Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66882

200
58681
Evaluation of Corrosion Behaviour of Coatings Applied in a High-Strength Low Alloy Steel in Different Climatic Cabinets
Abstract:
Corrosion is one of the most concerning phenomenon that accelerates material degradation in offshore applications. In order to avoid the premature failure of metallic materials in marine environments, organic coatings have widely been used, due to their elevated corrosion resistance. Thermally-sprayed metals have recently been used in offshore applications, whereas ceramic materials are usually less employed, due to their high cost. The protectiveness of the coatings can be evaluated and categorized in corrosivity categories in accordance with the ISO 12944-6 Standard. According to this standard, for coatings that are supposed to work in marine environments, a C5-M category is required for components working out of the water or partially immersed in the splash zone, and an Im2 category for totally immersed components. C5-M/Im-2 high category would correspond to a durability of more than 20 years without maintenance in accordance with ISO 12944 and NORSOK M501 standards. In this work, the corrosion behavior of three potential coatings used in offshore applications has been evaluated. For this aim, the materials have been subjected to different environmental conditions in several climatic chambers (humidostatic, climatic, immersion, UV and salt-fog). The category of the coatings to each condition has been selected, in accordance with the previously mentioned standard.
199
58679
Corrosion and Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Potential Coatings Applied in High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel for Offshore Applications
Abstract:
The materials used in offshore structural applications are continuously subjected to aggressive environmental conditions that accelerate their degradation, thus shortening their useful life. Wear, corrosion and the effect of marine microorganisms are the main processes taking place in marine environments, and whenever they occur simultaneously the durability of materials is strongly reduced. In the present work, the tribocorrosion behaviour of a High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steel and three coatings commonly used for protecting offshore components has been studied by means of unidirectional tribological tests in synthetic seawater. The coatings were found to enhance the tribological response of the uncoated steel and provide the system with improved corrosion resistance, in terms of smaller material losses and reduction of friction coefficients. The tests were repeated after ageing the materials in a salt-fog cabinet, and the aging process was found to slightly affect the performance of two of the coatings, in terms of higher material losses, meanwhile the third coating was not affected.
198
30939
Development of new Ecological Cleaning Process of Metal Sheets
Abstract:
In this article a new method of cleaning process of metal sheets for household appliances was developed, using low-pressure cold plasma. In this context, this research consist in analyze the results of metal sheets cleaning process using plasma and compare with pickling process to determinate the efficiency of each process and the level of contamination produced. Surface Cleaning was evaluated by measuring the contact angle with deionized water, diiodo methane and ethylene glycol, for the calculus of the surface free energy by means of the Fowkes theories and Wu. Showing that low-pressure cold plasma is very efficient both in cleaning process how in environment impact.
197
44849
Neuromarketing: Discovering the Somathyc Marker in the Consumer´s Brain
Abstract:
The present study explains the somatic marker theory of Antonio Damasio, which indicates that when making a decision, the stored or possible future scenarios (future memory) images allow people to feel for a moment what would happen when they make a choice, and how this is emotionally marked. This process can be conscious or unconscious. The development of new Neuromarketing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), carries a greater understanding of how the brain functions and consumer behavior. In the results observed in different studies using fMRI, the evidence suggests that the somatic marker and future memories influence the decision-making process, adding a positive or negative emotional component to the options. This would mean that all decisions would involve a present emotional component, with a rational cost-benefit analysis that can be performed later.
196
62227
An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.
195
89969
Nonlinear Analysis with Failure Using the Boundary Element Method
Abstract:
The current paper shows the application of the boundary element method for the analysis of plates under shear stress causing plasticity. In this case, the shear deformation of a plate is considered by means of the Reissner’s theory. The probability of failure of a Reissner’s plate due to a proposed index plastic behavior is calculated taken into account the uncertainty in mechanical and geometrical properties. The problem is developed in two dimensions. The classic plasticity’s theory is applied and a formulation for initial stresses that lead to the boundary integral equations due to plasticity is also used. For the plasticity calculation, the Von Misses criteria is used. To solve the non-linear equations an incremental method is employed. The results show a relatively small failure probability for the ranges of loads between 0.6 and 1.0. However, for values between 1.0 and 2.5, the probability of failure increases significantly. Consequently, for load bigger than 2.5 the plate failure is a safe event. The results are compared to those that were found in the literature and the agreement is good.
194
64826
Anaerobic Digestion of Coffee Wastewater from a Fast Inoculum Adaptation Stage: Replacement of Complex Substrate
Abstract:
In this study, raw coffee wastewater (CWW) was used as a complex substrate for anaerobic digestion. The inoculum adaptation stage, microbial diversity analysis and biomethane potential (BMP) tests were performed. A fast inoculum adaptation stage was used by the replacement of vinasse to CWW in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) operated at mesophilic conditions. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the microbial diversity. While, BMP tests using inoculum adapted to CWW were carried out at different inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1, on a VS basis). Results show that the adaptability percentage was increased gradually until it reaches the highest theoretical value in a short time of 10 d; with a methane yield of 359.10 NmL CH4/g COD-removed; Methanobacterium beijingense was the most abundant microbial (75%) and the greatest specific methane production was achieved at I/S ratio 4:1, whereas the lowest was obtained at 2:1, with BMP values of 320 NmL CH4/g VS and 151 NmL CH4/g VS, respectively. In conclusion, gradual replacement of substrate was a feasible method to adapt the inoculum in a short time even using complex raw substrates, whereas in the BMP tests, the specific methane production was proportional to the initial amount of inoculum.
193
63461
Effect of Fermented Orange Juice Intake on Urinary 6‑Sulfatoxymelatonin in Healthy Volunteers
Abstract:
Melatonin is a bioactive compound involved in multiple biological activities such as glucose tolerance, circadian rhythm regulation, antioxidant defense or immune system action. In elderly subjects the intake of foods and drinks rich in melatonin is very important due to its endogenous level decreases with age. Alcoholic fermentation is a process carried out in fruits, vegetables and legumes to obtain new products with improved bioactive compounds profile in relation to original substrates. Alcoholic fermentation process carried out by Saccharomycetaceae var. Pichia kluyveri induces an important synthesis of melatonin in orange juice. A novel beverage derived of fermented orange juice could be a promising source of this bioactive compound. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the acute intake of fermented orange juice increase the levels of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in healthy humans. Nine healthy volunteers (7 women and 2 men), aged between 20 and 25 years old and BMI of 21.1  2.4 kg/m2, were recruited. On the study day, participants ingested 500 mL of fermented orange juice. The first urine collection was made before fermented orange juice consumption (basal). The rest of urine collections were made in the following time intervals after fermented orange juice consumption: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10- 15 and 15-24 hours. During the experimental period only the consumption of water was allowed. At lunch time a meal was provided (60 g of white bread, two slices of ham, a slice of cheese, 125 g of sweetened natural yoghurt and water). The subjects repeated the protocol with orange juice following a 2-wk washout period between both types of beverages. The levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) were measured in urine recollected at different time points using the Melatonin-Sulfate Urine ELISA (IBL International GMBH, Hamburg, Germany). Levels of 6-SMT were corrected to those of creatinine for each sample. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in urinary 6-SMT levels was observed between 2-5 hours after fermented orange juice ingestion with respect to basal values (increase of 67,8 %). The consumption of orange juice did not induce any significant change in urinary 6-SMT levels. In addition, urinary 6-SMT levels obtained between 2-5 hours after fermented orange juice ingestion (115,6 ng/mg) were significantly different (p < 0.05) from those of orange juice (42,4 ng/mg). The enhancement of urinary 6-SMT after the ingestion of 500 mL of fermented orange juice in healthy humans compared to orange juice could be an important advantage of this novel product as an excellent source of melatonin. Fermented orange juice could be a new functional food, and its consumption could exert a potentially positive effect on health in both the maintenance of health status and the prevention of chronic diseases.
192
55397
Role of Physiotherapist: How Their Job and Working Area Could Be Known
Abstract:
Physiotherapy is a healthcare discipline that covers many fields of action within the recovery and prevention of health. Some are well known, but others, such as working with newborns and premature children are not so. Physical therapist functions are well defined, but the impression of the population is that there are other professionals who can develop them, and a large part are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge of the sample on the role of the physiotherapist in general, and more specifically in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) units, and estimate your level of notions on the development centered care (DCC). Method: A descriptive, transversal, observational and prospective study developed on a 125 participants' sample. Results: From the sample studied, 87.2% had already had contact with physiotherapy previously. An 80.9% believed that the physiotherapist intervention was decisive for the cure, and 84.0% would recommend physiotherapy treatment to others. Of the total surveyed, 98.0% felt that the physiotherapist is who should run the physiotherapeutic treatments, but shares with other professions 71.0% of votes. The field's best-known work is rehabilitation (94.0%); Neonatology is on the 4th place (66.0% of votes). Conclusions: Many areas of work of physical therapy are unknown to a big part of the population, including the own health workers. Less than half of the sample meets the DCC, and only 58% of the interviewed physiotherapists know them.
191
13220
Photoreflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy of Coupled Quantum Wells
Abstract:
We report on a theoretical-experimental study of photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA) spectroscopy of coupled double quantum wells. By probing the in-plane interfacial optical anisotropies, we demonstrate that PRA spectroscopy has the capacity to detect and distinguish layers with quantum dimensions. In order to account for the experimental PRA spectra, we have used a theoretical model at k=0 based on a linear electro-optic effect through a piezoelectric shear strain.
190
94375
Tetracycline as Chemosensor for Simultaneous Recognition of Al³⁺: Application to Bio-Imaging for Living Cells
Abstract:
Antibiotic tetracycline presents as a micro-contaminant in fresh water, wastewater and soils, causing environmental and health problems. In this work, tetracycline (TC) has been employed as chemo-sensor for the recognition of Al³⁺ without interring other ions, and the results show that it enhances the fluorescence intensity for Al³⁺ and there is no interference from other coexisting cation ions (Cd²⁺, Ni²⁺, Co²⁺, Sr²⁺, Mg²⁺, Fe³⁺, K⁺, Sm³⁺, Ag⁺, Na⁺, Ba²⁺, Zn²⁺, and Mn²⁺). For the addition of Cu²⁺ to [TET-Al³⁺], it appears that the intensity of fluorescence has been quenched. Other combinations of metal ions in addition to TC do not change the fluorescence behavior. The stoichiometry determined by Job´s plot for the interaction of TC with Al³⁺ was found to be 1:1. Importantly, the detection of Al³⁺⁺ successfully employed in the real samples like living cells, and it was found that TC efficiently performs as a fluorescent probe for Al³⁺ ion in living systems, especially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; this is confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy.
189
22567
Design and Creation of a BCI Videogame for Training and Measure of Sustained Attention in Children with ADHD
Abstract:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that affects 1 out of 5 Colombian children, converting into a real public health problem in the country. Conventional treatments such as medication and neuropsychological therapy have been proved to be insufficient in order to decrease high incidence levels of ADHD in the principal Colombian cities. This work demonstrates a design and development of a videogame that uses a brain computer interface not only to serve as an input device but also as a tool to monitor neurophysiologic signal. The video game named “The Harvest Challenge” puts a cultural scene of a Colombian coffee grower in its context, where a player can use his/her avatar in three mini games created in order to reinforce four fundamental aspects: i) waiting ability, ii) planning ability, iii) ability to follow instructions and iv) ability to achieve objectives. The details of this collaborative designing process of the multimedia tool according to the exact clinic necessities and the description of interaction proposals are presented through the mental stages of attention and relaxation. The final videogame is presented as a tool for sustained attention training in children with ADHD using as an action mechanism the neuromodulation of Beta and Theta waves through an electrode located in the central part of the front lobe of the brain. The processing of an electroencephalographic signal is produced automatically inside the videogame allowing to generate a report of the theta/beta ratio evolution - a biological marker, which has been demonstrated to be a sufficient measure to discriminate of children with deficit and without.
188
27355
Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production
Abstract:
In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.
187
27652
Sorting Fish by Hu Moments
Abstract:
This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm that identifies and accounts different fish species: Catfish, Sea bream, Sawfish, Tilapia, and Totoaba. The main contribution of the method is the fusion of the characteristics of invariance to the position, rotation and scale of the Hu moments, with the proper counting of fish. The identification and counting is performed, from an image under different noise conditions. From the experimental results obtained, it is inferred the potentiality of the proposed algorithm to be applied in different scenarios of aquaculture production.
186
99907
School Autonomy in the United Kingdom: A Correlational Study Applied to English Principals
Abstract:
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in school autonomy in the United Kingdom and its impact on students' outcomes. English principals have a pivotal role in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to explore the correlation between the type of school (public or private) and the considerable responsibilities of English principals which participated in PISA 2015. The final sample consisted of 419 principals. Descriptive data (percentages and means) were generated for the variables related to professional autonomy. Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine if there is an association between the type of school and principals' responsibilities for relevant tasks. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 22. Findings suggest a significant correlation between the type of school and principals' responsibility for firing teachers and formulating the school budget. This study confirms that the type of school is not associated with principals' responsibility for choosing which textbooks are used at school. The present study establishes a quantitative framework for defining four models of professional autonomy and some proposals to improve school autonomy in the United Kingdom.
185
50054
Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making
Abstract:
In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been established for this study is chronological.
184
22796
Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations Through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Abstract:
In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and on the concentration. When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the decrease of the solution resistance.
183
14682
Anthropometric Analysis for the Design of Workstations in the Interior Spaces of the Manufacturing Industry in Tijuana, Mexico
Abstract:
This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.
182
98980
Key Transfer Protocol Based on Non-invertible Numbers
Abstract:
We introduce a method to perform remote user authentication on what we call non-invertible cryptography. It exploits the fact that the multiplication of an invertible integer and a non-invertible integer in a ring Zn produces a non-invertible integer making infeasible to compute factorization. The protocol requires the smallest key size when is compared with the main public key algorithms as Diffie-Hellman, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman or Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Since we found that the unique opportunity for the eavesdropper is to mount an exhaustive search on the keys, the protocol seems to be post-quantum.
181
12960
Anthropometric Profile as a Factor of Impact on Employee Productivity in Manufacturing Industry of Tijuana, Mexico
Abstract:
This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.
180
48049
The Role of Emotions in the Consumer: Theoretical Review and Analysis of Components
Abstract:
The early eighties saw the rise of a new research trend in several prestigious journals, mainly articles that related emotions with the decision-making processes of the consumer, and stopped treating them as external elements. That is why we ask questions such as: what are emotions? Are there different types of emotions? What components do they have? Which theories exist about them? In this study, we will review the main theories and components of emotion analysing the cognitive factor and the different emotional states that are generally recognizable with a focus in the classic debate as to whether they occur before the cognitive process or the affective process.
179
24981
Design of a 4-DOF Robot Manipulator with Optimized Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics
Abstract:
This paper shows in detail the mathematical model of direct and inverse kinematics for a robot manipulator (welding type) with four degrees of freedom. Using the D-H parameters, screw theory, numerical, geometric and interpolation methods, the theoretical and practical values of the position of robot were determined using an optimized algorithm for inverse kinematics obtaining the values of the particular joints in order to determine the virtual paths in a relatively short time.
178
34528
Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. An interesting case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and simulated by Matlab. These results are applicable to private communication.
177
48203
The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Consumer Behaviour: Reviewing Recent Research
Abstract:
In the first decade of the twenty-first century, advanced imaging techniques began to be applied for neuroscience research. The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most important and most used research techniques for the investigation of emotions, because of its ease to observe the brain areas that oxygenate when performing certain tasks. In this research, we make a review about the main research carried out on the influence of the emotions in the decision-making process that is exposed by using the fMRI.
176
21315
Interrelationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Health Belief Dimensions and Compliance to Measles Vaccination among Filipino Mothers
Abstract:
Background: Measles remain as one of the most common childhood diseases despite the availability of the vaccine that is safe and cost-effective. Because of morbidity and mortality associated with the recent measles outbreak in the Philippines, there is an increasing concern from the health care professionals. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the compliance of Filipino mothers to measles vaccination and their health beliefs when grouped according to the given socio-demographic factors using a researcher-made questionnaire. Research Methodology: This research utilized the descriptive-correlational research design. With the use of purposive sampling technique, the study involved 200 Filipino mothers aged 18 years old and above excluding those who are healthcare professionals with children aged 2-3 years old with either urban or rural as their settlements. Pre-testing was done prior to the actual data gathering. A questionnaire composed of 26 items involving socio-demographic, compliance, and health beliefs was distributed to the sample population. Statistical analysis was done with the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) for the first research question and Structural Equation Model (SEM) for the second research question. Results: Four dimensions were generated with the use of EFA namely: Vulnerability-Oriented Beliefs (VOB), Knowledge-Oriented Beliefs (KOB), Accessibility-Oriented Beliefs (AOB), and Outcomes-Oriented Beliefs (OOB). These were then correlated with the mothers’ socio-demographic factors (age, educational attainment, the area of residence, the number of children, and family income) and their compliance to the measles vaccination schedule. Results showed significant and direct relationships between area of residence and compliance, family income and compliance, KOB and compliance, education and KOB, KOB and VOB, KOB and OOB, AOB and KOB, AOB and OOB, AOB and VOB, and lastly, OOB and VOB. Conclusion: The Knowledge – Oriented Belief dimension greatly influence compliance to measles vaccination. Other determinants of compliance like the area of residence, educational attainment, and family income significantly increase the Filipino mothers’ likelihood of compliance to measles vaccination, which have implications to health education.
175
58568
De-Novo Structural Elucidation from Mass/NMR Spectra
Abstract:
The structure elucidation based on Mass Spectra (MS) data of unknown substances is an unresolved problem that affects many different fields of application. The recent overview of software available for structure elucidation of small molecules has shown the demand for efficient computational tool that will be able to perform structure elucidation of unknown small molecules and peptides. We developed an algorithm for De-Novo fragment analysis based on MS data that proposes a set of scored and ranked structures that are compatible with the MS and MSMS spectra. Several different algorithms were developed depending on the initial set of fragments and the structure building processes. Also, in all cases, several scores for the final molecule ranking were computed. They were validated with small and middle databases (DB) with the eleven test set compounds. Similar results were obtained from any of the databases that contained the fragments of the expected compound. We presented an algorithm. Or De-Novo fragment analysis based on only mass spectrometry (MS) data only that proposed a set of scored/ranked structures that was validated on different types of databases and showed good results as proof of concept. Moreover, the solutions proposed by Mass Spectrometry were submitted to the prediction of NMR spectra in order to elucidate which of the proposed structures was compatible with the NMR spectra collected.
174
124822
Fractional Calculus into Structural Dynamics
Authors:
Abstract:
In this work, we introduce fractional calculus in order to study the dynamics of a damped multistory building with some symmetry. Initially we make a review of the dynamics of a free and damped multistory building. Then we introduce those concepts of fractional calculus that will be involved in our study. It has been noticed that fractional calculus provides models with less parameters than those based on classical calculus. In particular, a damped classical oscilator is more naturally described by using fractional derivatives. Accordingly, we model our multistory building as a set of coupled fractional oscillators and compare its dynamics with the results coming from traditional methods.
173
50052
The Emotions in Consumers’ Decision Making: Review of Empirical Studies
Abstract:
This paper explores, in depth, the idea that emotions are present in all consumer decision making processes, meaning that purchase decisions have never been purely cognitive or as they traditionally have been defined, rational. Human beings, in all kinds of decisions, has &quot;always&quot; used neural systems related to emotions along with neural systems related to cognition, regardless of the type of purchase or the product or service in question. Therefore, all purchase decisions are, at the same time, cognitive and emotional. This paper presents an analysis of the main contributions of researchers in this regard.
172
98999
Evidence-Based in Telemonitoring of Users with Pacemakers at Five Years after Implant: The Poniente Study
Abstract:
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional capacity of patients using a telemonitoring follow-up system (TM) compared to patients followed-up through standard outpatient visits (HM) 5 years after the implantation of a pacemaker. Methods: This is a controlled, non-randomised, nonblinded clinical trial, with data collection carried out at 5 years after the pacemakers implant. The study was developed at Hospital de Poniente (Almeria, Spain), between October 2012 and November 2013. The same clinical outcomes were analyzed in both follow-up groups. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity was assessed through EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics and clinical data were also analyzed. Results: 5 years after pacemaker implant, 55 of 82 initial patients finished the study. Users with pacemakers were assigned to either a conventional follow-up group at hospital (HM=34, 50 initials) or a telemonitoring system group (TM=21, 32 initials). No significant differences were found between both groups according to sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data, Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity according to medical record and EQ5D and DASI questionnaires. In addition, conventional follow-up visits to hospital were reduced in 44,84% (p < 0,001) in the telemonitoring group in relation to hospital monitoring group. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study suggest that the telemonitoring of users with pacemakers is an equivalent option to conventional follow-up at hospital, in terms of Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity. Furthermore, it allows for the early detection of cardiovascular and pacemakers-related problem events and significantly reduces the number of in-hospital visits. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02234245. The PONIENTE study has been funded by the General Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation, Regional Government of Andalusia (Spain), project reference number PI/0256/2017, under the research call 'Development and Innovation Projects in the Field of Biomedicine and Health Sciences', 2017.
171
46899
Evolution of Propiconazole and Tebuconazole Residues through the Post-Harvest Application in 'Angeleno' Plum
Abstract:
The main problems in storage and later transport of fruits, are the decays developed that reduce the quality on destination’s markets. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the use of compounds to avoid decays in post-harvest. Triazole fungicides are agrochemicals widely used in the agricultural industry due to their wide spectrum of actions, and in some case, they are used in citrus fruit post-harvest. Moreover, its use is not authorized in plum post-harvest, but in order to a future possible authorization, the evolutions of propiconazole and tebuconazole residues are studied after its post-harvest application in ‘Angeleno’ plum.
170
13271
Anthropometric Profile and Its Influence on the Vital Signs of Baja California College Students
Abstract:
An anthropometric study applied to 1,115 students of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering of the Autonomous University of California. Thirteen individual measurements were taken in a sitting position. The results obtained allow forming a reliable anthropometric database for statistical studies and analysis and inferences of specific distributions, so the opinion of experts in occupational medicine recommendations may emit to reduce risks resulting in an alteration of the vital signs during the execution of their school activities. Another use of these analyses is to use them as a reliable reference for future deeper research, to the design of spaces, tools, utensils, workstations, with anthropometric dimensions and ergonomic characteristics suitable to use.
169
38169
Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities for Mobile Health Applications
Abstract:
The availability to deploy mobile applications for healthcare is increasing daily thru different mobile app stores. But within these capabilities the number of hacking attacks has also increased, in particular into medical mobile applications. The security vulnerabilities in medical mobile apps can be triggered by errors in code, incorrect logic, poor design, among other parameters. This is usually used by malicious attackers to steal or modify the users’ information. The aim of this research is to analyze the vulnerabilities detected in mobile medical apps according to risk factor standards defined by OWASP in 2014.
168
99264
Design of a Chaotic Trajectory Generator Algorithm for Mobile Robots
Abstract:
This work addresses the problem of designing an algorithm capable of generating chaotic trajectories for mobile robots. Particularly, the chaotic behavior is induced in the linear and angular velocities of a Khepera III differential mobile robot by infusing them with the states of the H&acute;enon chaotic map. A possible application, using the properties of chaotic systems, is patrolling a work area. In this work, numerical and experimental results are reported and analyzed. In addition, two quantitative numerical tests are applied in order to measure how chaotic the generated trajectories really are.
167
5916
A Contemporary Gender Predominance: A Honduran Textile Manufacturing Diagnose
Abstract:
This qualitative investigation represents the first stage of the human capital engineering analysis, along the small and medium textile manufacturing companies, located on the city of Tegucigalpa, Honduras where the symptoms of the local manufacturing industry´s describe a severe gender displacement phenomenon. The evaluation of this phenomena, intends to trigger the Honduran small and medium technology manufactures into a collective performance, analysis through the development of a sectorial diagnose and the creation of a manufacturers guide, personalized. In accordance to the Honduran textile manufacturing needs, in order to strengthen their personnel capacities and thereby smoothen the gender equilibrium on this particular sector. It is worth mentioning, that on the last decade, the female gender has gathered positive statistics upon Central American job market´s, were the local business landscape describes a significant displacement of the Honduran female operators over the male gender workers that has significantly diminished their employment predominance. On the other hand, this study aims to evaluate the main features that impact on the job market local gender supplanting. On the other hand, this document aims to holistically describe the Honduran manufacturing context, as well as the current textile operator qualifications, in order to infer over the most proper human resources enforcement approaches/techniques on the industry.
166
10245
Educational Innovation and ICT: Before and during 21st Century
Abstract:
Educational innovation is a quality factor of teaching-learning processes and institutional accreditation. There is an increasing of these change processes, especially after 2000. However, the publications about this topic are more associated with ICTs in currently century. The main aim of the study was to determine the tendency of educational innovations around ICTs. The used method was mixed research design (content analysis, review of scientific literature and descriptive, comparative and correlation study) with 649 papers. In summary, the results indicated that, progressively, the educational innovation is associated with ICTs, in comparison with this type of change processes without ICTs. In conclusion, although this tendency, scientific literature must divulgate more kinds of pedagogical innovation with the aim of deepening in other new resources.
165
123745
Workforce Optimization: Fair Workload Balance and Near-Optimal Task Execution Order
Abstract:
A large number of companies face the challenge of matching highly-skilled professionals to high-end positions by human resource deployment professionals. However, when the professional list and tasks to be matched are larger than a few dozens, this process result is far from optimal and takes a long time to be made. Therefore, an automated assignment algorithm for this workforce management problem is needed. The majority of companies are divided into several sectors or departments, where trained employees with different experience levels deal with a large number of tasks daily. Also, the execution order of all tasks is of mater consequence, due to some of these tasks just can be run it if the result of another task is provided. Thus, a wrong execution order leads to large waiting times between consecutive tasks. The desired goal is, therefore, creating accurate matches and a near-optimal execution order that maximizes the number of tasks performed and minimizes the idle time of the expensive skilled employees. The problem described before can be model as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) as it will be shown in detail through this paper. A large number of MINLP algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Here, genetic algorithm solutions are considered and a comparison between two different mutation approaches is presented. The simulated results considering different complexity levels of assignment decisions show the appropriateness of the proposed model.
164
13969
Evaluation Model in the Branch of Virtual Education of “Universidad Manuela Beltrán” Bogotá-Colombia
Authors:
Abstract:
This Paper presents the evaluation model designed for the virtual education branch of The “Universidad Manuela Beltrán, Bogotá-Colombia”. This was the result of a research, developed as a case study, which had three stages: Document review, observation, and a perception survey for teachers. In the present model, the evaluation is a cross-cutting issue to the educational process. Therefore, it consists in a group of actions and guidelines which lead to analyze the student’s learning process from the admission, during the academic training, and to the graduation. This model contributes to the evaluation components which might interest other educational institutions or might offer methodological guidance to consolidate an own model
163
72145
Image Processing and Calculation of NGRDI Embedded System in Raspberry
Abstract:
The use and processing of digital images have opened up new opportunities for the resolution of problems of various kinds, such as the calculation of different vegetation indexes, among other things, differentiating healthy vegetation from humid vegetation. However, obtaining images from which these indexes are calculated is still the exclusive subject of active research. In the present work, we propose to obtain these images using a low cost embedded system (Raspberry Pi) and its processing, using a set of libraries of open code called OpenCV, in order to obtain the Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI).
162
85165
Sensitivity Analysis Optimization of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine from Its Aerodynamic Profiles
Abstract:
Due to the increasing environmental impact, the wind energy is getting strong. This research studied the relationship between the power produced by a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and the aerodynamic profiles used for its construction. The analysis is studied using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD), presenting the parallel between the energy generated by a turbine designed with selected profiles and another one optimized. For the study, a selection process was carried out from profile NACA 6 digits recommended by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the construction of this type of turbines. The selection was taken into account different characteristics of the wind (speed and density) and the profiles (aerodynamic coefficients Cl and Cd to different Reynolds and incidence angles). From the selected profiles, was carried out a sensitivity analysis optimization process between its geometry and the aerodynamic forces that are induced on it. The 3D model of the turbines was realized using the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM) and both profiles. The flow fields on the turbines were simulated, obtaining the forces induced on the blade, the torques produced and an increase of 3% in power due to the optimized profiles. Therefore, the results show that the sensitivity analysis optimization process can assist to increment the wind turbine power.
161
118696
Determining Variables in Mathematics Performance According to Gender in Mexican Elementary School
Abstract:
This paper objective is to analyze the mathematics performance in the Learning Evaluation National Plan (PLANEA for its Spanish initials: Plan Nacional para la Evaluación de los Aprendizajes), applied to Mexican students who are enrolled in the last elementary-school year over the 2017-2018 academic year. Such test was conducted nationwide in 3,573 schools, using a sample of 108,083 students, whose average in mathematics, on a scale of 0 to 100, was 45.6 points. 75% of the sample analyzed did not reach the sufficiency level (60 points). It should be noted that only 2% got a 90 or higher score result. The performance is analyzed while considering whether there are differences in gender, marginalization level, public or private school enrollment, parents’ academic background, and living-with-parents situation. Likewise, this variable impact (among other variables) on school performance by gender is evaluated, considering multivariate logistic (Logit) regression analysis. The results show there are no significant differences in mathematics performance regarding gender in elementary school; nevertheless, the impact exerted by mothers who studied at least high school is of great relevance for students, particularly for girls. Other determining variables are students’ resilience, their parents’ economic status, and the fact they attend private schools, strengthened by the mother's education.
160
25679
The Importance of Outside Classroom Activities in Developing Oral Fluency in an EFL Context
Authors:
Abstract:
In a study abroad context, students have the advantage of immersing themselves in the environment of the target language and being exposed to it. However, in and a stay home context, where English is not the mother tongue, students’ exposure to the second language is often times restricted to the classroom. Although language teachers are keen to develop inside class room activities and practices that increase the suitability of students to acquire a second language (Cook & Singleton, 2014), many would agree that class time is too limited to enhance students’ oral fluency skills. Consequently, creating opportunities outside the classroom for students to speak English is an effective strategy in compensating for students’ limited use of the L2. In an argument by Ortega (2012) external classroom activities have equal significance in enabling students learn English as a second language. The author further asserts that the activities provide a non-educational environment from which a student may feel free and comfortable to acquire new language skills. This study investigates the significance of outside classroom activities in promoting students’ oral proficiency. In addition, it reports on students’ perceptions of such activities. 15 participants from the American University of Kuwait took part in this study. Open-ended interviews were done to find out what the participants thought of these activities, and what they gained from them. Interview results show that students found outside classroom activities very effective in improving not only their oral fluency skills, but their confidence and critical thinking skills as well. The implications of this research study are for language practitioners and language programs in the EFL context to be aware of the benefits of incorporating outside classroom activities in language teaching.
159
44947
Psychosocial Risks and Occupational Health in a Mexican Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Abstract:
Due to the importance that people represent for companies, the setting of a clear control of the risks that threaten the health and the material and financial resources of workers is essential. It is irrelevant if the company is a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) or a large multinational, or if it is in the construction or service sector. The risk prevention importance is related to a constitutional and human right that all people have; working in a risk-free environment to prevent accidents or illnesses that may influence their quality of life and the tranquility of their family. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the level of psychosocial risks (physical and emotional) of the employees of an SME. The participants of this study were 186 employees of a productive sector SME; 151 men and 35 women, all with an average age of 31.77 years. Their seniority inside the SME was between one month and 19.91 years. Ninety-six workers were from the production area, 28 from the management area, as well as 25 from the sales area and 40 from the supplies area. Ninety-three workers were found in Uman, 78 in Playa del Carmen, 11 in Cancun and seven in Cd. del Carmen. We found a statistically significant relationship between the burnout variable and the engagement and psychosomatic complaints as well as between the variables of sex, burnout and psychosomatic complaints. We can conclude that, for benefit of the SME, that there are low levels of burnout and psychosomatic complaints, the women experience major levels of burnout and the men show major levels of psychosomatic complaints. The findings, contributions, limitations and future proposals will be analyzed.
158
121412
3D Model Completion Based on Similarity Search with Slim-Tree
Abstract:
With the advancement of technology it is now possible to scan entire objects and obtain their digital representation by using point clouds or polygon meshes. However, some objects may be broken or have missing parts; thus, several methods focused on this problem have been proposed based on Geometric Deep Learning, such as GCNN, ACNN, PointNet, among others. In this article an approach from a different paradigm is proposed, using metric data structures to index global descriptors in the spectral domain and allow the recovery of a set of similar models in polynomial time; to later use the Iterative Close Point algorithm and recover the parts of the incomplete model using the geometry and topology of the model with less Hausdorff distance.
157
39338
Preservation Model to Process 'La Bomba Del Chota' as a Living Cultural Heritage
Abstract:
This project focuses on heritage concepts and their importance in every evolving and changing Digital Era where system solutions have to be sustainable, efficient and suitable to the basic needs. The prototype has to cover the principal requirements for the case studies. How to preserve the sociological ideas of dances in Ecuador like ‘La Bomba’ is the best example and challenge to preserve the intangible data. The same idea is applicable with books and music. The History and how to keep it, is the principal mission of Heritage Preservation. The dance of La Bomba is rooted on a specific movement system whose main part is the sideward hip movement. La Bomba´s movement system is the surface manifestation of a whole system of knowledge whose principal characteristics are the historical relation of Chote˜nos with their land and their families.
156
63507
Analysis of Multilayer Neural Network Modeling and Long Short-Term Memory
Abstract:
This paper analyzes fundamental ideas and concepts related to neural networks, which provide the reader a theoretical explanation of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks operation classified as Deep Learning Systems, and to explicitly present the mathematical development of Backward Pass equations of the LSTM network model. This mathematical modeling associated with software development will provide the necessary tools to develop an intelligent system capable of predicting the behavior of licensed users in wireless cognitive radio networks.
155
106076
Effect of the Velocity Resistance Training on Muscular Fitness and Functional Performance in Older Women
Abstract:
Objective: Regarding effects of training velocity on strength in the functional condition of older adults controversy exists. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a twelve-week strength training program (PE) performed at high speed (GAV) versus a traditionally executed program (GBV), on functional performance, maximum strength and muscle power in a group of older adult women. Methodology: 86 women aged between 60-81 years participated voluntarily in the study and were assigned randomly to the GAV (three series at 40% 1RM at maximum speed, with maximum losses of 10% speed) or to the GBV (three series with three sets at 70% of 1RM). Both groups performed three weekly trainings. The maximum strength of upper and lower limbs (1RM), prehensile strength, walking speed, maximum power, mean propulsive velocity (MPV) and functional performance (senior fitness test) were evaluated before and after the PE. Results: Significant improvements were observed (p < 0.05) in all the tests in the two groups after the twelve weeks of training. However, the results of GAV were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the GBV, in the tests of agility and dynamic equilibrium, stationary walking, sitting and standing, walking speed over 4 and 6 meters, MPV and peak power. In the tests of maximum strength and prehensile force, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: Strength training performed at high speeds seems to have a better effect on functional performance and muscle power than strength training performed at low speed.
154
107890
Load Forecasting in Short-Term Including Meteorological Variables for Balearic Islands Paper
Abstract:
This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the short-term load forecasting (STLF). Since the behavior of consumers and producers continue changing as new technologies, it is an ongoing process, and moreover, new policies become available. The results of a research study for the Spanish Transport System Operator (REE) is presented in this paper. It is presented the improvement of the forecasting accuracy in the Balearic Islands considering the introduction of meteorological variables, such as temperature to reduce forecasting error. Variables analyzed for the forecasting in terms of overall accuracy are cloudiness, solar radiation, and wind velocity. It has also been analyzed the type of days to be considered in the research.
153
108091
Make Up Flash: Web Application for the Improvement of Physical Appearance in Images Based on Recognition Methods
Abstract:
This paper presents a web application for the improvement of images through recognition. The web application is based on the analysis of picture-based recognition methods that allow an improvement on the physical appearance of people posting in social networks. The basis relies on the study of tools that can correct or improve some features of the face, with the help of a wide collection of user images taken as reference to build a facial profile. Automatic facial profiling can be achieved with a deeper study of the Object Detection Library. It was possible to improve the initial images with the help of MATLAB and its filtering functions. The user can have a direct interaction with the program and manually adjust his preferences.
152
61993
Algorithm and Software Based on Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks for Estimating Channel Use in the Spectral Decision Stage in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
The use of the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) technique is presented to estimate the future state of use of a licensed channel by primary users (PUs); this will be useful at the spectral decision stage in cognitive radio networks (CRN) to determine approximately in which time instants of future may secondary users (SUs) opportunistically use the spectral bandwidth to send data through the primary wireless network. To validate the results, sequences of occupancy data of channel were generated by simulation. The results show that the prediction percentage is greater than 60% in some of the tests carried out.
151
64455
Experimental Networks Synchronization of Chua’s Circuit in Different Topologies
Abstract:
In this work, we deal with experimental network synchronization of chaotic nodes with different topologies. Our approach is based on complex system theory, and we use a master-slave configuration to couple the nodes in the networks. In particular, we design and implement electronically complex dynamical networks composed by nine coupled chaotic Chua’s circuits with topologies: in nearest-neighbor, small-world, open ring, star, and global. Also, network synchronization is evaluated according to a particular coupling strength for each topology. This study is important by the possible applications to private transmission of information in a chaotic communication network of multiple users.
150
56716
Performance Assessment in a Voice Coil Motor for Maximizing the Energy Harvesting with Gait Motions
Abstract:
In this study, an experimental approach is established to assess the performance of different beams coupled to a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) with the aim to maximize mechanically the energy harvesting in the inductive transducer that is included on it. The VCM is extracted from a recycled hard disk drive (HDD) and it is adapted for carrying out experimental tests of energy harvesting. Two individuals were selected for walking with the VCM-beam device as well as to evaluate the performance varying two parameters in the beam; length of the beams and a mass addition. Results show that the energy harvesting is maximized with specific beams; however, the harvesting efficiency is improved when a mass is added to the end of the beams.
149
91570
Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes
Abstract:
In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 &ordm;C with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.
148
124743
Role of ABC Transporters in Non-Target Site Herbicide Resistance in Black Grass (Alopecurus myosuroides)
Abstract:
Non-target site based resistance (NTSR) to herbicides in weeds is a polygenic trait associated with the upregulation of proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification and translocation we have termed the xenome. Among the xenome proteins, ABC transporters play a key role in enhancing herbicide metabolism by effluxing conjugated xenobiotics from the cytoplasm into the vacuole. The importance of ABC transporters is emphasized by the fact that they often contribute to multidrug resistance in human cells and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. They also play a key role in insecticide resistance in major vectors of human diseases and crop pests. By surveying available databases, transcripts encoding ABCs have been identified as being enhanced in populations exhibiting NTSR in several weed species. Based on a transcriptomics data in black grass (Alopecurus myosuroides, Am), we have identified three proteins from the ABC-C subfamily that are upregulated in NTSR populations. ABC-C transporters are poorly characterized proteins in plants, but in Arabidopsis localize to the vacuolar membrane and have functional roles in transporting glutathionylated (GSH)-xenobiotic conjugates. We found that the up-regulation of AmABCs strongly correlates with the up-regulation of a glutathione transferase termed AmGSTU2, which can conjugate GSH to herbicides. The expression profile of the ABC transcripts was profiled in populations of black grass showing different degree of resistance to herbicides. This, together with a phylogenetic analysis, revealed that AmABCs cluster in different groups which might indicate different substrate and roles in the herbicide resistance phenotype in the different populations
147
86031
Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide
Abstract:
Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.
146
85262
Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade Made with Natural Fiber Based Composite Material
Abstract:
One of the problems considered when scientists talk about climate change is the necessity of utilizing renewable sources of energy, on this category there are many approaches to the problem, one of them is wind energy and wind turbines whose designs have frequently changed along many years trying to achieve a better overall performance on different conditions. From that situation, we get the two main types known today: Vertical and Horizontal axis wind turbines, which have acronyms VAWT and HAWT, respectively. This research aims to understand how well suited a composite material, which is still in development, made with natural origin fibers is for its implementation on vertical axis wind turbines blades under certain wind loads. The study consisted on acquiring the mechanical properties of the materials to be used which where bactris guineenis, also known as pama de lata in Colombia, and adhesive that acts as the matrix which had not been previously studied to the point required for this project. Then, a simplified 3D model of the airfoil was developed and tested under some preliminary loads using finite element analysis (FEA), these loads were acquired in the Colombian Chicamocha Canyon. Afterwards, a more realistic pressure profile was obtained using computational fluid dynamics which took into account the 3D shape of the complete blade and its rotation. Finally, the blade model was subjected to the wind loads using what is known as one way fluidstructure interaction (FSI) and its behavior analyzed to draw conclusions. The observed overall results were positive since the material behaved fairly as expected. Data suggests the material would be really useful in this kind of applications in small to medium size turbines if it is given more attention and time to develop.
145
69420
Influence of Bias Voltage on Amorphous Silicon Deposition as Seed Layer in the Tribological Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Thin Films
Abstract:
Failures in amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings in biomedical applications are mainly attributed to different mechanism at the interface substrate-coating. This paper focuses on the variation of bias voltage (5 kV, 8 kV, and 10 kV) during amorphous silicon deposition as seed layer for amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings on AISI 316L substrates. An Active Screen Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition process was used to carry out the experiment. Surface characterization was performed with contact profilometry, obtaining an average roughness from 19 nm up to 30 nm. Mechanical properties were measured using nanoindentation, obtaining the Young’s modulus (170–210 GPa) and hardness (25–30 GPa). Using Raman spectroscopy, the intensity ratio between D and G peaks was calculated in order to stablish the amorphous carbon classification. Friction coefficient was obtained through a Pin on Disk test performed in Hanks solution and dry atmosphere, obtaining a friction coefficient under 0.1 during 30000 cycles using 20 N applied load. Adhesion was evaluated calculating the critical load in a Scratch test. The Electrochemical study was evaluated using Tafel tests obtaining the corresponding polarization curve. The surface tension (30-35 nJ/cm2) was studied with the angle contact test. Adhesion forces between live cell and coating surface were measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.
144
69419
Influence of Bias Voltage on Amorphous Silicon Deposition as Seed Layer in the Tribological Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Thin Films
Abstract:
Failures in amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings in biomedical applications are mainly attributed to different mechanism at the interface substrate-coating. This paper focuses on the variation of bias voltage (5 kV, 8 kV, and 10 kV) during amorphous silicon deposition as seed layer for amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings on AISI 316L substrates. An Active Screen Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition process was used to carry out the experiment. Surface characterization was performed with contact profilometry, obtaining an average roughness from 19 nm up to 30 nm. Mechanical properties were measured using nanoindentation, obtaining the Young’s modulus (170–210 GPa) and hardness (25–30 GPa). Using Raman spectroscopy, the intensity ratio between D and G peaks was calculated in order to stablish the amorphous carbon classification. Friction coefficient was obtained through a Pin on Disk test performed in Hanks solution and dry atmosphere, obtaining a friction coefficient under 0.1 during 30000 cycles using 20 N applied load. Adhesion was evaluated calculating the critical load in a Scratch test. The Electrochemical study was evaluated using Tafel tests obtaining the corresponding polarization curve. The surface tension (30-35 nJ/cm2) was studied with the angle contact test. Adhesion forces between live cell and coating surface were measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.
143
69421
Influence of Bias Voltage on Amorphous Silicon Deposition as Seed Layer in the Tribological Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Thin Films
Abstract:
Failures in amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings in biomedical applications are mainly attributed to different mechanism at the interface substrate-coating. This paper focuses on the variation of bias voltage (5 kV, 8 kV, and 10 kV) during amorphous silicon deposition as seed layer for amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings on AISI 316L substrates. An Active Screen Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition process was used to carry out the experiment. Surface characterization was performed with contact profilometry, obtaining an average roughness from 19 nm up to 30 nm. Mechanical properties were measured using nanoindentation, obtaining the Young’s modulus (170–210 GPa) and hardness (25–30 GPa). Using Raman spectroscopy, the intensity ratio between D and G peaks was calculated in order to stablish the amorphous carbon classification. Friction coefficient was obtained through a Pin on Disk test performed in Hanks solution and dry atmosphere, obtaining a friction coefficient under 0.1 during 30000 cycles using 20 N applied load. Adhesion was evaluated calculating the critical load in a Scratch test. The Electrochemical study was evaluated using Tafel tests obtaining the corresponding polarization curve. The surface tension (30-35 nJ/cm2) was studied with the angle contact test. Adhesion forces between live cell and coating surface were measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.
142
94175
MRI Compatible Fresnel Zone Plates made of Polylactic Acid
Abstract:
Zone Plates (ZPs) are used in many areas of physics where planar fabrication is advantageous in comparison with conventional curved lenses. There are several types of ZPs, such as the well-known Fresnel ZPs or the more recent Fractal ZPs and Fibonacci ZPs. The material selection of the lens plays a very important role in the beam modulation control. This work presents a comparison between two Fresnel ZP made from different materials in the ultrasound domain: Polylactic Acid (PLA) and brass. PLA is the most common material used in commercial 3D-printers due to its high design flexibility and low cost. Numerical simulations based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and experimental results are shown, and they prove that the focusing capabilities of brass ZPs and PLA ZPs are similar. For this reason, PLA is proposed as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible material with great potential for therapeutic ultrasound focusing applications.
141
63037
Use of Artificial Intelligence Based Models to Estimate the Use of a Spectral Band in Cognitive Radio
Abstract:
Currently, one of the major challenges in wireless networks is the optimal use of radio spectrum, which is managed inefficiently. One of the solutions to existing problem converges in the use of Cognitive Radio (CR), as an essential parameter so that the use of the available licensed spectrum is possible (by secondary users), well above the usage values that are currently detected; thus allowing the opportunistic use of the channel in the absence of primary users (PU). This article presents the results found when estimating or predicting the future use of a spectral transmission band (from the perspective of the PU) for a chaotic type channel arrival behavior. The time series prediction method (which the PU represents) used is ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System). The results obtained were compared to those delivered by the RNA (Artificial Neural Network) algorithm. The results show better performance in the characterization (modeling and prediction) with the ANFIS methodology.
140
48438
Qualitative Analysis of Current Child Custody Evaluation Practices
Abstract:
The role of the custody evaluator is perhaps one of the most controversial and risky endeavors in clinical practice. Complaints filed with licensing boards regarding a child-custody evaluation constitute the second most common reason for such an event. Although the evaluator is expected to answer for the family-law court what is in the "best interest of the child," there is a lack of clarity on how to establish this in any empirically validated manner. Hence, practitioners must contend with a nebulous framework in formulating their methodological procedures that inherently places them at risk in an already litigious context. This study sought to qualitatively investigate patterns of practice among doctoral practitioners conducting child custody evaluations in the area of Southern California. Ten psychologists were interviewed who devoted between 25 and 100% of their California private practice to custody work. All held Ph.D. degrees with a range of eight to 36 years of experience in custody work. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate assessment practices, ensure adherence to guidelines, risk management, and qualities of evaluators. Forty-three Specific Themes were identified using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Seven Higher Order Themes clustered on salient factors such as use of Ethics, Law, Guidelines; Parent Variables; Child Variables; Psychologist Variables; Testing; Literature; and Trends. Evaluators were aware of the ever-present reality of a licensure complaint and thus presented idiosyncratic descriptions of risk management considerations. Ambiguity about quantifying and validly tapping parenting abilities was also reviewed. Findings from this study suggested a high reliance on unstructured and observational methods in child custody practices.
139
92545
Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees
Abstract:
Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees (ASQ-DAT) is a screening instrument that assesses the risk of autism in children between 12 and 47 months, being the first free observational instrument created according to the criteria of the DSM-5 that can be applied by teachers in nurseries. The people in charge of answering the questionnaires are the daycare assistants. Its application presents a series of previous activities with which daycare assistants are familiar (dance, games, oral narration and breakfast), which are executed with the children and then answer a questionnaire with dichotomous questions "Yes/No" in approximately 3 minutes per child. The instrument was developed with the participation of nurseries according to the protocols of the creation of psychometric instruments of the Classical Test Theory having as a gold standard ADOS-2 Modules T and 1. The results of the investigation show that the use of ASQ-DAT combined with the application of M-CHAT / RF provides more information about the risk of ASD in young children, which allows improvements in the screening.
138
64452
Collective Movement between Two Lego EV3 Mobile Robots
Abstract:
Robots are working in industry and services performing repetitive or dangerous tasks, however, when flexible movement capabilities and complex tasks are required, the use of many robots is needed. Also, productivity can be improved by reducing times to perform tasks. In the last years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of collective control of mobile robots. This interest is justified as there are many advantages when two or more robots are collaborating in a particular task. Some examples are: cleaning toxic waste, transportation and manipulation of objects, exploration, and surveillance, search and rescue. In this work a study of collective movements of mobile robots is presented. A solution of collisions avoidance is developed. This solution is levered on a communication implementation that allows coordinate movements in different paths were avoiding obstacles.
137
69080
Heavy Metals Estimation in Coastal Areas Using Remote Sensing, Field Sampling and Classical and Robust Statistic
Abstract:
Sediments are an important source of accumulation of toxic contaminants within the aquatic environment. Bioassays are a powerful tool for the study of sediments in relation to their toxicity, but they can be expensive. This article presents a methodology to estimate the main physical property of intertidal sediments in coastal zones: heavy metals concentration. This study, which was developed in the Bay of Santander (Spain), applies classical and robust statistic to CASI-2 hyperspectral images to estimate heavy metals presence and ecotoxicity (TOC). Simultaneous fieldwork (radiometric and chemical sampling) allowed an appropriate atmospheric correction to CASI-2 images.
136
43761
Model Based Development of a Processing Map for Friction Stir Welding of AA7075
Abstract:
The main goal of this research relates to the modeling of FSW from a different or unusual perspective coming from mechanical engineering, particularly looking for a way to establish process windows by assessing soundness of the joints as a priority and with the added advantage of lower computational time. This paper presents the use of a previously developed model applied to specific aspects of soundness evaluation of AA7075 FSW welds. EMSO software (Environment for Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization) was used for simulation and an adapted CNC machine was used for actual welding. This model based approach showed good agreement with the experimental data, from which it is possible to set a window of operation for commercial aluminum alloy AA7075, all with low computational costs and employing simple quality indicators that can be used by non-specialized users in process modeling.
135
90463
News Publication on Facebook: Emotional Analysis of Hooks
Abstract:
The goal of this study is to perform an emotional analysis of the hooks used in Facebook by three of the most important daily newspapers in the USA. These hook texts are used to get the user's attention and invite him to read the news and linked contents. Thanks to the emotional analysis in text, made with the tool of IBM, Tone Analyzer, we discovered that more than 30% of the hooks can be classified emotionally as joy, sadness, anger or fear. This study gathered the publications made by The New York Times, USA Today and The Washington Post during a random day. The results show that the choice of words by the journalist, can expose the reader to different emotions before clicking on the content. In the three cases analyzed, the absence of emotions in some cases, and the presence of emotions in text in others, appear in very similar percentages. Therefore, beyond the objectivity and veracity of the content, a new factor could come into play: the emotional influence on the reader as a mediatic manipulation tool.
134
70332
Smartphone Video Source Identification Based on Sensor Pattern Noise
Abstract:
An increasing number of mobile devices with integrated cameras has meant that most digital video comes from these devices. These digital videos can be made anytime, anywhere and for different purposes. They can also be shared on the Internet in a short period of time and may sometimes contain recordings of illegal acts. The need to reliably trace the origin becomes evident when these videos are used for forensic purposes. This work proposes an algorithm to identify the brand and model of mobile device which generated the video. Its procedure is as follows: after obtaining the relevant video information, a classification algorithm based on sensor noise and Wavelet Transform performs the aforementioned identification process. We also present experimental results that support the validity of the techniques used and show promising results.
133
77526
Performance in the Delivery of Environmental Management Programs of the Local Government Unit of Malay, Aklan, Philippines
Abstract:
A study was conducted to evaluate the performance in the delivery of environmental management programs of the local government of Malay, Aklan, Philippines. The samples were determined by adopting the Multi-Stage Random Probability Sampling technique. The 150 respondents were drawn from barangays with larger shares of the population based on the Philippine Statistical Authority’s Data on Census Population and Housing for the year 2015. The qualified sample respondents were selected using the Kish Grid. Female respondents were targeted for even numbered questionnaires while male respondents were targeted for odd numbers. The four major core concepts namely awareness, availment, satisfaction and need for action were used in measuring the rating of the respondents and presented in frequency and percentage distributions. The reasons for their response were likewise gathered. The study inferred that a large portion of the respondents was profoundly aware of the environmental management programs implemented by their local government unit especially the solid waste management and the clean-up programs/projects. Programs to control air pollution and waste water management obtained the least awareness ratings from the respondents. A high percentage of respondents had availed of environmental management programs, particularly solid waste management. Overall, majority of the respondents were satisfied with the environmental management programs rendered by the local government unit and therefore needs less action. It is recommended that the local government unit must strengthen air pollution control program. Appropriate action must be taken to support the people’s interest in this program most particularly to the individuals who burn their garbage. Seminars and training-workshops about appropriate waste disposal will most likely help settle this issue.
132
98085
Preparation of Biodegradable Methacrylic Nanoparticles by Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization for Drugs Loading: The Case of Acetylsalicylic Acid
Abstract:
Implementation of systems based on nanostructures for drug delivery applications have taken relevance in recent studies focused on biomedical applications. Although there are several nanostructures as drugs carriers, the use of polymeric nanoparticles (PNP) has been widely studied for this purpose, however, the main issue for these nanostructures is the size control below 50 nm with a narrow distribution size, due to they must go through different physiological barriers and avoid to be filtered by kidneys (< 10 nm) or the spleen (> 100 nm). Thus, considering these and other factors, it can be mentioned that drug-loaded nanostructures with sizes varying between 10 and 50 nm are preferred in the development and study of PNP/drugs systems. In this sense, the Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization (SHP) offers the possibility to obtain PNP in the desired size range. Considering the above explained, methacrylic copolymer nanoparticles were obtained under SHP. The reactions were carried out in a jacketed glass reactor with the required quantities of water, ammonium persulfate as initiator, sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate as surfactants, methyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid as monomers with molar ratio of 2/1, respectively. The monomer solution was dosed dropwise during reaction at 70 °C with a mechanical stirring of 650 rpm. Nanoparticles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) were loaded with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) by a chemical adsorption technique. The purified latex was put in contact with a solution of ASA in dichloromethane (DCM) at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 wt-%, at 35°C during 12 hours. According to the boiling point of DCM, as well as DCM and water densities, the loading process is completed when the whole DCM is evaporated. The hydrodynamic diameter was measured after polymerization by quasi-elastic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, before and after loading procedures with ASA. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of PNP loaded with ASA were measured by infrared spectroscopy, differential scattering calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Also, the molar mass distributions of polymers were determined in a gel permeation chromatograph apparatus. The load capacity and efficiency were determined by gravimetric analysis. The hydrodynamic diameter results for methacrylic PNP without ASA showed a narrow distribution with an average particle size around 10 nm and a composition methyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid molar ratio equal to 2/1, same composition of Eudragit S100, which is a commercial compound widely used as excipient. Moreover, the latex was stabilized in a relative high solids content (around 11 %), a monomer conversion almost 95 % and a number molecular weight around 400 Kg/mol. The average particle size in the PNP/aspirin systems fluctuated between 18 and 24 nm depending on the initial percentage of aspirin in the loading process, being the drug content as high as 24 % with an efficiency loading of 36 %. These average sizes results have not been reported in the literature, thus, the methacrylic nanoparticles here reported are capable to be loaded with a considerable amount of ASA and be used as a drug carrier.
131
85085
Analysis of Green Wood Preservation Chemicals
Abstract:
Wood decay is addressed continuously within the wood industry through use and development of wood preservatives. The increasing awareness on the negative effects of many chemicals towards the environment is causing political restrictions in their use and creating more urgent need for research on green alternatives. This paper discusses some of the possible natural extracts for wood preserving applications and compares the analytical methods available for testing their behavior and efficiency against decay fungi.&nbsp;The results indicate that natural extracts have interesting chemical constituents that delay fungal growth but vary in efficiency depending on the chemical concentration and substrate used. Results also suggest that presence and redistribution of preservatives in wood during exposure trials can be assessed by spectral imaging methods although standardized methods are not available. This study concludes that, in addition to the many standard methods available, there is a need to develop new faster methods for screening potential preservative formulation while maintaining the comparability and relevance of results.
130
124742
Safeners, Tools for Artificial Manipulation of Herbicide Selectivity: A Zea mays Case Study
Abstract:
Safeners are agrochemicals that enhance the selective chemical control of wild grasses by increasing the ability of the crop to metabolise the herbicide. Although these compounds are widely used, their mode of action is not well understood. It is known that safeners enhance the metabolism of herbicides, by up-regulating the associated detoxification system we have termed the xenome. The xenome proteins involved in herbicide metabolism have been previously divided into four different phases, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) playing a key role in phase I metabolism by catalysing hydroxylation and dealkylation reactions. Subsequently, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and UDP-glucosyltransferases lead to the formation of Phase II conjugates prior to their transport into the vacuole by ABCs transporters (Phase III). Maize (Zea mays), was been treated with different safeners to explore the selective induction of xenome proteins, with a special interest in the regulation of the CYP superfamily. Transcriptome analysis enabled the identification of key safener-inducible CYPs that were then functionally assessed to determine their role in herbicide detoxification. In order to do that, CYP’s were codon optimised, synthesised and inserted into the yeast expression vector pYES3 using in-fusion cloning. CYP’s expressed as recombinant proteins in a strain of yeast engineered to contain the P450 co-enzyme (cytochrome P450 reductase) from Arabidopsis. Microsomes were extracted and treated with herbicides of different chemical classes in the presence of the cofactor NADPH. The reaction products were then analysed by LCMS to identify any herbicide metabolites. The results of these studies will be presented with the key CYPs identified in maize used as the starting point to find orthologs in other crops and weeds to better understand their roles in herbicide selectivity and safening.
129
84465
Valorization of Residues from Forest Industry for the Generation of Energy
Abstract:
The use of biomass to produce renewable energy is one of the forms that can be used to reduce the impact of energy production. Like any other energy resource, there are limitations for biomass use, and it must compete not only with fossil fuels but also with other renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy. Combustion is currently the most efficient and widely used waste-to-energy process, in the areas where direct use of biomass is possible, without the need to make large transfers of raw material. Many industrial facilities can use agricultural or forestry waste, straw, chips, bagasse, etc. in their thermal systems without making major transformations or adjustments in the feeding to the ovens, making this waste an attractive and cost-effective option in terms of availability, access, and costs. In spite of the facilities and benefits, the environmental reasons (emission of gases and particulate material) are decisive for its use for energy purpose. This paper describes a valorization of residues from forest industry to generate energy, using a case study.
128
94220
FZP Design Considering Spherical Wave Incidence
Abstract:
Fresnel Zone Plates (FZPs) are widely used in many areas, such as optics, microwaves or acoustics. On the design of FZPs, plane wave incidence is typically considered, but that is not usually the case in ultrasounds, especially in applications where a piston emitter is placed at a certain distance from the lens. In these cases, having control of the focal distance is very important, and with the usual Fresnel equation a focal displacement from the theoretical distance is observed due to the plane wave supposition. In this work, a comparison between FZP with plane wave incidence design and FZP with point source design in the case of piston emitter is presented. Influence of the main parameters of the piston in the final focalization profile has been studied. Numerical models and experimental results are shown, and they prove that when spherical wave incidence is considered for the piston case, it is possible to have a fine control of the focal distance in comparison with the classical design method.
127
7908
Application of Sensory Thermography on Workers of a Wireless Industry in Mexico
Abstract:
This study focuses on the application of sensory thermography, as a non-invasive method to evaluate the musculoskeletal injuries that industry workers performing Highly Repetitive Movements (HRM) may acquire. It was made at a wireless company having the target of analyze temperatures in worker’s wrists, elbows and shoulders in workstations during their activities, this thru sensorial thermography with the goal of detecting maximum temperatures (Tmax) that could indicate possible injuries. The tests were applied during 3 hours for only 2 workers that work in workstations where there’s been the highest index of injuries and accidents. We were made comparisons for each part of the body that were study for both because of the similitude between the activities of the workstations; they were requiring both an immediate evaluation. The Tmax was recorder during the test of the worker 2, in the left wrist, reaching a temperature of 35.088ºC and with a maximum increase of 1.856°C.
126
98327
Emotional Analysis for Text Search Queries on Internet
Abstract:
The goal of this study is to analyze if search queries carried out in search engines such as Google, can offer emotional information about the user that performs them. Knowing the emotional state in which the Internet user is located can be a key to achieve the maximum personalization of content and the detection of worrying behaviors. For this, two studies were carried out using tools with advanced natural language processing techniques. The first study determines if a query can be classified as positive, negative or neutral, while the second study extracts emotional content from words and applies the categorical and dimensional models for the representation of emotions. In addition, we use search queries in Spanish and English to establish similarities and differences between two languages. The results revealed that text search queries performed by users on the Internet can be classified emotionally. This allows us to better understand the emotional state of the user at the time of the search, which could involve adapting the technology and personalizing the responses to different emotional states.
125
115339
The Cardiac Diagnostic Prediction Applied to a Designed Holter
Abstract:
We have designed a Holter that measures the heart&acute;s activity for over 24 hours, implemented a prediction methodology, and generate alarms as well as indicators to patients and treating physicians. Various diagnostic advances have been developed in clinical cardiology thanks to Holter implementation; however, their interpretation has largely been conditioned to clinical analysis and measurements adjusted to diverse population characteristics, thus turning it into a subjective examination. This, however, requires vast population studies to be validated that, in turn, have not achieved the ultimate goal: mortality prediction. Given this context, our Insight Research Group developed a mathematical methodology that assesses cardiac dynamics through entropy and probability, creating a numerical and geometrical attractor which allows quantifying the normalcy of chronic and acute disease as well as the evolution between such states, and our Tigum Research Group developed a holter device with 12 channels and advanced computer software. This has been shown in different contexts with 100% sensitivity and specificity results.
124
109068
Application of Transform Fourier for Dynamic Control of Structures with Global Positioning System
Abstract:
Given the evolution of viaducts, structural health monitoring requires more complex techniques to define their state. two alternatives can be distinguished: experimental and operational modal analysis. Although accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) have been applied for the monitoring of structures under exploitation, the dynamic monitoring during the stage of construction is not common. This research analyzes whether GPS data can be applied to certain dynamic geometric controls of evolving structures. The fundamentals of this work were applied to the New Bridge of C&aacute;diz (Spain), a worldwide milestone in bridge building. GPS data were recorded with an interval of 1 second during the erection of segments and turned to the frequency domain with Fourier transform. The vibration period and amplitude were contrasted with those provided by the finite element model, with differences of less than 10%, which is admissible. This process provides a vibration record of the structure with GPS, avoiding specific equipment.
123
62618
Probing Neuron Mechanics with a Micropipette Force Sensor
Abstract:
Advances in micromanipulation techniques and real-time particle tracking with nanometer resolution have enabled biological force measurements at scales relevant to neuron mechanics. An approach to precisely control and maneuver neurite-tethered polystyrene beads is presented. Analogous to an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), this multi-purpose platform is a force sensor with imaging acquisition and manipulation capabilities. A mechanical probe composed of a micropipette with its tip fixed to a functionalized bead is used to incite the formation of a neurite in a sample of rat hippocampal neurons while simultaneously measuring the tension in said neurite as the sample is pulled away from the beaded tip. With optical imaging methods, a force resolution of 12 pN is achieved. Moreover, the advantages of this technique over alternatives such as AFM, namely ease of manipulation which ultimately allows higher throughput investigation of the mechanical properties of neurons, is demonstrated.
122
105900
Evaluation of an Air Energy Recovery System in Greenhouse Fed by an Axial Air Extractor
Abstract:
The residual wind energy recovery from axial air extractors in greenhouses represents a constant source of clean energy production, which reduces production costs by reducing energy consumption costs. The objective of this work is to design, build and evaluate a residual wind energy recovery system. This system consists of a wind turbine placed at an optimal distance, a cone in the air discharge and a mechanism to vary the blades angle of the wind turbine. The system energy balance was analyzed, measuring the main energy parameters such as voltage, amperage, air velocities and angular speeds of the rotors. Tests were carried in a greenhouse with extractor Multifan 130 (1.2 kW, 550 rpm and 1.3 m of diameter) without cone and with cone, with the wind turbine (3 blades with 1.2 m in diameter). The implementation of the system allowed recovering up to 55% of the motor's energy. With the cone installed, the electric energy recovered was increased by 10%. Experimentally, it was shown that changing in 3 degrees the original angle of the wind turbine blades, the angular velocity increases 17.7%.
121
98488
The Emotional Education in the Development of Intercultural Competences
Abstract:
The development of a critical, open and plural citizenship constitutes one of the main challenges of the school institution in the present multicultural societies. Didactics in Social Sciences has conducted important contributions to the development of active methodologies to promote the development of the intercultural competencies of the student body. Research in intercultural education has demonstrated the efficiency of the cooperative learning techniques to improve the intercultural relations in the classroom. Our study proposes to check the effect that, concerning the development of intercultural competencies of the student body, the emotional education can have in the context of the use of active methodologies such as the learning by projects and the cooperative learning. To that purpose, a programme of intervention based on activities focussed on controversial issues related to cultural diversity has been implemented in several secondary schools. Through a methodology which combines intercultural competence scales with interviews and also with the analysis of the school body’s productions, the persistence of stereotypes against immigration and the efficacy of the introduction of emotional education elements in the development of intercultural competencies have both been observed.
120
107612
Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms
Abstract:
A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.
119
1513
Synchronization of Two Mobile Robots
Abstract:
It is well know that mankind benefits from the application of robot control by virtual handlers in industrial environments. In recent years, great interest has emerged in the control of multiple robots in order to carry out collective tasks. One main trend is to copy the natural organization that some organisms have, such as, ants, bees, school of fish, birds’ migration, etc. Surely, this collaborative work, results in better outcomes than those obtain in an isolated or individual effort. This topic has a great drive because collaboration between several robots has the potential capability of carrying out more complicated tasks, doing so, with better efficiency, resiliency and fault tolerance, in cases such as: coordinate navigation towards a target, terrain exploration, and search-rescue operations. In this work, synchronization of multiple autonomous robots is shown over a variety of coupling topologies: star, ring, chain, and global. In all cases, collective synchronous behavior is achieved, in the complex networks formed with mobile robots. Nodes of these networks are modeled by a mass using Matlab to simulate them.
118
44938
Gender Mainstreaming in Public Universities in Mexico
Abstract:
Gender as a social construct is a term now widely studied. Within the social sciences it has become very important. In this sense, psychology tries to make some contributions from your area. The intention is to promote equal opportunities for men and women. Social, employment and educational inequities perpetuate sexism, violence and other important social problems in Mexico. The gender perspective is conceptualized as a tool to promote laws, policies, plans, programs and procedures where women are made ​​visible and empowered. The aim of this is the pursuit of equality. Thus, gender mainstreaming is one of the main challenges of education in Mexico. Only a few universities have programs, research or subjects related to the topic. Human resources, and time allocated to teachers are identified as obstacles to the institutionalization of gender. The objective was to make a diagnosis on course offerings and policies on gender. A documentary study and interviews with managers of at least 20 higher education institutions (IES&#39;s) were performed. The results indicate the need for greater gender courses, research projects and intervention. The need to promote policies that seek equal opportunities between men and women is also noted.
117
74109
Water Management in Mexico City and Its Metropolitan Area
Abstract:
As urban areas expand, strategic and protected water reserves become more critical. In this study we investigate the water problems in Mexico City and its Metropolitan area. This region faces a complex water problem that concerns not only Mexican boundaries but also international level because is one of the biggest human concentrations in the World. The current water shortage situation raises the necessity of importing surface and groundwater from the Cutzamala River and from the Alto Rio Lerma System respectively. Water management is the real issue in this region, because waste water generation is more than aquifer overexploitation, and surface water loss in the rainfall period is greater than water imported from other regions. However, the possible solutions of the water supply schemes are complicated, there is a need to look for alternatives socially acceptable and environmentally desirable, considering first the possible solutions on the demand side. Also, it is necessary more investment in water treatment plants and hydraulic infrastructure to ensure water supply and decrease the environmental problems in the area. More studies need to be done related to water efficiency in the three sectors.
116
18722
Seismic Behavior of Three-Dimensional Steel Buildings with Post-Tensioned Connections
Abstract:
The seismic responses of steel buildings with semi-rigid post-tensioned connections (PC) are estimated and compared with those of steel buildings with typical rigid (welded) connections (RC). The comparison is made in terms of global and local response parameters. The results indicate that the seismic responses in terms of interstory shears, roof displacements, axial load and bending moments are smaller for the buildings with PC connection. The difference is larger for global than for local parameters, which in turn varies from one column location to another. The reason for this improved behavior is that the buildings with PC dissipate more hysteretic energy than those with RC. In addition, unlike the case of buildings with WC, for the PC structures the hysteretic energy is mostly dissipated at the connections, which implies that structural damage in beams and columns is not significant. According to this results, steel buildings with PC are a viable option in highseismicity areas because of their smaller response and self-centering connection capacity as well as the fact that brittle failure is avoided.
115
109069
Analysis of the Accuracy of Earth Movement with Drone Surveys
Abstract:
New technologies for the capture of point clouds have experienced a great advance in recent years. In this way, its use has been extended in geomatics, providing measurement solutions that have been popularized without there being, many times, a detailed study of its accuracy. This research focuses on the study of the viability of topographic works with drones incorporating different sensors sensitive to the visible spectrum. The fundamentals have been applied to a road, located in Cantabria (Spain), where a platform extension and the reform of a riprap were being constructed. A total of six flights were made during two months, all of them with GPS as part of the photogrammetric process, and the results were contrasted with those measured with total station. The obtained results show that the choice of the camera and the planning of the flight have an important impact on the accuracy. In fact, the representations with a level of detail corresponding to 1/1000 scale are admissible, depending on the existing vegetation, and obtaining better results in the area of the riprap. This set of techniques is, therefore, suitable for the control of earthworks in road works but with certain limitations which are exposed in this paper.
114
120697
Empowering and Educating Young People Against Cybercrime by Playing: The Rayuela Method
Abstract:
The Rayuela method is a success story, as it is part of a project selected by the European Commission to face the challenge launched by itself for achieving a better understanding of human factors, as well as social and organisational aspects that are able to solve issues in fighting against crime. Rayuela's method specifically focuses on the drivers of cyber criminality, including approaches to prevent, investigate, and mitigate cybercriminal behavior. As the internet has become an integral part of young people’s lives, they are the key target of the Rayuela method because they (as a victim or as a perpetrator) are the most vulnerable link of the chain. Considering the increased time spent online and the control of their internet usage and the low level of awareness of cyber threats and their potential impact, it is understandable the proliferation of incidents due to human mistakes. 51% of Europeans feel not well informed about cyber threats, and 86% believe that the risk of becoming a victim of cybercrime is rapidly increasing. On the other hand, Law enforcement has noted that more and more young people are increasingly committing cybercrimes. This is an international problem that has considerable cost implications; it is estimated that crimes in cyberspace will cost the global economy $445B annually. Understanding all these phenomena drives to the necessity of a shift in focus from sanctions to deterrence and prevention. As a research project, Rayuela aims to bring together law enforcement agencies (LEAs), sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, legal experts, computer scientists, and engineers, to develop novel methodologies that allow better understanding the factors affecting online behavior related to new ways of cyber criminality, as well as promoting the potential of these young talents for cybersecurity and technologies. Rayuela’s main goal is to better understand the drivers and human factors affecting certain relevant ways of cyber criminality, as well as empower and educate young people in the benefits, risks, and threats intrinsically linked to the use of the Internet by playing, thus preventing and mitigating cybercriminal behavior. In order to reach that goal it´s necessary an interdisciplinary consortium (formed by 17 international partners) carries out researches and actions like Profiling and case studies of cybercriminals and victims, risk assessments, studies on Internet of Things and its vulnerabilities, development of a serious gaming environment, training activities, data analysis and interpretation using Artificial intelligence, testing and piloting, etc. For facilitating the real implementation of the Rayuela method, as a community policing strategy, is crucial to count on a Police Force with a solid background in trust-building and community policing in order to do the piloting, specifically with young people. In this sense, Valencia Local Police is a pioneer Police Force working with young people in conflict solving, through providing police mediation and peer mediation services and advice. As an example, it is an official mediation institution, so agreements signed by their police mediators have once signed by the parties, the value of a judicial decision.
113
18911
Photo Catalytic Treatment of Wastewater from Processing Poultry by-Products
Abstract:
The growing development in the poultry industry has generated a strong and adverse impact on quality and availability of water resources. Inside this industry, is finding out the treatment of by-products such as feathers, viscera and blood demanding highly water consumption, generating contaminant discharges as well. As one of current of treatment of by-products is the effluent of cooking condensate steam that has contaminant organic load; therefore, it is necessary to implement removal treatments before discharging it toward water sources. The photo catalysis appears as a promising alternative of treatment due to the different advantages it has, among others, includes low cost, easily operation, high efficiency and elimination of a wide variety of contaminants in a watery environment. This study has evaluated a heterogeneous photo catalytic treatment for removal contaminant organic load. This process was developed in oxidation and reduction conditions. It was analyzed the effect of factors such as pH, catalyst and sacrifice agent concentration. Finally, good conditions to removal contaminant organic load were achieved to determine percentage of contaminant organic load by means of response surface methodology.
112
125152
N Doped Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Growth over a Ni Catalyst Substrate
Abstract:
In this work, we study the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formation by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) over a catalyst with 20 % of Ni supported over La₂Zr₂O₇ (Ni20LZO). The high C solubility of Ni made it one of the most used in CNTs synthesis. Nevertheless, Ni presents also sintering and coalescence at high temperature. These troubles can be reduced by choosing a suitable support. We propose La₂Zr₂O₇ as for this matter since the incorporation of Ni by co-precipitation and calcination at 900 °C allows a good dispersion and interaction of the active metal (in the oxidized form, NiO) with this support. The CCVD was performed using 1 g of Ni20LZO at 950 °C during 30 min in Ar:H₂ atmosphere (2.5 L/min). The precursor, benzylamine, was added by a nebulizer-sprayer. X ray diffraction study shows the phase separation of NiO and La₂Zr₂O₇ after the calcination and the reduction to Ni after the synthesis. Raman spectra show D and G bands with a ID/IG ratio of 0.75. Elemental study verifies the incorporation of 1% of N. Thermogravimetric analysis shows the oxidation process start at around 450 °C. Future studies will determine the application potential of the samples.
111
120473
Gawa Gawa Lang ‘Yan: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Mental Health between Generations X and Z in Metro Manila, Philippines
Abstract:
This study aims to explore the differences in perception between Generation X and Generation Z towards mental health and mental health illnesses. Through this study, the researchers seek to identify and explore the differences that exist in the generational perception and determine the possible factors that influence the difference in perception. In order to achieve this, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGD), one composed of Generation X and the other composed of Generation Z. Participants for both focus group discussions were recruited through purposive sampling and online recruitment methods. In these discussions, they were asked questions relating to their personal history, experiences with mental health, and related illnesses, as well as their opinions regarding the subject matter. Afterwhich, we analyzed our data through a thematic analysis. Our study’s findings indicate notable differences in the perception of mental health as well as mental illness between the members of Generations X and Z. Additionally, factors such as culture, personal history, and intimate relationships influence the perceptions of mental health between generation groups.
110
63513
Across-Breed Genetic Evaluation of New Zealand Dairy Goats
Abstract:
Many dairy goat farmers of New Zealand milk herds of mixed breed does. Simultaneous evaluation of sires and does across breed is required to select the best animals for breeding on a common basis. Across-breed estimated breeding values (EBV) and estimated producing values for 208-day lactation yields of milk (MY), fat (FY), protein (PY) and somatic cell score (SCS; LOG2(SCC) of Saanen, Nubian, Alpine, Toggenburg and crossbred dairy goats from 75 herds were estimated using a test day model. Evaluations were based on 248,734 herd-test records representing 125,374 lactations from 65,514 does sired by 930 sires over 9 generations. Averages of MY, FY and PY were 642 kg, 21.6 kg and 19.8 kg, respectively. Average SCC and SCS were 936,518 cells/ml milk and 9.12. Pure-bred Saanen does out-produced other breeds in MY, FY and PY. Average EBV for MY, FY and PY compared to a Saanen base were Nubian -98 kg, 0.1 kg and -1.2 kg; Alpine -64 kg, -1.0 kg and -1.7 kg; and Toggenburg -42 kg, -1.0 kg and -0.5 kg. First-cross heterosis estimates were 29 kg MY, 1.1 kg FY and 1.2 kg PY. Average EBV for SCS compared to a Saanen base were Nubian 0.041, Alpine -0.083 and Toggenburg 0.094. Heterosis for SCS was 0.03. Breeding values are combined with respective economic values to calculate an economic index used for ranking sires and does to reflect farm profit.
109
126071
Automatic Product Identification Based on Deep-Learning Theory in an Assembly Line
Abstract:
Automated object recognition and identification systems are widely used throughout the world, particularly in assembly lines, where they perform quality control and automatic part selection tasks. This article presents the design and implementation of an object recognition system in an assembly line. The proposed shapes-color recognition system is based on deep learning theory in a specially designed convolutional network architecture. The used methodology involve stages such as: image capturing, color filtering, location of object mass centers, horizontal and vertical object boundaries, and object clipping. Once the objects are cut out, they are sent to a convolutional neural network, which automatically identifies the type of figure. The identification system works in real-time. The implementation was done on a Raspberry Pi 3 system and on a Jetson-Nano device. The proposal is used in an assembly course of bachelor&rsquo;s degree in industrial engineering. The results presented include studying the efficiency of the recognition and processing time.
108
46477
LCA/CFD Studies of Artisanal Brick Manufacture in Mexico
Abstract:
Environmental performance of artisanal brick manufacture was studied by Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in Mexico. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the environmental impact during artisanal brick manufacture. LCA cradle-to-gate approach was complemented with CFD analysis to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The lifecycle includes the stages of extraction, baking and transportation to the gate. The functional unit of this study was the production of a single brick in Chihuahua, Mexico and the impact categories studied were carcinogens, respiratory organics and inorganics, climate change radiation, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity, acidification/ eutrophication, land use, mineral use and fossil fuels. Laboratory techniques for fuel characterization, gas measurements in situ, and AP42 emission factors were employed in order to calculate gas emissions for inventory data. The results revealed that the categories with greater impacts are ecotoxicity and carcinogens. The CFD analysis is helpful in predicting the thermal diffusion and contaminants from a defined source. LCA-CFD synergy complemented the EIA and allowed us to identify the problem of thermal efficiency within the system.
107
97666
Rural Tourism as a Development Strategy in Communities of the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro
Abstract:
The article shows the pressing conditions of marginalization prevailing in the Sierra Gorda, in the northern state of Queretaro, so it is essential to identify business options that generate a complementary source of income in a sustainable manner, in accordance with the fact that the area is a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. In this sense, the study identifies the enormous scenic richness of the area, the growing demand for leisure activities of the urban centers and the multifunctionality that adds, in a complementary way, the traditional activities that up to now have achieved the quality of life levels. From the application of the 43 interviews and 183 surveys, confirms the fact that the post-visit perception exceeds the expectations of the visitors emerges and affirms that the image that has been projected is attractive and timely. In order to understand how the current model of tourism promoted in the region is working, there is a need to evaluate it in a theoretical-methodological framework considering sustainable development assumptions. In order to determine the degree of contribution to business development, strengthening of social capital, and enjoyment and appreciation of cultural and natural heritage in the region.
106
128292
Sociocultural Barriers to the Development of Autonomous Foreign Language Learning: Some Teaching Strategies to Overcome Such Challenges in a Mexican Context
Abstract:
The present study is part of the Master in Modern Languages at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, and it aims to analyze how the sociocultural background might influence the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education in order to propose some strategies to overcome such challenges. Given the lack of research on the sociocultural barriers in learner autonomy in a Mexican context and the need to hear teachers’ voices about this issue, qualitative data was obtained from semi-structured interviews with six language teachers on their perspectives on learner autonomy, its application to the language classroom, and their experiences with Mexican and foreign learners/contexts in order to find out differences regarding learner autonomy. The results suggest three main sociocultural characteristics: preference for an authority figure, tendency towards collectivism, and low tolerance of ambiguity. Finally, nine strategies were proposed in order to help language teachers to deal with such sociocultural characteristics when fostering learner autonomy in the border city of Mexicali, where this study was carried out.
105
107644
Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths Elements by Use of Ionic Liquids
Abstract:
Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered a good alternative for organic solvents in extractive processes; however, the higher or lower extraction efficiency in ILs remains difficult to predict because a lack of understanding of the extraction mechanisms in this class of diluents, making their application difficult to generalize. We have studied the extraction behavior of La(III) and Eu(III) from aqueous solution into n-dodecane and two ionic liquids (ILs), 1-ethyl-1-butylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EBPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] and 1-ethyl-1-octylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EOPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻], at room temperature using N,N’- dimethyl- N,N’-dioctylhexylethoxymalonamide (DMDOHEMA) as extractant. Fe(III) was introduced to the aqueous phase in order to study the selectivity toward La(III) and Eu(III) and the effect of variation of PH was investigated by using of several HNO₃ concentrations. We found that the ionic liquid with shorter alkyl chain [EBPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] showed a higher extraction ability than [EOPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] and that the use of ILs as organic solvent instead n-dodecane, greatly enhanced the extraction percentage of the target metals with a good selectivity. Cation ([EBPip⁺] or [EOPip⁺]) and anion ([NTf₂⁻]) concentration in the aqueous phase, has been determined in order to elucidate the extraction mechanism.
104
138492
Strategies and Perceptions of Small Olive Oil Farmers of By-product Valorization
Abstract:
This paper investigates how small olive farmers and olive oil producers implement circular economy models to manage olive-related waste and how such strategies are perceived by the farmers themselves. While there is a lot of data and technical research available on possible uses of olive oil by-products, the perceptions and practices of olive oil farmers on the subject are often overlooked. A total of 60 semi-structured interviews were conducted in one of the most relevant olive oil-producing regions in the Iberian Peninsula -the region of Terres de Ponent (Catalonia – Spain) - to examine the different by-product valorization strategies the olive oil farms develop. We test the hypothesis that the strategies conducted depend on the nature and amount of resources available by the farm. The results obtained point that access to milling infrastructure is a determining factor. We also found that olive tree pruning biomass and olive-pomace are the most common by-products valorized by farmers, the first one on-farm and the latter in mills. Findings indicate that high-value uses for olive oil by-products are rarely implemented by farmers. We conclude that olive farmers perceive by-product valorization strategies as waste management practices rather than as additional sources of value for their farms.
103
29498
Multi-Criteria Inventory Classification Process Based on Logical Analysis of Data
Abstract:
Although inventories are considered as stocks of money sitting on shelve, they are needed in order to secure a constant and continuous production. Therefore, companies need to have control over the amount of inventory in order to find the balance between excessive and shortage of inventory. The classification of items according to certain criteria such as the price, the usage rate and the lead time before arrival allows any company to concentrate its investment in inventory according to certain ranking or priority of items. This makes the decision making process for inventory management easier and more justifiable. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the classification of new items based on the already existing criteria. This approach is called the Logical Analysis of Data (LAD). It is used in this paper to assist the process of ABC items classification based on multiple criteria. LAD is a data mining technique based on Boolean theory that is used for pattern recognition. This technique has been tested in medicine, industry, credit risk analysis, and engineering with remarkable results. An application on ABC inventory classification is presented for the first time, and the results are compared with those obtained when using the well-known AHP technique and the ANN technique. The results show that LAD presented very good classification accuracy.
102
101432
Disability, Technology and Inclusion: Fostering and Inclusive Pedagogical Approach in an Interdisciplinary Project
Abstract:
This paper aims to discuss a conceptual, pedagogical approach that foster inclusive education and that create an awareness of the use of assistive technology in Mexico. Interdisciplinary understanding of disabilities and the use of assistive technology as a frame for an inclusive education have challenged the reality of the researchers’ participation in decision-making. Drawing upon a pedagogical inquiry process within an interdisciplinary academic project that involved the sciences, design, biotechnology, psychology and education fields, this paper provides a discussion on the challenges of assistive technology and inclusive education in interdisciplinary research on disabilities and technology project. This study is frame on an educational action research design where the team is interested in integrating, disability, technology, and inclusion, theory, and practice. Major findings include: (1) the concept of inclusive education as a strategy for interdisciplinary research; (2) inclusion as a pedagogical approach that challenges the creation of assistive technology from diverse academic fields; and, (3) inclusion as a frame, problem-focused, for decision-making. The findings suggest that inclusive pedagogical approaches provide a unique insight into interdisciplinary teams on disability and assistive technology in education.
101
85335
Analysis of the Extreme Hydrometeorological Events in the Theorical Hydraulic Potential and Streamflow Forecast
Abstract:
The progressive change in climatic conditions worldwide has increased frequency and severity of extreme hydrometeorological events (EHE). Mexico is an example; this has been affected by the presence of EHE leaving economic, social and environmental losses. The objective of this research was to apply a Canadian distributed hydrological model (DHM) to tropical conditions and to evaluate its capacity to predict flows in a basin in the central Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the DHM (once calibrated and validated) was used to calculate the theoretical hydraulic power and the performance to predict streamflow before the presence of an EHE. The results of the DHM show that the goodness of fit indicators between the observed and simulated flows in the calibration process (NSE=0.83, RSR=0.021 and BIAS=-4.3) and validation: temporal was assessed at two points: point one (NSE=0.78, RSR=0.113 and BIAS=0.054) and point two (NSE=0.825, RSR=0.103 and BIAS=0.063) are satisfactory. The DHM showed its applicability in tropical environments and its ability to characterize the rainfall-runoff relationship in the study area. This work can serve as a tool for identifying vulnerabilities before floods and for the rational and sustainable management of water resources.
100
58083
Repairing Broken Trust: The Influence of Positive Induced Emotion and Gender
Abstract:
The role of incidental positive emotions and gender on people’s trust decisions have been established by existing research. The aim of this experiment is to address the gap in the literature by examining whether these factors will have a similar effect on trust behavior even after the experience of betrayal. A total of 144 undergraduate students participated in a trust game involving the anonymous interaction of a participant and a transgressor. Of these participants, only 125 (63 males and 62 females) were included in the data analyses. A story was used to prime incidental positive emotions or emotions originally unrelated to the trustee. Recovered trust was measured by relating the proportion of the money passed before and after betrayal. Data was analyzed using two-way analysis of variance having two levels for gender (male, female) and two for priming (with, without), with trust propensity scores entered as a covariate. It was predicted that trust recovery will be more apparent in females than in males but the data obtained was not significantly different between the genders. Induced positive emotions, however, had a statistically significant effect on trust behavior even after betrayal. No significant interaction effect was found between induced positive emotion and gender. The experiment provides evidence that the manipulation of situational variables, to a certain extent, can facilitate the reparation of trust.
99
100166
Mixed Effects Models for Short-Term Load Forecasting for the Spanish Regions: Castilla-Leon, Castilla-La Mancha and Andalucia
Abstract:
This paper focuses on an application of linear mixed models to short-term load forecasting. The challenge of this research is to improve a currently working model at the Spanish Transport System Operator, programmed by us, and based on linear autoregressive techniques and neural networks. The forecasting system currently forecasts each of the regions within the Spanish grid separately, even though the behavior of the load in each region is affected by the same factors in a similar way. A load forecasting system has been verified in this work by using the real data from a utility. In this research it has been used an integration of several regions into a linear mixed model as starting point to obtain the information from other regions. Firstly, the systems to learn general behaviors present in all regions, and secondly, it is identified individual deviation in each regions. The technique can be especially useful when modeling the effect of special days with scarce information from the past. The three most relevant regions of the system have been used to test the model, focusing on special day and improving the performance of both currently working models used as benchmark. A range of comparisons with different forecasting models has been conducted. The forecasting results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed methodology.
98
95743
Emotions in Health Tweets: Analysis of American Government Official Accounts
Abstract:
The Government Departments of Health have the task of informing and educating citizens about public health issues. For this, they use channels like Twitter, key in the search for health information and the propagation of content. The tweets, important in the virality of the content, may contain emotions that influence the contagion and exchange of knowledge. The goal of this study is to perform an analysis of the emotional projection of health information shared on Twitter by official American accounts: the disease control account CDCgov, National Institutes of Health, NIH, the government agency HHSGov, and the professional organization PublicHealth. For this, we used Tone Analyzer, an International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) tool specialized in emotion detection in text, corresponding to the categorical model of emotion representation. For 15 days, all tweets from these accounts were analyzed with the emotional analysis tool in text. The results showed that their tweets contain an important emotional load, a determining factor in the success of their communications. This exposes that official accounts also use subjective language and contain emotions. The predominance of emotion joy over sadness and the strong presence of emotions in their tweets stimulate the virality of content, a key in the work of informing that government health departments have.
97
39297
Breast Cancer Incidence Estimation in Castilla-La Mancha (CLM) from Mortality and Survival Data
Abstract:
Introduction: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in CLM. (2.8% of all deaths in women and 13,8% of deaths from tumors in womens). It is the most tumor incidence in CLM region with 26.1% from all tumours, except nonmelanoma skin (Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X, IARC). Cancer registries are a good information source to estimate cancer incidence, however the data are usually available with a lag which makes difficult their use for health managers. By contrast, mortality and survival statistics have less delay. In order to serve for resource planning and responding to this problem, a method is presented to estimate the incidence of mortality and survival data. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of breast cancer by age group in CLM in the period 1991-2013. Comparing the data obtained from the model with current incidence data. Sources: Annual number of women by single ages (National Statistics Institute). Annual number of deaths by all causes and breast cancer. (Mortality Registry CLM). The Breast cancer relative survival probability. (EUROCARE, Spanish registries data). Methods: A Weibull Parametric survival model from EUROCARE data is obtained. From the model of survival, the population and population data, Mortality and Incidence Analysis MODel (MIAMOD) regression model is obtained to estimate the incidence of cancer by age (1991-2013). Results: The resulting model is: Ix,t = Logit [const + age1*x + age2*x2 + coh1*(t – x) + coh2*(t-x)2] Where: Ix,t is the incidence at age x in the period (year) t; the value of the parameter estimates is: const (constant term in the model) = -7.03; age1 = 3.31; age2 = -1.10; coh1 = 0.61 and coh2 = -0.12. It is estimated that in 1991 were diagnosed in CLM 662 cases of breast cancer (81.51 per 100,000 women). An estimated 1,152 cases (112.41 per 100,000 women) were diagnosed in 2013, representing an increase of 40.7% in gross incidence rate (1.9% per year). The annual average increases in incidence by age were: 2.07% in women aged 25-44 years, 1.01% (45-54 years), 1.11% (55-64 years) and 1.24% (65-74 years). Cancer registries in Spain that send data to IARC declared 2003-2007 the average annual incidence rate of 98.6 cases per 100,000 women. Our model can obtain an incidence of 100.7 cases per 100,000 women. Conclusions: A sharp and steady increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the period 1991-2013 is observed. The increase was seen in all age groups considered, although it seems more pronounced in young women (25-44 years). With this method you can get a good estimation of the incidence.
96
82302
Microstructure Analysis of Biopolymer Mixture (Chia-Gelatin) by Laser Confocal Microscopy
Abstract:
The usual procedure to investigate the properties of biodegradable films has been to prepare the film, measure the mechanical or transport properties and then decide whether the mixture has better properties than the individual components, instead of investigating whether the mixture has biopolymer-biopolymer interaction, then prepare the film and finally measure the properties of the film. The work investigates the presence of interaction biopolymer-biopolymer in a mixture of chia biopolymer and gelatin using Laser Confocal Microscopy (LCM). Previously, the chia biopolymer was obtained from chia seed. CML analysis of mixtures of chia biopolymer-gelatin without Na⁺ ions exhibited aggregates of different size, in the range of 100-400 μm, of defined color, for the two colors, but no mixing of color was observed. The increased of gelatin in the mixture decreases the size and number of aggregates. The tridimensional microstructure reveled that there are two layers of biopolymers, chia and gelatin well defined. The mixture chia biopolymer-gelatin with 10 mM Na⁺ and with a ratio 75:25 (chia-gelatin) showed lower aggregated size than others mixture with and without ions. This result could be explained because the chia biopolymer is a polyelectrolyte and the added sodium ions reduce the molecular rigidity by neutralizing the negative charges that the chia biopolymer possesses and therefore a better biopolymer-biopolymer interaction is allowed between the biopolymer of chia and gelatin.
95
45741
Effects of Process Parameter Variation on the Surface Roughness of Rapid Prototyped Samples Using Design of Experiments
Abstract:
Rapid prototyping (RP) is an additive manufacturing technology used in industry that works by systematically depositing layers of working material to construct larger, computer-modeled parts. A key challenge associated with this technology is that RP parts often feature undesirable levels of surface roughness for certain applications. To combat this phenomenon, an experimental technique called Design of Experiments (DOE) can be employed during the growth procedure to statistically analyze which RP growth parameters are most influential to part surface roughness. Utilizing DOE to identify such factors is important because it is a technique that can be used to optimize a manufacturing process, which saves time, money, and increases product quality. In this study, a four-factor/two level DOE experiment was performed to investigate the effect of temperature, layer thickness, infill percentage, and infill speed on the surface roughness of RP prototypes. Samples were grown using the sixteen different possible growth combinations associated with a four-factor/two level study, and then the surface roughness data was gathered for each set of factors. After applying DOE statistical analysis to these data, it was determined that layer thickness played the most significant role in the prototype surface roughness.
94
25054
Thermal Behavior of a Ventilated Façade Using Perforated Ceramic Bricks
Abstract:
The ventilated façade has great advantages when compared to traditional façades as it reduces the air conditioning thermal loads due to the stack effect induced by solar radiation in the air chamber. Optimizing energy consumption by using a ventilated façade can be used not only in newly built buildings but also it can be implemented in existing buildings, opening the field of implementation to energy building retrofitting works. In this sense, the following three prototypes of façade where designed, built and further analyzed in this research: non-ventilated façade (NVF); slightly ventilated façade (SLVF) and strongly ventilated façade (STVF). The construction characteristics of the three facades are based on the Spanish regulation of building construction “Technical Building Code”. The façades have been monitored by type-k thermocouples in a representative day of the summer season in Madrid (Spain). Moreover, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, studying the thermal lag in the ventilated and no-ventilated façades has been designed. Results show that STVF façade presents higher levels of thermal inertia as the thermal lag reduces up to 100% (daily mean) compared to the non-ventilated façade. In addition, the statistical analysis proves that an increase of the ventilation holes size in STVF façades does not improve the thermal lag significantly (p > 0.05) when compared to the SLVF façade.
93
72743
A First Step towards Automatic Evolutionary for Gas Lifts Allocation Optimization
Abstract:
Oil production by means of gas lift is a standard technique in oil production industry. To optimize the total amount of oil production in terms of the amount of gas injected is a key question in this domain. Different methods have been tested to propose a general methodology. Many of them apply well-known numerical methods. Some of them have taken into account the power of evolutionary approaches. Our goal is to provide the experts of the domain with a powerful automatic searching engine into which they can introduce their knowledge in a format close to the one used in their domain, and get solutions comprehensible in the same terms, as well. These proposals introduced in the genetic engine the most expressive formal models to represent the solutions to the problem. These algorithms have proven to be as effective as other genetic systems but more flexible and comfortable for the researcher although they usually require huge search spaces to justify their use due to the computational resources involved in the formal models. The first step to evaluate the viability of applying our approaches to this realm is to fully understand the domain and to select an instance of the problem (gas lift optimization) in which applying genetic approaches could seem promising. After analyzing the state of the art of this topic, we have decided to choose a previous work from the literature that faces the problem by means of numerical methods. This contribution includes details enough to be reproduced and complete data to be carefully analyzed. We have designed a classical, simple genetic algorithm just to try to get the same results and to understand the problem in depth. We could easily incorporate the well mathematical model, and the well data used by the authors and easily translate their mathematical model, to be numerically optimized, into a proper fitness function. We have analyzed the 100 curves they use in their experiment, similar results were observed, in addition, our system has automatically inferred an optimum total amount of injected gas for the field compatible with the addition of the optimum gas injected in each well by them. We have identified several constraints that could be interesting to incorporate to the optimization process but that could be difficult to numerically express. It could be interesting to automatically propose other mathematical models to fit both, individual well curves and also the behaviour of the complete field. All these facts and conclusions justify continuing exploring the viability of applying the approaches more sophisticated previously proposed by our research group.
92
2074
Genome-Wide Isoform Specific KDM5A/JARID1A/RBP2 Location Analysis Reveals Contribution of Chromatin-Interacting PHD Domain in Protein Recruitment to Binding Sites
Abstract:
RBP2 has shown to be important for cell differentiation control through epigenetic mechanism. The main aim of the present study is genome-wide location analysis of human RBP2 isoforms that differ in a histone-binding domain by ChIPseq. It is conceivable that the larger isoform (LI) of RBP2, which contains a specific H3K4me3 interacting domain, differs from the smaller isoform (SI) in genomic location, may account for the observed diversity in RBP2 function. To distinguish the two RBP2 isoforms, we used the fact that the SI lacks the C-terminal PHD domain and hence used the antibodies detecting both RBP2 isoforms (AI) through a common central domain, and the antibodies detecting only LI but not SI, through a C-terminal PHD domain. Overall our analysis suggests that RBP2 occupies about 77 nucleotides and binds GC rich motifs of active genes, does not bind to centromere, telomere, or enhancer regions, and binding sites are conserved compare to random. A striking difference between the only-SI and only-LI is that a large number of only-SI peaks are located in CpG islands and close to TSS compared to only-LI peaks. Enrichment analysis of the related genes indicates that several oncogenic pathways and metabolic pathways/processes are significantly enriched among only-SI/AI targets, but not LI/only-LI peak’s targets.
91
36337
The Influence of Water on the Properties of Cellulose Fibre Insulation
Abstract:
Cellulose fibre insulation is an eco-friendly building material made from recycled paper fibres, treated with borates for fungal and fire resistance. It is comparable in terms of thermal and acoustic performance to mineral wool insulation and other insulation materials based on non-renewable resources. The main method of application consists in separating and blowing the fibres in attics or closed wall cavities. Another method, known as the “wet spray method” is gaining interest. With this method the fibres are projected with pulverized water, which stick to the wall cavities. The issue with the wet spray technique is that the water dosage could be difficult to control. A high water dosage implies not only a longer drying time, depending on ambient conditions, but also a change in the performance of the material itself. In our work we studied the thermal and mechanical properties of wet spray-cellulose insulation in order to understand how water dosage could affect these properties. The material was first characterized to study the chemical and physical properties of the fibres. Then representative samples of wet sprayed cellulose with varying applied water dosage were subject to thermal conductivity and compression testing in order to better understand how changes in the fibres induced by drying can affect these properties.
90
90054
Effective Validation Model and Use of Mobile-Health Apps for Elderly People
Abstract:
The controversy brought about by the increasing use of mHealth apps and their effectiveness for disease prevention and diagnosis calls for immediate control. Although a critical topic in research areas such as medicine, engineering, economics, among others, this issue lacks reliable implementation models. However, projects such as Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) and various studies have helped to create useful and reliable apps. This research is conducted under a quality model to optimize two mHealth apps for older adults. Results analysis on the use of two physical activity monitoring apps - AcTiv (physical activity) and SMCa (energy expenditure) - is positive and ideal. Through a theoretical and practical analysis, precision calculations and personal information control of older adults for disease prevention and diagnosis were performed. Finally, apps are validated by a physician and, as a result, they may be used as health monitoring tools in physical performance centers or any other physical activity. The results obtained provide an effective validation model for this type of mobile apps, which, in turn, may be applied by other software developers that along with medical staff would offer digital healthcare tools for elderly people.
89
4912
Refractory Cardiac Arrest: Do We Go beyond, Do We Increase the Organ Donation Pool or Both?
Abstract:
Background: Spain and other European countries have implemented Uncontrolled Donation after Cardiac Death (uDCD) programs. After 15 years of experience in Spain, many things have changed. Recent evidence and technical breakthroughs achieved in resuscitation are relevant for uDCD programs and raise some ethical concerns related to these protocols. Aim: To rethink current uDCD programs in the light of recent evidence on available therapeutic procedures applicable to victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). To address the following question: What is the current standard of treatment owed to victims of OHCA before including them in an uDCD protocol? Materials and Methods: Review of the scientific and ethical literature related to both uDCD programs and innovative resuscitation techniques. Results: 1) The standard of treatment received and the chances of survival of victims of OHCA depend on whether they are classified as Non-Heart Beating Patients (NHBP) or Non-Heart-Beating-Donors (NHBD). 2) Recent studies suggest that NHBPs are likely to survive, with good quality of life, if one or more of the following interventions are performed while ongoing CPR -guided by suspected or known cause of OHCA- is maintained: a) direct access to a Cath Lab-H24 or/and to extra-corporeal life support (ECLS); b) transfer in induced hypothermia from the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) to the ICU; c) thrombolysis treatment; d) mobile extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (mini ECMO) instituted as a bridge to ICU ECLS devices. 3) Victims of OHCA who cannot benefit from any of these therapies should be considered as NHBDs. Conclusion: Current uDCD protocols do not take into account recent improvements in resuscitation and need to be adapted. Operational criteria to distinguish NHBDs from NHBP should seek a balance between the technical imperative (to do whatever is possible), considerations about expected survival with quality of life, and distributive justice (costs/benefits). Uncontrolled DCD protocols can be performed in a way that does not hamper the legitimate interests of patients, potential organ donors, their families, the organ recipients, and the health professionals involved in these processes. Families of NHBDs’ should receive information which conforms to the ethical principles of respect of autonomy and transparency.
88
69215
The Role of Digital Text in School and Vernacular Literacies: Students Digital Practices at Cybercafés in Mexico
Abstract:
Students of all educational levels participate in literacy practices that may involve print or digital media. Scholars from the New Literacy Studies distinguish practices that fulfill institutional purposes such as those established at schools from literate practices aimed at doing other kinds of activities, such as reading instructions in order to play a video game; the first are known as institutional practices while the latter are considered vernacular literacies. When students perform these kinds of activities they engage with print and digital media according to the demands of the task. In this paper, it is aimed to discuss the results of a research project focusing on literacy practices of high school students at 10 urban cybercafés in Mexico. The main objective was to analyze the literacy practices of students performing both school tasks and vernacular literacies. The methodology included a focused ethnography with online and face to face observations of 10 high school students (5 male and 5 female) and interviews after performing each task. In the results, it is presented how students treat texts as open, dynamic and relational artifacts when engaging in vernacular literacies; while texts are conceived as closed, authoritarian and fixed documents when performing school activities. Samples of each type of activity are shown followed by a discussion of the pedagogical implications for improving school literacy.
87
98350
Risk Propagation in Electricity Markets: Measuring the Asymmetric Transmission of Downside and Upside Risks in Energy Prices
Abstract:
An empirical study of market risk transmission between electricity prices in the Nord Pool interconnected market is done. Crucially, it is differentiated between risk propagation in the two tails of the price variation distribution. Thus, the downside risk from upside risk spillovers is distinguished. The results found document an asymmetric nature of risk and risk propagation in the two tails of the electricity price log variations. Risk spillovers following price increments in the market are transmitted to a larger extent than those after price reductions. Also, asymmetries related to both, the size of the transaction area and related to whether a given area behaves as a net-exporter or net-importer of electricity, are documented. For instance, on the one hand, the bigger the area of the transaction, the smaller the size of the volatility shocks that it receives. On the other hand, exporters of electricity, alongside countries with a significant dependence on renewable sources, tend to be net-transmitters of volatility to the rest of the system. Additionally, insights on the predictive power of positive and negative semivariances for future market volatility are provided. It is shown that depending on the forecasting horizon, downside and upside shocks to the market are featured by a distinctive persistence, and that upside volatility impacts more on net-importers of electricity, while the opposite holds for net-exporters.
86
76356
Extraction and Quantification of Peramine Present in Dalaca pallens, a Pest of Grassland in Southtern Chile
Abstract:
Control of Dalaca pallens or blackworms, one of the most important hypogeous pest in grassland in southern Chile, is based on the use of broad-spectrum insecticides such as organophosphates and pyrethroids. However, the rapid development of insecticide resistance in field populations of this insect and public concern over the environmental impact of these insecticides has resulted in the search for other control methods. Specifically, the use of endophyte fungi for controlling pest has emerged as an interesting and promising strategy. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces alkaloids where peramine is the main toxic substance against Listronotus bonariensis, the most important epigean pest of ryegrass. Nevertheless, the effect of peramina on others pest insects, such as D. pallens, to our knowledge has not been studied, and also its possible metabolization in the body of the larvae. Therefore, we addressed the following research question: Do larvae of D. pallens store peramine after consumption of ryegrass endophyte infected (E+)? For this, specimens of blackworms were fed with ryegrass plant of seven experimental lines and one commercial cultivar endophyte free (E-) sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carillanca (Vilcún, Chile). Once the feeding period was over, ten larvae of each treatment were examined. Individuals were dissected, and their gut was removed to exclude any influence of remaining material. The rest of the larva's body was dried at 60°C by 24-48 h and ground into a fine powder using a mortar. 25 mg of dry powder was transferred to a microcentrifuge tube and extracted in 1 mL of a mixture of methanol:water:formic acid. Then, the samples were centrifuged at 16,000 rpm for 3 min, and the supernatant was colected and injected in the liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results confirmed the presence of peramine in the larva's body of D. pallens. The insects that fed the experimental lines LQE-2 and LQE-6 were those where peramine was present in high proportion (0.205 and 0.199 ppm, respectively); while LQE-7 and LQE-3 obtained the lowest concentrations of the alkaloid (0.047 and 0.053 ppm, respectively). Peramine was not detected in the insects when the control cultivar Jumbo (E-) was tested. These results evidenced the storage and metabolism of peramine during consumption of the larvae. However, the effect of this alkaloid present in 'future ryegrass cultivars' (LQE-2 and LQE-6) on the performance and survival of blackworms must be studied and confirmed experimentally.
85
18812
How to Improve the Environmental Performance in a HEI in Mexico, an EEA Adaptation
Abstract:
This research work presents a proposal to evaluate the environmental performance of a Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Mexico in order to minimize their environmental impact. Given that public education has limited financial resources, it is necessary to conduct studies that support priorities in decision-making situations and thus obtain the best cost-benefit ratio of continuous improvement programs as part of the environmental management system implemented. The methodology employed, adapted from the Environmental Effect Analysis (EEA), weighs the environmental aspects identified in the environmental diagnosis by two characteristics. Number one, environmental priority through the perception of the stakeholders, compliance of legal requirements, and environmental impact of operations. Number two, the possibility of improvement, which depends of factors such as the exchange rate that will be made, the level of investment and the return time of it. The highest environmental priorities, or hot spots, identified in this evaluation were: electricity consumption, water consumption and recycling, and disposal of municipal solid waste. However, the possibility of improvement for the disposal of municipal solid waste is higher, followed by water consumption and recycling, in spite of having an equal possibility of improvement to the energy consumption, time of return and cost-benefit is much greater.
84
65385
Closed Greenhouse Production Systems for Smart Plant Production in Urban Areas
Abstract:
The integration of agricultural production systems into urban areas is a challenge for the coming decades. Because of increasing greenhouse gas emission and rising resource consumption as well as costs in animal husbandry, the dietary habits of people in the 21st century have to focus on herbal foods. Intensive plant cultivation systems in large cities and megacities require a smart coupling of information, material and energy flow with the urban infrastructure in terms of Horticulture 4.0. In recent years, many puzzle pieces have been developed for these closed processes at the Humboldt University. To compile these for an urban plant production, it has to be optimized and networked with urban infrastructure systems. In the field of heat energy production, it was shown that with closed greenhouse technology and patented heat exchange and storage technology energy can be provided for heating and domestic hot water supply in the city. Closed water circuits can be drastically reducing the water requirements of plant production in urban areas. Ion sensitive sensors and new disinfection methods can help keep circulating nutrient solutions in the system for a longer time in urban plant production greenhouses.
83
56402
Photovoltaic-Driven Thermochemical Storage for Cooling Applications to Be Integrated in Polynesian Microgrids: Concept and Efficiency Study
Abstract:
The energy situation in tropical insular regions, as found in the French Polynesian islands, presents a number of challenges, such as high dependence on imported fuel, high transport costs from the mainland and weak electricity grids. Alternatively, these regions have a variety of renewable energy resources, which favor the exploitation of smart microgrids and energy storage technologies. With regards to the electrical energy demand, the high temperatures in these regions during the entire year implies that a large proportion of consumption is used for cooling buildings, even during the evening hours. In this context, this paper presents an air conditioning system driven by photovoltaic (PV) electricity that combines a refrigeration system and a thermochemical storage process. Thermochemical processes are able to store energy in the form of chemical potential with virtually no losses, and this energy can be used to produce cooling during the evening hours without the need to run a compressor (thus no electricity is required). Such storage processes implement thermochemical reactors in which a reversible chemical reaction between a solid compound and a gas takes place. The solid/gas pair used in this study is BaCl2 reacting with ammonia (NH3), which is also the coolant fluid in the refrigeration circuit. In the proposed system, the PV-driven electric compressor is used during the daytime either to run the refrigeration circuit when a cooling demand occurs or to decompose the ammonia-charged salt and remove the gas from thermochemical reactor when no cooling is needed. During the evening, when there is no electricity from solar source, the system changes its configuration and the reactor reabsorbs the ammonia gas from the evaporator and produces the cooling effect. In comparison to classical PV-driven air conditioning units equipped with electrochemical batteries (e.g. Pb, Li-ion), the proposed system has the advantage of having a novel storage technology with a much longer charge/discharge life cycle, and no self-discharge. It also allows a continuous operation of the electric compressor during the daytime, thus avoiding the problems associated with the on-off cycling. This work focuses on the system concept and on the efficiency study of its main components. It also compares the thermochemical with electrochemical storage as well as with other forms of thermal storage, such as latent (ice) and sensible heat (chilled water). The preliminary results show that the system seems to be a promising alternative to simultaneously fulfill cooling and energy storage needs in tropical insular regions.
82
83804
Road Traffic Accidents Analysis in Mexico City through Crowdsourcing Data and Data Mining Techniques
Abstract:
Road traffic accidents are among the principal causes of traffic congestion, causing human losses, damages to health and the environment, economic losses and material damages. Studies about traditional road traffic accidents in urban zones represents very high inversion of time and money, additionally, the result are not current. However, nowadays in many countries, the crowdsourced GPS based traffic and navigation apps have emerged as an important source of information to low cost to studies of road traffic accidents and urban congestion caused by them. In this article we identified the zones, roads and specific time in the CDMX in which the largest number of road traffic accidents are concentrated during 2016. We built a database compiling information obtained from the social network known as Waze. The methodology employed was Discovery of knowledge in the database (KDD) for the discovery of patterns in the accidents reports. Furthermore, using data mining techniques with the help of Weka. The selected algorithms was the Maximization of Expectations (EM) to obtain the number ideal of clusters for the data and k-means as a grouping method. Finally, the results were visualized with the Geographic Information System QGIS.
81
96877
Road Traffic Accidents Analysis in Mexico City through Crowdsourcing Data and Data Mining Techniques
Abstract:
Road traffic accidents are among the principal causes of traffic congestion, causing human losses, damages to health and the environment, economic losses and material damages. Studies about traditional road traffic accidents in urban zones represent very high inversion of time and money; additionally, the results are not current. However, nowadays in many countries, the crowdsourced GPS based traffic and navigation apps have emerged as an important source of information to low cost to studies of road traffic accidents and urban congestion caused by them. In this article, we identified the zones, roads and specific time in the CDMX in which the largest number of road traffic accidents are concentrated during 2016. We built a database compiling information obtained from the social network known as Waze. The methodology employed was Discovery of knowledge in the database (KDD) for the discovery of patterns in the accidents reports. Furthermore, using data mining techniques with the help of Weka. The selected algorithms were the Maximization of Expectations (EM) to obtain the number ideal of clusters for the data and k-means as a grouping method. Finally, the results were visualized with the Geographic Information System QGIS.
80
62823
Elaboration and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Edible Films Made from Chitosan and Spray Dried Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis
Abstract:
It was necessary to establish which formulation is suitable for the preservation of aquaculture products, that why edible films were made. These were to a characterization in order to meet their morphology physicochemical and mechanical properties, optical. Six Formulations of chitosan and propolis ethanolic extract encapsulated were developed because of their activity against pathogens and due to their properties, which allows the creation waterproof polymer networks against gasses, vapor, and physical damage. In the six Formulations, the concentration of comparison material (1% w/v, 2% pv) and the bioactive concentrations (0.5% w/v, 1% w/v, 1.5% pv) were changed and the results obtained were compared with statistical and multivariate analysis methods. It was observed that the matrices showed a mayor impermeability and thickness control samples and the samples reported in the literature. Also, these films showed a notorious uniformity of the films and a bigger resistance to the physical damage compared with other edible films made of other biopolymers. However the action of some compounds had a negative effect on the mechanical properties and changed drastically the optical properties, the bioactive has an effect on Polymer Matrix and it was determined that the films with 2% w / v of chitosan and 1.5% w/v encapsulated, exhibited the best properties and suffered to a lesser extent the negative impact of immiscible substances.
79
24083
Structural Assessment of Low-Rise Reinforced Concrete Frames under Tsunami Loads
Abstract:
This study examines the effect of tsunami loads on reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings analytically. The impact of tsunami wave loads and waterborne objects are analyzed using a typical substandard full-scale two-story RC frame building tested as part of the EU-funded Ecoleader project. The building was subjected to shake table tests in bare condition and subsequently strengthened using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites and retested. Numerical models of the building in both bare and CFRP-strengthened conditions are calibrated in DRAIN-3DX software to match the test results. To investigate the response of wave loads and impact forces, the numerical models are subjected to nonlinear dynamic analyses using force-time history input records. The analytical results are compared in terms of displacements at the floors and the 'impact point' of a boat. The results show that the roof displacement of the CFRP-strengthened building reduced by 63% when compared to the bare building. The results also indicate that strengthening only the mid-height of the impact column using CFRP is more efficient at reducing damage when compared to strengthening other parts of the column. Alternative solutions to mitigate damage due to tsunami loads are suggested.
78
112426
Effect of Self-Lubricating Carbon Materials on the Tribological Performance of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
Abstract:
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the gold standard material for total knee replacements for almost five decades. Wear damage to UHMWPE articulating surface is inevitable due to the natural sliding and rolling movements of the knee. This generates a considerable amount of wear debris, which results in mechanical instability of the joint, reduces joint mobility, increases pain with detrimental biologic responses, and causes component loosening. The presence of wear particles has been closely related to adverse reactions in the knee joint surrounding tissue, especially for particles in the range of 0.3 to 2 μm. Carbon-based materials possess excellent mechanical properties and have shown great promise in tribological applications. In this study, diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to decrease the wear rate of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. A titanium doped DLC (Ti-DLC) was deposited by magnetron sputtering on stainless steel precision spheres while CNTs were used as a second phase reinforcement in UHMWPE at a concentration of 1.25 wt.%. A comparative tribological analysis of the wear of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-CNTs with a stainless steel counterpart with and without Ti-DLC coating is presented. The experimental wear testing was performed on a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry conditions, using a reciprocating movement with a load of 1 N at a frequency of 2 Hz for 100,000 and 200,000 cycles. The wear tracks were analyzed with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to determine wear modes and observe the size and shape of the wear debris. Furthermore, profilometry was used to study the depth of the wear tracks and to map the wear of the articulating surface. The wear tracks at 100,000 and 200,000 cycles on all samples were relatively shallow, and they were in the range of average roughness. It was observed that the Ti-DLC coating decreases the mass loss in the UHMWPE and the depth of the wear track. The combination of both carbon-based materials decreased the material loss compared to the system of stainless steel and UHMWPE. Burnishing of the surface was the predominant wear mode observed with all the systems, more subtle for the systems with Ti-DLC coatings. Meanwhile, in the system composed of stainless steel-UHMWPE, the intrinsic surface roughness of the material was completely replaced by the wear tracks.
77
118723
Research Methods and Design Strategies to Improve Resilience in Coastal and Estuary Cities
Abstract:
Delta and estuary cities are spaces constantly evolving, incessantly altered by the ever-changing actions of water transformation. Strategies that incorporate comprehensive and integrated approaches to planning and design with water will play a powerful role in defining new types of flood defense. These strategies will encourage more resilient and active urban environments, allowing for new spatial and functional programs. This abstract presents the undergoing research in Newcastle, the first urbanized delta in New South Wales (Australia), and the region's second-biggest catchment and estuary. The research methodology is organized in three phases: 1) a projective cartography that analyses maps and data across the region's recorded history, identifying past and present constraints, and predicting future conditions. The cartography aids to identify worst-case scenarios, revealing the implications of land reclamation that have not considered the confronting evolution of climate change and its conflicts with inhabitation; 2) the cartographic studies identify the areas under threat and form the basis for further interdisciplinary research, complimented by community consultation, to reduce flood risk and increase urban resilience and livability; 3) a speculative or prospective phase of design with water to generate evidence-based guidelines that strengthen urban resilience of shorelines and flood prone areas.
76
38097
The Effect of the Cultural Constraint on the Reform of Corporate Governance: The Observation of Taiwan's Efforts to Transform Its Corporate Governance
Abstract:
Under the theory of La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer, and Vishny, if a country can increase its legal protections for minority shareholders, the country can develop an ideal securities market that only arises under the dispersed ownership corporate governance. However, the path-dependence scholarship, such as Lucian Arye Bebchuk and Mark J. Roe, presented a different view with LLS&V. They pointed out that the initial framework of the ownership structure and traditional culture will prevent the change of the corporate governance structure through legal reform. This paper contends that traditional culture factors as an important aspect when forming the corporate governance structure. However, it is not impossible for the government to change its traditional corporate governance structure and traditional culture because the culture does not remain intact. Culture evolves with time. The occurrence of the important events will affect the people’s psychological process. The psychological process affects the evolution of culture. The new cultural norms can help defeat the force of the traditional culture and the resistance from the initial corporate ownership structure. Using Taiwan as an example, through analyzing the historical background, related corporate rules and the reactions of adoption new rules from the media, this paper try to show that Taiwan’s culture norms do not remain intact and have changed with time. It further provides that the culture is not always the hurdle for the adoption of the dispersed ownership corporate governance structure as the culture can change. A new culture can provide strong support for the adoption of the new corporate governance structure.
75
91471
Microstructural Characterization of Creep Damage Evolution in Welded Inconel 600 Superalloy
Abstract:
Superalloys are used in components that operate at high temperatures such as pressure vessels and heat exchanger tubing. Design standards for these components must consider creep resistance among other criteria. Fusion welding processes are commonly used in the industry to join such components. Fusion processes commonly generate three distinctive zones, i.e. heat affected zone (HAZ), namely weld metal (WM) and base metal (BM). In nickel-based superalloy, the microstructure developed during fusion welding dictates the mechanical response of the welded component and it is very important to establish these effects in the mechanical response of the component. In this work, two plates of Inconel 600 superalloy were Gas Metal Arc Welded (GMAW). Creep samples were cut and milled to specifications and creep tested at a temperature (650 °C) using stress level of 350, 300, 275, 250 and 200 MPa. Microstructural analysis results showed a progressive creep damage evolution that depends on the stress levels with a preferential accumulation of creep damage at the heat affected zone where the creep rupture preferentially occurs owing to an austenitic matrix with grain boundary precipitated of the type Cr23C6. The fractured surfaces showed dimple patterns of cavity and voids. Results indicated that the damage mechanism is due to cavity growth by the combined effect of the power law and diffusion creep.
74
85959
The Combination of Curcuma Extract and IgG Colostrum on Strongyloides Infection in CD1 Mice
Abstract:
The threat of pathogen infection agents to the neonates is a major health problem to the new born life livestock. Neonate losses became an important case in the world as well as in Indonesia. This condition can be triggered by an infection with nematode in conjunction with a failure of immunoglobulin passive transfer. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of the curcuma combined with IgG colostrum on the development of parasites in the gut of CD1 mice. Animal experiments were divided in four groups (G) based on the treatment: G1 (infection only); G2 (curcuma+infection), G3 (IgG + infection) and G4 (curcuma+IgG+infection). The parameters measured were EPG (eggs per gram) and female in the intestine. The results obtained showed that the treatment has no a significant influence on the number of eggs per gram of feces in the group infected compared to the control group without receiving IgG nor curcuma. However, the EGP response tended to decrease at day 6 in G3 and G4 with a minimum number at zero eggs. This performant showed that the immunoglobulin-G and curcuma substances could slightly decreased the number of eggs in animal infected with Strongyloides. The results obtained showed also that the treatment has no significant difference (P > 0.05) on female larva in the gut of MCD1 experimental. In other side, we found that the best performance to inhibit the female quantity in the gut was the treatment with IgG and infection of parasite in G3. In this treatment, the minimum number was five female only in the gut. The results described IgG response was better than the curcuma single use in reducing the female parasite in the gut. This positive response of IgG compared to other controls group was associated with the function of colostrum antibodies.
73
135540
Functional Yoghurt Enriched with Microencapsulated Olive Leaves Extract Powder Using Polycaprolactone via Double Emulsion/Solvent Evaporation Technique
Abstract:
Olive leaves (OLs), the main by-product of the olive oil industry, have a considerable amount of phenolic compounds. The exploitation of these compounds represents the current trend in food processing. In this study, OLs polyphenols were microencapsulated with polycaprolactone (PCL) and utilized in formulating novel functional yoghurt. PCL-microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Their total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS), and polyphenols bioaccessibility were measured after oral, gastric, and intestinal steps of in vitro digestion. The four yoghurt formulations (containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mg of PCL-microsphere/100g yoghurt) were evaluated for their pH, acidity, syneresis viscosity, and color during storage. In vitro digestion significantly affected the phenolic composition in non-encapsulated extract while had a lower impact on encapsulated phenolics. Higher protection was provided for encapsulated OLs extract, and their higher release was observed at the intestinal phase. Yoghurt with PCL-microsphere had lower viscosity, syneresis, and color parameters, as compared to control yoghurt. Thus, OLs represent a valuable and cheap source of polyphenols which can be successfully applied, in microencapsulated form, to formulate functional yoghurt.
72
56448
Physicochemical and Sensorial Evaluation of Astringency Reduction in Cashew Apple (Annacardium occidentale L.) Powder Processing in Cookie Elaboration
Abstract:
Cashew agroindustry obtained from cashew apple crop (Anacardium occidentale L.) generates large amounts of unused waste in Campeche, Mexico. Despite having a high content of nutritional compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, fiber, carbohydrates, and minerals, it is not consumed due to its astringent sensation. The aim of this work was to develop a processing method for cashew apple waste in order to obtain a powder with reduced astringency able to be used as an additive in the food industry. The processing method consisted first in reducing astringency by inducing tannins from cashew apple peel to react and form precipitating complexes with a colloid rich in proline and histidine. Then cashew apples were processed to obtain a dry powder. Astringency reduction was determined by total phenolic content and evaluated by sensorial analysis in cashew-apple-powder based cookies. Total phenolic content in processed powders showed up to 72% lower concentration compared to control samples. The sensorial evaluation indicated that cookies baked using cashew apple powder with reduced astringency were 96.8% preferred. Sensorial characteristics like texture, color and taste were also well-accepted attributes. In conclusion, the method applied for astringency reduction is a viable tool to produce cashew apple powder with desirable sensorial properties to be used in the development of food products.
71
67434
Evaluation of Toxic Metals in Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Central Mexico
Abstract:
Valsequillo reservoir located in Puebla City, Central Mexico receives water from the Atoyac River (Northwest) and from Alseseca River in the north. It has been the receptacle of municipal and industrial wastes for the past few decades affecting the water quality lethally. As a result, there is an outburst of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) in the reservoir occupying around 50 % of the total area. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the concentration levels of toxic metals (Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As) in the water hyacinths and the ambient waters during the dry season. Fourteen water samples and three water hyacinth samples were procured from the Valsequillo reservoir. The collected samples of water hyacinth (roots, rhizome, stems and leaves) were analyzed using an Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) Ultramass 700 (Varian Inc.) to determine the metal levels. Results showed that water hyacinth presented an exhaustion in metal capture from the inlet to outlet of the reservoir. The maximum bioaccumulation factors (BF) of Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As were 5000, 47474, 4929, 17090 and 74000 respectively. On the other hand, the maximum Translocation Factor (TF) of 0.85 was observed in Zn, whilst Co presented the minimum TF of 0.059. Thus, the results presented the fact that water hyacinth in Valsequillo reservoir proves to be an important environmental utility for efficiently accumulating and translocating heavy metals from the ambient waters to its organelles (stems and leaves).
70
28023
Association of Gln223Arg Polymorphism of Gene LEPR, Levels of Leptin and Nourishing Habits in Mexican Adolescents with Morbid Obesity
Abstract:
Background: Mexico occupies the second world-wide place of morbid obese people (10- 12 million). Factors that predispose the development of MO are genetic, environmental, physiological, psycho-social and behavioral (nourishing habits). Objective: Associate Gln223Arg polymorphism of gene LEPR, levels of leptina and nourishing habits with the presence of morbid obesity in adolescents of the south of Jalisco (México). Methods: In 41 adolescents (18 normal weight and 23 morbid obesity) of 12 to 19 years of age, both sexes that were measure size and weight with tanita scale and stadimeter to determine IMC. Morbid obesity was determined by tables of the WHO and was established with a standard deviation >3. The Gln223Arg polymorphism have been identify by PCR and leptina levels by ELISA. Nourishing habits were evaluate by the questionnaire the Adolescent Food Habits Checklist. The statistical analysis was performed to compare mean scores obtained from the questionnaire when we compare morbid obesity vs. normal weight adolescents with p=0.03 and a significance of 95%. Results: frequencies alellics and genics were not stadistics significatives p= 0,011 and p=0,279 respectly when were compared between normal weight adolescents and morbib obesity Leptin levels and nourishing habits were associated with morbid obesity. The polymorphism not shown significance with morbid obesity. Conclusions: Dietary habits and leptin levels in adolescents are important factor that predisposes the development of obesity in adolescents. The presence of the polymorphism are not associated with morbid obesity in these subjects.
69
25393
Taking the Whole Picture to Your Supply Chain; Customers Will Take Selfies When Expectations Are Met
Abstract:
Strategic performance definition and follow-up processes have to be clear in order to provide value in today’s competitive world. Customer expectations must be linked to internal organization strategic objectives leading to profitability and supported by visibility and flexibility among others.By taking a whole picture of the supply chain, the executive, and its team will define the current supply chain situation and an insight into potential opportunities to improve processes and provide value to main stakeholders. A systematic performance evaluation process based on operational and financial indicators defined by customer requirements needs to be implemented and periodically reviewed in order to mitigate costs and risks on time.Supplier long term relationship and collaboration plays a key role using resources available, real-time communication, innovation and new ways to capitalize global opportunities like emerging markets; efforts have to focus on the reduction of uncertainties in supply and demand. Leadership has to promote consistency of communication and execution involving suppliers, customers, and the entire organization through the support of a strategic sourcing methodology that assure the targeted competitive strategy and sustainable growth. As customer requirements and expectations are met, results could be captured in a casual picture like a “selfie”; where outcomes could be perceived from any desired angle by them; or like most “selfies”, can be taken with a camera held at arm's length by a third party company rather than using a self-timer.
68
18109
Sludge and Compost Amendments in Tropical Soils: Impact on Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Nutrient Content
Abstract:
Degradation of agricultural soils has increased rapidly during the last 20 years due to the indiscriminate use of pesticides and other anthropogenic activities. Currently, there is an urgent need of soil restoration to increase agricultural production. Utilization of sewage sludge or municipal solid waste is an important way to recycle nutrient elements and improve soil quality. With these amendments, nutrient availability in the aqueous phase might be increased and production of healthier crops can be accomplished. This research project aimed to achieve sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils, specifically in Puerto Rico, through the amendment of water treatment plant sludge’s. This practice avoids landfill disposal of sewage sludge and at the same time results cost-effective practice for recycling solid waste residues. Coriander sativum was cultivated in a compost-soil-sludge mixture at different proportions. Results showed that Coriander grown in a mixture of 25% compost+50% Voladora soi+25% sludge had the best growth and development. High chlorophyll content (33.01 ± 0.8) was observed in Coriander plants cultivated in 25% compost+62.5% Coloso soil+ 12.5% sludge compared to plants grown with no sludge (32.59 ± 0.7). ICP-OES analysis showed variations in mineral element contents (macro and micronutrients) in coriander plant grown I soil amended with sludge and compost.
67
16700
Achieving Quality of Life and Sustainability in Mexican Cities, the Case of the Housing Complex “Villa del Campo”, Tijuana, Mexico
Abstract:
Quality of life and sustainability in cities are among the most important challenges faced by designers, city planners and urban managers. The Mexican city of Tijuana has a particular dynamic in its demographics which has been accelerated by its border city condition, putting to the test the ability from authorities to provide the population with the necessary services to aspire for a deserving quality of life. In the recent story of Tijuana, we found that the housing policy and the solutions presented by private housing developers have not met the best living conditions for end users by far, thereby adding issues to current social problems which impact the whole metropolitan area, including damage to the natural environment. Therefore this research presents the case study about the situation of a suburban housing development near Tijuana named “Villa del Campo” and exposes the problems of this specific project (originally labelled as a “sustainable” proposal) demonstrating that, once built, the place does not reflect the quality of life that it promised as a project. Currently, this housing development has a number of problematic issues such as the faulty operating conditions of public utilities and serious cases of crime inside the neighborhood. There is no intention to only expose the negative side of this case study, but to explore some alternatives which could help solving the most serious problems at the place, considering possible architectural and landscape interventions within the housing complex to help achieve the optimal conditions of livability and sustainability required by their inhabitants.
66
62819
Impact of Edible Coatings Made of Chitosan and Spray Dried Propolis in the Shell Life of White Cachama (Piaractus brachypomus)
Abstract:
There is a need to preserve aquaculture matrices due to their high nutritional value, and its broad consumption, one of those species is the white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), this fish is located in the rivers of eastern Colombia, and the previously mentioned species needs more study. Therefore, in a paper the effects of an alternative method of preservation of shell life were investigated, the method used is the application of an edible coating made from chitosan and ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) encapsulated in maltodextrin. The coating was applied by immersion, and after that, we investigated the post mortem quality changes of the fish performing physicochemical and microbiological analysis. pH, volatile bases, test thiobarbituric acid and peroxide value were tested; finally, we studied the effect of the coating on mesophilic strains, coliforms and other microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. Finally, we concluded that the coating prolongs the shelf life because it acts as a barrier to oxygen and moisture, the bioactive compounds trap free radicals and the coatings changes the metabolism and cause the cell lysis of the microorganisms. It was determined that the concentration of malonaldehyde, the volatile basic nitrogen content and pH are the variables that distinguish more clearly between the samples with the treatment and the control samples.
65
68233
Approaching a Tat-Rev Independent HIV-1 Clone towards a Model for Research
Abstract:
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a leading cause of death worldwide infecting millions of people each year. Despite intensive research in vaccine development, therapies against HIV-1 infection are not curative, and the huge genetic variability of HIV-1 challenges to drug development. Current animal models for HIV-1 research present important limitations, impairing the progress of in vivo approaches. Macaques require a CD8+ depletion to progress to AIDS, and the maintenance cost is high. Mice are a cheaper alternative but need to be 'humanized,' and breeding is not possible. The development of an HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice is a challenging proposal. The lack of human co-factors in mice impedes the function of the HIV-1 accessory proteins, Tat and Rev, hampering HIV-1 replication. However, Tat and Rev function can be replaced by constitutive/chimeric promoters, codon-optimized proteins and the constitutive transport element (CTE), generating a novel HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice without disrupting the amino acid sequence of the virus. By minimally manipulating the genomic 'identity' of the virus, we propose the generation of an HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice to assist in antiviral drug development. Methods: i) Plasmid construction: The chimeric promoters and CTE copies were cloned by PCR using lentiviral vectors as templates (pCGSW and pSIV-MPCG). Tat mutants were generated from replication competent HIV-1 plasmids (NHG and NL4-3). ii) Infectivity assays: Retroviral vectors were generated by transfection of human 293T cells and murine NIH 3T3 cells. Virus titre was determined by flow cytometry measuring GFP expression. Human B-cells (AA-2) and Hela cells (TZMbl) were used for infectivity assays. iii) Protein analysis: Tat protein expression was determined by TZMbl assay and HIV-1 capsid by western blot. Results: We have determined that NIH 3T3 cells are able to generate HIV-1 particles. However, they are not infectious, and further analysis needs to be performed. Codon-optimized HIV-1 constructs are efficiently made in 293T cells in a Tat and Rev independent manner and capable of packaging a competent genome in trans. CSGW is capable of generating infectious particles in the absence of Tat and Rev in human cells when 4 copies of the CTE are placed preceding the 3’LTR. HIV-1 Tat mutant clones encoding different promoters are functional during the first cycle of replication when Tat is added in trans. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the development of an HIV-1 Tat-Rev independent clone is challenging but achievable aim. However, further investigations need to be developed prior presenting our HIV-1 clone as a candidate model for research.
64
86854
Comparison of Serum Levels of Secreted Frizzler Protein 5 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated and Not Treated with Metformin
Abstract:
Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by combination of insulin resistance and deterioration of insulin secretion. Sfrp5 is a protein that antagonizes Wnt5a proteins by preventing it from reaching its receptor and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, this pathway is one of the most important regulators of adipogenesis. Although metformin decreases glucose levels its mechanisms of action are not fully known but it has been implicated in the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Objective: The objective was evaluating the effects of metformin on serum levels of Sfrp5 in patients with T2DM treated and not treated with metformin. Methods: Two groups of patients were selected: one group of T2DM patients treated with metformin (n = 35) and another group of subjects with recent diagnosis of T2DM untreated (n = 35) with a mean age of 48 ± 9 years. In these subjects anthropometric measures were taken as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, were calculated the percentage of body fat, visceral fat and muscle mass. In addition, were measured glucose levels, lipid profile, adiponectin and Sfrp5. Results: Sfrp5 were higher in metformin-treated patients compared to the untreated group (19.9 vs 13.6 ng/mL p < 0.001), a negative correlation was found between Sfrp5 levels and total cholesterol levels (r= -0.25, p = 0.03) and percentage of visceral fat (r = -0.26, p = 0.03) and a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adiponectin (r=0.65, p = < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings show that metformin consumption increased levels of Sfrp5, which may lead to a decrease in the activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway impacting on adipogenesis.
63
47200
Knowledge Transfer among Cross-Functional Teams as a Continual Improvement Process
Abstract:
The culture of continuous improvement in organizations is very important as it represents a source of competitive advantage. This article discusses the transfer of knowledge between companies which formed cross-functional teams and used a dynamic model for knowledge creation as a framework. In addition, the article discusses the structure of cognitive assets in companies and the concept of "stickiness" (which is defined as an obstacle to the transfer of knowledge). The purpose of this analysis is to show that an improvement in the attitude of individual members of an organization creates opportunities, and that an exchange of information and knowledge leads to generating continuous improvements in the company as a whole. This article also discusses the importance of creating the proper conditions for sharing tacit knowledge. By narrowing gaps between people, mutual trust can be created and thus contribute to an increase in sharing. The concept of adapting knowledge to new environments will be highlighted, as it is essential for companies to translate and modify information so that such information can fit the context of receiving organizations. Adaptation will ensure that the transfer process is carried out smoothly by preventing "stickiness". When developing the transfer process on cross-functional teams (as opposed to working groups), the team acquires the flexibility and responsiveness necessary to meet objectives. These types of cross-functional teams also generate synergy due to the array of different work backgrounds of their individuals. When synergy is established, a culture of continuous improvement is created.
62
93827
Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia
Abstract:
Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices.
61
23906
Comparative Study of Stability of Crude and Purified Red Pigments of Pokeberry (Phytolacca Americana L.) Fruits
Abstract:
Recently, there is an increased interest in the development of food natural colorants as alternatives to synthetic dyes because of both legislative action and consumer concern. Betalains are widely used in the food industry as an alternative of synthetic colorants. The interest of betalains are caused not only by their coloring effect but also by their beneficial properties. The aim of the work was to study of stability of crude and purified red pigments of pokeberry (Phytolacca america L.). The pokeberry fruit juice was filtrated and concentrated by rotary vacuum evaporator up to 25% and the concentrated juice was passed through the Sepadex-25(fine) column (20×1.1 cm). From the column the pigment elution rate was 18 ml/hr. 1.5ml fractions of pigment were collected. In the fractions the coloring substances were determined using CuS04 x 7 H2O as a standard. From the Sephadex G-25 column only one fraction of the betalain red pigment was eluted with the absorption maximum at 538 nm. The degree of pigment purification was 1.6 and pigment yield from the column was 15 %. It was shown that thermostability of pokeberry fruit red pigment was significantly decreased after the purification. For example, during incubation at 100C for 10 min crude pigment retained 98 % of its color while under the same conditions only 72% of the color of purified pigment was retained. The purified pigment was found to be characterized by less storage stability too. The storage of the initial crude juice and the pigment fraction obtained after the gelfiltration for 10 days at 4°C showed the lost of color by 29 and 74 % respectively. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that during the gelfiltration the pokeberry fruit red pigment gets separated from such substances that cause its stabilization in the crude juice.
60
66428
Motivational Profiles of the Entrepreneurial Career in Spanish Businessmen
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the analysis of the motivations that lead people to undertake and consolidate their business. It is addressed from the framework of planned behavior theory, which recognizes the importance of the social environment and cultural values, both in the decision to undertake business and in business consolidation. Similarly, it is also based on theories of career development, which emphasize the importance of career management competencies and their connections to other vital aspects of people, including their roles within their families and other personal activities. This connects directly with the impact of entrepreneurship on the career and the professional-personal project of each individual. This study is part of the project titled Career Design and Talent Management (Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain, State Plan 2013-2016 Excellence Ref. EDU2013-45704-P). The aim of the study is to identify and describe entrepreneurial competencies and motivational profiles in a sample of 248 Spanish entrepreneurs, considering the consolidated profile and the profile in transition (n = 248).In order to obtain the information, the Questionnaire of Motivation and conditioners of the entrepreneurial career (MCEC) has been applied. This consists of 67 items and includes four scales (E1-Conflicts in conciliation, E2-Satisfaction in the career path, E3-Motivations to undertake, E4-Guidance Needs). Cluster analysis (mixed method, combining k-means clustering with a hierarchical method) was carried out, characterizing the groups profiles according to the categorical variables (chi square, p = 0.05), and the quantitative variables (ANOVA). The results have allowed us to characterize three motivational profiles relevant to the motivation, the degree of conciliation between personal and professional life, and the degree of conflict in conciliation, levels of career satisfaction and orientation needs (in the entrepreneurial project and life-career). The first profile is formed by extrinsically motivated entrepreneurs, professionally satisfied and without conflict of vital roles. The second profile acts with intrinsic motivation and also associated with family models, and although it shows satisfaction with their professional career, it finds a high conflict in their family and professional life. The third is composed of entrepreneurs with high extrinsic motivation, professional dissatisfaction and at the same time, feel the conflict in their professional life by the effect of personal roles. Ultimately, the analysis has allowed us to line the kinds of entrepreneurs to different levels of motivation, satisfaction, needs and articulation in professional and personal life, showing characterizations associated with the use of time for leisure, and the care of the family. Associations related to gender, age, activity sector, environment (rural, urban, virtual), and the use of time for domestic tasks are not identified. The model obtained and its implications for the design of training actions and orientation to entrepreneurs is also discussed.
59
79528
Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancer in Women of the North of Chihuahua, Mexico
Abstract:
Cervical Cancer (CC) is the second leading cause of death among women worldwide and it had been associated with a persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). The goal of the current study was to identify the prevalence of HPV infection in women with abnormal Pap smear who were attended at Dysplasia Clinic of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods: Cervical samples from 146 patients, who attended the Colposcopy Clinic at Sanitary Jurisdiction II of Cd Juarez, were collected for histopathology and molecular study. DNA was isolated for the HPV detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using MY09/011 and GP5/6 primers. The associated risk factors were assessed by a questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, using EpiINFO V7 software. Results: HPV infection was present in 142 patients (97.3 %). The prevalence of HPV infection was distributed in a 96% of all evaluated groups, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HISIL) and CC. We found a statistical significance (α = < 0.05) between gestation and number of births as risk factors. The median values showed an ascending tend according with the lesion progression. However, CC showed a statistically significant difference with respect to the pre-carcinogenic stages. Conclusions: In these Mexican patients exists a high prevalence of HPV infection, and for that reason, we are studying the most prevalent HPV genotypes in this population.
58
62266
The Television as an Affordable and Effective Way to Promote Healthy Diet and Physical Activity to Prevent or Treat Obesity
Abstract:
In the last decades, obesity has more than doubled and is, with overweight, the second leading cause of preventable death. Despite multiple strategies against obesity, no country to date has reduced the number of obese people. To achieve World Health Organization’s target to reverse this tendency we need dramatic and different actions to engage the civil society in creating demand for a healthy style of life. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that a social media as the television can be used to convince the civil society that a healthy nutrition and physical activity are affordable, effective and necessary to prevent and to treat the obesity. Methodology: 61 individuals (34 women and 27 men) with obesity (mean BMI 45,51) were recruited to follow during 22 weeks an intensive lifestyle intervention in order to lose weight in a healthy manner. They were not isolated or moved from their usual environment. This program included endocrinological and nutritional assessment, promotion of physical activity and psychological support. BMI was measured every week. Time to leave obesity between men and women was analyzed with a survival analysis. Results: BMI decreased in all the cases. Analysing Time to leave obesity, around the week 30, 25% of men leave the obesity and around the week 39, 25% of women leave the obesity too. Conclusion: We demonstrate the audience that improving the quality of the diet and increasing the physical activity is a realistic way to lose weight. This evidence can encourage the people to act in their own self-interest changing their style of life in order to prevent or to reduce their overweight.
57
55215
A Strategy to Reduce Salt Intake: The Use of a Seasoning Obtained from Wine Pomace
Abstract:
One of the most preoccupant problems related to the diet of the occidental societies is the high salt intake. In Spain, salt intake is almost twice as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). A lot of negative health effects of high sodium intake have been described being the hypertension, cardiovascular and coronary diseases ones of the most important. Due to this fact, government and other institutions are working on the gradual reduction of this consumption. Intake of meat products have been described as the main processed products that bring salt to the diet, followed by snacks and savory crackers. However, fortunately, the food industry has also raised awareness of this problem and is working intensely, and in recent years attempts to reduce the salt content in processed products, and is developing special lines with low sodium content. It is important to consider that processed food are the main source of sodium in occidental countries. One of the possible strategies to reduce the salt content in food is to find substitutes that can emulate their taste properties without adding much sodium or products that mask or substitute salty sensations with other flavors and aromas. In this sense, multiple products have been proposed and used until now. Potassium salts produce similar salty sensations without bring sodium, however their intake should be also limited, by healthy reasons. Furthermore, some potassium salts shows some better notes. Other alternatives are the use of flavor enhancers, spices, aromatic herbs, sea-plant derivate products, etc. The wine pomace is rich in potassium salts, content organic acid and other flavored substances, therefore it could be an interesting raw material to obtain derived products that could be useful as alternative ‘seasonings’. Considering previous comments, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a natural seasoning, made from red wine pomace, in two different foods, crackers and burgers. The seasoning was made in the pilot plant of food technology of the University of Burgos, where the studied crackers and patties were also made. Different members of the University, students, docent and administrative personal, taste the products, and a trained panel evaluated salty intensity. The seasoning in addition to potassium contain significant levels of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, which also makes it interesting as a functional ingredient. Both burgers and crackers made with the seasoning showed better taste that those without salt. Obviously, they showed lower sodium content than normal formulation, and were richer in potassium, antioxidant and fiber. Then, they showed lower values of the relation Na/K. All these facts are correlated with more ‘healthy’ products especially to that people with hypertension and other coronary dysfunctions.
56
54290
Assessment of Functional Properties and Antioxidant Capacity Murta (Ugni molinae T.) Berry Subjected to Different Drying Methods
Abstract:
Murta (Ugni molinae T.) is an endemic fruit of Southern Chile, possesses qualities exceptional as its high antioxidants content, that make it increasingly more appreciated for marketing. Dehydration has the potential providing safe food products through the decreased activity water while maintaining their functional properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity (AC), total flavonoid content (TFC), rehydration indexes and texture the dried murta berry. Five drying technologies were used: convective drying, vacuum drying, sun-air drying, infrared drying and freezing-drying. The antioxidant capacity was measured by the ORAC method, CFT was determined by spectrophotometry, rehydration capacity (CR) and water retention (WHC) by gravimetry, texture profile (TPA) by a texture analyzer TA-XT2 and microstructure by SEM. The results showed that the lyophilized murta had smaller losses AC and TFC with values of 2886.27 routine mg rutin/ 100 g dm and 23359.99 μmol ET/100 g dm, respectively. According to the rehydration indexes, these were affected by the drying methods, where the maximum value of WHC was 92.60 g retained water/100 g sample for the vacuum drying, and the lowest value of CR was 1.43 g water absorbed/g dm for the sun-air drying. Furthermore, the microstructure and TPA showed that lyophilized samples had characteristics similar to the fresh sample. Therefore, it is possible to mention that lyophilization achieved greater extent preserving the characteristics of the murta samples, showing that this method can be used in the food industry and encourage the consumption of dried fruit and thus give it greater added value.
55
42134
M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López
Abstract:
Many organic solid wastes are produced in the world. Poultry manure (PM), municipal organic wastes (MOW) and sugar beet lime sludge (LS) are produced in large quantities in Morocco. The co-composting of these organic wastes was investigated. The recycling and the valorization of such wastes is environmentally and economically beneficial especially for PM which is known source of bacterial pathogens. The aerobic biodegradation process was carried out by using three windrows of variable compositions: C1 prepared without LS (only MOW were composted with PM), C2 prepared from MOW plus PM and10% LS; and the last one C3 from MOW plus PM and 20% LS. The main process physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) and microbiological populations (mesophilic and thermophilic flora, total coliform, fecal coliform, Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic fungi) were monitored over three months to ascertain the compost maturity and to ensure the compost hygienic aspect. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 10.6-10.9. The organic matter degradation was reached approximately 59% for C2 and C3. In addition, the monitoring of the microbial population showed that the produced composts are mature and hygienic. The agronomic valorization of the final composts was tested on radish plant with tree level of composts and poultry manure without composting. The primary results of field trial showed a growth of radish plant biomass and root development without any phytotoxicity detected which reflects the quality of the composts produced. As for poultry manure it allowed to have a better results than other composts because of its readily available nitrogen.
54
41321
Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines
Abstract:
Goat production is one of the activities included in integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered, five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different (P&gt;0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale. On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no significant difference (P&gt;0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.
53
32666
Fuzzy Climate Control System for Hydroponic Green Forage Production
Abstract:
In recent decades, population growth has exerted great pressure on natural resources. Two of the most scarce and difficult to obtain resources, arable land, and water, are closely interrelated, to the satisfaction of the demand for food production. In Mexico, the agricultural sector uses more than 70% of water consumption. Therefore, maximize the efficiency of current production systems is inescapable. It is essential to utilize techniques and tools that will enable us to the significant savings of water, labor and fertilizer. In this study, we present a production module of hydroponic green forage (HGF), which is a viable alternative in the production of livestock feed in the semi-arid and arid zones. The equipment in addition to having a forage production module, has a climate and irrigation control system that operated with photovoltaics. The climate control, irrigation and power management is based on fuzzy control techniques. The fuzzy control provides an accurate method in the design of controllers for nonlinear dynamic physical phenomena such as temperature and humidity, besides other as lighting level, aeration and irrigation control using heuristic information. In this working, firstly refers to the production of the hydroponic green forage, suitable weather conditions and fertigation subsequently presents the design of the production module and the design of the controller. A simulation of the behavior of the production module and the end results of actual operation of the equipment are presented, demonstrating its easy design, flexibility, robustness and low cost that represents this equipment in the primary sector.
52
54594
Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction
Abstract:
Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author&rsquo;s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.
51
121648
Comparative Study of Flood Plain Protection Zone Determination Methodologies in Colombia, Spain and Canada
Abstract:
Flood protection zones are riparian buffers that are formed to manage and mitigate the impact of flooding, and in turn, protect local populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Guía Técnica de Criterios para el Acotamiento de las Rondas Hídricas in Colombia against international regulations in Canada and Spain, in order to determine its limitations and contribute to its improvement. The need to establish a specific corridor that allows for the dynamic development of a river is clear; however, limitations present in the Colombian Technical Guide are identified. The study shows that international regulations provide similar concepts as used in Colombia, but additionally integrate aspects such as regionalization that allows for a better characterization of the channel way, and incorporate the frequency of flooding and its probability of occurrence in the concept of risk when determining the protection zone. The case study analyzed in Dosquebradas - Risaralda aimed at comparing the application of the different standards through hydraulic modeling. It highlights that the current Colombian standard does not offer sufficient details in its implementation phase, which leads to a false sense of security related to inaccuracy and lack of data. Furthermore, the study demonstrates how the Colombian norm is ill-adapted to the conditions of Dosquebradas typical of the Andes region, both in the social and hydraulic aspects, and does not reduce the risk, nor does it improve the protection of the population. Our study considers it pertinent to include risk estimation as an integral part of the methodology when establishing protect flood zone, considering the particularity of water systems, as they are characterized by an heterogeneous natural dynamic behavior.
50
73744
Rescaled Range Analysis of Seismic Time-Series: Example of the Recent Seismic Crisis of Alhoceima
Abstract:
Persistency, long-term memory and randomness are intrinsic properties of time-series of earthquakes. The Rescaled Range Analysis (RS-Analysis) was introduced by Hurst in 1956 and modified by Mandelbrot and Wallis in 1964. This method represents a simple and elegant analysis which determines the range of variation of one natural property (the seismic energy released in this case) in a time interval. Despite the simplicity, there is complexity inherent in the property measured. The cumulative curve of the energy released in time is the well-known fractal geometry of a devil’s staircase. This geometry is used for determining the maximum and minimum value of the range, which is normalized by the standard deviation. The rescaled range obtained obeys a power-law with the time, and the exponent is the Hurst value. Depending on this value, time-series can be classified in long-term or short-term memory. Hence, an algorithm has been developed for compiling the RS-Analysis for time series of earthquakes by days. Completeness time distribution and locally stationarity of the time series are required. The interest of this analysis is their application for a complex seismic crisis where different earthquakes take place in clusters in a short period. Therefore, the Hurst exponent has been obtained for the seismic crisis of Alhoceima (Mediterranean Sea) of January-March, 2016, where at least five medium-sized earthquakes were triggered. According to the values obtained from the Hurst exponent for each cluster, a different mechanical origin can be detected, corroborated by the focal mechanisms calculated by the official institutions. Therefore, this type of analysis not only allows an approach to a greater understanding of a seismic series but also makes possible to discern different types of seismic origins.
49
69519
Food Security Model and the Role of Community Empowerment: The Case of a Marginalized Village in Mexico, Tatoxcac, Puebla
Abstract:
Community empowerment has been proved to be a key element in the solution of the food security problem. As a result of a conceptual analysis, it was found that agricultural production, economic development and governance, are the traditional basis of food security models. Although the literature points to social inclusion as an important factor for food security, no model has considered it as the basis of it. The aim of this research is to identify different dimensions that make an integral model for food security, with emphasis on community empowerment. A diagnosis was made in the study community (Tatoxcac, Zacapoaxtla, Puebla), to know the aspects that impact the level of food insecurity. With a statistical sample integrated by 200 families, the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) was applied, finding that: in households composed by adults and children, have moderated food insecurity, (ELCSA scale has three levels, low, moderated and high), that result is produced mainly by the economic income capacity and the diversity of the diet on its food. With that being said, a model was developed to promote food security through five dimensions: 1. Regional context of the community; 2. Structure and system of local food; 3. Health and nutrition; 4. Information and technology access; 5. Self-awareness and empowerment. The specific actions on each axis of the model, allowed a systemic approach needed to attend food security in the community, through the empowerment of society. It is concluded that the self-awareness of local communities is an area of extreme importance, which must be taken into account for participatory schemes to improve food security. In the long term, the model requires the integrated participation of different actors, such as government, companies and universities, to solve something such vital as food security.
48
62914
Food Security Model and the Role of Community Empowerment: The Case of a Marginalized Village in Mexico, Tatoxcac, Puebla
Abstract:
Community empowerment has been proved to be a key element in the solution of the food security problem. As a result of a conceptual analysis, it was found that agricultural production, economic development and governance, are the traditional basis of food security models. Although the literature points to social inclusion as an important factor for food security, no model has considered it as the basis of it. The aim of this research is to identify different dimensions that make an integral model for food security, with emphasis on community empowerment. A diagnosis was made in the study community (Tatoxcac, Zacapoaxtla, Puebla), to know the aspects that impact the level of food insecurity. With a statistical sample integrated by 200 families, the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) was applied, finding that: in households composed by adults and children, have moderated food insecurity, (ELCSA scale has three levels, low, moderated and high); that result is produced mainly by the economic income capacity and the diversity of the diet on its food. With that being said, a model was developed to promote food security through five dimensions: 1. Regional context of the community; 2. Structure and system of local food; 3. Health and nutrition; 4. Information and technology access; and 5. Self-awareness and empowerment. The specific actions on each axis of the model, allowed a systemic approach needed to attend food security in the community, through the empowerment of society. It is concluded that the self-awareness of local communities is an area of extreme importance, which must be taken into account for participatory schemes to improve food security. In the long term, the model requires the integrated participation of different actors, such as government, companies and universities, to solve something such vital as food security.
47
100191
Use of the Occupational Repetitive Action Method in Different Productive Sectors: A Literature Review 2007-2018
Abstract:
Musculoskeletal disorders (MD) are the new epidemic of chronic diseases, are multifactorial and affect the different productive sectors. Although there are multiple instruments to evaluate the static and dynamic load, the method of repetitive occupational action (OCRA) seems to be an attractive option. Objective: It is aimed to analyze the use of the OCRA method and the prevalence of MD in workers of various productive sectors according to the literature (2007-2018). Materials and Methods: A literature review (following the PRISMA statement) of studies aimed at assessing the level of biomechanical risk (OCRA) and the prevalence of MD in the databases Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, ProQuest, Gale, PubMed, Lilacs and Ebsco was realized; 7 studies met the selection criteria; the majority are quantitative (cross section). Results: it was evidenced (gardening and flower-growers) in this review that 79% of the conditions related to the task require physical requirements and involve repetitive movements. In addition, of the high appearance of DM in the high-low back, upper and lower extremities that are produced by the frequency of the activities carried out (footwear production). Likewise, there was evidence of 'very high risks' of developing MD (salmon industry) and a medium index (OCRA) for repetitive movements that require special care (U-Assembly line). Conclusions: the review showed the limited use of the OCRA method for the detection of MD in workers from different sectors, and this method can be used for the detection of biomechanical risk and the appearance of MD.
46
76357
Isoflavonoid Dynamic Variation in Red Clover Genotypes
Abstract:
Red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the main insect pest associated to red clover, Trifolium pratense L. An average of 1.5 H. obscurus per plant can cause 5.5% reduction in forage yield in pastures of two to three years old. Moreover, insect attack can reach 70% to 100% of the plants. To our knowledge, there is no a chemical strategy for controlling this pest. Therefore alternative strategies for controlling H. obscurus are a high priority for red clover producers. One of this alternative is related to the study of secondary metabolites involved in intrinsic chemical defenses developed by plants, such as isoflavonoids. The isoflavonoids formononetin and daidzein have elicited an antifeedant and phagostimult effect on H. obscurus respectively. However, we do not know how is the dynamic variation of these isoflavonoids under field conditions. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the variation of the antifeedant isoflavonoids formononetin, the phagostimulant isoflavonoids daidzein, and their respective glycosides over time in different ecotypes of red clover. Fourteen red clover ecotypes (8 cultivars and 6 experimental lines), were collected at INIA-Carillanca (La Araucanía, Chile). These plants were established in October 2015 under irrigated conditions. The cultivars were distributed in a randomized complete block with three replicates. The whole plants were sampled in four times: 15th October 2016, 12th December 2016, 27th January 2017 and 16th March 2017 with sufficient amount of soil to avoid root damage. A polar fraction of isoflavonoid was obtained from 20 mg of lyophilized root tissue extracted with 2 mL of 80% MeOH for 16 h using an orbital shaker in the dark at room temperature. After, an aliquot of 1.4 mL of the supernatant was evaporated, and the residue was resuspended in 300 µL of 45% MeOH. The identification and quantification of isoflavonoid root extracts were performed by the injection of 20 µL into a Shimadzu HPLC equipped with a C-18 column. The sample was eluted with a mobile phase composed of AcOH: H₂O (1:9 v/v) as solvent A and CH₃CN as solvent B. The detection was performed at 260 nm. The results showed that the amount of aglycones was higher than the respective glycosides. This result is according to the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids, where the formation of glycoside is further to the glycosides biosynthesis. The amount of formononetin was higher than daidzein. In roots, where H. obscurus spent the most part of its live cycle, the highest content of formononetin was found in G 27, Pawera, Sabtoron High, Redqueli-INIA and Superqueli-INIA cvs. (2.1, 1.8, 1.8, 1.6 and 1.0 mg g⁻¹ respectively); and the lowest amount of daidzein were found Superqueli-INIA (0.32 mg g⁻¹) and in the experimental line Sel Syn Int4 (0.24 mg g⁻¹). This ecotype showed a high content of formononetin (0.9 mg g⁻¹). This information, associated with cultural practices, could help farmers and breeders to reduce H. obscurus in grassland, selecting ecotypes with high content of formononetin and low amount of daidzein in the roots of red clover plants. Acknowledgements: FONDECYT 1141245 and 11130715.
45
54202
Enzymatic Determination of Limonene in Red Clover Genotypes
Abstract:
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage species in temperate regions of the world. The main limitation of this species worldwide is a lack of persistence related to the high mortality of plants due to a complex of biotic and abiotic factors, determining a life span of two or three seasons. Because of the importance of red clover in Chile, a red clover breeding program was started at INIA Carillanca Research Center in 1989, with the main objective of improving the survival of plants, forage yield, and persistence. The main selection criteria for selecting new varieties have been based on agronomical parameters and biotic factors. The main biotic factor associated with red clover mortality in Chile is Hylastinus obscurus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Both larval and adults feed on the roots, causing weakening and subsequent death of clover plants. Pesticides have not been successful for controlling infestations of this root borer. Therefore, alternative strategies for controlling this pest are a high priority for red clover producers. Currently, the role of semiochemical in the interaction between H. obscurus and red clover plants has been widely studied for our group. Specifically, from the red clover foliage has been identified limonene is eliciting repellency from the root borer. Limonene is generated in the plant from two independent biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonic acid, and deoxyxylulose pathway. Mevalonate pathway enzymes are localized in the cytosol, whereas the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway enzymes are found in plastids. In summary, limonene can be determinated by enzymatic bioassay using GPP as substrate and by limonene synthase expression. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study genetic variation of limonene in material provided by INIA´s Red Clover breeding program. Protein extraction was carried out homogenizing 250 mg of leave tissue and suspended in 6 mL of extraction buffer (PEG 1500, PVP-30, 20 mM MgCl2 and antioxidants) and stirred on ice for 20 min. After centrifugation, aliquots of 2.5 mL were desalted on PD-10 columns, resulting in a final volume of 3.5 mL. Protein determination was performed according to Bradford with BSA as a standard. Monoterpene synthase assays were performed with 50 µL of protein extracts transferred into gas-tight 2 mL crimp seal vials after addition of 4 µL MgCl₂ and 41 µL assay buffer. The assay was started by adding 5 µL of a GPP solution. The mixture was incubated for 30 min at 40 °C. Biosynthesized limonene was quantified in a GC equipped with a chiral column and using synthetic R and S-limonene standards. The enzymatic the production of R and S-limonene from different Superqueli-Carillanca genotypes is shown in this work. Preliminary results showed significant differences in limonene content among the genotypes analyzed. These results constitute an important base for selecting genotypes with a high content of this repellent monoterpene towards H. obscurus.
44
55971
Coherency of First Year Nursing Students' Lifestyles with Their Future Career
Abstract:
Introduction: Nurses are models in healthy behaviors for their patients. This is why it is important for these professionals to not only have a good knowledge of healthy behaviors but also practice. Today’s nursing students will be tomorrow’s professionals and to fulfill their role in caring they not only need knowledge, they also must maintain behaviors which enable them to improve and protect both the health of others and their own. This is why the university is a unique environment of opportunities to foster the maximum potential of health. To care for others we first have to take care of ourselves. It is important for these behaviors in Nursing students to be evaluated during the years of their university education in order to design timely interventions which improve the health behaviors of the future professionals. Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the lifestyles of first year nursing students of two Universities. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. In 2014, 140 first year Nursing students of two Universities Seville –US- (Spain -Europe, n=37) and Antioquia –UA- (Colombia -South America, n=93) self-reported the FANTASTIC Lifestyle checklist. Results: Findings reveal that (I) UA students doubled the percentage of dangerous or bad lifestyles with respect to the US students, (II) the lifestyles are not appropriate in 1 of 3 of nursing students in both Universities, (II) there are statistically significant differences for family support items (higher in US), positive thinkers (higher in UA), the use of safety belts and alcohol consumption before driving (higher in US). Discussion: The nursing students are mostly young people who are at a stage in which some of the most important behaviors for adult life can still be molded. It is necessary to develop educational interventions in their Nursing curricula to strengthen healthy behaviours during training. Nursing Schools not only have the duty to train professionals, but to also be agents that foster the health, welfare and quality of those who study and work there. It must encourage knowledge and skills oriented to healthy lifestyles.
43
122926
Influence of Dynamic Loads in the Structural Integrity of Underground Rooms
Abstract:
Among many factors affecting the stability of mining excavations, rock-bursts and tremors play a special role. These dynamic loads occur practically always and have different sources of generation. The most important of them is the commonly used mining technique, which disintegrates a certain area of the rock mass not only in the area of the planned mining, but also creates waves that significantly exceed this area affecting the structural elements. In this work it is analysed the consequences of dynamic loads over the structural elements in an underground room and pillar mine to avoid roof instabilities. With this end, dynamic loads were evaluated through in situ and laboratory tests and simulated with numerical modelling. Initially, the geotechnical characterization of all materials was carried out by mean of large-scale tests. Then, drill holes were done on the roof of the mine and were monitored to determine possible discontinuities in it. Three seismic stations and a triaxial accelerometer were employed to measure the vibrations from blasting tests, establish the dynamic behaviour of roof and pillars and develop the transmission laws. At last, computer simulations by FLAC3D software were done to check the effect of vibrations on the stability of the roofs. The study shows that in-situ tests have a greater reliability than laboratory samples because of eliminating the effect of heterogeneities, that the pillars work decreasing the amplitude of the vibration around them, and that the tensile strength of a beam and depending on its span is overcome with waves in phase and delayed. The obtained transmission law allows designing a blasting which guarantees safety and prevents the risk of future failures.
42
28022
A User Interface for Easiest Way Image Encryption with Chaos
Abstract:
Since 1990, the research on chaotic dynamics has received considerable attention, particularly in light of potential applications of this phenomenon in secure communications. Data encryption using chaotic systems was reported in the 90's as a new approach for signal encoding that differs from the conventional methods that use numerical algorithms as the encryption key. The algorithms for image encryption have received a lot of attention because of the need to find security on image transmission in real time over the internet and wireless networks. Known algorithms for image encryption, like the standard of data encryption (DES), have the drawback of low level of efficiency when the image is large. The encrypting based on chaos proposes a new and efficient way to get a fast and highly secure image encryption. In this work, a user interface for image encryption and a novel and easiest way to encrypt images using chaos are presented. The main idea is to reshape any image into a n-dimensional vector and combine it with vector extracted from a chaotic system, in such a way that the vector image can be hidden within the chaotic vector. Once this is done, an array is formed with the original dimensions of the image and turns again. An analysis of the security of encryption from the images using statistical analysis is made and is used a stage of optimization for image encryption security and, at the same time, the image can be accurately recovered. The user interface uses the algorithms designed for the encryption of images, allowing you to read an image from the hard drive or another external device. The user interface, encrypt the image allowing three modes of encryption. These modes are given by three different chaotic systems that the user can choose. Once encrypted image, is possible to observe the safety analysis and save it on the hard disk. The main results of this study show that this simple method of encryption, using the optimization stage, allows an encryption security, competitive with complicated encryption methods used in other works. In addition, the user interface allows encrypting image with chaos, and to submit it through any public communication channel, including internet.
41
47975
Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Chemical Material in Filters PM2.5 of the Monitoring Stations of the Network of Air Quality in the Valle De Aburrá, Colombia
Abstract:
Adverse effects and increased air pollution has raised concerns about regulatory policies and has fostered the development of new air quality standards; this is due to the complexity of the composition and the poorly understood reactions in the atmospheric environment. Toxic compounds act as environmental agents having various effects, from irritation to death of cells and tissues. A toxic agent is defined an adverse response in a biological system. There is a particular class that produces some kind of alteration in the genetic material or associated components, so they are recognized as genotoxic agents. Within cells, they interact directly or indirectly with DNA, causing mutations or interfere with some enzymatic repair processes or in the genesis or polymerization of proteinaceous material involved in chromosome segregation. An air pollutant may cause or contribute to increased mortality or serious illness and even pose a potential danger to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the viability and the genotoxic potential on the cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and peripheral blood of particulate matter PM T lymphocytes 2.5 obtained from filters collected three monitoring stations network air quality Aburrá Valley. Tests, reduction of MTT, trypan blue, NRU, comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations allowed evidence reduction in cell viability in cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and damage to the DNA from cell line CHOK1, however, no significant effects were observed in the number of SCEs and chromosomal aberrations. The results suggest that PM2.5 material has genotoxic potential and can induce cancer development, as has been suggested in other studies.
40
21467
Lightweight Ceramics from Clay and Ground Corncobs
Abstract:
Corncobs are agricultural wastes and they can be used as fuel or as raw material in different industrial processes like cement manufacture, contaminant adsorption, chemical compound synthesis, etc. The aim of this work is to characterize this waste and analyze the feasibility of its use as a pore-forming material in the manufacture of lightweight ceramics for the civil construction industry. The characterization of raw materials is carried out by using various techniques: electron diffraction analysis X-ray, differential and gravimetric thermal analyses, FTIR spectroscopy, ecotoxicity evaluation, among others. The ground corncobs, particle size less than 2 mm, are mixed with clay up to 30% in volume and shaped by uniaxial pressure of 25 MPa, with 6% humidity, in moulds of 70mm x 40mm x 18mm. Then the green bodies are heat treated at 950°C for two hours following the treatment curves used in ceramic industry. The ceramic probes are characterized by several techniques: density, porosity and water absorption, permanent volumetric variation, loss on ignition, microscopies analysis, and mechanical properties. DTA-TGA analysis of corncobs shows in the range 20°-250°C a small loss in TGA curve and exothermic peaks at 250°-500°C. FTIR spectrum of the corncobs sample shows the characteristic pattern of this kind of organic matter with stretching vibration bands of adsorbed water, methyl groups, C–O and C–C bonds, and the complex form of the cellulose and hemicellulose glycosidic bonds. The obtained ceramic bodies present external good characteristics without loose edges and adequate properties for the market requirements. The porosity values of the sintered pieces are higher than those of the reference sample without waste addition. The results generally indicate that it is possible to use corncobs as porosity former in ceramic bodies without modifying the usual sintering temperatures employed in the industry.
39
2661
Rich 3-Tori Dynamics in Small-Aspect-Ratio Highly Counter-Rotating Taylor-Couette Flow with Reversal of Spiraling Vortices
Abstract:
We present numerical simulations concerning the reversal of spiraling vortices in short highly counter-rotating cylinders. Increasing the differential cylinder rotation results in global flow-inversion is which develops various different and complex flow dynamics of several quasi-periodic solutions that differ in their number of vortex cells in the bulk. The dynamics change from being dominated of the inner cylinder boundary layer with ’passive’ only responding outer one to be dominated by the outer cylinder boundary layer with only responding inner one. Solutions exist on either two or three tori invariant manifolds whereby they appear as symmetric or asymmetric states. We find for either moderate and high inner cylinder rotation speed the quasiperiodic flow to consist of only two vortex cells but differ as the vortices has opposite spiraling direction. These both flows live on 2-tori but differ in number of symmetries. While for the quasi-periodic flow (q^a_2) at lower rotation speed a pair of symmetrically related 2-tori T2 exists the quasi-periodic flow (q^s_2) at higher rotation speeds is symmetric living on a single 2-torus T2. In addition these both flows differ due to their dominant azimuthal m modes. The first is dominated by m=1 whereas for the latter m=3 contribution is largest. The 2-tori states are separated by a further quasi-periodic flow (q^a_3) living on pair of symmetrically related 3-tori T3. This flow offers a ’periodical’ competition between a two and three vortex cell states in the bulk. This flow is also an m=1 solution as for the quasiperiodic flows living on the pair of symmetrically-related 2-tori states. Moreover we find hysteresis resulting in coexisting regions of different quasiperiodic flows q^s_2 and q^a_3 with increasing and decreasing the differential rotation.
38
106577
The Effect of Curing Temperature and Rice Husk Ash Addition on the Behaviour of Sulfate-Rich Clay after Lime Stabilization
Abstract:
In the western region of Paraguay, the poor condition of the roads has negatively affected the development of this zone, where the absence of petrous material has led engineers to opt for the stabilization of soils with lime or cement as the main structure for bases and subbases of these roads. In several areas of this region, high sulfate contents have been found both in groundwater and in soils, which, when reacted with lime or cement, generate a new problem instead of solving it. On the other hand, the use of industrial waste as granulated slag and fly ash proved to be a sustainable practice widely used in the manufacture of cement, and now also, in the stabilization of soils worldwide. Works related to soils containing sulfates stabilized either with granulated slag or fly ash and lime shown a good performance in their mechanical behaviour. This research seeks to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of soils with high contents of sulfates stabilized with lime by curing them both, at the normalized temperature (23 &plusmn; 2 &deg;C) and at 40 &plusmn; 2 &deg;C. Moreover, it attempts to asses if the addition of rice husk ash has a positive influence on the new geomaterial. The 40 &plusmn; 2 &deg;C curing temperature was selected trying to simulate the average local temperature in summer and part of spring session whereas rice husk ash is an affordable waste produced in the region. An extensive experimental work, which includes unconfined compression, durability and free swell tests were carried out considering different dry unit weights, lime content and the addition of 20% of rice husk ash. The results showed that the addition of rice husk ash increases the resistance and durability of the material and decreases the expansion of this, moreover, the specimens cured at a temperature of 40 &plusmn; 2 &deg;C showed higher resistance, better durability and lower expansion compared to those cured at the normalized temperature of 23 &plusmn; 2 &deg;C.
37
95347
Building Atmospheric Moisture Diagnostics: Environmental Monitoring and Data Collection
Abstract:
Efficient mould remediation and accurate moisture diagnostics leading to condensation and mould growth in dwellings are largely untapped. Number of factors are contributing to the rising trend of excessive moisture in homes mainly linked with modern living, increased levels of occupation and rising fuel costs, as well as making homes more energy efficient. Environmental monitoring by means of data collection though loggers sensors and survey forms has been performed in a range of buildings from different UK regions. Air and surface temperature and relative humidity values of residential areas affected by condensation and/or mould issues were recorded. Additional measurements were taken through different trials changing type, location, and position of loggers. In some instances, IR thermal images and ventilation rates have also been acquired. Results have been interpreted together with environmental key parameters by processing and connecting data from loggers and survey questionnaires, both in buildings with and without moisture issues. Monitoring exercises carried out during Winter and Spring time show the importance of developing and following accurate protocols for guidance to obtain consistent, repeatable and comparable results and to improve the performance of environmental monitoring. A model and a protocol are being developed to build a diagnostic tool with the goal of performing a simple but precise residential atmospheric moisture diagnostics to distinguish the cause entailing condensation and mould generation, i.e., ventilation, insulation or heating systems issue. This research shows the relevance of monitoring and processing environmental data to assign moisture risk levels and determine the origin of condensation or mould when dealing with a building atmospheric moisture excess.
36
65351
Sustainable Cities: Viability of a Hybrid Aeroponic/Nutrient Film Technique System for Cultivation of Tomatoes
Abstract:
Growing environmental and sustainability concerns have driven continual modernization of horticultural practices, especially for urban farming. Controlled environment and soilless production methods are increasing in popularity because of their efficient resource use and intensive cropping capabilities. However, some popular substrates used for hydroponic cultivation, particularly rock wool, represent a large environmental burden in regard to their manufacture and disposal. Substrate-less hydroponic systems are effective in producing short cropping cycle plants such as lettuce or herbs, but less information is available for the production of plants with larger root-systems and longer cropping times. Here, we investigated the viability of a hybrid aeroponic/nutrient film technique (AP/NFT) system for the cultivation of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum &lsquo;Panovy&rsquo;). The plants grown in the AP/NFT system had a more compact phenotype, accumulated more Na+ and less P and S than the rock wool grown counterparts. Due to forced irrigation interruptions, we propose that the differences observed were cofounded by the differing severity of water-stress for plants with and without substrate. They may also be caused by a higher root zone temperature predominant in plants exposed to AP/NFT. However, leaf area, stem diameter, and number of trusses did not differ significantly. The same was found for leaf pigments and plant photosynthetic efficiency. Overall, the AP/NFT system appears to be viable for the production of greenhouse tomato, enabling the environment to be relieved by way of lessening rock wool usage.
35
68602
Effect of Fertilization and Combined Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Rhizosphere Microbial Communities of Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale Cereale (Rye) Grown as Cover Crops
Abstract:
Cover crops are an agri-technological alternative to improve all properties of soils. Cover crops such as oats and rye could be used to reduce erosion and favor system sustainability when they are grown in the same agricultural cycle of the soybean crop. This crop is very profitable but its low contribution of easily decomposable residues, due to its low C/N ratio, leaves the soil exposed to erosive action and raises the need to reduce its monoculture. Furthermore, inoculation with the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria contributes to the implementation, development and production of several cereal crops. However, there is little information on its effects on forage crops which are often used as cover crops to improve soil quality. In order to evaluate the effect of combined inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens on rhizosphere microbial communities, field experiments were conducted in the west of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, with a split-split plot randomized complete block factorial design with three replicates. The factors were: type of cover crop, inoculation and fertilization. In the main plot two levels of fertilization 0 and 7 40-0-5 (NPKS) were established at sowing. Rye (Secale cereale cultivar Quehué) and oats (Avena sativa var Aurora.) were sown in the subplots. In the sub-subplots two inoculation treatments are applied without and with application of a combined inoculant with A. brasilense and P. fluorescens. Due to the growth of cover crops has to be stopped usually with the herbicide glyphosate, rhizosphere soil of 0-20 and 20-40 cm layers was sampled at three sampling times which were: before glyphosate application (BG), a month after glyphosate application (AG) and at soybean harvest (SH). Community level of physiological profiles (CLPP) and Shannon index of microbial diversity (H) were obtained by multivariate analysis of Principal Components. Also, the most probable number (MPN) of nitrifiers and cellulolytics were determined using selective liquid media for each functional group. The CLPP of rhizosphere microbial communities showed significant differences between sampling times. There was not interaction between sampling times and both, types of cover crops and inoculation. Rhizosphere microbial communities of samples obtained BG had different CLPP with respect to the samples obtained in the sampling times AG and SH. Fertilizer and depth of sampling also caused changes in the CLPP. The H diversity index of rhizosphere microbial communities of rye in the sampling time BG were higher than those associated with oats. The MPN of both microbial functional types was lower in the deeper layer since these microorganisms are mostly aerobic. The MPN of nitrifiers decreased in rhizosphere of both cover crops only AG. At the sampling time BG, the NMP of both microbial types were larger than those obtained for AG and SH. This may mean that the glyphosate application could cause fairly permanent changes in these microbial communities which can be considered bio-indicators of soil quality. Inoculation and fertilizer inputs could be included to improve management of these cover crops because they can have a significant positive effect on the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.
34
84814
Analyzing the Heat Transfer Mechanism in a Tube Bundle Air-PCM Heat Exchanger: An Empirical Study
Abstract:
Phase change materials (PCM) present attractive features that made them a passive solution for thermal comfort assessment in buildings during summer time. They show a large storage capacity per volume unit in comparison with other structural materials like bricks or concrete. If their use is matched with the peak load periods, they can contribute to the reduction of the primary energy consumption related to cooling applications. Despite these promising characteristics, they present some drawbacks. Commercial PCMs, as paraffines, offer a low thermal conductivity affecting the overall performance of the system. In some cases, the material can be enhanced, adding other elements that improve the conductivity, but in general, a design of the unit that optimizes the thermal performance is sought. The material selection is the departing point during the designing stage, and it does not leave plenty of room for optimization. The PCM melting point depends highly on the atmospheric characteristics of the building location. The selection must relay within the maximum, and the minimum temperature reached during the day. The geometry of the PCM container and the geometrical distribution of these containers are designing parameters, as well. They significantly affect the heat transfer, and therefore its phenomena must be studied exhaustively. During its lifetime, an air-PCM unit in a building must cool down the place during daytime, while the melting of the PCM occurs. At night, the PCM must be regenerated to be ready for next uses. When the system is not in service, a minimal amount of thermal exchanges is desired. The aforementioned functions result in the presence of sensible and latent heat storage and release. Hence different types of mechanisms drive the heat transfer phenomena. An experimental test was designed to study the heat transfer phenomena occurring in a circular tube bundle air-PCM exchanger. An in-line arrangement was selected as the geometrical distribution of the containers. With the aim of visual identification, the containers material and a section of the test bench were transparent. Some instruments were placed on the bench for measuring temperature and velocity. The PCM properties were also available through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) tests. An evolution of the temperature during both cycles, melting and solidification were obtained. The results showed some phenomena at a local level (tubes) and on an overall level (exchanger). Conduction and convection appeared as the main heat transfer mechanisms. From these results, two approaches to analyze the heat transfer were followed. The first approach described the phenomena in a single tube as a series of thermal resistances, where a pure conduction controlled heat transfer was assumed in the PCM. For the second approach, the temperature measurements were used to find some significant dimensionless numbers and parameters as Stefan, Fourier and Rayleigh numbers, and the melting fraction. These approaches allowed us to identify the heat transfer phenomena during both cycles. The presence of natural convection during melting might have been stated from the influence of the Rayleigh number on the correlations obtained.
33
128677
Extraction, Characterization, and Applicability of Rich β-Glucan Fractions from Fungal Biomass
Abstract:
Mushroom production has enormously increased in recent years, not only as food products but also for applications in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Consequently, interest in its chemical composition, nutritional value, and therapeutic properties has also increased. Fungi are rich in bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, polyphenols, glycopeptides, and ergosterol, of great medicinal value, but within polysaccharides, β-glucans are the most prominent molecules. They are formed by D-glucose monomers, linked by β-glucosidic bonds β-(1,3) with side chains linked by β-(1,6) bonds. The number and position of the β-(1,6) branches strongly influence the arrangement of the tertiary structure, which, together with the molecular weight, determine the different attributed bioactivities (immunostimulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, prebiotic, etc.) and physico-chemical properties (solubility, bioaccessibility, viscosity or emulsifying). On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the study of fungi as an alternative source of chitin obtained from the by-products of the fungal industry. In this work, a cascade extraction process using aqueous neutral and alkaline treatments was carried out for Grifola frondosa and Lentinula edodes, and the compositional analysis and functional properties of each fraction were characterized. Interestingly, the first fraction obtained by using aqueous treatment at room temperature was the richest in polysaccharides, proteins, and polyphenols, thus obtaining a greater antioxidant capacity than in the other fractions. In contrast, the fractions obtained by alkaline treatments showed a higher degree of β-glucans purification compared to aqueous extractions but a lower extraction yield. Results revealed the different structural recalcitrance of β-glucans, preferentially linked to proteins or chitin depending on the fungus type, which had a direct impact on the functionalities and bioactivities of each fraction.
32
59780
Best Combination of Design Parameters for Buildings with Buckling-Restrained Braces
Abstract:
Buildings vulnerability due to seismic activity has been highly studied since the middle of last century. As a solution to the structural and non-structural damage caused by intense ground motions, several seismic energy dissipating devices, such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB), have been proposed. BRB have shown to be effective in concentrating a large portion of the energy transmitted to the structure by the seismic ground motion. A design approach for buildings with BRB elements, which is based on a seismic Displacement-Based formulation, has recently been proposed by the coauthors in this paper. It is a practical and easy design method which simplifies the work of structural engineers. The method is used here for the design of the structure-BRB damper system. The objective of the present study is to extend and apply a methodology to find the best combination of design parameters on multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structural frame &ndash; BRB systems, taking into account simultaneously: 1) initial costs and 2) an adequate engineering demand parameter. The design parameters considered here are: the stiffness ratio (&alpha; = Kframe/Ktotal), and the strength ratio (&gamma; = Vdamper/Vtotal); where K represents structural stiffness and V structural strength; and the subscripts &quot;frame&quot;, &quot;damper&quot; and &quot;total&quot; represent: the structure without dampers, the BRB dampers and the total frame-damper system, respectively. The selection of the best combination of design parameters &alpha; and &gamma; is based on an initial costs analysis and on the structural dynamic response of the structural frame-damper system. The methodology is applied to a 12-story 5-bay steel building with BRB, which is located on the intermediate soil of Mexico City. It is found the best combination of design parameters &alpha; and &gamma; for the building with BRB under study.
31
128146
Disability Policy and Leaders in México
Abstract:
Disability Policy in México has witnessed numerous changed throughout the years. Physical disabilities are more often recognized in Mexican culture. However, with an emerging focus on neurological disabilities or differences in individuals’ new policies are needed to serve better and understand the needs of these populations. The need to understand and communicate with local leaders is imperative, as the lens used to analyze autism has historically been from a Western school of thought. We are looking to comprehend the disability policy subsystem in México - specifically how autism is perceived, the language used to describe it, and how it ties to the cultural stigma of disabilities that exist in México. Therefore, to understand this, we seek to interview multiple policy leaders on their experience in autism and disability policy. The goal is to conduct qualitative research through interviews with local autism and disability leaders in México. This methodology aims to answer the questions of what language commonly and culturally is utilized in disability policy, the context of how autism is perceived in México, and in general, the lived experience of the disability policy leaders that take part in this effort in México. Local activists and policy leaders were initially found through an online search then collected using snowball sampling. The interviews were conducted through a series of pre-formulated questions that the policy leader answered via email or a phone conversation with the researchers. Acknowledging the importance of language and accessibility, the need for the content to be in both English and Spanish as well as auditory and visual is essential to take steps in the inclusion of a Neurodiverse group of leaders. This work is a demonstration of the framework of the investigation which hopes to create a more complete understanding of the policy and political culture around autism in México. Results of the project include new insight into the developing relationship between the President Andrés Manuel López Obrador’s administration, disability activists, and neurodiverse communities. The project contributes to denormalizing the legacy of white supremacy in autism related, historically rooted in the assumption that autism occurs predominantly in white communities.
30
60112
Influence of the Quality of the Recycled Aggregates in Concrete Pavement
Abstract:
The environmental impact has become a global concern during the last decades. Several alternatives have been proposed and studied to minimize this impact in different areas. The reuse of aggregates from old concretes to manufacture new ones not only can reduce this impact but is also a way to optimize the resource management. The effect of the origin of the reused aggregates from two different origin materials in recycled concrete pavement is studied here. Using the dosing applied by a pavement company, coarse aggregates in the 6.3-25 mm fraction are replaced by recycled aggregates with two different origins: old concrete pavements with similar origin strength to the one of the control concrete, and precast concrete pipes with smaller strengths than the one of the control concrete. The replacement percentages tested are 30%, 40% and 50% in both cases. The compressive strength tests are performed after 7, 14, 28 and 90 curing days, the flexural strength tests and the elasticity modulus tests after 28 and 90 curing days. Results show that the influence of the quality of the origin concrete in the mechanical properties of recycled concretes is not despicable. Concretes with up to a 50% of recycled aggregates from the concrete pavement have similar compressive strengths to the ones of the control concrete and slightly smaller flexural strengths that, however, in all cases exceed the minimum of 5MPa after 28 curing days stablished by the Chilean regulation for pavement concretes. On the other hand, concretes with recycled aggregates from precast concrete pipes show significantly lower compressive strengths after 28 curing days. The differences with the compressive strength of the control concrete increase with the percentage of replacement, reaching a 13% reduction when 50% of the aggregates are replaced. The flexural strength also suffers significant reductions that increase with the percentage of replacement, only obeying the Chilean regulation when 30% of the aggregates are recycled after 28 curing days. Nevertheless, after 90 curing days, all series obey the regulation requirements. Results show, not only the importance of the quality of the origin concrete, but also the significance of the curing days, that may allow the use of less quality recycled material without important strength losses.
29
134731
Comparative Ante-Mortem Studies through Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Differential Voltage Analysis and Incremental Capacity Analysis on Lithium Ion Batteries
Abstract:
Nowadays, several lithium-ion battery technologies are being commercialized. These chemistries present different properties that make them more suitable for different purposes. However, comparative studies showing the advantages and disadvantages of different chemistries are incomplete or scarce. Different non-destructive techniques are currently being employed to detect how ageing affects the active materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For instance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is one of the most employed ones. This technique allows the user to identify the variations on the different resistances present in LIBs. On the other hand, differential voltage analysis (DVA) has shown to be a powerful technique to detect the processes affecting the different capacities present in LIBs. This technique shows variations in the state of health (SOH) and the capacities for one or both electrodes depending on their chemistry. Finally, incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is a widely known technique for being capable of detecting phase equilibria. It reminds of the commonly used cyclic voltamperometry, as it allows detecting some reactions taking place in the electrodes. In these studies, a set of ageing procedures have been applied to commercial batteries of different chemistries (NCA, NMC, and LFP). Afterwards, results of EIS, DVA, and ICA have been used to correlate them with the processes affecting each cell. Ciclability, overpotential, and temperature cycling studies envisage how the charge-discharge rates, cut-off voltage, and operation temperatures affect each chemistry. These studies will serve battery pack manufacturers, as for common battery users, as they will determine the different conditions affecting cells for each of the chemistry. Taking this into account, each cell could be adjusted to the final purpose of the battery application. Last but not least, all the degradation parameters observed are focused to be integrated into degradation models in the future. This fact will allow the implementation of the widely known digital twins to the degradation in LIBs.
28
66405
Isolation and Characterization of the First Known Inhibitor Cystine Knot Peptide in Sea Anemone: Inhibitory Activity on Acid-Sensing Ion Channels
Abstract:
Acid-sensing ion channels are cation (Na+) channels activated by a pH drop. These proteins belong to the ENaC/degenerin superfamily of sodium channels. ASICs are involved in sensory perception, synaptic plasticity, learning, memory formation, cell migration and proliferation, nociception, and neurodegenerative disorders, among other processes; therefore those molecules that specifically target these channels are of growing pharmacological and biomedical interest. Sea anemones produce a large variety of ion channels peptide toxins; however, those acting on ligand-gated ion channels, such as Glu-gated, Ach-gated ion channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), remain barely explored. The peptide PhcrTx1 is the first compound characterized from the sea anemone Phymanthus crucifer, and it constitutes a novel ASIC inhibitor. This peptide was purified by chromatographic techniques and pharmacologically characterized on acid-sensing ion channels of mammalian neurons using patch-clamp techniques. PhcrTx1 inhibited ASIC currents with an IC50 of 100 nM. Edman degradation yielded a sequence of 32 amino acids residues, with a molecular mass of 3477 Da by MALDI-TOF. No similarity to known sea anemone peptides was found in protein databases. The computational analysis of Cys-pattern and secondary structure arrangement suggested that this is a structurally ICK (Inhibitor Cystine Knot)-type peptide, a scaffold that had not been found in sea anemones but in other venomous organisms. These results show that PhcrTx1 represents the first member of a new structural group of sea anemones toxins acting on ASICs. Also, this peptide constitutes a novel template for the development of drugs against pathologies related to ASICs function.
27
62826
Spray Drying and Physico-Chemical Microbiological Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis
Abstract:
The propolis are substances obtained from the beehive have an action against pathogens, prooxidant substances and free radicals because of its polyphenols content, this has motivated the use of these compounds in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to their organoleptic properties and their ability to react with other compounds, their application has been limited; therefore, the objective of this research was to propose a mechanism to protect propolis and mitigate side effects granted by its components. To achieve the stated purpose ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from three samples from Santander were obtained and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were evaluated in order to choose the extract with the biggest potential. Subsequently mixtures of the extract with maltodextrin were prepared by spray drying varying concentration and temperature, finally the yield, the physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of the products were measured. It was concluded that Socorro propolis was the best for the production of microencapsulated due to their activity against pathogenic strains, for its large percentage of DPPH radical inactivation and for its high phenolic content. In spray drying, the concentration of bioactive had a greater impact than temperature and the conditions set allowed a good performance and the production of particles with high antioxidant potential and little chance of proliferation of microorganisms. Also, it was concluded that the best conditions that allowed us to obtain the best particles were obtained after drying a mixture 1:2 ( EEP: Maltodextrin), besides the concentration is the most important variable in the spray drying process, at the end we obtained particles of different sizes and shape and the uniformity of the surface depend on the temperature. After watching the previously mentioned microparticles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) it was concluded that most of the particles produced during the spray dry process had a spherical shape and presented agglomerations due to the moisture content of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP), the morphology of the microparticles contributed to the stability of the final product and reduce the loss of total phenolic content.
26
74289
Ethnic Andean Concepts of Health and Illness in the Post-Colombian World and Its Relevance Today
Abstract:
&mdash;&lsquo;MEDICINE&rsquo; is a new project funded under the EC Horizon 2020 Marie-Sklodowska Curie Actions, to determine concepts of health and healing from a culturally specific indigenous context, using a framework of interdisciplinary methods which integrates archaeological-historical, ethnographic and modern health sciences approaches. The study will generate new theoretical and methodological approaches to model how peoples survive and adapt their traditional belief systems in a context of alien cultural impacts. In the immediate wake of the conquest of Peru by invading Spanish armies and ideology, native Andeans responded by forming the Taki Onkoy millenarian movement, which rejected European philosophical and ontological teachings, claiming "you make us sick". The study explores how people&rsquo;s experience of their world and their health beliefs within it, is fundamentally shaped by their inherent beliefs about the nature of being and identity in relation to the wider cosmos. Cultural and health belief systems and related rituals or behaviors sustain a people&rsquo;s sense of identity, wellbeing and integrity. In the event of dislocation and persecution these may change into devolved forms, which eventually inter-relate with &lsquo;modern&rsquo; biomedical systems of health in as yet unidentified ways. The development of new conceptual frameworks that model this process will greatly expand our understanding of how people survive and adapt in response to cultural trauma. It will also demonstrate the continuing role, relevance and use of TM in present-day indigenous communities. Studies will first be made of relevant pre-Colombian material culture, and then of early colonial period ethnohistorical texts which document the health beliefs and ritual practices still employed by indigenous Andean societies at the advent of the 17th century Jesuit campaigns of persecution - &lsquo;Extirpaci&oacute;n de las Idolatr&iacute;as&rsquo;. Core beliefs drawn from these baseline studies will then be used to construct a questionnaire about current health beliefs and practices to be taken into the study population of indigenous Quechua peoples in the northern Andean region of Ecuador. Their current systems of knowledge and medicine have evolved within complex historical contexts of both the conquest by invading Inca armies in the late 15th century, followed a generation later by Spain, into new forms. A new model will be developed of contemporary&nbsp; Andean concepts of health, illness and healing demonstrating&nbsp; the way these have changed through time. With this, a &lsquo;policy tool&rsquo; will be constructed as a bridhging facility into contemporary global scenarios relevant to other Indigenous, First Nations, and migrant peoples to provide a means through which their traditional health beliefs and current needs may be more appropriately understood and met. This paper presents findings from the first analytical phases of the work based upon the study of the literature and the archaeological records. The study offers a novel perspective and methods in the development policies sensitive to indigenous and minority people&rsquo;s health needs.
25
56434
Ethnic Andean Concepts of Health and Illness in the Post-Colombian World and Its Relevance Today
Abstract:
&mdash;&lsquo;MEDICINE&rsquo; is a new project funded under the EC Horizon 2020 Marie-Sklodowska Curie Actions, to determine concepts of health and healing from a culturally specific indigenous context, using a framework of interdisciplinary methods which integrates archaeological-historical, ethnographic and modern health sciences approaches. The study will generate new theoretical and methodological approaches to model how peoples survive and adapt their traditional belief systems in a context of alien cultural impacts. In the immediate wake of the conquest of Peru by invading Spanish armies and ideology, native Andeans responded by forming the Taki Onkoy millenarian movement, which rejected European philosophical and ontological teachings, claiming "you make us sick". The study explores how people&rsquo;s experience of their world and their health beliefs within it, is fundamentally shaped by their inherent beliefs about the nature of being and identity in relation to the wider cosmos. Cultural and health belief systems and related rituals or behaviors sustain a people&rsquo;s sense of identity, wellbeing and integrity. In the event of dislocation and persecution these may change into devolved forms, which eventually inter-relate with &lsquo;modern&rsquo; biomedical systems of health in as yet unidentified ways. The development of new conceptual frameworks that model this process will greatly expand our understanding of how people survive and adapt in response to cultural trauma. It will also demonstrate the continuing role, relevance and use of TM in present-day indigenous communities. Studies will first be made of relevant pre-Colombian material culture, and then of early colonial period ethnohistorical texts which document the health beliefs and ritual practices still employed by indigenous Andean societies at the advent of the 17th century Jesuit campaigns of persecution - &lsquo;Extirpaci&oacute;n de las Idolatr&iacute;as&rsquo;. Core beliefs drawn from these baseline studies will then be used to construct a questionnaire about current health beliefs and practices to be taken into the study population of indigenous Quechua peoples in the northern Andean region of Ecuador. Their current systems of knowledge and medicine have evolved within complex historical contexts of both the conquest by invading Inca armies in the late 15th century, followed a generation later by Spain, into new forms. A new model will be developed of contemporary&nbsp; Andean concepts of health, illness and healing demonstrating&nbsp; the way these have changed through time. With this, a &lsquo;policy tool&rsquo; will be constructed as a bridhging facility into contemporary global scenarios relevant to other Indigenous, First Nations, and migrant peoples to provide a means through which their traditional health beliefs and current needs may be more appropriately understood and met. This paper presents findings from the first analytical phases of the work based upon the study of the literature and the archaeological records. The study offers a novel perspective and methods in the development policies sensitive to indigenous and minority people&rsquo;s health needs.
24
38753
Microstructural Characterization of Bitumen/Montmorillonite/Isocyanate Composites by Atomic Force Microscopy
Abstract:
Asphaltic bitumen has been largely used in both industrial and civil engineering, mostly in pavement construction and roofing membrane manufacture. However, bitumen as such is greatly susceptible to temperature variations, and dramatically changes its in-service behavior from a viscoelastic liquid, at medium-high temperatures, to a brittle solid at low temperatures. Bitumen modification prevents these problems and imparts improved performance. Isocyanates like polymeric MDI (mixture of 4,4′-diphenylmethane di-isocyanate, 2,4’ and 2,2’ isomers, and higher homologues) have shown to remarkably enhance bitumen properties at the highest in-service temperatures expected. This comes from the reaction between the –NCO pendant groups of the oligomer and the most polar groups of asphaltenes and resins in bitumen. In addition, oxygen diffusion and/or UV radiation may provoke bitumen hardening and ageing. With the purpose of minimizing these effects, nano-layered-silicates (nanoclays) are increasingly being added to bitumen formulations. Montmorillonites, a type of naturally occurring mineral, may produce a nanometer scale dispersion which improves bitumen thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. In order to increase their lipophilicity, these nanoclays are normally treated so that organic cations substitute the inorganic cations located in their intergallery spacing. In the present work, the combined effect of polymeric MDI and the commercial montmorillonite Cloisite® 20A was evaluated. A selected bitumen with penetration within the range 160/220 was modified with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and 2 wt.% polymeric MDI, and the resulting ternary composites were characterized by linear rheology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The rheological tests evidenced a notable solid-like behavior at the highest temperatures studied when bitumen was just loaded with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and high-shear blended for 20 minutes. However, if polymeric MDI was involved, the sequence of addition exerted a decisive control on the linear rheology of the final ternary composites. Hence, in bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the previous solid-like behavior disappeared. By contrast, an inversion in the order of addition (bitumen/polymeric MDI/ Cloisite® 20A) enhanced further the solid-like behavior imparted by the nanoclay. In order to gain a better understanding of the factors that govern the linear rheology of these ternary composites, a morphological and microstructural characterization based on XRD and AFM was conducted. XRD demonstrated the existence of clay stacks intercalated by bitumen molecules to some degree. However, the XRD technique cannot provide detailed information on the extent of nanoclay delamination, unless the entire fraction has effectively been fully delaminated (situation in which no peak is observed). Furthermore, XRD was unable to provide precise knowledge neither about the spatial distribution of the intercalated/exfoliated platelets nor about the presence of other structures at larger length scales. In contrast, AFM proved its power at providing conclusive information on the morphology of the composites at the nanometer scale and at revealing the structural modification that yielded the rheological properties observed. It was concluded that high-shear blending brought about a nanoclay-reinforced network. As for the bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the solid-like behavior was destroyed as a result of the agglomeration of the nanoclay platelets promoted by chemical reactions.
23
99005
Informal Carers in Telemonitoring of Users with Pacemakers: Characteristics, Time of Services Provided and Costs
Abstract:
Objectives: The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the burden borne by and the costs to informal caregivers of users with telemonitoring of pacemakers. Methods: This is a controlled, non-randomised clinical trial, with data collected from informal caregivers, five years after implantation of pacemakers. The Spanish version of the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations was used to get information on clinical and social characteristics, levels of professionalism, duration and types of care, difficulties in providing care, health status, economic and job aspects, impact on the family or leisure due to informal caregiving for patients with pacemakers. Results: After five years of follow-up, 55 users with pacemakers finished the study. Of which, 50 were helped by a caregiver, 18 were included in the telemonitoring group (TM) and 32 in the conventional follow-up group (HM). Overall, females represented 96.0% of the informal caregivers (88.89% in TM and 100.0% in HM group). The mean ages were 63.17 ± 15.92 and 63.13 ± 14.56 years, respectively (p = 0.83) in the groups. The majority (88.0%) of the caregivers declared that they had to provide their services between 6 and 7 days per week (83.33% in TM group versus 90.63% in HM group), without significant differences between both groups. The costs related to care provided by the informal caregivers were 47.04% higher in the conventional follow-up group than in the TM group. Conclusions: The results of this trial confirm that there were no significant differences between the informal caregivers regarding to baseline characteristics, workload and time worked in both groups of follow-up. The costs incurred by the informal caregivers providing care for users with pacemakers included in telemonitoring group are significantly lower than those in the conventional follow-up group. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02234245. Funding: The PONIENTE study, has been funded by the General Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation, Regional Government of Andalusia (Spain), project reference number PI/0256/2017, under the research call 'Development and Innovation Projects in the Field of Biomedicine and Health Sciences', 2017.
22
30216
Including Local Economic and Anthropometric Parameters in the Design of an Stand up Wheelchair
Abstract:
Ecuador, as a signatory country of the convention of the rights of persons with disabilities (CRPD) has, in the recent years, strengthened the structures and legal framework required to protect this minority comprised of 13.2% of its total population. However, the reality is that this group has disproportionately low earnings and low educational attainment in comparison with the general population. The main struggles, to promote job placement of wheelchairs users, are environmental discrimination caused by accessibility in structures and transportation, this mainly due to the cost, for private and public entities, of performing the reasonable accommodation they require. It is widely known that product development and production is needed to support effective implementation of the CRPD and that walking and standing are the major life activities, in this context the objective of this investigation is to promote job placement of wheelchair user in the province of Tungurahua by means of the design, production and marketing of a customized stand up wheelchair. Exploratory interviews and measurements were performed in a representative sample of working age wheelchairs users that develop their disability after achieving their physical maturity and that are capable of performing professional activities with their upper limbs, this in order to detect the user’s preference and determine the local economic and anthropometric parameters to be included in the wheelchair design. The findings reveal factors that uniquely impact quality of life and development for people with a mobility disability within the context of the province, first that transportation is a big issue since public buses does not have accessibility for wheelchair users and the absence of curb cuts and the presence of trash bins over the sidewalks among other hinders an economic independent mobility, second that the proposal based in the idea of modifying the wheelchairs to make it able to overcome certain obstacles helps people in wheelchair to improve their independent living and by reducing the costs of modification for the employer could improve their chances of finding work.
21
52197
Australian Football Supporters Engagement Patterns; Manchester United vs a-League
Abstract:
Australian football fans have a tendency to indulge in foreign football clubs, often assigning a greater value to foreign clubs, in preference to the Australian National football competition; the A-League. There currently exists a gap in the knowledge available in relation to football fans in Australia, their engagement with foreign football teams and the impact that this may have with their engagement with A-League. The purpose of this study was to compare the engagement of the members of the Manchester United Supporters Club - Australia (MUSC-Aus) with Manchester United and the A-League. An online survey was implemented to gather the relevant data from members of the MUSC-Aus. Results from completed surveys were collected, and analyzed in relation to engagement levels with Manchester United and the A-League. Members of MUSC-Aus who responded to the survey were predominantly male (94%) and born in Australia (46%), England (25%), Ireland (7%), were greatly influenced in their choice of Manchester United by family (43%) and team history (16%), whereas location was the overwhelming influence in supporting the A-League (88%). Importantly, there was a reduced level of engagement in the A-League on two accounts. Firstly, only 64% of MUSC-Aus engaged with the A-League, reporting perceptions of low standard as the major reason (50%). Secondly, MUSC-Aus members who engaged in the A-League reported reduced engagement in the A-League, identified through spending patterns. MUSC-Aus members’ expenditure on Manchester United engagement was 400% greater than expenditure on A-League engagement. Furthermore, additional survey responses indicated that the level of commitment towards the A-League overall was less than Manchester United. The greatest impact on fan engagement in the A-League by MUSC-Aus can be attributed to several primary factors; family support, team history and perceptions to on-field performance and quality of players. Currently, there is little that can be done in regards to enhancing family and history as the A-League is still in its infancy. Therefore, perceptions of on-field performances and player quality should be addressed. Introducing short-term international marquee contracts to A-League rosters, across the entire competition, may provide the platform to raise the perception of the A-League player quality with minimal impact on local player development. In addition, a national marketing campaign promoting the success of A-League clubs in the ACL, as well as promoting the skill on display in the A-League may address the negative association with the standard of the A-League competition.
20
93259
Scale-Up Study of Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in Downcomer
Abstract:
Downcomers are important conduits for multiphase flow transfer from offshore platforms to the seabed. Uncertainty in the predictions of the pressure drop of multiphase flow between platforms is often dominated by the uncertainty associated with the prediction of holdup and pressure drop in the downcomer. The objectives of this study are to conduct experimental and theoretical scale-up study of the downcomer. A 4-in. diameter vertical test section was designed and constructed to study two-phase flow in downcomer. The facility is equipped with baffles for flow area restriction, enabling interchangeable annular slot openings between 30% and 61.7%. Also, state-of-the-art instrumentation, the capacitance Wire-Mesh Sensor (WMS) was utilized to acquire the experimental data. A total of 76 experimental data points were acquired, including falling film under 30% and 61.7% annular slot opening for air-water and air-Conosol C200 oil cases as well as gas carry-under for 30% and 61.7% opening utilizing air-Conosol C200 oil. For all experiments, the parameters such as falling film thickness and velocity, entrained liquid holdup in the core, gas void fraction profiles at the cross-sectional area of the liquid column, the void fraction and the gas carry under were measured. The experimental results indicated that the film thickness and film velocity increase as the flow area reduces. Also, the increase in film velocity increases the gas entrainment process. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the increase of gas entrainment for the same liquid flow rate leads to an increase in the gas carry-under. A power comparison method was developed to enable evaluation of the Lopez (2011) model, which was created for full bore downcomer, with the novel scale-up experiment data acquired from the downcomer with the restricted area for flow. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions shows a maximum absolute average discrepancy of 22.9% and 21.8% for the falling film thickness and velocity, respectively; and a maximum absolute average discrepancy of 22.2% for fraction of gas carried with the liquid (oil).
19
53721
Copy Number Variants in Children with Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Diseases from Mexico
Abstract:
Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most common congenital abnormalities. These conditions can occur as both an element of distinct chromosomal malformation syndromes or as non-syndromic forms. Their etiology is not fully understood. Genetic variants such copy number variants have been associated with CHD. The aim of our study was to analyze these genomic variants in peripheral blood from Mexican children diagnosed with non-syndromic CHD. We included 16 children with atrial and ventricular septal defects and 5 healthy subjects without heart malformations as controls. To exclude the most common heart disease-associated syndrome alteration, we performed a fluorescence in situ hybridization test to identify the 22q11.2, responsible for congenital heart abnormalities associated with Di-George Syndrome. Then, a microarray based comparative genomic hybridization was used to identify global copy number variants. The identification of copy number variants resulted from the comparison and analysis between our results and data from main genetic variation databases. We identified copy number variants gain in three chromosomes regions from pediatric patients, 4q13.2 (31.25%), 9q34.3 (25%) and 20q13.33 (50%), where several genes associated with cellular, biosynthetic, and metabolic processes are located, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, SNAPC4, SDCCAG3, PMPCA, INPP6E, C9orf163, NOTCH1, C20orf166, and SLCO4A1. In addition, after a hierarchical cluster analysis based on the fluorescence intensity ratios from the comparative genomic hybridization, two congenital heart disease groups were generated corresponding to children with atrial or ventricular septal defects. Further analysis with a larger sample size is needed to corroborate these copy number variants as possible biomarkers to differentiate between heart abnormalities. Interestingly, the 20q13.33 gain was present in 50% of children with these CHD which could suggest that alterations in both coding and non-coding elements within this chromosomal region may play an important role in distinct heart conditions.
18
98341
Effect of Cooking Process on the Antioxidant Activity of Different Variants of Tomato-Based Sofrito
Abstract:
Tomato consumption has greatly increased worldwide in the last few years, mostly due to a growing demand for products like sofrito. In this sense, regular consumption of tomato-based products has been consistently associated with a reduction in the incidence of chronic degenerative diseases. The sofrito is a homemade tomato sauce typical of the Mediterranean area, which contains as main ingredients: tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil. There are also sofrito’s variations by adding other spices which bring at the same time not only color, flavor, smell and or aroma; they also provide medicinal properties, due to their antioxidant power. This protective effect has mainly been attributed to the predominant bioactive compounds present in sofrito, such as lycopene and other carotenoids as well as more than 40 different polyphenols. Regarding the cooking process, it is known that it can modify the properties and the availability of nutrients in sofrito; however, there is not enough information regarding this issue. For this reason, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the cooking effect on the antioxidant capacity of different variants of tomato-based sofrito combined with other spices, through the analysis of total phenols content (TPC) and to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by using the method of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Based on the results obtained, it can be confirmed that the basic sofrito composed of tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil and the sofrito with 1 g of rosemary added, are the ones with the highest content of phenols presenting greater antioxidant power than other industrial sofrito, and that of other variables of sofrito with added thyme or higher amounts of garlic. Moreover, it has been observed that in the elaboration of the tomato-based sofrito, it is possible to cook until 60 minutes, since the cooking process increases the bioavailability of the carotenoids when breaking the cell walls, which weakens the binding forces between the carotenoids and increases the levels of antioxidants present, confirmed both with the TPC and DPPH methods. It can be concluded that the cooking process of different variants of tomato-based sofrito, including spices, can improve the antioxidant capacity. The synergistic effects of different antioxidants may have a greater protective effect; increasing, also, the digestibility of proteins. In addition, the antioxidants help to deactivate the free radicals of diseases such as atherosclerosis, aging, immune suppression, cancer, and diabetes.
17
90424
The Automatisation of Dictionary-Based Annotation in a Parallel Corpus of Old English
Abstract:
The aims of this paper are to present the automatisation procedure adopted in the implementation of a parallel corpus of Old English, as well as, to assess the progress of automatisation with respect to tagging, annotation, and lemmatisation. The corpus consists of an aligned parallel text with word-for-word comparison Old English-English that provides the Old English segment with inflectional form tagging (gloss, lemma, category, and inflection) and lemma annotation (spelling, meaning, inflectional class, paradigm, word-formation and secondary sources). This parallel corpus is intended to fill a gap in the field of Old English, in which no parallel and/or lemmatised corpora are available, while the average amount of corpus annotation is low. With this background, this presentation has two main parts. The first part, which focuses on tagging and annotation, selects the layouts and fields of lexical databases that are relevant for these tasks. Most information used for the annotation of the corpus can be retrieved from the lexical and morphological database Nerthus and the database of secondary sources Freya. These are the sources of linguistic and metalinguistic information that will be used for the annotation of the lemmas of the corpus, including morphological and semantic aspects as well as the references to the secondary sources that deal with the lemmas in question. Although substantially adapted and re-interpreted, the lemmatised part of these databases draws on the standard dictionaries of Old English, including The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, and A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. The second part of this paper deals with lemmatisation. It presents the lemmatiser Norna, which has been implemented on Filemaker software. It is based on a concordance and an index to the Dictionary of Old English Corpus, which comprises around three thousand texts and three million words. In its present state, the lemmatiser Norna can assign lemma to around 80% of textual forms on an automatic basis, by searching the index and the concordance for prefixes, stems and inflectional endings. The conclusions of this presentation insist on the limits of the automatisation of dictionary-based annotation in a parallel corpus. While the tagging and annotation are largely automatic even at the present stage, the automatisation of alignment is pending for future research. Lemmatisation and morphological tagging are expected to be fully automatic in the near future, once the database of secondary sources Freya and the lemmatiser Norna have been completed.
16
90425
The Automatisation of Dictionary-Based Annotation in a Parallel Corpus of Old English
Abstract:
The aims of this paper are to present the automatisation procedure adopted in the implementation of a parallel corpus of Old English, as well as, to assess the progress of automatisation with respect to tagging, annotation, and lemmatisation. The corpus consists of an aligned parallel text with word-for-word comparison Old English-English that provides the Old English segment with inflectional form tagging (gloss, lemma, category, and inflection) and lemma annotation (spelling, meaning, inflectional class, paradigm, word-formation and secondary sources). This parallel corpus is intended to fill a gap in the field of Old English, in which no parallel and/or lemmatised corpora are available, while the average amount of corpus annotation is low. With this background, this presentation has two main parts. The first part, which focuses on tagging and annotation, selects the layouts and fields of lexical databases that are relevant for these tasks. Most information used for the annotation of the corpus can be retrieved from the lexical and morphological database Nerthus and the database of secondary sources Freya. These are the sources of linguistic and metalinguistic information that will be used for the annotation of the lemmas of the corpus, including morphological and semantic aspects as well as the references to the secondary sources that deal with the lemmas in question. Although substantially adapted and re-interpreted, the lemmatised part of these databases draws on the standard dictionaries of Old English, including The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, and A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. The second part of this paper deals with lemmatisation. It presents the lemmatiser Norna, which has been implemented on Filemaker software. It is based on a concordance and an index to the Dictionary of Old English Corpus, which comprises around three thousand texts and three million words. In its present state, the lemmatiser Norna can assign lemma to around 80% of textual forms on an automatic basis, by searching the index and the concordance for prefixes, stems and inflectional endings. The conclusions of this presentation insist on the limits of the automatisation of dictionary-based annotation in a parallel corpus. While the tagging and annotation are largely automatic even at the present stage, the automatisation of alignment is pending for future research. Lemmatisation and morphological tagging are expected to be fully automatic in the near future, once the database of secondary sources Freya and the lemmatiser Norna have been completed.
15
88538
The Automatisation of Dictionary-Based Annotation in a Parallel Corpus of Old English
Abstract:
The aims of this paper are to present the automatisation procedure adopted in the implementation of a parallel corpus of Old English, as well as, to assess the progress of automatisation with respect to tagging, annotation, and lemmatisation. The corpus consists of an aligned parallel text with word-for-word comparison Old English-English that provides the Old English segment with inflectional form tagging (gloss, lemma, category, and inflection) and lemma annotation (spelling, meaning, inflectional class, paradigm, word-formation and secondary sources). This parallel corpus is intended to fill a gap in the field of Old English, in which no parallel and/or lemmatised corpora are available, while the average amount of corpus annotation is low. With this background, this presentation has two main parts. The first part, which focuses on tagging and annotation, selects the layouts and fields of lexical databases that are relevant for these tasks. Most information used for the annotation of the corpus can be retrieved from the lexical and morphological database Nerthus and the database of secondary sources Freya. These are the sources of linguistic and metalinguistic information that will be used for the annotation of the lemmas of the corpus, including morphological and semantic aspects as well as the references to the secondary sources that deal with the lemmas in question. Although substantially adapted and re-interpreted, the lemmatised part of these databases draws on the standard dictionaries of Old English, including The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, and A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. The second part of this paper deals with lemmatisation. It presents the lemmatiser Norna, which has been implemented on Filemaker software. It is based on a concordance and an index to the Dictionary of Old English Corpus, which comprises around three thousand texts and three million words. In its present state, the lemmatiser Norna can assign lemma to around 80% of textual forms on an automatic basis, by searching the index and the concordance for prefixes, stems and inflectional endings. The conclusions of this presentation insist on the limits of the automatisation of dictionary-based annotation in a parallel corpus. While the tagging and annotation are largely automatic even at the present stage, the automatisation of alignment is pending for future research. Lemmatisation and morphological tagging are expected to be fully automatic in the near future, once the database of secondary sources Freya and the lemmatiser Norna have been completed.
14
77304
Wastewater Treatment in the Abrasives Industry via Fenton and Photo-Fenton Oxidation Processes: A Case Study from Peru
Abstract:
Phenols are toxic for life and the environment and may come from many sources. Uncured phenolic monomers present in phenolic resins used as binders in grinding wheels and emery paper can contaminate industrial wastewaters in abrasives manufacture plants. Furthermore, vestiges of resol and novolacs resins generated by wear and tear of abrasives are also possible sources of water contamination by phenolics in these facilities. Fortunately, advanced oxidation by dark Fenton and photo-Fenton techniques are capable of oxidizing phenols and their degradation products up to their mineralization into H₂O and CO₂. The maximal allowable concentrations for phenols in Peruvian waterbodies is very low, such that insufficiently treated effluents from the abrasives industry are a potential environmental noncompliance. The current case study highlights findings obtained during the lab-scale application of Fenton’s and photo-assisted Fenton’s chemistries to real industrial wastewater samples from an abrasives manufacture plant in Peru. The goal was to reduce the phenolic content and sample toxicity. For this purpose, two independent variables-reaction time and effect of ultraviolet radiation–were studied as for their impacts on the concentration of total phenols, total organic carbon (TOC), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, diluted samples (1 L) of the industrial effluent were treated with Fenton’s reagent (H₂O₂ and Fe²⁺ from FeSO₄.H₂O) during 10 min in a photochemical batch reactor (Alphatec RFS-500, Brazil) at pH 2.92. In the case of photo-Fenton tests with ultraviolet lamps of 9 W, UV-A, UV-B and UV-C lamps were evaluated. All process conditions achieved 100% of phenols degraded within 5 minutes. TOC, BOD and COD decreased by 49%, 52% and 86% respectively (all processes together). However, Fenton treatment was not capable of reducing BOD, COD and TOC below a certain value even after 10 minutes, contrarily to photo-Fenton. It was also possible to conclude that the processes here studied degrade other compounds in addition to phenols, what is an advantage. In all cases, elevated effluent dilution factors and high amounts of oxidant agent impact negatively the overall economy of the processes here investigated.
13
80905
Wastewater Treatment in the Abrasives Industry via Fenton and Photo-Fenton Oxidation Processes: A Case Study from Peru
Abstract:
Phenols are toxic for life and the environment and may come from many sources. Uncured phenolic monomers present in phenolic resins used as binders in grinding wheels and emery paper can contaminate industrial wastewaters in abrasives manufacture plants. Furthermore, vestiges of resol and novolacs resins generated by wear and tear of abrasives are also possible sources of water contamination by phenolics in these facilities. Fortunately, advanced oxidation by dark Fenton and photo-Fenton techniques are capable of oxidizing phenols and their degradation products up to their mineralization into H₂O and CO₂. The maximal allowable concentrations for phenols in Peruvian waterbodies is very low, such that insufficiently treated effluents from the abrasives industry are a potential environmental noncompliance. The current case study highlights findings obtained during the lab-scale application of Fenton’s and photo-assisted Fenton’s chemistries to real industrial wastewater samples from an abrasives manufacture plant in Peru. The goal was to reduce the phenolic content and sample toxicity. For this purpose, two independent variables-reaction time and effect of ultraviolet radiation–were studied as for their impacts on the concentration of total phenols, total organic carbon (TOC), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, diluted samples (1 L) of the industrial effluent were treated with Fenton’s reagent (H₂O₂ and Fe²⁺ from FeSO₄.H₂O) during 10 min in a photochemical batch reactor (Alphatec RFS-500, Brazil) at pH 2.92. In the case of photo-Fenton tests with ultraviolet lamps of 9 W, UV-A, UV-B and UV-C lamps were evaluated. All process conditions achieved 100% of phenols degraded within 5 minutes. TOC, BOD and COD decreased by 49%, 52% and 86% respectively (all processes together). However, Fenton treatment was not capable of reducing BOD, COD and TOC below a certain value even after 10 minutes, contrarily to photo-Fenton. It was also possible to conclude that the processes here studied degrade other compounds in addition to phenols, what is an advantage. In all cases, elevated effluent dilution factors and high amounts of oxidant agent impact negatively the overall economy of the processes here investigated.
12
95699
Brand Equity and Brand Image in Wine Tourism Regions: A Multigroup Analysis Comparing Visitors and Managers
Abstract:
The concept of brand equity in the wine tourism area is an interesting topic to explore the factors that determine it. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating wine tourism destinations brand equity, and understanding the impact that the denomination of origin (DO) brand image and the destination image have on brand equity. Managing and monitoring the branding of wine tourism destinations is crucial to attract tourist arrivals. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the branding process calls for research that, unlike previous studies, adopts a broader perspective and incorporates an internal and an external perspective. Therefore, this gap by comparing managers’ and visitors’ approaches to wine tourism destination brand equity has been addressed. A survey questionnaire for data collection purposes was used. The hypotheses were tested using winery managers and winery visitors, each leading a different position relative to the wine tourism destination brand equity. All the interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey instrument included several scales related to: DO brand image, destination image, and wine tourism destination brand equity. All items were measured on seven-point Likert scales. Partial least squares were used to analyze the accuracy of scales, the structural model, and multi-group analysis to identify the differences in the path coefficients and to test the hypotheses. The results show that the positive influence of DO brand image on wine tourism destination brand equity is stronger for wineries than for visitors, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. However, there are significant differences in the positive effect of destination brand image on both wine tourism destination brand equity and DO brand image. The results of this study are important for consultants, practitioners, and policymakers. The gap between managers and visitors calls for the development of a number of campaigns to enhance the image that visitors hold and thus, increase tourist arrivals. Events such as wine gatherings and gastronomic symposiums held at universities and culinary schools, and participation in business meetings can enhance the perceptions and in turn, the added value, brand equity of the wine tourism destinations. The images of destinations and DOs can help strengthen the brand equity of the wine tourism destinations, especially for visitors. Thus, the development and reinforcement of favorable, strong, and unique destination associations and DO associations are important to increase that value. Joint campaigns are advisable to enhance the images of destinations and DOs and, as a consequence, the value of the wine tourism destination brand.
11
95701
Brand Equity and Brand Image in Wine Tourism Regions: A Multigroup Analysis Comparing Visitors and Managers
Abstract:
The concept of brand equity in the wine tourism area is an interesting topic to explore the factors that determine it. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating wine tourism destinations brand equity, and understanding the impact that the denomination of origin (DO) brand image and the destination image have on brand equity. Managing and monitoring the branding of wine tourism destinations is crucial to attract tourist arrivals. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the branding process calls for research that, unlike previous studies, adopts a broader perspective and incorporates an internal and an external perspective. Therefore, this gap by comparing managers’ and visitors’ approaches to wine tourism destination brand equity has been addressed. A survey questionnaire for data collection purposes was used. The hypotheses were tested using winery managers and winery visitors, each leading a different position relative to the wine tourism destination brand equity. All the interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey instrument included several scales related to: DO brand image, destination image, and wine tourism destination brand equity. All items were measured on seven-point Likert scales. Partial least squares were used to analyze the accuracy of scales, the structural model, and multi-group analysis to identify the differences in the path coefficients and to test the hypotheses. The results show that the positive influence of DO brand image on wine tourism destination brand equity is stronger for wineries than for visitors, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. However, there are significant differences in the positive effect of destination brand image on both wine tourism destination brand equity and DO brand image. The results of this study are important for consultants, practitioners, and policymakers. The gap between managers and visitors calls for the development of a number of campaigns to enhance the image that visitors hold and thus, increase tourist arrivals. Events such as wine gatherings and gastronomic symposiums held at universities and culinary schools, and participation in business meetings can enhance the perceptions and in turn, the added value, brand equity of the wine tourism destinations. The images of destinations and DOs can help strengthen the brand equity of the wine tourism destinations, especially for visitors. Thus, the development and reinforcement of favorable, strong, and unique destination associations and DO associations are important to increase that value. Joint campaigns are advisable to enhance the images of destinations and DOs and, as a consequence, the value of the wine tourism destination brand.
10
95698
Brand Equity and Brand Image in Wine Tourism Regions: A Multigroup Analysis Comparing Visitors and Managers
Abstract:
The concept of brand equity in the wine tourism area is an interesting topic to explore the factors that determine it. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating wine tourism destinations brand equity, and understanding the impact that the denomination of origin (DO) brand image and the destination image have on brand equity. Managing and monitoring the branding of wine tourism destinations is crucial to attract tourist arrivals. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the branding process calls for research that, unlike previous studies, adopts a broader perspective and incorporates an internal and an external perspective. Therefore, this gap by comparing managers’ and visitors’ approaches to wine tourism destination brand equity has been addressed. A survey questionnaire for data collection purposes was used. The hypotheses were tested using winery managers and winery visitors, each leading a different position relative to the wine tourism destination brand equity. All the interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey instrument included several scales related to: DO brand image, destination image, and wine tourism destination brand equity. All items were measured on seven-point Likert scales. Partial least squares were used to analyze the accuracy of scales, the structural model, and multi-group analysis to identify the differences in the path coefficients and to test the hypotheses. The results show that the positive influence of DO brand image on wine tourism destination brand equity is stronger for wineries than for visitors, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. However, there are significant differences in the positive effect of destination brand image on both wine tourism destination brand equity and DO brand image. The results of this study are important for consultants, practitioners, and policymakers. The gap between managers and visitors calls for the development of a number of campaigns to enhance the image that visitors hold and thus, increase tourist arrivals. Events such as wine gatherings and gastronomic symposiums held at universities and culinary schools, and participation in business meetings can enhance the perceptions and in turn, the added value, brand equity of the wine tourism destinations. The images of destinations and DOs can help strengthen the brand equity of the wine tourism destinations, especially for visitors. Thus, the development and reinforcement of favorable, strong, and unique destination associations and DO associations are important to increase that value. Joint campaigns are advisable to enhance the images of destinations and DOs and, as a consequence, the value of the wine tourism destination brand.
9
95700
Brand Equity and Brand Image in Wine Tourism Regions: A Multigroup Analysis Comparing Visitors and Managers
Abstract:
The concept of brand equity in the wine tourism area is an interesting topic to explore the factors that determine it. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating wine tourism destinations brand equity, and understanding the impact that the denomination of origin (DO) brand image and the destination image have on brand equity. Managing and monitoring the branding of wine tourism destinations is crucial to attract tourist arrivals. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the branding process calls for research that, unlike previous studies, adopts a broader perspective and incorporates an internal and an external perspective. Therefore, this gap by comparing managers’ and visitors’ approaches to wine tourism destination brand equity has been addressed. A survey questionnaire for data collection purposes was used. The hypotheses were tested using winery managers and winery visitors, each leading a different position relative to the wine tourism destination brand equity. All the interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey instrument included several scales related to: DO brand image, destination image, and wine tourism destination brand equity. All items were measured on seven-point Likert scales. Partial least squares were used to analyze the accuracy of scales, the structural model, and multi-group analysis to identify the differences in the path coefficients and to test the hypotheses. The results show that the positive influence of DO brand image on wine tourism destination brand equity is stronger for wineries than for visitors, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. However, there are significant differences in the positive effect of destination brand image on both wine tourism destination brand equity and DO brand image. The results of this study are important for consultants, practitioners, and policymakers. The gap between managers and visitors calls for the development of a number of campaigns to enhance the image that visitors hold and thus, increase tourist arrivals. Events such as wine gatherings and gastronomic symposiums held at universities and culinary schools, and participation in business meetings can enhance the perceptions and in turn, the added value, brand equity of the wine tourism destinations. The images of destinations and DOs can help strengthen the brand equity of the wine tourism destinations, especially for visitors. Thus, the development and reinforcement of favorable, strong, and unique destination associations and DO associations are important to increase that value. Joint campaigns are advisable to enhance the images of destinations and DOs and, as a consequence, the value of the wine tourism destination brand.
8
22880
Jurisdictional Federalism and Formal Federalism: Levels of Political Centralization on American and Brazilian Models
Abstract:
This paper promotes a comparative analysis of American and Brazilian models of federalism assuming their levels of political centralization as main criterion. The central problem faced herein is the Brazilian approach of Unitarian regime. Although the hegemony of federative form after 1989, Brazil had a historical frame of political centralization that remains under the 1988 constitutional regime. Meanwhile, United States framed a federalism in which States absorb significant authorities. The hypothesis holds that the amount of alternative criteria of federalization – which can generate political centralization –, and the way they are upheld on judicial review, are crucial to understand the levels of political centralization achieved in each model. To test this hypothesis, the research is conducted by a methodology temporally delimited to 1994-2014 period. Three paradigmatic precedents of U.S. Supreme Court were selected: United States vs. Morrison (2000), on gender-motivated violence, Gonzales vs. Raich (2005), on medical use of marijuana, and United States vs. Lopez (1995), on firearm possession on scholar zones. These most relevant cases over federalism in the recent activity of Supreme Court indicates a determinant parameter of deliberation: the commerce clause. After observe the criterion used to permit or prohibit the political centralization in America, the Brazilian normative context is presented. In this sense, it is possible to identify the eventual legal treatment these controversies could receive in this Country. The decision-making reveals some deliberative parameters, which characterizes each federative model. At the end of research, the precedents of Rehnquist Court promote a broad revival of federalism debate, establishing the commerce clause as a secure criterion to uphold or not the necessity of centralization – even with decisions considered conservative. Otherwise, the Brazilian federalism solves them controversies upon in a formalist fashion, within numerous and comprehensive – sometimes casuistic too – normative devices, oriented to make an intense centralization. The aim of this work is indicate how jurisdictional federalism found in United States can preserve a consistent model with States robustly autonomous, while Brazil gives preference to normative mechanisms designed to starts from centralization.
7
57050
Modeling the Acquisition of Expertise in a Sequential Decision-Making Task
Abstract:
Our daily interaction with computational interfaces is plagued of situations in which we go from inexperienced users to experts through self-motivated exploration of the same task. In many of these interactions, we must learn to find our way through a sequence of decisions and actions before obtaining the desired result. For instance, when drawing cash from an ATM machine, choices are presented in a step-by-step fashion so that a specific sequence of actions must be performed in order to produce the expected outcome. But, as they become experts in the use of such interfaces, do users adopt specific search and learning strategies? Moreover, if so, can we use this information to follow the process of expertise development and, eventually, predict future actions? This would be a critical step towards building truly adaptive interfaces that can facilitate interaction at different moments of the learning curve. Furthermore, it could provide a window into potential mechanisms underlying decision-making behavior in real world scenarios. Here we tackle this question using a simple game interface that instantiates a 4-level binary decision tree (BDT) sequential decision-making task. Participants have to explore the interface and discover an underlying concept-icon mapping in order to complete the game. We develop a Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based approach whereby a set of stereotyped, hierarchically related search behaviors act as hidden states. Using this model, we are able to track the decision-making process as participants explore, learn and develop expertise in the use of the interface. Our results show that partitioning the problem space into such stereotyped strategies is sufficient to capture a host of exploratory and learning behaviors. Moreover, using the modular architecture of stereotyped strategies as a Mixture of Experts, we are able to simultaneously ask the experts about the user's most probable future actions. We show that for those participants that learn the task, it becomes possible to predict their next decision, above chance, approximately halfway through the game. Our long-term goal is, on the basis of a better understanding of real-world decision-making processes, to inform the construction of interfaces that can establish dynamic conversations with their users in order to facilitate the development of expertise.
6
46693
Potential Applications of Biosurfactants from Corn Steep Liquor in Cosmetic
Abstract:
The cosmetic and personal care industry are the fields where biosurfactants could have more possibilities of success because in this kind of products the replacement of synthetic detergents by natural surfactants will provide an additional added value to the product, at the same time that the harmful effects produced by some synthetic surfactants could be avoided or reduced. Therefore, nowadays, consumers are disposed to pay and additional cost if they obtain more natural products. In this work we provide data about the potential of biosurfactants in the cosmetic and personal care industry. Biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, that is a fermented and condensed stream, have showed good surface-active properties, reducing substantially the surface tension of water. The bacteria that usually growth in corn steep liquor comprises Lactobacillus species, generally recognize as safe. The biosurfactant extracted from CSL consists of a lipopeptide, composed by fatty acids, which can reduce the surface tension of water in more than 30 units. It is a yellow and viscous liquid with a density of 1.053 mg/mL and pH=4. By these properties, they could be introduced in the formulation of cosmetic creams, hair conditioners or shampoos. Moreover this biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor, have showed a potent antimicrobial effect on different strains of Streptococcus. Some species of Streptococcus are commonly found weakly living in the human respiratory and genitourinary systems, producing several diseases in humans, including skin diseases. For instance, Streptococcus pyogenes produces many toxins and enzymes that help to stabilize skin infections; probably biosurfactants from corn steep liquor can inhibit the mechanisms of the S. pyogenes enzymes. S. pyogenes is an important cause of pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. In this work it was observed that 50 mg/L of biosurfactant extract obtained from corn steep liquor is able to inhibit more than 50% the growth of S. pyogenes. Thus, cosmetic and personal care products, formulated with biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, could have prebiotic properties. The natural biosurfactant presented in this work and obtained from corn milling industry streams, have showed a high potential to provide an interesting and sustainable alternative to those, antibacterial and surfactant ingredients used in cosmetic and personal care manufacture, obtained by chemical synthesis, which can cause irritation, and often only show short time effects.
5
18910
Analysis in Mexico on Workers Performing Highly Repetitive Movements with Sensory Thermography in the Surface of the Wrist and Elbows
Abstract:
Currently companies have increased the number of disorders of cumulative trauma (CTDs), these are increasing significantly due to the Highly Repetitive Movements (HRM) performed in workstations, which causes economic losses to businesses, due to temporary and permanent disabilities of workers. This analysis focuses on the prevention of disorders caused by: repeatability, duration and effort; And focuses on reducing cumulative trauma disorders such as occupational diseases using sensory thermography as a noninvasive method, the above is to evaluate the injuries could have workers to perform repetitive motions. Objectives: The aim is to define rest periods or job rotation before they generate a CTD, this sensory thermography by analyzing changes in temperature patterns on wrists and elbows when the worker is performing HRM over a period of time 2 hours and 30 minutes. Information on non-work variables such as wrist and elbow injuries, weight, gender, age, among others, and work variables such as temperature workspace, repetitiveness and duration also met. Methodology: The analysis to 4 industrial designers, 2 men and 2 women to be specific was conducted in a business in normal health for a period of 12 days, using the following time ranges: the first day for every 90 minutes continuous work were asked to rest 5 minutes, the second day for every 90 minutes of continuous work were asked to rest 10 minutes, the same to work 60 and 30 minutes straight. Each worker was tested with 6 different ranges at least twice. This analysis was performed in a controlled room temperature between 20 and 25 ° C, and a time to stabilize the temperature of the wrists and elbows than 20 minutes at the beginning and end of the analysis. Results: The range time of 90 minutes working continuous and a rest of 5 minutes of activity is where the maximum temperature (Tmax) was registered in the wrists and elbows in the office, we found the Tmax was 35.79 ° C with a difference of 2.79 ° C between the initial and final temperature of the left elbow presented at the individual 4 during the 86 minutes, in of range in 90 minutes continuously working and rested for 5 minutes of your activity. Conclusions: It is possible with this alternative technology is sensory thermography predict ranges of rotation or rest for the prevention of CTD to perform HRM work activities, obtaining with this reduce occupational disease, quotas by health agencies and increasing the quality of life of workers, taking this technology a cost-benefit acceptable in the future.
4
31282
Dynamic Two-Way FSI Simulation for a Blade of a Small Wind Turbine
Abstract:
An optimal wind turbine blade design must be able of capturing as much energy as possible from the wind source available at the area of interest. Many times, an optimal design means the use of large quantities of material and complicated processes that make the wind turbine more expensive, and therefore, less cost-effective. For the construction and installation of a wind turbine, the blades may cost up to 20% of the outline pricing, and become more important due to they are part of the rotor system that is in charge of transmitting the energy from the wind to the power train, and where the static and dynamic design loads for the whole wind turbine are produced. The aim of this work is the develop of a blade fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation that allows the identification of the major damage zones during the normal production situation, and thus better decisions for design and optimization can be taken. The simulation is a dynamic case, since we have a time-history wind velocity as inlet condition instead of a constant wind velocity. The process begins with the free-use software NuMAD (NREL), to model the blade and assign material properties to the blade, then the 3D model is exported to ANSYS Workbench platform where before setting the FSI system, a modal analysis is made for identification of natural frequencies and modal shapes. FSI analysis is carried out with the two-way technic which begins with a CFD simulation to obtain the pressure distribution on the blade surface, then these results are used as boundary condition for the FEA simulation to obtain the deformation levels for the first time-step. For the second time-step, CFD simulation is reconfigured automatically with the next time-step inlet wind velocity and the deformation results from the previous time-step. The analysis continues the iterative cycle solving time-step by time-step until the entire load case is completed. This work is part of a set of projects that are managed by a national consortium called “CEMIE-Eólico” (Mexican Center in Wind Energy Research), created for strengthen technological and scientific capacities, the promotion of creation of specialized human resources, and to link the academic with private sector in national territory. The analysis belongs to the design of a rotor system for a 5 kW wind turbine design thought to be installed at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.
3
27364
Optimized Renewable Energy Mix for Energy Saving in Waste Water Treatment Plants
Abstract:
This paper shortly describes three main actuations over a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) for reducing its energy consumption: Optimization of the biological reactor in the aeration stage by including new control algorithms and introducing new efficient equipment, the installation of an innovative hybrid system with zero Grid injection (formed by 100kW of PV energy and 5 kW of mini-wind energy generation) and an intelligent management system for load consumption and energy generation control in the most optimum way. This project called RENEWAT, involved in the European Commission call LIFE 2013, has the main objective of reducing the energy consumptions through different actions on the processes which take place in a WWTP and introducing renewable energies on these treatment plants, with the purpose of promoting the usage of treated waste water for irrigation and decreasing the C02 gas emissions. WWTP is always required before waste water can be reused for irrigation or discharged in water bodies. However, the energetic demand of the treatment process is high enough for making the price of treated water to exceed the one for drinkable water. This makes any policy very difficult to encourage the re-use of treated water, with a great impact on the water cycle, particularly in those areas suffering hydric stress or deficiency. The cost of treating waste water involves another climate-change related burden: the energy necessary for the process is obtained mainly from the electric network, which is, in most of the cases in Europe, energy obtained from the burning of fossil fuels. The innovative part of this project is based on the implementation, adaptation and integration of solutions for this problem, together with a new concept of the integration of energy input and operative energy demand. Moreover, there is an important qualitative jump between the technologies used and the alleged technologies to use in the project which give it an innovative character, due to the fact that there are no similar previous experiences of a WWTP including an intelligent discrimination of energy sources, integrating renewable ones (PV and Wind) and the grid.
2
46932
Integration Process and Analytic Interface of different Environmental Open Data Sets with Java/Oracle and R
Abstract:
The main objective of our work is the comparative analysis of environmental data from Open Data bases, belonging to different governments. This means that you have to integrate data from various different sources. Nowadays, many governments have the intention of publishing thousands of data sets for people and organizations to use them. In this way, the quantity of applications based on Open Data is increasing. However each government has its own procedures to publish its data, and it causes a variety of formats of data sets because there are no international standards to specify the formats of the data sets from Open Data bases. Due to this variety of formats, we must build a data integration process that is able to put together all kind of formats. There are some software tools developed in order to give support to the integration process, e.g. Data Tamer, Data Wrangler. The problem with these tools is that they need data scientist interaction to take part in the integration process as a final step. In our case we don’t want to depend on a data scientist, because environmental data are usually similar and these processes can be automated by programming. The main idea of our tool is to build Hadoop procedures adapted to data sources per each government in order to achieve an automated integration. Our work focus in environment data like temperature, energy consumption, air quality, solar radiation, speeds of wind, etc. Since 2 years, the government of Madrid is publishing its Open Data bases relative to environment indicators in real time. In the same way, other governments have published Open Data sets relative to the environment (like Andalucia or Bilbao). But all of those data sets have different formats and our solution is able to integrate all of them, furthermore it allows the user to make and visualize some analysis over the real-time data. Once the integration task is done, all the data from any government has the same format and the analysis process can be initiated in a computational better way. So the tool presented in this work has two goals: 1. Integration process; and 2. Graphic and analytic interface. As a first approach, the integration process was developed using Java and Oracle and the graphic and analytic interface with Java (jsp). However, in order to open our software tool, as second approach, we also developed an implementation with R language as mature open source technology. R is a really powerful open source programming language that allows us to process and analyze a huge amount of data with high performance. There are also some R libraries for the building of a graphic interface like shiny. A performance comparison between both implementations was made and no significant differences were found. In addition, our work provides with an Official Real-Time Integrated Data Set about Environment Data in Spain to any developer in order that they can build their own applications.
1
46695
Contribution of the Corn Milling Industry to a Global and Circular Economy
Abstract:
The concept of the circular economy is focus on the importance of providing goods and services sustainably. Thus, in a future it will be necessary to respond to the environmental contamination and to the use of renewables substrates by moving to a more restorative economic system that drives towards the utilization and revalorization of residues to obtain valuable products. During its evolution our industrial economy has hardly moved through one major characteristic, established in the early days of industrialization, based on a linear model of resource consumption. However, this industrial consumption system will not be maintained during long time. On the other hand, there are many industries, like the corn milling industry, that although does not consume high amount of non renewable substrates, they produce valuable streams that treated accurately, they could provide additional, economical and environmental, benefits by the extraction of interesting commercial renewable products, that can replace some of the substances obtained by chemical synthesis, using non renewable substrates. From this point of view, the use of streams from corn milling industry to obtain surface-active compounds will decrease the utilization of non-renewables sources for obtaining this kind of compounds, contributing to a circular and global economy. However, the success of the circular economy depends on the interest of the industrial sectors in the revalorization of their streams by developing relevant and new business models. Thus, it is necessary to invest in the research of new alternatives that reduce the consumption of non-renewable substrates. In this study is proposed the utilization of a corn milling industry stream to obtain an extract with surfactant capacity. Once the biosurfactant is extracted, the corn milling stream can be commercialized as nutritional media in biotechnological process or as animal feed supplement. Usually this stream is combined with other ingredients obtaining a product namely corn gluten feed or may be sold separately as a liquid protein source for beef and dairy feeding, or as a nutritional pellet binder. Following the productive scheme proposed in this work, the corn milling industry will obtain a biosurfactant extract that could be incorporated in its productive process replacing those chemical detergents, used in some point of its productive chain, or it could be commercialized as a new product of the corn manufacture. The biosurfactants obtained from corn milling industry could replace the chemical surfactants in many formulations, and uses, and it supposes an example of the potential that many industrial streams could offer for obtaining valuable products when they are manage properly.