virus (HCV), the mechanisms of hepatocellular injury in HCV infection are not completely understood. Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) influences the susceptibility to apoptosis. This could lead to insufficient antiviral immune response and persistent viral infection. Aim of this study: was to examine whether BCL-2 gene polymorphism at codon 43 (+127G/A or Ala43Thr) has an impact on development of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included three groups; group 1: composing of 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), group 2 composing of 30 patients with HCV, group 3 composing of 30 healthy subjects matching the same age and socioeconomic status were taken as a control group. Gene polymorphism of BCL2 (Ala43Thr) were evaluated by PCR-RFLP technique and measured for all patients and controls. Results: The summed 43Thr genotype was more frequent and statistically significant in HCC patients as compared to control group. This genotype of BCL2 gene may inhibit the programmed cell death which leads to disturbance in tissue and cells homeostasis and reduction in immune regulation. This result leads to viral replication and HCV persistence. Moreover, virus produces variety of mechanisms to block genes participated in apoptosis. This mechanism proves that HCV patients who have 43Thr genotype are more susceptible to HCC. Conclusion: The data suggest for the first time that the BCL2 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to HCC in Egyptian populations and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating HCC risk. This study clearly demonstrated that Chronic HCV exhibit a deregulation of apoptosis with the disease progression. This provides an insight into the pathogenesis of chronic HCV infection, and may contribute to the therapy.
Inhibition of Influenza Replication through the Restrictive Factors Modulation by CCR5 and CXCR4 Receptor Ligands
The exposure of A(H1N1)pdm09-infected epithelial cells (HeLa) to HIV-1 viral particles, or its gp120, enhanced interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM3) content, a viral restriction factor (RF), resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. The gp120 binds to CCR5 (R5) or CXCR4 (X4) cell receptors during HIV-1 infection. Then, it is possible that the endogenous ligands of these receptors also modulate the expression of IFITM3 and other cellular factors that restrict influenza virus replication. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the role of cellular receptors R5 and X4 in modulating RFs in order to inhibit the replication of the influenza virus. A549 cells were treated with 2x effective dose (ED50) of endogenous R5 or X4 receptor agonists, CCL3 (20 ng/ml), CCL4 (10 ng/ml), CCL5 (10 ng/ml) and CXCL12 (100 ng/mL) or exogenous agonists, gp120 Bal-R5, gp120 IIIB-X4 and its mutants (5 µg/mL). The interferon α (10 ng/mL) and oseltamivir (60 nM) were used as a control. After 24 h post agonists exposure, the cells were infected with virus influenza A(H3N2) at 2 MOI (multiplicity of infection) for 1 h. Then, 24 h post infection, the supernatant was harvested and, the viral titre was evaluated by qRT-PCR. To evaluate IFITM3 and SAM and HD domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1) protein levels, A549 were exposed to agonists for 24 h, and the monolayer was lysed with Laemmli buffer for western blot (WB) assay or fixed for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) assay. In addition to this, we analyzed other RFs modulation in A549, after 24 h post agonists exposure by customized RT² Profiler Polymerase Chain Reaction Array. We also performed a functional assay in which SAMHD1-knocked-down, by single-stranded RNA (siRNA), A549 cells were infected with A(H3N2). In addition, the cells were treated with guanosine to assess the regulatory role of dNTPs by SAMHD1. We found that R5 and X4 agonists inhibited influenza replication in 54 ± 9%. We observed a four-fold increase in SAMHD1 transcripts by RFs mRNA quantification panel. After 24 h post agonists exposure, we did not observe an increase in IFITM3 protein levels through WB or IFI assays, but we observed an upregulation up to three-fold in the protein content of SAMHD1, in A549 exposed to agonists. Besides this, influenza replication enhanced in 20% in cell cultures that SAMDH1 was knockdown. Guanosine treatment in cells exposed to R5 ligands further inhibited influenza virus replication, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism may involve the activation of the SAMHD1 deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase activity. Thus, our data show for the first time a direct relationship of SAMHD1 and inhibition of influenza replication, and provides perspectives for new studies on the signaling modulation, through cellular receptors, to induce proteins of great importance in the control of relevant infections for public health.
Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Ticks of Golestan Province, Iran
Introduction: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes severe disease with fatality rates of 30%. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick, direct contact with the products of infected livestock and nosocomially. The disease occurs sporadically throughout many of African, Asian, and European countries. Different species of ticks serve either as vector or reservoir for CCHFV. Materials and Methods: A molecular survey was conducted on hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Golestan province, north of Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were sent to National Reference Laboratory of Arboviruses (Pasteur Institute of Iran) and viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Results: Result revealed the presence of CCHFV in 5.3% of the selected ticks. The infected ticks belonged to Hy. dromedarii, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. marginatum, and Rh. sanguineus. Conclusions: These data demonstrates that Hyalomma ticks are the main vectors of CCHFV in Golestan province. Thus, preventive strategies such as using acaricides and repellents in order to avoid contact with Hyalomma ticks are proposed. Also, personal protective equipment (PPE) must be utilized at abattoirs.
Correlation between Resistance to Non-Specific Inhibitor and Mammalian Pathogenicity of an Egg Adapted H9N2 Virus
A/chicken/Korea/01310/2001 (H9N2) (01310) was passaged through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) by 20 times (01310-E20), and it has been used for an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine in Korea. After sequential passages, 01310-E20 showed higher pathogenicity in ECEs and acquired multiple mutations including a potential N-glycosylation at position 133 (H3 numbering) in HA and 18aa-deletion in NA stalk. To evaluate the effect of these mutations on the mammalian pathogenicity and resistance to non-specific inhibitors, we generated four PR8-derived recombinant viruses with different combinations of HA and NA from 01310-E2 and 01310-E20 (rH2N2, rH2N20, rH20N2, and rH20N20). According to our results, recombinant viruses containing 01310 E20 HA showed higher growth property in MDCK cells and higher virulence on mice than those containing 01310 E2 HA regardless of NA. The hemagglutination activity of rH20N20 was less inhibited by egg white and mouse lung extract than that of other recombinant viruses. Thus, the increased pathogenicity of 01310-E20 may be related to both higher replication efficiency and resistance to non-specific inhibitors in mice.
The Four-Way Interactions among Host Plant-Whitefly-Virus-Endosymbionts in Insect and Disease Development
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera; Aleyrodidae) is a highly polyphagous pest reported to infest over 600 plant hosts globally. About 42 genetic groups/cryptic species of B. tabaci exist in the world on different hosts. The species have variable behaviour with respect to feeding, development and transmission of viral diseases. Feeding on diverse host plants affect both whitefly development and the population of the endosymbionts harboured by the insects. Due to changes in the level of endosymbionts, the virus transmission efficiency by the vector also gets affected. We investigated these interactions on five host plants – egg plant, tomato, beans, okra and cotton - using a single whitefly species Asia 1 infected with three different bacteria Portiera, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus. The Asia 1 transmits the Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus (ToLCBV) effectively and thus was used in the interaction studies. We found a significant impact of hosts on whitefly growth and development; eggplant was most favourable host, while okra and tomato were least favourable. Among the endosymbiotic bacteria, the titre of Wolbachia was significantly affected by feeding of B. tabaci on different host plants whereas Arsenophonus and Portiera were unaffected. When whitefly fed on ToLCBV-infected tomato plants, the Arsenophonus population was significantly increased, indicating its previously confirmed role in ToLCBV transmission. Further, screening of total proteins of B. tabaci Asia 1 genetic group interacting with ToLCBV coat protein was carried out using Y2H system. Some of the proteins found to be interacting with ToLCBV CP were HSPs 70kDa, GroEL, nucleoproteins, vitellogenins, apolipophorins, lachesins, enolase. The reported protein thus would be the potential targets for novel whitefly control strategies such as RNAi or novel insecticide target sites for sustainable whitefly management after confirmation of genuine proteins.
Prevalence, Isolation and Identification of Feline Panleukopaenia Virus from Wild Felids in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha
In the present study, an attempt has been made for isolation and identification of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) from wild felids of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, along with prevalence study of FPLV. Fecal samples collected from wild felids (26 tigers, 22 lions, 5 leopards, 3 hyenas, 1 jaguar, 2 foxes and 1 wild cat) were subjected to hemagglutinnation test and fluorescent antibody test. In hemagglutinnation test 13 (50%) samples from tiger, 14 (63.63%) samples from lions, 1 (20%) sample from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) samples from hyenas and 1 (100%) sample from wild cat were positive. On fluorescent antibody test (FAT), 15 (57.69%) samples from tiger, 18 (81.81%) from lions, 2 (40%) from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) from hyenas and 1 (100%) from wild cat were positive. FPLV was isolated using MDBK cell line and preliminary characterization was done on the basis of characteristic cytopathic effect. The virus samples were quantified through titration in MDBK cells. Serological confirmation of FPLV isolates was carried out by HI test, micro-SNT and indirect-ELISA. Physico-chemical characters like pH and temperature resistance along molecular identification using specific FPLV primers was carried out. Seroprevalence study of 36 serum samples employing HI test, micro SNT and indirect-ELISA revealed prevalence of 38.8, 44.4 and 72.2% respectively. During study period an adult tigress and a tiger cub died suspected of feline panleukopenia. The necropsy findings in both animals showed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The cytological examination revealed presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the intestinal epithelial cells. Spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestine were positive for feline panleukopenia by FAT. The investigation revealed that feline panleukopenia was prevalent in wild felines of Nandankanan zoo.
Correlation of Structure and Antiviral Activity of Alkaloids of Polygonum L. Plants Growing in Kazakhstan
Currently to treat infectious diseases bioactive substances of plant origin having fewer side effects than synthetic medicines and medicines similar to natural components of a human body by the structure and action, become very important. One of the groups of secondary metabolites of the plants - alkaloids can be related the number of the most promising sources of medicines of plant origin. Currently, the structure of more than 7500 compounds has been identified. Analyzing the scope of research in the field of chemistry, pharmacology and technology of alkaloids, we can make a conclusion about that there is no system approach during the research of relation structure-activity on different groups of these substances. It is connected not only with a complex structure of their molecules, but also with insufficient information on the nature of their effect on organs, tissues and other targets in organism. The purpose of this research was to identify pharmacophore groups in the structure of alkaloids of endemic Polygonum L. plants growing in Kazakhstan responsible for their antiviral action. To isolate alkaloids pharmacopoeian methods were used. Antiviral activity of alkaloids of Polygonum L. plants was researched in the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Virus-inhibiting properties of compounds were studies in experiments with ortho- and paramyxoviruses on the model of chick-embryos. Anti-viral properties were determined using ‘screening test’ method designed to neutralization of a virus at the amount of 100EID50 with set concentrations of medicines. The difference of virus titer compared to control group was deemed as the criterion of antiviral action. It has been established that Polygonum L. alkaloids has high antiviral effect to influenza and parainfluenza viruses. The analysis of correlation of the structure and antiviral activity of alkaloids allowed identifying the main pharmacophore groups, among which the most important are glycosidation, the presence of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, molecular weight and molecular size.
Transcriptome Analysis for Insights into Disease Progression in Dengue Patients
Dengue virus infection is now considered as one of the most important mosquito-borne infection in human. The virus is known to promote vascular permeability, cerebral edema leading to Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or Dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Dengue infection has known to be endemic in India for over two centuries as a benign and self-limited disease. In the last couple of years, the disease symptoms have changed, manifesting severe secondary complication. So far, Delhi has experienced 12 outbreaks of dengue virus infection since 1997 with the last reported in 2014-15. Without specific antivirals, the case management of high-risk dengue patients entirely relies on supportive care, involving constant monitoring and timely fluid support to prevent hypovolemic shock. Nonetheless, the diverse clinical spectrum of dengue disease, as well as its initial similarity to other viral febrile illnesses, presents a challenge in the early identification of this high-risk group. WHO recommends the use of warning signs to identify high-risk patients, but warning signs generally appear during, or just one day before the development of severe illness, thus, providing only a narrow window for clinical intervention. The ability to predict which patient may develop DHF and DSS may improve the triage and treatment. With the recent discovery of high throughput RNA sequencing allows us to understand the disease progression at the genomic level. Here, we will collate the results of RNA-Sequencing data obtained recently from PBMC of different categories of dengue patients from India and will discuss the possible role of deregulated genes and long non-coding RNAs NEAT1 for development of disease progression.
National Agency for Control of HIV/AIDS and International Response to its Scourge in Nigeria, 2000-2010
This paper seeks to examine Nigerian National Agency for the control of AIDS (NACA) and international response to the control of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. The paper adopted the Functionalist theory alongside Liberalism and Idealism, but anchored extensively on functionalism. On the response of HIV/AIDS, Functionalist theory advocated for international corporation of both intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations as the basis for the reduction of the virus. the study adopted secondary source of data i.e journals, articles, newspapers and policy briefs to discuss the reduction of the pandemic (HIV/AIDS).This paper discovered that although HIV/AIDS is a global threat, especially to developing countries where the prevalence rate is still very high, yet international governmental and non-governmental organisation have been able to collaborate with National agencies like NACA in Nigeria and respond speedily through diverse initiatives and action plans to curb the spread of the virus. The study therefore recommends greater awareness on testing and early introduction of antiretroviral therapy, proper screening of blood before transfusion, absolute faithfulness among partners. Similarly, sharing of sharp objects like needles, knives and syringes should be avoided at all cost.
Preparedness and Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: Experiences from Northwestern Italy
Mosquito-Borne Diseases (MBDs) are dangerously increasing in prevalence, geographical distribution and severity, representing an emerging threat for both humans and animals. Interaction between multiple disciplines is needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of MBDs, according to the One Health concept. This work reports the integrated surveillance system enforced by IZSPLV in Piedmont, Liguria and Valle d’Aosta regions (Northwestern Italy) in order to control MDBs spread. Veterinary services and local human health authority are involved in an information network, to connect the surveillance of human clinical cases with entomological surveillance and veterinary monitoring in order to implement control measures in case of outbreak. A systematic entomological surveillance is carried out during the vector season using mosquitoes traps located in sites selected according to risk factors. Collected mosquitoes are counted, identified to species level by morphological standard classification keys and pooled by collection site, date and species with a maximum of 100 individuals. Pools are analyzed, after RNA extraction, by Real Time RT-PCR distinctive for West Nile Virus (WNV) Lineage 1 and Lineage 2, Real Time RT-PCR USUTU virus (USUV) and a traditional flavivirus End-point RT-PCR. Positive pools are sequenced and the related sequences employed to perform a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) in the GenBank library. Positive samples are sent to the National Reference Centre for Animal Exotic Diseases (CESME, Teramo) for confirmation. With particular reference to WNV, after the confirmation, as provided by national legislation, control measures involving both local veterinary and human health services are activated: equine sera are randomly sampled within a 4 km radius from the positive collection sites and tested with ELISA kit and WNV NAT screening of blood donors is introduced. This surveillance network allowed to detect since 2011 USUV circulation in this area of Italy. WNV was detected in Piedmont and Liguria for the first time in 2014 in mosquitoes. During the 2015 vector season, we observed the expansion of its activity in Piedmont. The virus was detected in almost all Provinces both in mosquitoes (6 pools) and animals (19 equine sera, 4 birds). No blood bag tested resulted infected. The first neuroinvasive human case occurred too. Competent authorities should be aware of a potentially increased risk of MBDs activity during the 2016 vector season. This work shows that this surveillance network allowed to early detect the presence of MBDs in humans and animals, and provided useful information to public authorities, in order to apply control measures. Finally, an additional value of our diagnostic protocol is the ability to detect all viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family, considering the emergence caused by other Flaviviruses in humans such as the recent Zika virus infection in South America. Italy has climatic and environmental features conducive to Zika virus transmission, the competent vector and many travellers from Brazil reported every year.
Nanocomplexes on the Base of Triterpene Saponins Isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Saponaria officinalis Plants as an Efficient Adjuvants for Influenza Vaccine Use
Introduction: Triterpene saponins of plant origin are one of the most promising candidates for elaboration of novel adjuvants. Due to the combination of immunostimulating activity and the capacity interact with amphipathic molecules with formation of highly immunogenic nanocomplexes, triterpene saponins could serve as a good adjuvant/delivery system for vaccine use. In the research presented adjuvants on the base of nanocomplexes contained triterpene saponins isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Saponaria officinalis plants indigenous to Kazakhstan were elaborated for influenza vaccine use. Methods: Purified triterpene saponins 'Glabilox' and 'SO1' with low toxicity and high immunostimulatory activity were isolated from plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Saponaria officinalis L. by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Influenza virus A/St-Petersburg/5/09 (H1N1) propagated in 9-days old chicken embryos was concentrated and purified by centrifugation in sucrose gradient. Nanocomplexes contained lipids, and triterpene saponins Glabilox or SO1 were prepared by dialysis technique. Immunostimulating activity of experimental vaccine preparations was studied in vaccination/challenge experiments in mice. Results: Humoral and cellular immune responses and protection against influenza virus infection were examined after single subcutaneous and intranasal immunization. Mice were immunized subunit influenza vaccine (HA+NA) or whole virus inactivated influenza vaccine in doses 3.0/5.0/10.0 µg antigen/animal mixed with adjuvant in dose 15.0 µg/animal. Sera were taken 14-21 days following single immunization and mice challenged by A/St-Petersburg/5/09 influenza virus in dose 100 EID₅₀. Study of experimental influenza vaccine preparations in animal immunization experiments has shown that subcutaneous and intranasal immunization with subunit influenza vaccine mixed with nanocomplexes contained Glabilox or SO1 saponins stimulated high levels of humoral immune response (IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody) and cellular immune response (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ cytokines) and resulted 80-90% protection against lethal influenza infection. Also, single intranasal and single subcutaneous immunization with whole virus inactivated influenza vaccine mixed with nanoparticulated adjuvants stimulated high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses and provided 100% protection against lethal influenza infection. Conclusion: The results of study have shown that nanocomplexes contained purified triterpene saponins Glabilox and SO1 isolated from plants indigenous to Kazakhstan can stimulate a broad spectrum of humoral and cellular immune responses and induce protection against lethal influenza infection. Both elaborated adjuvants are promising for incorporation to influenza vaccine intended for subcutaneous and intranasal routes of immunization.
Correlation of IFNL4 ss469415590 and IL28B rs12979860 with the Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Response among Tunisian Patients
IL28B rs12979860 genotype is confirmed as an important predictor of response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). IFNL4 ss469415590 is a newly discovered polymorphism that could also affect the sustained virological response (SVR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of IL28B and IFNL4 genotypes with peginterferon/ribavirin treatment response in Tunisians patients with CHC and to determine which of these SNPs, was the stronger marker. A total of 120 patients were genotyped for both rs12979860 and ss469415590 polymorphisms. The association of each genetic marker with SVR was analyzed and comparison between the two SNPs was calculated by logistic regression models. For rs12979860, 69.6% of patients with CC, 41.8% with CT and 42.8% with TT achieved SVR (p = 0.003). Regarding ss469415590, 70.4% of patients with TT/TT genotype achieved SVR compared to 42.8% with TT/ΔG and 37.5% with ΔG /ΔG (p = 0.002). The presence of CC and TT/TT genotypes was independently associated with treatment response with an OR of 3.86 for each. In conclusion, both IL28B rs12979860 and IFNL4 ss469415590 variants were associated with response to pegIFN/RBV in Tunisian patients, without any additional benefit in performance for IFNL4. Our results are different from those detected in Sub-Saharan Africa countries.
Covid-19: Preparedness, Response, and Use of Video Technology in Managing Infection Rate at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos-Nigeria
Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Nigeria, the virus has spread to virtually all sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. In Nigeria, government agencies came together to create a goal-driven taskforce in improving our response against the virus. As COVID-19 international spread has been curtailed, community spread became rampant locally, leading to many health authorities raising concerns over the scarcity of medical consumables and supplies. Here at Lagos university teaching Hospital (LUTH), we present data analysis of COVID-19 infections offered at our Hospital (LUTH) and the surrounding communities. In addition, the adopted innovative solution to control the spread of infection, methods used in filling shortages of consumables, personal protective equipment (PPE), and use of mobile video technology in patient’s consultation. The management style and strategy adopted has led to a decline in infection rates in our community and among our front line staff. The current COVID -19 crisis has created an opportunity to test and demonstrate our pandemic response and control of infectious disease along with the revealed unknown potential in our community.
Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma in an HIV-Positive Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Background: Three AIDS-defining malignancies have been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cervical carcinoma. However, new cases of non-AIDS defining malignancies also have been increasingly associated with HIV. One of these is a rare intracranial malignancy, meningeal hemangiopericyotma. Case Description: A 32-year old HIV-positive male, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy, was admitted to our hospital due to generalized weakness and sudden onset hearing loss. Cranial MRI was done, which revealed a temporal nodule with the following considerations: granuloma, meningioma or metastases. A craniotomy was performed and the mass excised. Results from the biopsy showed meningeal hemangiopericytoma. The patient was then started on antiretroviral therapy (Lamivudine, Tenofovir, and Efavirenz) and was discharged for radiation therapy and metastatic work-up as an outpatient. On follow-up seven months later, metastatic work up revealed multiple hepatic foci not previously documented suggestive of metastasis short of biopsy sampling. Conclusions: This case of an intracranial hemangiopericytoma in an HIV-positive patient is the second case thus far presented, based on our systematic and extensive search of the literature.
Monitoring of Serological Test of Blood Serum in Indicator Groups of the Population of Central Kazakhstan
Planned preventive vaccination, which is carried out in the Republic of Kazakhstan, promoted permanent decrease in the incidence of measles and viral hepatitis B. In the structure of VHB patients prevail people of young, working age. Monitoring of infectious incidence, monitoring of coverage of immunization of the population, random serological control over the immunity enable well-timed identification of distribution of the activator, effectiveness of the taken measures and forecasting. The serological blood analysis was conducted in indicator groups of the population of Central Kazakhstan for the purpose of identification of antibody titre for vaccine preventable infections (measles, viral hepatitis B). Measles antibodies were defined by method of enzyme-linked assay (ELA) with test-systems "VektoKor" – Ig G ('Vektor-Best' JSC). Antibodies for HBs-antigen of hepatitis B virus in blood serum was identified by method of enzyme-linked assay (ELA) with VektoHBsAg test systems – antibodies ('Vektor-Best' JSC). The result of the analysis is positive, the concentration of IgG to measles virus in the studied sample is equal to 0.18 IU/ml or more. Protective level of concentration of anti-HBsAg makes 10 mIU/ml. The results of the study of postvaccinal measles immunity showed that the share of seropositive people made 87.7% of total number of surveyed. The level of postvaccinal immunity to measles in age groups differs. So, among people older than 56 the percentage of seropositive made 95.2%. Among people aged 15-25 were registered 87.0% seropositive, at the age of 36-45 – 86.6%. In age groups of 25-35 and 36-45 the share of seropositive people was approximately at the same level – 88.5% and 88.8% respectively. The share of people seronegative to a measles virus made 12.3%. The biggest share of seronegative people was found among people aged 36-45 – 13.4% and 15-25 – 13.0%. The analysis of results of the examined people for the existence of postvaccinal immunity to viral hepatitis B showed that from all surveyed only 33.5% have the protective level of concentration of anti-HBsAg of 10 mIU/ml and more. The biggest share of people protected from VHB virus is observed in the age group of 36-45 and makes 60%. In the indicator group – above 56 – seropositive people made 4.8%. The high percentage of seronegative people has been observed in all studied age groups from 40.0% to 95.2%. The group of people which is least protected from getting VHB is people above 56 (95.2%). The probability to get VHB is also high among young people aged 25-35, the percentage of seronegative people made 80%. Thus, the results of the conducted research testify to the need for carrying out serological monitoring of postvaccinal immunity for the purpose of operational assessment of the epidemiological situation, early identification of its changes and prediction of the approaching danger.
Maternal-Fetal Outcome in Pregnant Women with Ebola Virus Disease: A Systematic Review
Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. The most widespread epidemic of EVD in history occurred recently in several West African countries. The burden and outcome of EVD in pregnant women remains uncertain. There are very few studies to date reporting on maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women with EVD, hence the justification for this comprehensive review of these published studies. Methods: Published studies in English that reported on maternal and or fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD up to May 2016 were searched in electronic databases (Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, PubMed, AJOL, and Scopus). Studies that did not satisfy the inclusion criteria were excluded. We extracted the following variables from each study: geographical location, year of the study, settings of the study, participants, maternal and fetal outcome.Result: There were 12 studies that reported on 108 pregnant women and 110 fetal outcomes. Six of the studies were case reports, 3 retrospective studies, 2 cross-sectional studies and 1 was a technical report. There were 91(84.3%) deaths out of the 108 pregnant women, while only 1(0.9%) fetal survival was reported out of 110. Survival rate among the 15 patients that had spontaneous abortion/stillbirth or induced delivery was 100%. Conclusion: There was a poor maternal and fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD, and fetal evacuation significantly improves maternal survival.
Neutralizing Antibody Response against Inactivated FMDV Type O/IRN/2010 Vaccine by Electron Beam in BALB/C Mice
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most economically important disease of livestock. The aim of the study is inactivation of FMD virus type O/IRN/2010 by electron beam without antigenic changes as electron radio vaccine. The BALB/C mice were divided into three groups, each group containing five mice. Three groups of mice were inoculated with conventional vaccine and electron beam irradiated vaccine FMDV type O/IRN/2010 subcutaneously three weeks interval, the final group as negative control. The sera were separated from the blood samples of mice 14 days after last vaccination and tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV type O/IRN/2010 by serum neutralization test. The Serum Neutralization Test (SNT) was carried out and antibody titration was calculated according to the Kraber protocol. The results of the SNT in three groups of mice showed the titration of neutralizing antibody in the vaccinated mice groups; electron radio vaccine and conventional vaccine were significantly higher than negative control group (P< 0.05). Therefore, the radio vaccine is a good candidate to immunize animals against FMDV type O/IRN/2010.
Studies of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Proteosomal Gene Complex and Their Association with HBV Infection Risk in India
Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of proteosomal gene complex is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. Some of such proteosomal gene complex are large multifunctional proteins (LMP) and antigen associated transporters that help in antigen presentation. Both are involved in intracellular processing and presentation of viral antigens in association with Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) Class I molecules. A total of hundred each of hepatitis B virus infected and control samples from northern India were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from all studied samples and PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping at different positions of LMP genes. Genotypes at a given position were inferred from the pattern of bands and genotype frequencies and haplotype frequencies were also calculated. Homozygous SNP {A>C} was observed at codon 145 of LMP7 gene and having a protective role against HBV as there was statistically significant high distribution of this SNP among controls than cases. Heterozygous SNP {A>C} was observed at codon 145 of LMP7 gene and made individuals more susceptible to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this SNP among cases than control. SNP {T>C} was observed at codon 60 of LMP2 gene but statistically significant differences were not observed among controls and cases. For codon 145 of LMP7 and codon 60 of LMP2 genes, four haplotypes were constructed. Haplotype I (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘A’) made individuals carrying it more susceptible to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this haplotype among cases than control. Haplotype II (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘C’) made individuals carrying it more immune to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this haplotype among control than cases. Thus it can be concluded that homozygous SNP {A>C} at codon 145 of LMP7 and Haplotype II (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘C’) has a protective role against HBV infection whereas heterozygous SNP {A>C} at codon 145 of LMP7 and Haplotype I (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘A’) made individuals more susceptible to HBV infection.
Multilevel Modeling of the Progression of HIV/AIDS Disease among Patients under HAART Treatment
HIV results as an incurable disease, AIDS. After a person is infected with virus, the virus gradually destroys all the infection fighting cells called CD4 cells and makes the individual susceptible to opportunistic infections which cause severe or fatal health problems. Several studies show that the CD4 cells count is the most determinant indicator of the effectiveness of the treatment or progression of the disease. The objective of this paper is to investigate the progression of the disease over time among patient under HAART treatment. Two main approaches of the generalized multilevel ordinal models; namely the proportional odds model and the nonproportional odds model have been applied to the HAART data. Also, the multilevel part of both models includes random intercepts and random coefficients. In general, four models are explored in the analysis and then the models are compared using the deviance information criteria. Of these models, the random coefficients nonproportional odds model is selected as the best model for the HAART data used as it has the smallest DIC value. The selected model shows that the progression of the disease increases as the time under the treatment increases. In addition, it reveals that gender, baseline clinical stage and functional status of the patient have a significant association with the progression of the disease.
Detection of Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpes Virus in a Wild Asian Elephant Calf in Thailand by Using Real-Time PCR
In January 2018, a male wild elephant, approximately 2 years old, was found dead in Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei province. The elephant was likely to die around 2 weeks earlier. The carcass was decayed without any signs of attack or bullet. No organs were removed. A deadly viral disease was suspected. Different organs including lung, liver, intestine and tongue were collected and submitted to the veterinary research and development center, Surin province for viral detection. The samples were then examined with real-time PCR for detecting U41 Major DNA binding protein (MDBP) gene and with conventional PCR for the presence of specific polymerase gene. We used tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene as the internal control. In our real-time PCR, elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) was recovered from lung, liver, and tongue whereas only tongue provided a positive result in the conventional PCR. All samples were positive with TNF gene detection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of EEHV detection in wild elephant in Thailand. EEHV surveillance in this wild population is strongly suggested. Linkage between EEHV in wild and domestic elephants should be further explored.
Cellular RNA-Binding Domains with Distant Homology in Viral Proteomes
Until today, viruses remain controversial and poorly understood; about their origin, this problem represents an enigma and one of the great challenges for the contemporary biology. Three main theories have tried to explain the origin of viruses: regressive evolution, escaped host gene, and pre-cellular origin. Under the perspective of the escaped host gene theory, it can be assumed a cellular origin of viral components, like protein RNA-binding domains. These universal distributed RNA-binding domains are related to the RNA metabolism processes, including transcription, processing, and modification of transcripts, translation, RNA degradation and its regulation. In the case of viruses, these domains are present in important viral proteins like helicases, nucleases, polymerases, capsid proteins or regulation factors. Therefore, they are implicated in the replicative cycle and parasitic processes of viruses. That is why it is possible to think that those domains present low levels of divergence due to selective pressures. For these reasons, the main goal for this project is to create a catalogue of the RNA-binding domains found in all the available viral proteomes, using bioinformatics tools in order to analyze its evolutionary process, and thus shed light on the general virus evolution. ProDom database was used to obtain larger than six thousand RNA-binding domain families that belong to the three cellular domains of life and some viral groups. From the sequences of these families, protein profiles were created using HMMER 3.1 tools in order to find distant homologous within greater than four thousand viral proteomes available in GenBank. Once accomplished the analysis, almost three thousand hits were obtained in the viral proteomes. The homologous sequences were found in proteomes of the principal Baltimore viral groups, showing interesting distribution patterns that can contribute to understand the evolution of viruses and their host-virus interactions. Presence of cellular RNA-binding domains within virus proteomes seem to be explained by closed interactions between viruses and their hosts. Recruitment of these domains is advantageous for the viral fitness, allowing viruses to be adapted to the host cellular environment.
Approaching a Tat-Rev Independent HIV-1 Clone towards a Model for Research
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a leading cause of death worldwide infecting millions of people each year. Despite intensive research in vaccine development, therapies against HIV-1 infection are not curative, and the huge genetic variability of HIV-1 challenges to drug development. Current animal models for HIV-1 research present important limitations, impairing the progress of in vivo approaches. Macaques require a CD8+ depletion to progress to AIDS, and the maintenance cost is high. Mice are a cheaper alternative but need to be 'humanized,' and breeding is not possible. The development of an HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice is a challenging proposal. The lack of human co-factors in mice impedes the function of the HIV-1 accessory proteins, Tat and Rev, hampering HIV-1 replication. However, Tat and Rev function can be replaced by constitutive/chimeric promoters, codon-optimized proteins and the constitutive transport element (CTE), generating a novel HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice without disrupting the amino acid sequence of the virus. By minimally manipulating the genomic 'identity' of the virus, we propose the generation of an HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice to assist in antiviral drug development. Methods: i) Plasmid construction: The chimeric promoters and CTE copies were cloned by PCR using lentiviral vectors as templates (pCGSW and pSIV-MPCG). Tat mutants were generated from replication competent HIV-1 plasmids (NHG and NL4-3). ii) Infectivity assays: Retroviral vectors were generated by transfection of human 293T cells and murine NIH 3T3 cells. Virus titre was determined by flow cytometry measuring GFP expression. Human B-cells (AA-2) and Hela cells (TZMbl) were used for infectivity assays. iii) Protein analysis: Tat protein expression was determined by TZMbl assay and HIV-1 capsid by western blot. Results: We have determined that NIH 3T3 cells are able to generate HIV-1 particles. However, they are not infectious, and further analysis needs to be performed. Codon-optimized HIV-1 constructs are efficiently made in 293T cells in a Tat and Rev independent manner and capable of packaging a competent genome in trans. CSGW is capable of generating infectious particles in the absence of Tat and Rev in human cells when 4 copies of the CTE are placed preceding the 3’LTR. HIV-1 Tat mutant clones encoding different promoters are functional during the first cycle of replication when Tat is added in trans. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the development of an HIV-1 Tat-Rev independent clone is challenging but achievable aim. However, further investigations need to be developed prior presenting our HIV-1 clone as a candidate model for research.
Inducible Trans-Encapsidation System for Temporal Separation of Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects 170 million peoples worldwide. Major advances have been made recently in HCV standard of care with interferon-free therapy being already approved. Despite major progress in HCV therapy, the genotype associated treatment efficacy and toxicity still represent issues to address. To identify endogenous factors involved in different stages of HCV life cycle, we have developed a trans-packaging system for HCV subgenomic replicons lacking core protein gene. Huh7 cells were used to generate a packaging cell line expressing the core protein in an inducible manner. The core packaging cell line was able to trans-complemented various subgenomic replicons to secret infectious trans-complemented HCV particles (HCV-TCP). Further, we constructed subgenomic replicons with foreign epitopes suitable for immunoaffinity purification or fluorescence microscopy studies. We have shown that the insertion has not effects on the efficacy of trans-complementation yielding similar titers to the control subgenomic replicon. This system will be a valuable tool in studying pre- and post-assembly events in HCV life cycle and for the fast identification of HCV assembly inhibitors.
Comparative Vector Susceptibility for Dengue Virus and Their Co-Infection in A. aegypti and A. albopictus
Dengue is now a globally important arboviral disease. Extensive vector surveillance has already established A.aegypti as a primary vector, but A.albopictus is now accelerating the situation through gradual adaptation to human surroundings. Global destabilization and gradual climatic shift with rising in temperature have significantly expanded the geographic range of these species These versatile vectors also host Chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever virus. Biggest challenge faced by endemic countries now is upsurge in co-infection reported with multiple serotypes and virus co-circulation. To foster vector control interventions and mitigate disease burden, there is surge for knowledge on vector susceptibility and viral tolerance in response to multiple infections. To address our understanding on transmission dynamics and reproductive fitness, both the vectors were exposed to single and dual combinations of all four dengue serotypes by artificial feeding and followed up to third generation. Artificial feeding observed significant difference in feeding rate for both the species where A.albopictus was poor artificial feeder (35-50%) compared to A.aegypti (95-97%) Robust sequential screening of viral antigen in mosquitoes was followed by Dengue NS1 ELISA, RT-PCR and Quantitative PCR. To observe viral dissemination in different mosquito tissues Indirect immunofluorescence assay was performed. Result showed that both the vectors were infected initially with all dengue(1-4)serotypes and its co-infection (D1 and D2, D1 and D3, D1 and D4, D2 and D4) combinations. In case of DENV-2 there was significant difference in the peak titer observed at 16th day post infection. But when exposed to dual infections A.aegypti supported all combinations of virus where A.albopictus only continued single infections in successive days. There was a significant negative effect on the fecundity and fertility of both the vectors compared to control (PANOVA < 0.001). In case of dengue 2 infected mosquito, fecundity in parent generation was significantly higher (PBonferroni < 0.001) for A.albopicus compare to A.aegypti but there was a complete loss of fecundity from second to third generation for A.albopictus. It was observed that A.aegypti becomes infected with multiple serotypes frequently even at low viral titres compared to A.albopictus. Possible reason for this could be the presence of wolbachia infection in A.albopictus or mosquito innate immune response, small RNA interference etc. Based on the observations it could be anticipated that transovarial transmission may not be an important phenomenon for clinical disease outcome, due to the absence of viral positivity by third generation. Also, Dengue NS1 ELISA can be used for preliminary viral detection in mosquitoes as more than 90% of the samples were found positive compared to RT-PCR and viral load estimation.
Qualitative Detection of HCV and GBV-C Co-infection in Cirrhotic Patients Using a SYBR Green Multiplex Real Time RT-PCR Technique
HCV and GBV-C belong to the Flaviviridae family of viruses and GBV-C is the closest virus to HCV genetically. Accumulative research is in progress all over the world to clarify clinical aspects of GBV-C. Possibility of interaction between HCV and GBV-C and also its consequence with other liver diseases are the most important clinical aspects which encourage researchers to develop a technique for simultaneous detection of these viruses. In this study a SYBR Green multiplex real time RT-PCR technique as a new economical and sensitive method was optimized for simultaneous detection of HCV/GBV-C in HCV positive plasma samples. After designing and selection of two pairs of specific primers for HCV and GBV-C, SYBR Green Real time RT-PCR technique optimization was performed separately for each virus. Establishment of multiplex PCR was the next step. Finally our technique was performed on positive and negative plasma samples. 89 cirrhotic HCV positive plasma samples (29 of genotype 3 a and 27 of genotype 1a) were collected from patients before receiving treatment. 14% of genotype 3a and 17.1% of genotype 1a showed HCV/GBV-C co-infection. As a result, 13.48% of 89 samples had HCV/GBV-C co-infection that was compatible with other results from all over the world. Data showed no apparent influence of HGV co-infection on the either clinical or virological aspect of HCV infection. Furthermore, with application of multiplex Real time RT-PCR technique, more time and cost could be saved in clinical-research settings.
Haplotypes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Different HIV-1 Groups from the Netherlands
The Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecule plays an important role in immunomodulation. To date, 16 untranslated regions (UTR) HLA-G haplotypes have been previously defined by sequenced SNPs in the coding region. From these, UTR-1, UTR-2, UTR-3, UTR-4, UTR-5, UTR-6 and UTR-7 are the most frequent 3’UTR haplotypes at the global level. UTR-1 is associated with higher levels of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G expression, whereas UTR-5 and UTR-7 are linked with low levels of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G expression. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection results in the progressive loss of immune function in infected individuals. The virus escape mechanism typically includes T lymphocytes and NK cell recognition and lyses by classical HLA-A and B down-regulation, which has been associated with non-classical HLA-G molecule up-regulation, respectively. We evaluated the haplotypes of the HLA-G 3′ untranslated region frequencies observed in three HIV-1 groups from the Netherlands and their susceptibility to develop infection. The three groups are made up of mainly men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU) and a high-risk-seronegative (HRSN) group. DNA samples were amplified with published primers prior sequencing. According to our results, the low expresser frequencies show higher in HRSN compared to other groups. This is indicating that 3’UTR polymorphisms may be identified as potential prognostic biomarkers to determine susceptibility to HIV.
Phylogenetic Analyses of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Unvaccinated Chicken Flocks in Kyrgyzstan from 2015 to 2016
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious viral disease of the poultry industry and other birds throughout the world. At present, very little is known about molecular epidemiological data regarding the causes of ND outbreak in commercial poultry farms in Kyrgyzstan. In the current study, the NDV isolated from the one out of three samples from the unvaccinated flock was confirmed as NDV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this NDV strain is clustered in the Class II subgenotype VIId, and closely related to the Chinese NDV isolate. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolated NDV strain has an origin different from the 4 NDV strains previously identified in Kyrgyzstan. According to the mean death time (MDT: 61.1 h) and a multibasic amino acid (aa) sequence at the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (¹¹²R-R-Q-K-R-F¹¹⁷), the NDV isolate was determined as mesogenic strain. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes (notably, ³⁴⁷E→K) and the global head were observed in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of the current isolate. The present study represents the molecular characterization of the coding gene region of NDV in Kyrgyzstan. Additionally, further study will be investigated on the antigenic characterization using monoclonal antibody.
Soft Computing Approach for Diagnosis of Lassa Fever
Lassa fever is an epidemic hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus, an extremely virulent arena virus. This highly fatal disorder kills 10% to 50% of its victims, but those who survive its early stages usually recover and acquire immunity to secondary attacks. One of the major challenges in giving proper treatment is lack of fast and accurate diagnosis of the disease due to multiplicity of symptoms associated with the disease which could be similar to other clinical conditions and makes it difficult to diagnose early. This paper proposed an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for the prediction of Lass Fever. In the design of the diagnostic system, four main attributes were considered as the input parameters and one output parameter for the system. The input parameters are Temperature on admission (TA), White Blood Count (WBC), Proteinuria (P) and Abdominal Pain (AP). Sixty-one percent of the datasets were used in training the system while fifty-nine used in testing. Experimental results from this study gave a reliable and accurate prediction of Lassa fever when compared with clinically confirmed cases. In this study, we have proposed Lassa fever diagnostic system to aid surgeons and medical healthcare practictionals in health care facilities who do not have ready access to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) diagnosis to predict possible Lassa fever infection.
Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Camel Pox, Contagious Ecthyma and Papilloma Viruses in Clinical Samples of Camels Using a Multiplex PCR
Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. They may be caused by three distinct viruses: camelpox virus (CMPV), camel contagious ecthyma virus (CCEV) and camel papillomavirus (CAPV). These diseases are difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify CMPV and CCEV, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost- and time–saving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation a multiplex PCR assays able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets, and was applied to the detection of 110 tissue samples. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. In conclusion, this rapid, sensitive and specific assay is considered a useful method for identifying three important viruses in specimens from camels and as part of a molecular diagnostic regime.
Expression of Human Papillomavirus Type 18 L1 Virus-Like Particles in Methylotropic Yeast, Pichia Pastoris
Human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 are closely associated with the development of human cervical carcinoma, which is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. At present, HPV type 18 accounts for about 34 % of all HPV infections in Iran and the most promising vaccine against HPV infection is based on the L1 major capsid protein. The L1 protein of HPV18 has the capacity to self-assemble into capsomers or virus-like particles (VLPs) that are non-infectious, highly immunogenic and allowing their use in vaccine production. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is an efficient and inexpensive expression system used to produce high levels of heterologous proteins. In this study we expressed HPV18 L1 VLPs in P. pastoris. The gene encoding the major capsid protein L1 of the high-risk HPV type 18 was isolated from Iranian patient by PCR and inserted into pTG19-T vector to obtain the recombinant expression vector pTG19-HPV18-L1. Then, the pTG19-HPV18-L1 was transformed into E. coli strain DH5α and the recombinant protein HPV18 L1 was expressed under IPTG induction in soluble form. The HPV18 L1 gene was excised from recombinant plasmid with XhoI and EcoRI enzymes and ligated into the yeast expression vector pPICZα linearized with the same enzymes, and transformed into P. pastoris. Induction and expression of HPV18 L1 protein was demonstrated by BMGY/BMMY and RT PCR. The parameters for induced cultivation for strain in P. pastoris KM71 with HPV16L1 were investigated in shaking flask cultures. After induced cultivation BMMY (pH 7.0) medium supplemented with methanol to a final concentration of 1.0% every 24 h at 37 degrees C for 96 h, the recombinant produced 78.6 mg/L of L1 protein. This work offers the possibility for the production of prophylactic vaccine for cervical carcinoma by P. pastoris for HPV-18 L1 gene. The VLP-based HPV vaccines can prevent persistent HPV18 infections and cervical cancer in Iran. The HPV-18 L1 gene was expressed successfully in E.coli, which provides necessary basis for preparing HPV-18 L1 vaccine in human. Also, HPV type 6 L1 proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris will facilitate the HPV vaccine development and structure-function study.
Hepatitis B Prevalence in Institutionalized Intellectually Disabled Children
Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes chronic infection in human population, with high mortality. Some people are more susceptible to this infection. One of the high risk communities is mentally retarded children, who are institutionalized. Special conditions in these centers predispose children for HBV infection and transmission to healthy people. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among institutionalized mentally retarded children and study its associated risk factors. Materials and methods: In this study, 250 mentally retarded children (younger than 14 years old) were included. They were living in 5 nursing institutions, located in different parts of Tehran. HBsAg was measured in the sera of these patients by ELISA method. Results: Among 250 children, 20 children (8%) were HBsAg positive. HBV infection in girls was more than boys (11% to 5.6%). Among the types of mental retardation, children with cerebral palsy had the highest positive result for HBsAg. The most HBV infection (28.5%) was seen in children with longest duration of being institutionalized (10 to 11 years). Vaccinated children were more HBsAg positive (8.7%) than non-vaccinated children (5.3%). However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these factors and HBsAg positivity. Conclusion: Despite improvement of people’s health condition and implementation of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HBV infection is high in institutionalized mentally retarded children, which highlights the need for active measures to reduce this infection among this high risk population.
Use of Nanosensors in Detection and Treatment of HIV
Nanosensor is the combination of two terms nanoparticles and sensors. These are chemical or physical sensor constructed using nanoscale components, usually microscopic or submicroscopic in size. These sensors are very sensitive and can detect single virus particle or even very low concentrations of substances that could be potentially harmful. Nanosensors have a large scope of research especially in the field of medical sciences, military applications, pharmaceuticals etc.
Monitoring of Humoral Immune Response of Monovalent and Combined PPR and FMD Serotype 'O' Virus Vaccines in Goats
Comparative efficacy of three formulations (non-adjuvant, gel, and oil adjuvant) of monovalent and combined PPR and FMD virus vaccines was evaluated in goats. All kinds of monovalent PPRV vaccines elicited protective antibody titers at one-month post vaccination (PV) that remained so till six months PV. Monovalent non-adjuvant (NA) FMDV vaccine provoked non-protective antibody titers that declined to undetectable levels after three months. In case of combined vaccines, all of the formulations elicited protective antibody titers against PPRV in vaccinated animals which remained above that limit for six months. However, an exceptional immune response against FMDV was observed in combined NA vaccine group where antibody titers were extremely high and remained above protective level till 4 months PV in animals who received a single vaccine shot and till six months PV in booster group. Although, adjuvant or NA combined vaccines can induce protective antibody titers against both of the viruses within one month PV, but a booster vaccine shot is needed to retain protective antibody level for 6 months duration. Immune response elicited by combined vaccines is comparable or superior to the monovalent vaccines. Hence combined vaccine can be effectively used for the control and prevention of both of the diseases.
A Novel Peptide Showing Universal Effect against Multiple Viruses in Vitro and in Vivo
Background: So far, there is no universal antiviral agent which can inhibit multiple viral infections. More and more drug-resistant viral strains emerge after the antiviral drug application for treatment. Defensins are the front line of host innate immunity and have broad spectrum antibacterial and antiviral effects. However, there is limited data to show if these defensins have good antiviral activity in vivo and what the antiviral mechanism is. Subjects: To investigate a peptide with widespread antivirus activity in vitro and in vivo and illustrate the antiviral mechanism. Methods: Antiviral peptide library designed from mouse beta defensins was synthesized by the company. Recombinant beta defensin was obtained from E. coli. Antiviral activity in vitro was assayed by plaque assay, qPCR. Antiviral activity in vivo was detected by animal challenge with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. The antiviral mechanism was assayed by western blot, ELISA, and qPCR. Conclusions: We identify a new peptide which has widespread effects against multiple viruses (H1N1, H5N1, H7N9, MERS-CoV) in vitro and has efficient antivirus activity in vivo. This peptide inhibits viral entry into target cells and subsequently blocks viral replication. The in vivo study of the antiviral peptide against other viral infections and the investigation of its more detail antiviral mechanism are ongoing.
Molecular Farming: Plants Producing Vaccine and Diagnostic Reagent
Molecular farming is the production of recombinant proteins in plants with the aim to use the protein as a purified product, crude extract or directly in the planta. Plants gain more attention as expression systems compared to other ones due to the cost effective production of pharmaceutically important proteins, appropriate post-translational modifications, assembly of complex proteins, absence of human pathogens to name a few. In addition, transient expression in plant leaves enables production of recombinant proteins within few weeks. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis. HEV causes epidemics in developing countries and is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Presently, all efforts for development of Hepatitis E vaccine are focused on the Open Read Frame 2 (ORF2) capsid protein as it contains epitopes that can induce neutralizing antibodies. For our purpose, we used the CMPV-based vector-pEAQ-HT for transient expression of HEV ORF2 in Nicotiana benthamina. Different molecular analysis (Western blot and ELISA) showed that HEV ORF2 capsid protein was expressed in plant tissue in high-yield up to 1g/kg of fresh leaf tissue. Electron microscopy showed that the capsid protein spontaneously assembled in low abundance virus-like particles (VLPs), which are highly immunogenic structures and suitable for vaccine development. The expressed protein was recognized by both human and swine HEV positive sera and can be used as a diagnostic reagent for the detection of HEV infection. Production of HEV capsid protein in plants is a promising technology for further HEV vaccine investigations. Here, we reported for a rapid high-yield transient expression of a recombinant protein in plants suitable for vaccine production as well as a diagnostic reagent. Acknowledgments -The authors’ research on HEV is supported with grants from the Project PlantaSYST under the Widening Program, H2020 as well as under the UK Biotechnological and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Institute Strategic Programme Grant ‘Understanding and Exploiting Plant and Microbial Secondary Metabolism’ (BB/J004596/1). The authors want to thank Prof. George Lomonossoff (JIC, Norwich, UK) for his contribution.
Laboratory Diagnostic Testing of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Georgia
Every year the number of countries around the world face the risk of the spread of infectious diseases that bring significant ecological and social-economic damage. Hence, the importance of food product safety is emphasized that is the issue of interest for many countries. To solve them, it’s necessary to conduct preventive measures against the diseases, have accurate diagnostic results, leadership, and management. The Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease is caused by a morbillivirus closely related to the rinderpest virus. PPR is a transboundary disease as it emerges and evolves, considered as one of the top most damaging animal diseases. The disease imposed a serious threat to sheep-breeding when the farms of sheep, goats are significantly growing within the country. In January 2016, PPR was detected in Georgia. Up to present the origin of the virus, the age relationship of affected ruminants and the distribution of PPRV in Georgia remains unclear. Due to the nature of PPR, and breeding practices in the country, reemerging of the disease in Georgia is highly likely. The purpose of the studies is to provide laboratories with efficient tools allowing the early detection of PPR emergence and re-emergences. This study is being accomplished under the Biological Threat Reduction Program project with the support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The purpose of the studies is to investigate the samples and identify areas at high risk of the disease. Georgia has a high density of small ruminant herds bred as free-ranging, close to international borders. Kakheti region, Eastern Georgia, will be considered as area of high priority for PPR surveillance. For this reason, in 2019, in Kakheti region investigated n=484 sheep and goat serum and blood samples from the same animals, utilized serology and molecular biology methods. All samples were negative by RT-PCR, and n=6 sheep samples were seropositive by ELISA-Ab. Future efforts will be concentrated in areas where the risk of PPR might be high such as international bordering regions of Georgia. For diagnostics, it is important to integrate the PPRV knowledge with epidemiological data. Based on these diagnostics, the relevant agencies will be able to control the disease surveillance.
Laboratory Diagnostic Testing of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Georgia
Every year the number of countries around the world face the risk of the spread of infectious diseases that bring significant ecological and social-economic damage. Hence, the importance of food product safety is emphasized that is the issue of interest for many countries. To solve them, it’s necessary to conduct preventive measures against the diseases, have accurate diagnostic results, leadership, and management. The Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease is caused by a morbillivirus closely related to the rinderpest virus. PPR is a transboundary disease as it emerges and evolves, considered as one of the top most damaging animal diseases. The disease imposed a serious threat to sheep-breeding when the farms of sheep, goats are significantly growing within the country. In January 2016, PPR was detected in Georgia. Up to present the origin of the virus, the age relationship of affected ruminants and the distribution of PPRV in Georgia remains unclear. Due to the nature of PPR, and breeding practices in the country, reemerging of the disease in Georgia is highly likely. The purpose of the studies is to provide laboratories with efficient tools allowing the early detection of PPR emergence and re-emergences. This study is being accomplished under the Biological Threat Reduction Program project with the support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The purpose of the studies is to investigate the samples and identify areas at high risk of the disease. Georgia has a high density of small ruminant herds bred as free-ranging, close to international borders. Kakheti region, Eastern Georgia, will be considered as area of high priority for PPR surveillance. For this reason, in 2019, in Kakheti region investigated n=484 sheep and goat serum and blood samples from the same animals, utilized serology and molecular biology methods. All samples were negative by RT-PCR, and n=6 sheep samples were seropositive by ELISA-Ab. Future efforts will be concentrated in areas where the risk of PPR might be high such as international bordering regions of Georgia. For diagnostics, it is important to integrate the PPRV knowledge with epidemiological data. Based on these diagnostics, the relevant agencies will be able to control the disease surveillance.
RNA Antisense Coat Protein Showing Promising Effects against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease in Pakistani Cotton
Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD) is from Gemini virus and is transmitted through whiteflies in cotton. Transgenic cotton containing Antisense Coat Protein (ACP) has been found to show better results against CLCuD in cotton. In current research, Antisense Coat Protein was inserted in cotton plants to observe resistance developed in the cotton plants against CLCuD. T1 generation of plants were observed for its expression in plants. Tests were carried out to observe the expression of Antisense Coat Protein using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique and by southern blotting. Whiteflies showing positive Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) were reared and released in bioassay on ACP expressing cotton plants under laboratory as well as confined semi-field conditions. Results confirmed the expression of AC protein in PCR and southern blotting. Further laboratory results showed that cotton plants expressing AC protein showed rare incidence of CLCuD infection as compared to control. In the confined semi-field, similar results were observed in AC protein expressing cotton as compared to control. These results explicitly show that ACP can help to tackle the CLCuD issue in the future and further studies on biochemical processes involved in these plants and effects of ACP induction on non-target organisms should also be studied for eco-system.
Optimization of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Purifications to Improving the Production of Hepatitis B Vaccines on Pichia pastoris
Hepatitis B is a liver inflammatory disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). This infection can be prevented by vaccination which contains HBV surface protein (sHBsAg). However, vaccine supply is limited. Several attempts have been conducted to produce local sHBsAg. However, the purity degree and protein yield are still inadequate. Therefore optimization of HBsAg purification steps is required to obtain high yield with better purification fold. In this study, optimization of purification was done in 2 steps, precipitation using variation of NaCl concentration (0,3 M; 0,5 M; 0,7 M) and PEG (3%, 5%, 7%); ion exchange chromatography (IEC) using NaCl 300-500 mM elution buffer concentration.To determine HBsAg protein, bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in this study. Visualization of HBsAg protein was done by SDS-PAGE analysis. Based on quantitative analysis, optimal condition at precipitation step was given 0,3 M NaCl and PEG 3%, while in ion exchange chromatography step, the optimum condition when protein eluted with NaCl 500 mM. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicates that the presence of protein HBsAg with a molecular weight of 25 kDa (monomer) and 50 kDa (dimer). The optimum condition for purification of sHBsAg produced in Pichia pastoris gave a yield of 47% and purification fold 17x so that it would increase the production of hepatitis B vaccine to be more optimal.
Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Depression in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Cross-Sectional and Prospective Study
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has been frequently associated with vitamin D deficiency and depression. Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of depression in people without HIV. We assessed the cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and depression in a HIV-positive people. Methods: A survey was conducted among 316 HIV-positive people aged 20-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal for a cross-sectional association at baseline, and among 184 participants without depressive symptoms at baseline who responded to both baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011) surveys for prospective association. The competitive protein-binding assay was used to measure 25(OH)D levels and the Beck Depression Inventory-Ia method was used to measure depression, with cut off score 20 or higher. Relationships were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment of potential confounders. Results: The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D level of 30ng/mL were 83.2%, 15.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. Only four participants with 25(OH)D level of >30ng/mL were excluded in the further analysis. The mean 25(OH)D level in men and women were 15.0ng/mL and 14.4ng/mL, respectively. Twenty six percent of participants (men:23%; women:29%) were depressed. Participants with 25(OH)D level of < 20 ng/mL had a 1.4 fold higher odds of depression in a cross-sectional and 1.3 fold higher odds of depression after 18 months of baseline compared to those with 25(OH)D level of 20-30ng/mL (p=0.40 and p=0.78, respectively). Conclusion: Vitamin D may not have significant impact against depression among HIV-positive people with 25(OH)D level below normal ( > 30ng/mL).
Client Hacked Server
Background: Client-Server model is the backbone of today’s internet communication. In which normal user can not have control over particular website or server? By using the same processing model one can have unauthorized access to particular server. In this paper, we discussed about application scenario of hacking for simple website or server consist of unauthorized way to access the server database. This application emerges to autonomously take direct access of simple website or server and retrieve all essential information maintain by administrator. In this system, IP address of server given as input to retrieve user-id and password of server. This leads to breaking administrative security of server and acquires the control of server database. Whereas virus helps to escape from server security by crashing the whole server. Objective: To control malicious attack and preventing all government website, and also find out illegal work to do hackers activity. Results: After implementing different hacking as well as non-hacking techniques, this system hacks simple web sites with normal security credentials. It provides access to server database and allow attacker to perform database operations from client machine. Above Figure shows the experimental result of this application upon different servers and provides satisfactory results as required. Conclusion: In this paper, we have presented a to view to hack the server which include some hacking as well as non-hacking methods. These algorithms and methods provide efficient way to hack server database. By breaking the network security allow to introduce new and better security framework. The terms “Hacking” not only consider for its illegal activities but also it should be use for strengthen our global network.
Assessing Psycho-Social Stressors for Chronically Infected Hepatitis C Virus Patients in Egypt
People with hepatitis C are likely to experience psychological distress related to adjustment issues following diagnosis. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the psycho-social stressors accompanying Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection. The study focused on immediate and later on reactions to being diagnosed as infected HCV patients. Effect of HCV on disruption of patients’ relationships in term of family relationship and friendship, employment and financial status was assessed. The magnitude and causes of the social stigma and its relation to awareness about illness, level of education were also assessed. Methods: During this study the subjective experiences of people having HCV was explored through a designed questionnaire targeted 540 cases; 359 males and 181 females from ten out of 21 National Treatment Reference Centers of National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institutes of Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals. The study was conducted along a period of six months from September 2011 to March 2012. Results: The study revealed that the financial problems are the commonest problems faced by 75.5 % of the cases. More than 70% of the cases suffered from immediate sadness versus 67.4% suffered from worry. Social stigma was reported by 13 % of HCV +patients, the majority of which were females. Conclusions: Exploring the psychosocial consequences of HCV infection can act as pressing motivators for behavior change needed for limiting HCV endemicity in Egypt.
Effect of Fatty Acids in Feed on Levels of Antibody Titers and CD4 and CD8 T-Lymphocyte against Newcastle Disease Virus of Vaccinated Broiler Chicken
400 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross-308) randomly divided to 2 main groups, 1st main group (GA) was feeding basal diet with medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at rate of 0.15% and divided to four subgroups, 3 subgroups vaccinated with different routes with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and non-vaccinated group. The 2nd main group (GB) feeding basal diet without MCFA and divided the same as 1st main group. The parameters used in this study included: ND antibody titers at 1, 10, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age and values of CD4 and CD8 at 1, 20, 30 and 42 days of age. This experiment detected increase in ND antibodies titers in (G1, G2, G3) groups were fed on basal diet MCFA comparing to groups were fed without adding MCFA (G5, G6, G7) and control groups (G4, G8). The results of cellular immune response (CD4 and CD8) T-cells in broiler chicks indicated that there was obviously significant relationship between dietary Fatty Acid (FA) versus the diet without FA on the level of CD4 parameter, for the entire experimental period. The effect of different ages was statistically significant in creating different values of CD4 level, whereas the CD4 level decreases markedly with age. However, analyzing the data of different vaccination methods, oculonasal method of vaccination led to the highest value of CD4 compared with the oral, S/C and control groups. There were statistical differences in CD8 values due to supplementation of FA versus the basal diet and due to the effect of different age periods. As for the age effect, the CD8 value at 20 days of age was significantly higher than at 42 and 30 days.
The Disease That 'Has a Woman Face': Feminization of HIV/AIDS in Nagaland, North-East India
Unlike the cases of cases of homosexuals, haemophilic and or drug users in USA, France, Africa and other countries, in India the first case of HIV/AIDS was detected in heterosexual female sex workers (FSW) in Chennai in 1986. This image played an important role in understanding HIV/AIDS scenario in the country. Similar to popular and dominant metaphors on HIV/AIDS such as ‘gay plague’, ‘new cancer’, ‘lethal disease’, ‘slim disease’, ‘foreign disease’, ‘junkie disease’, etc. around the world, the social construction of the virus was largely attributed to women in India. It was established that women particularly sex workers are ‘carrier’ and ‘transmitter’ of virus and were categorised as High Risk Groups (HRG’s) alongside homosexuals, transgenders and injecting drug users. Recent literature reveals growing rate of HIV infection among housewives since 1997 which revolutionised public health scenario in India. This means shift from high risk group to general public through ‘bridge population’ encompassing long distance truckers and migrant labours who at the expense of their nature of work and mobility comes in contact with HRG’s and transmit the virus to the general public especially women who are confined to the domestic space. As HIV epidemic expands, married women in monogamous relationship/marriage stand highly susceptible to infection with limited control, right and access over their sexual and reproductive health and planning. In context of Nagaland, a small state in North-eastern part of India HIV/AIDS transmission through injecting drug use dominated the early scene of the epidemic. However, paradigm shift occurred with declining trend of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU’s) over the past years with the introduction of Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST) and easy access/availability of syringes and injecting needles. Reflection on statistical data reveals that out of 36 states and union territories in India, the position of Nagaland in HIV prevalence among IDU’s has significantly dropped down from 6th position in 2003 to 16th position in 2017. The present face of virus in Nagaland is defined by (hetero) sexual mode of transmission which accounts for about 91% of as reported by Nagaland state AIDS control society (NSACS) in 2016 wherein young and married woman were found to be most affected leading to feminization of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the state. Thus, not only is HIV epidemic feminised but emerged victim to domestic violence which is more often accepted as normal part of heterosexual relationship. In the backdrop of these understanding, the present paper based on ethnographic fieldwork explores the plight, lived experiences and images of HIV+ve women with regard to sexual and reproductive rights against the backdrop of patriarchal system in Nagaland.
A Sui Generis Technique to Detect Pathogens in Post-Partum Breast Milk Using Image Processing Techniques
Mother’s milk provides the most superior source of nutrition to a child. There is no other substitute to the mother’s milk. Postpartum secretions like breast milk can be analyzed on the go for testing the presence of any harmful pathogen before a mother can feed the child or donate the milk for the milk bank. Since breast feeding is one of the main causes for transmission of diseases to the newborn, it is mandatory to test the secretions. In this paper, we describe the detection of pathogens like E-coli, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika and Ebola virus through an innovative method, in which we are developing a unique chip for testing the mother’s milk sample. The chip will contain an antibody specific to the target pathogen that will show a color change if there are enough pathogens present in the fluid that will be considered dangerous. A smart-phone camera will then be acquiring the image of the strip and using various image processing techniques we will detect the color development due to antigen antibody interaction within 5 minutes, thereby not adding to any delay, before the newborn is fed or prior to the collection of the milk for the milk bank. If the target pathogen comes positive through this method, then the health care provider can provide adequate treatment to bring down the number of pathogens. This will reduce the postpartum related mortality and morbidity which arises due to feeding infectious breast milk to own child.
Vaccination against Hepatitis B in Tunisian Health Care Workers
Background: The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with vaccination against Hepatitis B virus (HBV) among healthcare workers (HWs) in the University Hospital Center (UHC) Farhat Hached Sousse, Tunisia. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study all licensed physicians (n= 206) and a representative sample of paramedical staff (n= 372) exercising at UHC Hached Sousse (Tunisia) during two months (January and February 2014). Data were collected using a self-administered and pre-tested questionnaire, which composed by 21 questions. In order to determinate factors associated with vaccination against hepatitis B among HWs, this questionnaire was based on the Health Belief Model, one of the most classical behavior theories. Logistic regression with the stepwise method of Hosmer and Lemeshow was used to identify the determinants of the use of vaccination against HBV. Results: The response rates were 79.8%. Fifty two percent believe that HBV is frequent in our healthcare units and 60.6% consider it a severe infection. The prevalence of HWs vaccination was 39%, 95% CI [34.49%; 43.5%]. In multivariate analysis, determinants of the use of vaccination against HBV among HWs were young age (p=10-4), male gender (p = 0. 006), high or very high importance accorded to health (p = 0.035), perception membership in a risk group for HBV infection (p = 0.038) and very favorable or favorable opinion about vaccination against HVB (p=10-4). Conclusion: The results of our study should be considered in any strategy for preventing VHB infection in HWs. In the mean time, coverage with standard vaccines should be improved also by supplying complete information on the risks of VHB infection and on the safety and efficacy of vaccination.
YHV-Responsive Gene Expression under the Influence of PmRelish Regulation
In animals, infection by Gram-negative bacteria and certain viruses activates the Imd signaling pathway wherein the a NF-κB transcription factor, Relish, is a key regulatory protein for the synthesis of antimicrobial proteins. Infection by yellow head virus (YHV) activates the Imd pathway. To investigate the expression of genes involved in YHV infection and under the influence of PmRelish regulation, RNA interference and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) are employed. The genes in forward library expressed in shrimp after YHV infection and under the activity of PmRelish were obtained by subtracting the cDNAs from YHV-infected and PmRelish-knockdown shrimp with cDNAs from YHV-infected shrimp. Opposite subtraction gave a reverse library whereby an alternative set of genes under YHV infection and no PmRelish expression was obtained. Sequencing of 252 and 99 cDNA clones from the respective forward and reverse libraries were done and annotated through blast search against the GenBank sequences. Genes involved in defense and homeostasis were abundant in both libraries, 31% and 23% in the forward and reverse libraries, respectively. They were predominantly antimicrobial proteins, proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. The expression of antimicrobial protein genes, ALFPm3, crustinPm1, penaeidin3 and penaeidin5 were tested under PmRelish silencing and Gram-negative bacterium V. harveyi infection. Together with the results previously reported, the expression of penaeidin5 and also penaeidin3 but not ALFPm3 and crustinPm1 were under the regulation of PmRelish in the Imd pathway.
Molecular Comparison of HEV Isolates from Sewage & Humans at Western India
Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. It spreads feco orally mainly due to contamination of drinking water by sewage. There is limited data on the genotypic comparison of HEV isolates from sewage water and humans. The aim of this study was to identify genotype and conduct phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from sewage water and humans. Materials and Methods: 14 sewage water and 60 serum samples from acute sporadic hepatitis E cases (negative for hepatitis A, B, C) were tested for HEV-RNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (RTnPCR) using primers designed with in RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) region of open reading frame-1 (ORF-1). Sequencing was done by ABI prism 310. The sequences (343 nucleotides) were compared with each other and were aligned with previously reported HEV sequences obtained from GeneBank, using Clustal W software. A Phylogenetic tree was constructed by using PHYLIP version 3.67 software. Results: HEV-RNA was detected in 49/ 60 (81.67%) serum and 5/14 (35.71%) sewage samples. The sequences obtained from 17 serums and 2 sewage specimens belonged to genotype I with 85% similarity and clustering with previously reported human HEV sequences from India. HEV isolates from human and sewage in North West India are genetically closely related to each other. Conclusion: These finding suggest that sewage acts as reservoir of HEV. Therefore it is important that measures are taken for proper waste disposal and treatment of drinking water to prevent outbreaks and epidemics due to HEV.
Association of Human Immunodeficiency Virus with Incident Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan
The molecular mimicry between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protein and red blood cell (RBC) antigens could induce the production of anti-RBC autoantibodies. However, the association between HIV infection and subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) remains unclear. This nationwide population-based cohort study aimed to determine the association between incident AIHA and HIV in Taiwan. From 2000–2012, we identified adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from the Taiwan centers for disease control HIV Surveillance System. HIV-infected individuals were defined by positive HIV-1 western blot. Age- and sex-matched controls without HIV infection were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for comparison. All patients were followed until Dec. 31, 2012, and observed for occurrence of AIHA. Of 171,468 subjects (19,052 PLWHA, 152,416 controls), 30 (0.02%) had incident AIHA during a mean follow-up of 5.45 years, including 23 (0.12%) PLWHA and 7 (0.01%) controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, HIV infection was found to be an independent risk factor of incident AIHA (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 20.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.34-52.3). Moreover, PLWHA receiving HAART were more likely to develop AIHA than those not receiving HAART (AHR, 10.8; 95% CI, 2.90-40.1). Additionally, the risk of AIHA was significantly increased in those taking efavirenz (AHR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.18-8.43) or atazanavir (AHR, 6.58; 95% CI, 1.88-22.9) component of the HAART. In conclusion, HIV infection is an independent risk factor for incident AIHA. Clinicians need to be aware of the higher risk of AIHA in PLWHA.
Surveillance for African Swine Fever and Classical Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria
A serosurveillance study was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies to African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Classical swine fever virus in pigs sampled from piggeries and Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, Nigeria. 416 pigs from 74 piggeries across 12 LGAs and 44 pigs at the Makurdi central slaughter slab were sampled for serum. The sera collected were analysed using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit to test for antibodies to ASFV, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to test for antibodies to CSFV. Of the 416 pigs from piggeries and 44 pigs sampled from the slaughter slab, seven (1.7%) and six (13.6%), respectively, tested positive to ASFV antibodies and was significantly associated (p &lt; 0.0001). Out of the 12 LGAs sampled, Obi LGA had the highest ASFV antibody detection rate of (4.8%) and was significantly associated (p &lt; 0.0001). None of the samples tested positive to CSFV antibodies. The study concluded that antibodies to CSFV were absent in the sampled pigs in piggeries and at the Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, while antibodies to ASFV were present in both locations; hence, the need to keep an eye open for CSF too since both diseases may pose great risk in the study area. Further studies to characterise the ASFV circulating in Benue State and investigate the possible sources is recommended. Routine surveillance to provide a comprehensive and readily accessible data base to plan for the prevention of any fulminating outbreak is also recommended.
African Swine Fewer Situation and Diagnostic Methods in Lithuania
On 24th January 2014, Lithuania notified two primary cases of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boars. The animals were tested positive for ASF virus (ASFV) genome by real-time PCR at the National Reference Laboratory for ASF in Lithuania (NRL), results were confirmed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for African swine fever (CISA-INIA). Intensive wild and domestic animal monitoring program was started. During the period of 2014-2017 ASF was confirmed in two large commercial pig holding with the highest biosecurity. Pigs were killed and destroyed. Since 2014 ASF outbreak territory from east and south has expanded to the middle of Lithuania. Diagnosis by PCR is one of the highly recommended diagnostic methods by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of ASF. The aim of the present study was to compare singleplex real-time PCR assays to a duplex assay allowing the identification of ASF and internal control in a single PCR tube and to compare primers, that target the p72 gene (ASF 250 bp and ASF 75 bp) effectivity. Multiplex real-time PCR assays prove to be less time consuming and cost-efficient and therefore have a high potential to be applied in the routine analysis. It is important to have effective and fast method that allows virus detection at the beginning of disease for wild boar population and in outbreaks for domestic pigs. For experiments, we used reference samples (INIA, Spain), and positive samples from infected animals in Lithuania. Results show 100% sensitivity and specificity.
Relationship Between Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatitis B
We aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance, muscle mass and muscle strength in patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In our study, there were 65 patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis in Child A and B group and 65 healthy control individual. Control group was chosen between patients who admitted to the internal medicine clinic and had no pathological values in a routine examination. Muscle mass index was calculated with bioimpedance analysis for both groups to determine muscle strength and muscle mass. Handgrip strength, arm, and calf circumference were measured. In both groups, HOMA-IR was calculated to determine insulin resistance. Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value was detected 3,47±3,80 in the study group and 1,83±1,20 in control group. There were significant differences between the two groups in arm circumference, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol parameters. The correlation coefficient between muscle mass and insulin resistance was statistically insignificant, especially in the study group. In healthy individuals group and all the groups, there wasn’t a correlation between muscle mass and insulin resistance. The upper limit for HOMA-IR was determined as 3,2. In control group, %78,9 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3.2) group and %21,1 of them were in ( ≥ 3,2) group. In study group, %68,3 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3,2) group and %31.7 were in HOMA-IR ( ≥ 3,2) group. In our study, we did not find a relationship between muscle mass and insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosis. In the study group, we detected a positive relationship between muscle mass, handgrip strength, and calf circumference. We did not find a relationship between insulin resistance and handgrip strength in our study.
In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Anti-Hepatitis B Activitis of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Fractions
Cyperus rotendus rhizomes are used as traditional medicine, including Ayurveda in chronic liver diseases and hepatitis B. We investigated the in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of Cyperus rotundus rhizome organic and aqueous fractions. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-injured HepG2 cells at 48 h. DCFH-toxicated cells were recovered to about 88% and 96%, upon treatment with n-butanol and aqueous fractions (200 g/ml), respectively compared to DCFH-only treated cells. Further, C. rotundus fractions were tested for anti-HBV activities by measuring the expression levels of viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 culture supernatants. At 48 h post-treatment, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed dose-dependent inhibition wherein at a higher dose (100 g/ml), HBsAg production was reduced to 60.27%, 46.87 and 42.76%, respectively. In a time-course study, HBsAg production was inhibited up to 50% and 40% by ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (100 g/ml), respectively on day 5. Three three active fractions were further subjected to time-dependent inhibition of HBeAg expression, an indirect measure of HBV active DNA replication. At day 5 post-treatment, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions downregulated HBV replication by 44.14% and 24.70%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed very promising hepatoprotective and anti-HBV potential of C. rotendus tubers fractions in vitro. Our data could, therefore, provide the basis for the claimed traditional use of C. rotendus for jaundice and hepatitis.
Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India
Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.
Evaluation of Medicinal Plants, Catunaregam spinosa, Houttuynia cordata, and Rhapis excelsa from Malaysia for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties
Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments including infectious diseases. They serve as a good source of lead compounds for the development of new and safer anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of the leaves of three medicinal plants, namely Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae; Mountain pomegranate), Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae; "fishy-smell herb") and Rhapis excelsa (Arecaceae; “broadleaf lady palm”). The leaves extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed using a colorimetric broth microdilution method against a panel of human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus; Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (yeasts: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans; Moulds: Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) respectively; while antiviral activity was evaluated against the Chikungunya virus on monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells by neutral red uptake assay. All the plant extracts showed bacteriostatic activity, however, only 72% of the extracts (13/18) were found to have bactericidal activity. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were given by the hexane extract of C. spinosa against S. aureus with the values of 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL respectively. All the extracts also possessed fungistatic activity. Only the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of H. cordata exerted inhibitory activity against A. fumigatus, giving the lowest fungal susceptibility index of 16.7%. In contrast, only 61% of the extracts (11/18) showed fungicidal activity. The ethanol extract of R. excelsa exhibited the strongest fungicidal activity against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and T. mentagrophytes with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.04–0.08 mg/mL, in addition to its methanol extract against T. mentagrophytes (MFC=0.02 mg/mL). For anti-Chikungunya virus activity, only chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of R. excelsa showed significant antiviral activity with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 29.9 and 78.1 g/mL respectively. Extracts of R. excelsa warrant further investigations into their active principles responsible for antifungal and antiviral properties.
Oncolytic H-1 Parvovirus Entry in Cancer Cells through Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis
H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) is a virus with inherent oncolytic and oncosuppressive activities while remaining non-pathogenic in humans. H-1PV was the first oncolytic parvovirus to undergo clinical testing. Results from trials in patients with glioblastoma or pancreatic carcinoma showed an excellent safety profile and first signs of efficacy. H-1PV infection is vastly dependent on cellular factors, from cell attachment and entry to viral replication and egress. Hence, we believe that the characterisation of the parvovirus life cycle would ultimately help further improve H-1PV clinical outcome. In the present study, we explored the entry pathway of H-1PV in cervical HeLa and glioma NCH125 cancer cell lines. Electron and confocal microscopy showed viral particles associated with clathrin-coated pits and vesicles, providing the first evidence that H-1PV cell entry occurs through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Accordingly, we observed that by blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis with hypertonic sucrose, chlorpromazine, or pitstop 2, H-1PV transduction was markedly decreased. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of AP2M1, which retains a crucial role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, verified the reliance of H-1PV on this route to enter HeLa and NCH125 cancer cells. By contrast, we found no evidence of viral entry through caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Indeed, pre-treatment of cells with nystatin or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, both inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis, did not affect viral transduction levels. Unexpectedly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of caveolin-1, the main driver of caveolae-mediated endocytosis, increased H-1PV transduction, suggesting caveolin-1 is a negative modulator of H-1PV infection. We also show that H-1PV entry is dependent on dynamin, a protein responsible for mediating the scission of vesicle neck and promoting further internalisation. Furthermore, since dynamin inhibition almost completely abolished H-1PV infection, makes it unlikely that H-1PV uses macropinocytosis as an alternative pathway to enter cells. After viral internalisation, H-1PV passes through early to late endosomes as observed by confocal microscopy. Inside these endocytic compartments, the acidic environment proved to be crucial for a productive infection. Inhibition of acidification of pH dramatically reduced H-1PV transduction. Besides, a fraction of H-1PV particles was observed inside LAMP1-positive lysosomes, most likely following a non-infectious route. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study to characterise the cell entry pathways of H-1PV. Along these lines, this work will further contribute to understand H-1PV oncolytic properties as well as to improve its clinical potential in cancer virotherapy.
Role of Tyrosine-Phosphorylated STAT3 in Liver Regeneration: Survival, DNA Synthesis, Inflammatory Reaction and Liver Mass Recovery
In liver regeneration, quiescent hepatocytes need to be primed to fully respond to growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor. To understand the priming process, it is necessary to analyze patterns of gene expression that occur during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx). Recently, tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pYSTAT3) has been shown to play an important role in initiating liver regeneration. In order to evaluate the role of pYSTAT3 on liver regeneration after PHx, we used an intrabody which can selectively inhibit pYSTAT3. In our previous studies, an intrabody had been shown that it bound specifically to the pYSTAT3. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the intrabody in HepG2 cells, as well as mouse liver, blocked both accumulation of pYSTAT3 in the nucleus and downstream target of pYSTAT3. In this study, PHx was performed on intrabody-expressing mice and the expression levels of liver regeneration-related genes were analyzed. We also measured liver/body weight ratios and the related cellular signaling pathways were analyzed. Acute phase response genes were reduced in an intrabody-expressing mice during liver regeneration than in control virus-injected mice. However, the time course of liver mass restoration in intrabody-expressing mice was similar to that observed in control virus-injected mice. We also observed that the expression levels of anti-apoptotic genes, such as Bcl2 and Bcl-xL were decreased in intrabody-expressing mice whereas the expression of cell cycle-related genes such as cyclin D1, and c-myc was increased. Liver regeneration after PHx was partially impaired by the selective inhibition of pYSTAT3 with a phosphorylation site-specific intrabody and these results indicated that pYSTAT3 might have limited role in liver mass recovery.