Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 60597

172
106975
Soil Penetration Resistance and Water Content Spatial Distribution Following Different Tillage and Crop Rotation in a Chinese Mollisol
Abstract:
To better understand the spatial variability of soil penetration resistance (SPR) and soil water content (SWC) induced by different tillage and crop rotation in a Mollisol of Northeast China, the soil was sampled from the tillage experiment which was established in Dehui County, Jilin Province, Northeast China, in 2001. Effect of no-tillage (NT), moldboard plow (MP) and ridge tillage (RT) under corn-soybean rotation (C-S) and continuous corn (C-C) system on SPR and SWC were compared with horizontal and vertical variations. The results showed that SPR and SWC spatially varied across the ridge. SPR in the rows was higher than inter-rows, especially in topsoil (2.5-15 cm) of NT and RT plots. SPR of MP changed in the trend with the curve-shaped ridge. In contrast to MP, NT, and RT resulted in average increment of 166.3% and 152.3% at a depth of 2.5-17.5 cm in the row positions, respectively. The mean SPR in topsoil in the rows means soil compaction is not the main factor limiting plant growth and crop yield. SPR in the row of RT soil was lower than NT at a depth of 2.5-12.5 cm. The SWC in NT and RT soil was highest in the inter-rows and least in the rows or shoulders, respectively. However, the lateral variation trend of MP was opposite to NT. From the profile view of SWC, MP was greater than NT and RT in 0-20 cm of the rows. SWC in RT soil was higher than NT in the row of 0-20 cm. Crop rotation did not have a marked impact on SPR and SWC. In addition to the tillage practices, the factor which affects SPR greatly was depth but not position. These two factors have significant effects on SWC. These results indicated that the adoption of RT was a more suitable conservation tillage practices than NT in the black soil of Northeast China.
171
3431
The Existence of Field Corn Networks on the Thailand-Burma Border under the Patron-Client Contract Farming System
Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the existence of field corn networks on the Thailand-Burma border under the patron-client contract farming system. The data of this qualitative study were collected through in-depth interviews with nine key informants. The results of the study revealed that the existence of the field corn networks was associated with the relationship where farmers had to share their crops with protectors in the areas under the influence of the KNU (Karen National Union) and the DKBA (Democratic Karen Buddhist Army) or Burmese soldiers. A Mae Liang, the person who starts a network has a connection with a Thaokae, Luk Rai Hua Chai or the head of a group of farmers, and farmers. They are under the patron-client system with trust and loyalty that enable the head of the group and the farmers in the Burma border side to remain under the same Mae Liang even though the business has been passed down to later generations.
170
4918
The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films
Abstract:
RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.
169
15211
Novel Verticillane-Type Diterpenoid from the Formosan Soft Coral Cespitularia taeniata
Abstract:
A novel diterpenoid, cespitulactam peroxide (1), was isolated from the Formosan Soft Coral Cespitularia taeniata. Compound 1 possesses a verticillene skeleton having a γ-lactam fused with 1,2-dioxetane ring system. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, especially HRMS and 2D NMR experiments.
168
98476
Risk Assessment of Natural Gas Pipelines in Coal Mined Gobs Based on Bow-Tie Model and Cloud Inference
Abstract:
Pipelines pass through coal mined gobs inevitably in the mining area, the stability of which has great influence on the safety of pipelines. After extensive literature study and field research, it was found that there are a few risk assessment methods for coal mined gob pipelines, and there is a lack of data on the gob sites. Therefore, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is widely used based on expert opinions. However, the subjective opinions or lack of experience of individual experts may lead to inaccurate evaluation results. Hence the accuracy of the results needs to be further improved. This paper presents a comprehensive approach to achieve this purpose by combining bow-tie model and cloud inference. The specific evaluation process is as follows: First, a bow-tie model composed of a fault tree and an event tree is established to graphically illustrate the probability and consequence indicators of pipeline failure. Second, the interval estimation method can be scored in the form of intervals to improve the accuracy of the results, and the censored mean algorithm is used to remove the maximum and minimum values of the score to improve the stability of the results. The golden section method is used to determine the weight of the indicators and reduce the subjectivity of index weights. Third, the failure probability and failure consequence scores of the pipeline are converted into three numerical features by using cloud inference. The cloud inference can better describe the ambiguity and volatility of the results which can better describe the volatility of the risk level. Finally, the cloud drop graphs of failure probability and failure consequences can be expressed, which intuitively and accurately illustrate the ambiguity and randomness of the results. A case study of a coal mine gob pipeline carrying natural gas has been investigated to validate the utility of the proposed method. The evaluation results of this case show that the probability of failure of the pipeline is very low, the consequences of failure are more serious, which is consistent with the reality.
167
12135
The Antitumor Activity of Eu (III) and Er (III) Complexes of 3 - (1H-Benzimidazol-2-Yl) - 6 - Methyl - 2 (1H) - Quinolinone
Abstract:
[Eu(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (1),and [Er(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (2),were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a certain extent cytotoxicity against Hep G2, Hela 229, MGC80-3 and BEL-7404 cell lines invitro, with IC50 values in the14.51±1.41μM to 52.49±4.01μM range. Compound 1 exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against MGC80-3 cell line, comparing with free 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-2(1H)- quinolinone. The binding abilities of 1 to DNA were stronger than that of 2. Intercalation is the most probable binding mode for both the complexes.
166
54127
Heinz-Type Inequalities in Hilbert Spaces
Abstract:
In this paper, we are concerned with the further refinements of the Heinz operator inequalities in Hilbert spaces. Our purpose is to derive several new Heinz-type operator inequalities. First, with the help of the Taylor series of some hyperbolic functions, we obtain some refinements of the ordering relations among Heinz means defined by Bhatia with different parameters, which would be more suitable in obtaining the corresponding operator inequalities. Second, we present some generalizations of Heinz operator inequalities. Finally, we give a matrix version of the Heinz inequality for the Hilbert-Schmidt norm.
165
43215
Investors’ Misreaction to Subsequent Bad News
Abstract:
Comparing with prior studies mainly focused on the effect of a certain event (it may be the initial announcement of bad news or the repeated announcements of identical bad news) on stock price, the aim of this study is to explore how investors react to subsequent bad news with identical content. Empirical results show that as a result of behavioral pitfalls, investors underreact to the initial announcement of the bad news (i.e., unknown bad news) and overreact to the repeated announcements of the identical bad news (i.e., known bad news).
164
22472
Extended Kalman Filter Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Abstract:
A robust sensorless speed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has been presented for estimation of stator flux components and rotor speed based on The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The model of PMSM and its EKF models are modeled in Matlab /Sirnulink environment. The proposed EKF speed estimation method is also proved insensitive to the PMSM parameter variations. Simulation results demonstrate a good performance and robustness.
163
106882
The Modern Significance of Chinese Traditional Gardens for the Development of Modern Eco-Garden Cities
Authors:
Abstract:
Chinese traditional gardens are the historical and cultural treasures of the whole mankind, among which the excellent parts still have important guiding significance for modern urban design. Based on the background of eco-garden city and reality, through the analysis of various design elements of classical gardens, combined with the needs of today's urban development, starting from the three needs of landscape, energy saving and environmental protection. To explore how Chinese traditional gardens can be revitalized in modern urban planning.
162
76992
3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline
Abstract:
Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.
161
88762
3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline
Abstract:
Seabed instability around offshore pipeline is one of key factors that must be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. To the authors’ best knowledge, unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.
160
88761
3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline
Abstract:
Seabed instability around offshore pipeline is one of key factors that must be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. To the authors’ best knowledge, unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.
159
31912
Video Sharing System Based On Wi-fi Camera
Abstract:
This paper introduces a video sharing platform based on WiFi, which consists of camera, mobile phone and PC server. This platform can receive wireless signal from the camera and show the live video on the mobile phone captured by camera. In addition that, it is able to send commands to camera and control the camera’s holder to rotate. The platform can be applied to interactive teaching and dangerous area’s monitoring and so on. Testing results show that the platform can share the live video of mobile phone. Furthermore, if the system’s PC sever and the camera and many mobile phones are connected together, it can transfer photos concurrently.
158
54219
The Magnitude Scale Evaluation of Cross-Platform Internet Public Opinion
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper introduces a model of internet public opinion waves, which describes the message propagation and measures the influence of a detected event. We collect data on public opinion propagation from different platforms on the internet, including micro-blogs and news. Then, we compare the spread of public opinion to the seismic waves and correspondently define the P-wave and S-wave and other essential attributes and characteristics in the process. Further, a model is established to evaluate the magnitude scale of the events. In the end, a practical example is used to analyze the influence of network public opinion and test the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed model.
157
35473
The Application of Data Mining Technology in Building Energy Consumption Data Analysis
Abstract:
Energy consumption data, in particular those involving public buildings, are impacted by many factors: the building structure, climate/environmental parameters, construction, system operating condition, and user behavior patterns. Traditional methods for data analysis are insufficient. This paper delves into the data mining technology to determine its application in the analysis of building energy consumption data including energy consumption prediction, fault diagnosis, and optimal operation. Recent literature are reviewed and summarized, the problems faced by data mining technology in the area of energy consumption data analysis are enumerated, and research points for future studies are given.
156
52767
Design and Implementation of a Fan Coil Unit Controller Based on the Duty Ratio Fuzzy Method
Abstract:
A microcontroller-based fan coil unit (FCU) fuzzy controller is designed and implemented in this paper. The controller employs the concept of duty ratio on the electric valve control, which could make full use of the cooling and dehumidifying capacity of the FCU when the valve is off. The traditional control method and its limitations are analyzed. The hardware and software design processes are introduced in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more energy efficient compared to the traditional controlling strategy. Furthermore, a more comfortable room condition could be achieved by the proposed method. The proposed low-cost FCU fuzzy controller deserves to be widely used in engineering applications.
155
93937
Dynamic Analysis of Differential Systems with Infinite Memory and Damping
Abstract:
In this work, we are concerned with the dynamic behaviors of solutions to some coupled systems with infinite memory, which consist of two partial differential equations where only one partial differential equation has damping. Such coupled systems are good mathematical models to describe the deformation and stress characteristics of some viscoelastic materials affected by temperature change, external forces, and other factors. By using the theory of operator semigroups, we give wellposedness results for the Cauchy problem for these coupled systems. Then, with the help of some auxiliary functions and lemmas, which are specially designed for overcoming difficulties in the proof, we show that the solutions of the coupled systems decay to zero in a strong way under a few basic conditions. The results in this dynamic analysis of coupled systems are generalizations of many existing results.
154
2973
A Simple Low-Cost 2-D Optical Measurement System for Linear Guideways
Abstract:
In this study, a simple 2-D measurement system based on optical design was developed to measure the motion errors of the linear guideway. Compared with the transitional methods about the linear guideway for measuring the motion errors, our proposed 2-D optical measurement system can simultaneously measure horizontal and vertical running straightness errors for the linear guideway. The performance of the 2-D optical measurement system is verified by experimental results. The standard deviation of the 2-D optical measurement system is about 0.4 μm in the measurement range of 100 mm. The maximum measuring speed of the proposed automatic measurement instrument is 1 m/sec.
153
9357
Characteristics of Different Solar PV Modules under Partial Shading
Abstract:
Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.
152
10362
Media Façades in the Wild: Some Lessons
Abstract:
Media displays in public areas are becoming increasingly pervasive—they are used in many settings, come in different sizes, serve different purposes, and have varied degrees of interactivity. In this paper, we aim to provide a survey of how these displays, often named media façades, are used in the wild in a city in China which is undergoing a rapid growth. This survey is intended to raise greater awareness and discussion about the use and effect of these displays in public areas. Through this survey, we have been able to distill some lessons of what is good, bad, and ugly about some current examples of media displays used in a city that is transitioning into becoming a modern one and one that is located in one of the fastest growing areas in Asia. With this research, we hope that we can provide technology designers and architects with some general principles that can help them integrate these types of technologies into their architectural creations.
151
110400
Design of Remote Monitoring System for Sewage Source Heat Pump
Abstract:
In this paper, the remote monitoring system of sewage source heat pump is designed and developed by using the scheme of PLC configuration software. According to the technological process of sewage source heat pump system, the communication between PLC and heat pump unit and the variable frequency water pump is realized by RS485 bus. The upper computer human-computer interaction software of sewage source heat pump control system is developed, and the system operation is realized. The functions of line data monitoring, remote control of units, and transducers are tested and verified. The results show that the system can achieve the expected functions and run well.
150
103008
Designing Directed Network with Optimal Controllability
Abstract:
The directedness of links is crucial to determine the controllability in complex networks. Even the edge directions can determine the controllability of complex networks. Obviously, for a given network, we wish to design its edge directions that make this network approach the optimal controllability. In this work, we firstly introduce two methods to enhance network by assigning edge directions. However, these two methods could not completely mitigate the negative effects of inaccessibility and dilations. Thus, to approach the optimal network controllability, the edge directions must mitigate the negative effects of inaccessibility and dilations as much as possible. Finally, we propose the edge direction for optimal controllability. The optimal method has been found to be successfully useful on real-world and synthetic networks.
149
15236
Chemical and Bioactive Constituents Isolated from the Formosa Zamia furfureace L.
Abstract:
Secondary metabolites are applied in the human life of the Chinese herbal medicine. Many drugs are originally extracted from natural products with combination of pharmaceutical and chemical studies. Crude extract of the leaves from Zamia furfureace L. has been shown to exhibit anticancer activities. The first chemical investigation of this plant was carried out by our group. In this study, four known compounds were isolated from Zamia furfureace L. with three lignins (Sesamin (1), Wodeshiol (2) and Paulownin (3)), and one dipeptide (Aurantiamide acetate (4)). The structures of these compounds were analyzed through the 1D-NMR(1H-NMR,13C-NMR)、2D-NMR(COSY、HMQC、HMBC、NOESY) spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison of variety of physical data (IR, mass spectrometry, ultraviolet, optical rotation). Among them, Aurantiamide acetate (4) exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against human gastric cancer cells.
148
58525
Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films
Abstract:
Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.
147
58871
Auto Classification of Multiple ECG Arrhythmic Detection via Machine Learning Techniques: A Review
Abstract:
Arrhythmia analysis of ECG signal plays a major role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. Therefore, a single arrhythmia detection of an electrocardiographic (ECG) record can determine multiple pattern of various algorithms and match accordingly each ECG beats based on Machine Learning supervised learning. These researchers used different features and classification methods to classify different arrhythmia types. A major problem in these studies is the fact that the symptoms of the disease do not show all the time in the ECG record. Hence, a successful diagnosis might require the manual investigation of several hours of ECG records. The point of this paper presents investigations cardiovascular ailment in Electrocardiogram (ECG) Signals for Cardiac Arrhythmia utilizing examination of ECG irregular wave frames via heart beat as correspond arrhythmia which with Machine Learning Pattern Recognition.
146
20097
Low-Temperature Catalytic Incineration of Acetone over MnCeOx Catalysts Supported on Mesoporous Aluminosilicate: The Mn-Ce Bimetallic Effect
Abstract:
In this work, transition metal (metal= Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Mn) modified cerium oxide catalysts supported on mesoporous aluminosilicate particles (Ce/Al-MSPs) were prepared using waste silicate as the precursors through aerosol-assisted flow process, and their catalytic performances were investigated for acetone incineration. Tests on the bimetallic Ce/Al-MSPs and Mn/Al-MSPs and trimetallic Mn-Ce, Fe-Ce, Co-Ce, Ni-Ce, and Cu-Ce/Al-MSPs in the temperature range of 100-300 oC demonstrated that Ce was the main active metal while Mn acted as a suitable promoter in acetone incineration reactions. Among tested catalysts, Mn-Ce/Al-MSPs with a Mn/Ce molar ratio of 2/1 exhibited the highest acetone catalytic activity. Moreover, the synergetic effect was observed for trimetallic Mn-Ce/Al-MSPs on the acetone removal as compared to the bimetallic Ce/Al-MSPs or Mn/Al-MSPs catalysts.
145
57009
Towards Automated Remanufacturing of Marine and Offshore Engineering Components
Abstract:
Automated remanufacturing process is of great interest in today’s marine and offshore industry. Most of the current remanufacturing processes are carried out manually and hence they are error prone, labour-intensive and costly. In this paper, a conceptual framework for automated remanufacturing is presented. This framework involves the integration of 3D non-contact digitization, adaptive surface reconstruction, additive manufacturing and machining operation. Each operation is operated and interconnected automatically as one system. The feasibility of adaptive surface reconstruction on marine and offshore engineering components is also discussed. Several engineering components were evaluated and the results showed that this proposed system is feasible. Conclusions are drawn and further research work is discussed.
144
48278
Interferometric Demodulation Scheme Using a Mode-Locker Fiber Laser
Abstract:
We demonstrated an interferometric demodulation scheme using a mode-locked fiber laser. The mode-locked fiber laser is launched into a two-beam interferometer. When the ratio between the fiber path imbalance of interferometer and the laser cavity length is close to an integer, an interferometric fringe emerges as a result of vernier effect, and then the phase shift of the interferometer can be demodulated. The mode-locked fiber laser provides a large bandwidth and reduces the cost for wavelength division multiplexion (WDM). The proposed interferometric demodulation scheme can be further applied in multi-point sensing system such as fiber optics hydrophone array, seismic wave detection network with high sensitivity and low cost.
143
81916
High Performance Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Fast Discrete Cosine Transform
Abstract:
Based on fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT), the authors present a high capacity and high perceived quality method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. By using a simple adjusting policy to the 1-dimentional (1-D) DCT coefficients, a large volume of secret message can be effectively embedded in an ECG host signal and be successfully extracted at the intended receiver. Simulations confirmed that the resulting perceived quality is good, while the hiding capability of the proposed method significantly outperforms that of existing techniques. In addition, our proposed method has a certain degree of robustness. Since the computational complexity is low, it is feasible for our method being employed in real-time applications.
142
14665
Eye Diagram for a System of Highly Mode Coupled PMD/PDL Fiber
Abstract:
To evaluate the optical eye diagram due to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), polarization-dependent loss (PDL), and chromatic dispersion (CD) for a system of highly mode coupled fiber with lumped section at any given optical pulse sequence we present an analytical modle. We found that with considering PDL and the polarization direction correlation between PMD and PDL, a system with highly mode coupled fiber with lumped section can have either higher or lower Q-factor than a highly mode coupled system with same root mean square PDL/PMD values. Also we noticed that a system of two highly mode coupled fibers connected together is not equivalent to a system of highly mode coupled fiber when fluctuation is considered
141
2815
Multiscale Structures and Their Evolution in a Screen Cylinder Wake
Abstract:
The turbulent structures in the wake (x/d =10 to 60) of a screen cylinder have been reduced to understand the roles of the various structures as evolving downstream by comparing with those obtained in a solid circular cylinder wake at Reynolds number, Re of 7000. Using a wavelet multi-resolution technique, the flow structures are decomposed into a number of wavelet components based on their central frequencies. It is observed that in the solid cylinder wake, large-scale structures (of frequency f0 and 1.2 f0) make the largest contribution to the Reynolds stresses although they start to lose their roles significantly at x/d > 20. In the screen cylinder wake, the intermediate-scale structures (2f0 and 4f0) contribute the most to the Reynolds stresses at x/d =10 before being taken over by the large-scale structures (f0) further downstream.
140
22902
Gimbal Structure for the Design of 3D Flywheel System
Abstract:
New design of three dimensional (3D) flywheel system based on gimbal and gyro mechanics is proposed. The 3D flywheel device utilizes the rotational motion of three spherical shells and the conservation of angular momentum to achieve planar locomotion. Actuators mounted to the ring-shape frames are installed within the system to drive the spherical shells to rotate, for the purpose of steering and stabilization. Similar to the design of 2D flywheel system, it is expected that the spherical shells may function like a “flyball” to store and supply mechanical energy; additionally, in comparison with typical single-wheel and spherical robots, the 3D flywheel can be used for developing omnidirectional robotic systems with better mobility. The Lagrangian method is applied to derive the equation of motion of the 3D flywheel system, and simulation studies are presented to verify the proposed design.
139
33518
Creative Self-efficacy and Innovation Speed of New Ventures: The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Bricolage
Abstract:
Evidence shows that start-ups success is positively correlated with innovation speed. However, new ventures are seldom able to acquire abundant resources for new product development (NPD), which means that entrepreneurs may depend on personal creativity instead of physical investments to achieve and accelerate speed of first product launch. This study accentuates the role of entrepreneurial bricolage, which defined as making do by applying combinations of the resources at hand to new problems and opportunities, in the relations of creative self-efficacy and innovation speed. This study uses structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses in a sample of 203 start-ups operating various creative markets. Results reveal that creative self-efficacy is positively and directly associated with innovation speed, whereas entrepreneurial bricolage plays a full mediator. These findings offer important theoretical and practical implications.
138
110860
Remote Monitoring and Control System of Potentiostat Based on Internet of Things
Abstract:
Constant potometer is an important component of pipeline anti-corrosion system in the chemical industry. Based on Internet of Things technology, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) technology and database technology, this paper developed a set of constant potometer remote monitoring management system. The remote monitoring and remote adjustment of the working status of the constant potometer are realized. The system has real-time data display, historical data query, alarm push management, user permission management, and supporting Web access and mobile client application (APP) access. The actual engineering project test results show the stability of the system, which can be widely used in cathodic protection system.
137
35989
Blood Clot Emulsification via Ultrasonic Thrombolysis Device
Abstract:
Patients with blood clots in their brains can experience problems with their vision or speech, seizures and general weakness. To treat blood clots, clinicians presently have two options. The first involves drug therapy to thin the blood and thus reduce the clot. The second choice is to invasively remove the clot using a plastic tube called a catheter. Both approaches carry a high risk of bleeding, and invasive procedures, such as catheter intervention, can also damage the blood vessel wall and cause infection. Ultrasonic treatment as a potential alternative therapy to break down clots is attracting growing interests due to the reduced adverse effects. To demonstrate the concept, in this investigation a microfabricated ultrasonic device was electrically packaged with printed circuit board to treat healthy human blood. The red blood cells could be broken down after 3-hour ultrasonic treatment.
136
7574
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process
Abstract:
The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.
135
46101
An Early Detection Type 2 Diabetes Using K - Nearest Neighbor Algorithm
Abstract:
This research aimed at developing an early warning system for pre-diabetic and diabetics by analyzing simple and easily determinable signs and symptoms of diabetes among the people living in Malaysia using Particle Swarm Optimized Artificial. With the skyrocketing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Malaysia, the system can be used to encourage affected people to seek further medical attention to prevent the onset of diabetes or start managing it early enough to avoid the associated complications. The study sought to find out the best predictive variables of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, developed a system to diagnose diabetes from the variables using Artificial Neural Networks and tested the system on accuracy to find out the patent generated from diabetes diagnosis result in machine learning algorithms even at primary or advanced stages.
134
49472
The Research of 'Rope Coiling' Effect in Near-Field Electrospinning
Abstract:
The 'rope coiling' effect is a normal instability phenomenon widespread exists in viscous fluid, elastic rods and polymeric fibers owing to compressive stress when they fall into a moving belt. Near-field electro-spinning is the modified electro-spinning technique has the ability to direct write micro fibers. In this research, we study the “rope coiling” effect in near-field electro-spinning. By changing the distance between nozzle and collector or the speed ratio between the charge jet speed and the platform moving speed, we obtain a pile of different models coils including the meandering, alternating and coiling patterns. Therefore, this instability can be used to direct write micro structured fibers with a one-step process.
133
9223
Replacement Time and Number of Preventive Maintenance Actions for Second-Hand Device
Abstract:
In this study, the optimal replacement time and number of preventive maintenance (PM) actions were investigated for a second-hand device. Suppose that a user intends to use a second-hand device for manufacturing products, and that the device is replaced with a new one. Any device failure is rectified through minimal repair, thereby incurring a fixed repair cost to the user. If the new device fails within the FRW period, minimal repair is performed at no cost to the user. After the FRW expires, a failed device is repaired and the cost of repair is incurred by the user. In this study, two profit models were developed, and the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were determined to maximize profits. Finally, the influence of the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were elaborated on, using numerical examples.
132
34283
Biogas Separation, Alcohol Amine Solutions
Abstract:
Biogas, which is a valuable renewable energy source, can be produced by anaerobic fermentation of agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste, or food waste. It is composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) but also contains significant quantities of undesirable compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and siloxanes. Since typical raw biogas contains 25–45% CO2, The requirements for biogas quality depend on its further application. Before biogas is being used more efficiently, CO2 should be removed. One of the existing options for biogas separation technologies is based on chemical absorbents, in particular, mono-, di- and tri-alcohol amine solutions. Such amine solutions have been applied as highly efficient CO2 capturing agents. The benchmark in this experiment is N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) with piperazine (PZ) as an activator, from CO2 absorption Isotherm curve, optimization conditions are collected, such as activator percentage, temperature etc. This experiment makes new alcohol amines, which could have the same CO2 absorbing ability as activated MDEA, using glycidol as one of reactant, the result is quite satisfying.
131
2858
Diallyl Trisulfide Protects the Rat Liver from CCl4-Induced Injury and Fibrogenesis by Attenuating Oxidative Stress
Abstract:
Various studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) can protect the liver injury, and DATS has a strong antioxidant property. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vivo role of DATS in protecting the liver against injury and fibrogenesis and further explores the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that DATS protected the liver from CCl4-caused injury by suppressing the elevation of ALT and AST activities, and by improving the histological architecture of the liver. Treatment with DATS or colchicine improved the liver fibrosis by sirius red staining and immunofluorescence. In addition, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analyses indicated that DATS inhibited HSC activation. Furthermore, DATS attenuated oxidative stress by increasing glutathione and reducing lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde. These findings suggest that the protective effect of DATS on CCl4-caused liver injury and liver fibrogenesis was, at least partially, attributed to its antioxidant activity.
130
54222
Dynamic Transmission Modes of Network Public Opinion on Subevents Clusters of an Emergent Event
Abstract:
The rise and attenuation of the public opinion broadcast of an emergent accident, in the social network, has a close relationship with the dynamic development of its subevents cluster. In this article, we take Tianjin Port explosion's subevents as an example to research the dynamic propagation discipline of Internet public opinion in a sudden accident, and analyze the overall structure of dynamic propagation to propose four different routes for subevents clusters propagation. We also generate network diagrams for the dynamic public opinion propagation, analyze each propagation type specifically. Based on this, suggestions on the supervision and guidance of Internet public opinion broadcast can be made.
129
82081
Design and Burnback Analysis of Three Dimensional Modified Star Grain
Abstract:
The determination of grain geometry is an important and critical step in the design of solid propellant rocket motor. In this study, the design process involved parametric geometry modeling in CAD, MATLAB coding of performance prediction and 2D star grain ignition experiment. The 2D star grain burnback achieved by creating new surface via each web increment and calculating geometrical properties at each step. The 2D star grain is further modified to burn as a tapered 3D star grain. Zero dimensional method used to calculate the internal ballistic performance. Experimental and theoretical results were compared in order to validate the performance prediction of the solid rocket motor. The results show that the usage of 3D grain geometry will decrease the pressure inside the combustion chamber and enhance the volumetric loading ratio.
128
93235
CRISPR-DT: Designing gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 System with Improved Target Efficiency and Specificity
Abstract:
The CRISPR-Cpf1 system has been successfully applied in genome editing. However, target efficiency of the CRISPR-Cpf1 system varies among different gRNA sequences. The published CRISPR-Cpf1 gRNA data was reanalyzed. Many sequences and structural features of gRNAs (e.g., the position-specific nucleotide composition, position-nonspecific nucleotide composition, GC content, minimum free energy, and melting temperature) correlated with target efficiency were found. Using machine learning technology, a support vector machine (SVM) model was created to predict target efficiency for any given gRNAs. The first web service application, CRISPR-DT (CRISPR DNA Targeting), has been developed to help users design optimal gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 system by considering both target efficiency and specificity. CRISPR-DT will empower researchers in genome editing.
127
94910
CRISPR-DT: Designing gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 System with Improved Target Efficiency and Specificity
Abstract:
The CRISPR-Cpf1 system has been successfully applied in genome editing. However, target efficiency of the CRISPR-Cpf1 system varies among different gRNA sequences. The published CRISPR-Cpf1 gRNA data was reanalyzed. Many sequences and structural features of gRNAs (e.g., the position-specific nucleotide composition, position-nonspecific nucleotide composition, GC content, minimum free energy, and melting temperature) correlated with target efficiency were found. Using machine learning technology, a support vector machine (SVM) model was created to predict target efficiency for any given gRNAs. The first web service application, CRISPR-DT (CRISPR DNA Targeting), has been developed to help users design optimal gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 system by considering both target efficiency and specificity. CRISPR-DT will empower researchers in genome editing.
126
85851
Investigating the Dose Effect of Electroacupuncture on Mice Inflammatory Pain Model
Abstract:
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported effective for many kinds of pain and is a common treatment for acute or chronic pain. However, to date, there are limited studies examining the effect of acupuncture dosage. In our experiment, after injecting mice with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) to induce inflammatory pain, two groups of mice were administered two different 15 min EA treatments at 2Hz. The first group received EA at a single acupuncture point (ST36, Zusanli) in both legs (two points), whereas the second group received two acupuncture points in both legs (four points) and the analgesic effect was compared. It was found that double points (ST36, Zusanli and SP6, Sanyinjiao) were significantly superior to single points (ST36, Zusanli) when evaluated using the electronic von Frey Test (mechanic) and Hargreaves’ Test (thermal). Through this study, it is expected more novel physiological mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia will be discovered.
125
58286
An Improved Parameter Identification Method for Three Phase Induction Motor
Abstract:
In order to improve the control performance of vector inverter, an improved parameter identification solution for induction motor is proposed in this paper. Dc or AC voltage is applied to the induction motor using the SVPWM through the inverter. Then stator resistance, stator leakage inductance, rotor resistance, rotor leakage inductance and mutual inductance are obtained according to the signal response. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is used to deal with the noise and harmonic. The impact on parameter identification caused by delays in the inverter switch tube, tube voltage drop and dead-time is avoided by effective compensation measures. Finally, the parameter identification experiment is conducted based on the vector inverter which using TMS320F2808 DSP as the core processor and results show that the strategy is verified.
124
5832
The Determinants of Senior Students, Behavioral Intention on the Blended E-Learning for the Ceramics Teaching Course at the Active Aging University
Abstract:
In this paper, the authors try to investigate the determinants of behavioral intention of the blended e-learning course for senior students at the Active Ageing University in Taiwan. Due to lower proficiency in the use of computers and less experience on learning styles of the blended e-learning course for senior students will be expected quite different from those for most young students. After more than five weeks course for two years the questionnaire survey is executed to collect data for statistical analysis in order to understand the determinants of the behavioral intention for senior students. The object of this study is at one of the Active Ageing University in Taiwan total of 84 senior students in the blended e-learning for the ceramics teaching course. The research results show that only the perceived usefulness of the blended e-learning course has significant positive relationship with the behavioral intention.
123
32495
Effect of Resveratrol and Ascorbic Acid on the Stability of Alfa-Tocopherol in Whey Protein Isolate Stabilized O/W Emulsions
Abstract:
Food proteins have been widely used as carrier materials because of their multiple functional properties. In this study, alfa-tocopherol was encapsulated in the oil phase of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI). The influence of WPI concentration and resveratrol or ascorbic acid on the decomposition of alfa-tocopherol in the emulsion during storage is discussed. Decomposition decreased as WPI concentrations increased. Decomposition was delayed at ascorbic acid/WPI molar ratios lower than 5 but was promoted at higher ratios. Resveratrol partitioned into the oil-water interface by binding to WPI and its cis-isomer is believed to have contributed most of the protective effect of this polyphenol. These results suggest the possibility of using the emulsifying and ligand-binging properties of WPI to produce carriers for simultaneous encapsulation of alfa-tocopherol and resveratrol in a single emulsion system.
122
23661
Thermodynamics of Chlorination of Acid-Soluble Titanium Slag in Molten Salt for Preparation of TiCl4
Authors:
Abstract:
Chinese titanium iron ore reserves with high calcium and magnesium accounted for more than 90% of the total reserves, and acid-soluble titanium slag which is produced by titanium iron ore always used to produce titanium dioxide through sulphate process. To broad the application range of acid-soluble titanium slag, the feasibility and thermodynamics of chlorinated reaction for preparation TiCl4 by titanium slag chlorination in molten slat were conducted in this paper. The analysis results show that TiCl4 can be obtained by chlorinate the acid-dissolved titanium slag with carbon. Component’s thermodynamics reaction trend is: CaO>MnO>FeO(FeCl2)>MgO>V2O5>Fe2O3>FeO(FeCl3)>TiO2>Al2O3>SiO2 in the standard state. Industrial experimental results are consistent with the thermodynamics analysis, the content of TiCl4 is more than 98% in the production. Fe, Si, V, Al, and other impurity content can satisfy the requirements of production.
121
22716
Functionalized SPIO Conjugated with Doxorubicin for Tumor Diagnosis and Chemotherapy Enhanced by Applying Magnetic Fields
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to develop super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nano-particles comprised of a magnetic Fe3O4 core and a shell of aqueous stable self-doped polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a high loading of doxorubicin (SPIO-PEG-D) for tumor theranostics. The in-vivo MRI study showed that there was a stronger T2-weighted signal enhancement for the group under a magnetic field, and hence it indicated that this group had a better accumulation of SPIO-PEG than the group without a magnetic field. In the anticancer evaluation of SPIO-PEG-D, the group with a magnetic field displayed a significantly smaller tumor size than the group without. The overall results show that SPIO-PEG-D nanoparticles have the potential for the application of MRI/monitoring chemotherapy and the therapy can be locally enhanced by applying an external magnetic field.
120
29325
Drying Shrinkage of Magnesium Silicate Hydrate Gel Cements
Abstract:
Cracks were observed when the magnesium silicate hydrate gel cement (prepared by 40% MgO/ 60% silica fume) was dried. This drying cracking is believed to be caused when unbound water evaporates from the binder. The shrinkage upon forced drying to 200 °C of mortars made up from a reactive magnesium oxide, silica fume and sand was measured using dilatometry. The magnitude of the drying shrinkage was found to decrease when more sand or less water was added to the mortars and can be as low as 0.16% for a mortar containing 60 wt% sand and a water to cement ratio of 0.5, which is of a similar order of magnitude as observed in Portland cement based mortars and concretes. A simple geometrical interpretation based on packing of the particles in the mortar can explain the observed drying shrinkages and based on this analysis the drying shrinkage of the hydration products at zero added solid is estimated to be 7.3% after 7 days of curing.
119
4325
Model-Based Control for Piezoelectric-Actuated Systems Using Inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii Model and Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:
In this paper feedforward controller is designed to eliminate nonlinear hysteresis behaviors of a piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA) driven system. The control design is based on inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii (P-I) hysteresis model identified using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. Based on the identified P-I model, both the inverse P-I hysteresis model and feedforward controller can be determined. Experimental results obtained using the inverse P-I feedforward control are compared with their counterparts using hysteresis estimates obtained from the identified Bouc-Wen model. Effectiveness of the proposed feedforward control scheme is demonstrated. To improve control performance feedback compensation using traditional PID scheme is adopted to integrate with the feedforward controller.
118
16195
Study on the Forging of AISI 1015 Spiral Bevel Gear by Finite Element Analysis
Abstract:
This study applies the finite element method (FEM) to predict maximum forging load, effective stress distribution, effective strain distribution, workpiece temperature temperature in spiral bevel gear forging of AISI 1015. Maximum forging load, effective stress, effective strain, workpiece temperature are determined for different process parameters, such as modules, number of teeth, helical angle and workpiece temperature of the spiral bevel gear hot forging, using the FEM. Finally, the prediction of the power requirement for the spiral bevel gear hot forging of AISI 1015 is determined.
117
2857
The Investigation of the Active Constituents, Danshen for Angiogenesis
Abstract:
Danshen can induce the angiogenesis in advanced ischemic heart disease while inhibiting the angiogenesis in cancer. Additionally, Danshen mainly contains two groups of ingredients: the hydrophilic phenolic acids (danshensu, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B), and the lipophilic tanshinones (dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone II A, and cryptotanshinone). The lipophilic tanshinones reduced the VEGF- and bFGF-induced proliferation of HUVECs in dose-dependent manner, but cannot perform in others. Conversely, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B had the opposite effect. Danshensu inhibited the VEGF- and bFGF-induced migration of HUVECs, and others were not. Most of them interrupted the forming capillary-like structures of HUVECs, except the danshensu and caffeic acid. Oppositely, caffeic acid enhanced the ability of forming capillary-like structures of HUVECs. Ultimately, the lipophilic tanshinones, danshensu and salvianolic acid B inhibited the angiogenesis, whereas the caffeic acid induced the angiogenesis. These data provide useful information for the classification of ingredients of Danshen for angiogenesis.
116
7545
A New Concept for Deriving the Expected Value of Fuzzy Random Variables
Abstract:
Fuzzy random variables have been introduced as an imprecise concept of numeric values for characterizing the imprecise knowledge. The descriptive parameters can be used to describe the primary features of a set of fuzzy random observations. In fuzzy environments, the expected values are usually represented as fuzzy-valued, interval-valued or numeric-valued descriptive parameters using various metrics. Instead of the concept of area metric that is usually adopted in the relevant studies, the numeric expected value is proposed by the concept of distance metric in this study based on two characters (fuzziness and randomness) of FRVs. Comparing with the existing measures, although the results show that the proposed numeric expected value is same with those using the different metric, if only triangular membership functions are used. However, the proposed approach has the advantages of intuitiveness and computational efficiency, when the membership functions are not triangular types. An example with three datasets is provided for verifying the proposed approach.
115
85446
Remote Electroacupuncture Analgesia at Contralateral LI4 Acupoint in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Inflammatory Hindpaw Pain
Abstract:
There are accumulating evidences surrounding the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA). Local EA can reliably attenuate inflammatory pain in mouse with unclear mechanisms. However, the effect of EA on distal and contralateral acupoint for pain control has been rarely studied and the result was controversial. Here in our study, we found that inflammatory hindpaw pain in mouth, which was induced by injecting the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) 2 days ago can be alleviated immediately after 2Hz 15mins EA treatment at contralateral forefoot acupoint LI4 through both mechanic and thermal behavior test, while sham acupoint group is not. The efficacy was observed to be more obvious after the second round of EA treatment on the following day. This analgesic effect is produced by applying EA to a site remote from the painful area. The present study provides a powerful experimental animal model that can be used for investigating the unique physiological mechanisms involved in acupuncture analgesia.
114
33308
Comparisons of Individual and Group Replacement Policies for a Series Connection System with Two Machines
Abstract:
This paper studies the comparisons of individual and group replacement policies for a series connection system with two machines. Suppose that manufacturer’s production system is a series connection system which is combined by two machines. For two machines, when machines fail within the operating time, minimal repair is performed for machines by the manufacturer. The manufacturer plans to a preventive replacement for machines at a pre-specified time to maintain system normal operation. Under these maintenance policies, the maintenance cost rate models of individual and group replacement for a series connection system with two machines is derived and further, optimal preventive replacement time is obtained such that the expected total maintenance cost rate is minimized. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the influences of individual and group replacement policies to the maintenance cost rate.
113
60797
Assessing Relationships between Glandularity and Gray Level by Using Breast Phantoms
Abstract:
Breast cancer is predominant of malignant tumors in females. The increase in the glandular density increases the risk of breast cancer. BI-RADS is a frequently used density indicator in mammography; however, it significantly overestimates the glandularity. Therefore, it is very important to accurately and quantitatively assess the glandularity by mammography. In this study, 20%, 30% and 50% glandularity phantoms were exposed using a mammography machine at 28, 30 and 31 kVp, and 30, 55, 80 and 105 mAs, respectively. The regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn to assess the gray level. The relationship between the glandularity and gray level under various compression thicknesses, kVp, and mAs was established by the multivariable linear regression. A phantom verification was performed with automatic exposure control (AEC). The regression equation was obtained with an R-square value of 0.928. The average gray levels of the verification phantom were 8708, 8660 and 8434 for 0.952, 0.963 and 0.985 g/cm3, respectively. The percent differences of glandularity to the regression equation were 3.24%, 2.75% and 13.7%. We concluded that the proposed method could be clinically applied in mammography to improve the glandularity estimation and further increase the importance of breast cancer screening.
112
73606
A Study on the Conspicuous Consumption, Involvement and Physical and Mental Health of Pet Owners
Abstract:
This study is to explore the relationship between the conspicuous consumption, leisure involvement and physical and mental health, and to understand the prediction of conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement to physical and mental health. The data was collected and analysed by purposive sampling, and the research objects were the dog walkers in Taiwan area. A total of 300 questionnaires were issued and after shaving the invalid questionnaire, a total of 246 valid samples were collected, and the effective rate was 82%.. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement, and the conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement of dog walkers have a significant impact on physical and mental health, especially in self-expression, attractiveness and centrality of leisure involvement have a significant impact on physical and mental health.
111
80610
Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions
Abstract:
To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.
110
88916
Road Transition Design on Freeway Tunnel Entrance and Exit Based on Traffic Capacity
Abstract:
Road transition design on freeway tunnel entrance and exit is one vital factor in realizing smooth transition and improving traveling safety for vehicles. The goal of this research is to develop a horizontal road transition design tool that considers the transition technology of traffic capacity consistency to explore its accommodation mechanism. The influencing factors of capacity are synthesized and a modified capacity calculation model focusing on the influence of road width and lateral clearance is developed based on the VISSIM simulation to calculate the width of road transition sections. To keep the traffic capacity consistency, the right side of the transition section of the tunnel entrance and exit is divided into three parts: front arc, an intermediate transition section, and end arc; an optimization design on each transition part is conducted to improve the capacity stability and horizontal alignment transition. A case study on the Panlong Tunnel in Ji-Qing freeway illustrates the application of the tool.
109
72817
The Different Improvement of Numerical Magnitude and Spatial Representation of Numbers to Symbolic Approximate Arithmetic: A Training Study of Preschooler
Authors:
Abstract:
Spatial representation of numbers and numerical magnitude are important for preschoolers’ mathematical ability. Mental number line, a typical index to measure numbers spatial representation, and numerical comparison are both related to arithmetic obviously. However, they seem to rely on different mechanisms and probably influence arithmetic through different mechanisms. In line with this idea, preschool children were trained with two tasks to investigate which one is more important for approximate arithmetic. The training of numerical processing and number line estimation were proved to be effective. They both improved the ability of approximate arithmetic. When the difficulty of approximate arithmetic was taken into account, the performance in number line training group was not significantly different among three levels. However, two harder levels achieved significance in numerical comparison training group. Thus, comparing spatial representation ability, symbolic approximation arithmetic relies more on numerical magnitude. Educational implications of the study were discussed.
108
41708
Hsa-miR-139-5p Acts as a Tumor Suppressor by Targeting C-Met in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Abstract:
Hsa-miRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p) has recently been discovered having anticancer efficacy in different organs. However, the role of miR-139-5p on lung cancer is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-139-5p on development of lung cancer. Results indicated miR-139-5p was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues and very low levels were found in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in NSCLC cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth through inhibition of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p57(Kip2). In addition, miR-139-5p induced apoptosis, as indicated by up-regulation of key apoptosis gene cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2. Moreover, miR-139-5p inhibited cellular metastasis through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene c-Met was revealed to be a putative target of miR-139-5p, which was inversely correlated with miR-139-5p expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-139-5p plays a pivotal role in lung cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, metastasis, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic c-Met.
107
59981
Influence of Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Sludge Vermicompost on Plant Growth
Abstract:
Impacts of excess sludge vermicompost on the germination and early growth of plant were tested. The better effect of cow dung vermicompost (CV) on seed germination and seedling growth proved that cow dung was indeed the preferred additive in sludge vermicomposting as reported by plentiful researchers worldwide. The effects and the best amount of application of CV were further discussed. Results demonstrated that seed germination and seedling growth (seedlings number, plant height, stem diameter) were the best and heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cr and As) contents of plant were the lowest when soil amended with CV by 15%. Additionally, CV fostered higher contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b compared to the control when concentration ranged from 5 to 15%, thereafter a slight increase in chlorophyll content was observed form 15% to 25%. Thus, CV at the optimum proportion of 15% could serve as a feasible and satisfactory way of sludge agricultural utilization of sewage sludge. In summary, sewage sludge can be gainfully utilized in producing organic fertilizer via vermicomposting, thereby not only providing a means of sewage sludge treatment and disposal, but also stimulating the growth of plant and the ability to resist disease.
106
73963
Optimization of Surface Coating on Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
Owing to their unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for biomedical applications. Highly monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles with controlled particle size and surface coating have been successfully synthesized as a model system to investigate the effect of surface coating on the T2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field, respectively. Amongst, by using mPEG-g-PEI to solubilize oleic-acid capped 6 nm magnetic nanoparticles, the T2 relaxivity could be significantly increased by up to 4-fold as compared to PEG coated nanoparticles. Moreover, it largely enhances the cell uptake with a T2 relaxivity of 92.6 mM-1s-1 for in vitro cell MRI. As for hyperthermia agent, SAR value increase with the decreased thickness of PEG surface coating. By elaborate optimization of surface coating and particle size, a significant increase of SAR (up to 74%) could be achieved with a minimal variation on the saturation magnetization (
105
67201
Suburban Large Residential Area Development Strategy with an Example of Liangzhu Culture Village in Hangzhou
Authors:
Abstract:
The development of the large suburban residential area is a product of the leap development during the rapid urbanization process in China. On the process of the large-scale development of large settlements in a short time, various problems arose in the suburban residential area, such as spatial layout being disorder, basic facilities construction lagging behind and being unreasonable, residential neighborhood space and street culture missing. Aimed at the contradictions mentioned above, exploring a way is imminent to construct appropriate residential area. We select a typical Liangzhu Culture Village in Hangzhou and put forward functional composite residential area of fine development strategy, along which business promotes and assists community autonomy and then a good community culture is constructed. All in all, the development and construction mode, contributing to an all-people and full-time participation, is beneficial to create a harmonious community of sustainable development, which gives good implication to a single enterprise development city real estate projects.
104
23196
Online Monitoring Rheological Property of Polymer Melt during Injection Molding
Abstract:
The detection of the polymer melt state during manufacture process is regarded as an efficient way to control the molded part quality in advance. Online monitoring rheological property of polymer melt during processing procedure provides an approach to understand the melt state immediately. Rheological property reflects the polymer melt state at different processing parameters and is very important in injection molding process especially. An approach that demonstrates how to calculate rheological property of polymer melt through in-process measurement, using injection molding as an example, is proposed in this study. The system consists of two sensors and a data acquisition module can process the measured data, which are used for the calculation of rheological properties of polymer melt. The rheological properties of polymer melt discussed in this study include shear rate and viscosity which are investigated with respect to injection speed and melt temperature. The results show that the effect of injection speed on the rheological properties is apparent, especially for high melt temperature and should be considered for precision molding process.
103
84898
Auricular Electroacupuncture Rescued Epilepsy Seizure by Attenuating TLR-2 Inflammatory Pathway in the Kainic Acid-Induced Rats
Abstract:
Epilepsy is chronic brain disorder that results in the sporadic occurrence of spontaneous seizures in the temporal lobe, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. Clinical antiepileptic medicines are often ineffective or little benefits in the small amount of patients and usually initiate severe side effects. This inflammation contributes to enhanced neuronal excitability and the onset of epilepsy. Auricular electric-stimulation (AES) can increase parasympathetic activity and stimulate the solitary tract nucleus to induce the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Furthermore, it may be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of epilepsy. In the present study, we want to investigate the effects of AES on inflammatory mediators in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizure rats. Experimental KA injection increased expression of TLR-2 pathway associated inflammatory mediators, were further reduced by either 2Hz or 15 Hz AES in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and somatosensory cortex. We suggest that AES can successfully control the epileptic seizure by down-regulation of inflammation signaling pathway.
102
95209
Preparation Non-Woven Nanofiber Structures for Uniform and Rapid Drug Releasing Applications Using an Electrospinning Process
Abstract:
Uniform and rapid drug release are important for trauma dressing application. Low glass transition polymer system and non-woven nanofiber structures as the designs conduct rapid-release characteristics. In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polysulfone, and polystyrene were dissolved in dimethylformamide to form precursor solution. These solutions were blended with vitamin C to form the electrospinning solutions. The non-woven nanofibers structures were successfully prepared using an electrospinning process. The following instruments were used to analyze the characteristics of non-woven nanofibers structures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers. 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of nanofibers. FE-SEM was used to explore the morphology of non-woven structures. XRD was used to identify crystal structures in the non-woven structures. The evolution of morphology of non-woven structures was changed dramatically in different durations, because of the moisture absorption and decreasing glass transition temperature; the non-woven nanofiber structures can be applied to uniform and rapid drug release for trauma dressing application.
101
93236
MSIpred: A Python 2 Package for the Classification of Tumor Microsatellite Instability from Tumor Mutation Annotation Data Using a Support Vector Machine
Abstract:
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is characterized by high degree of polymorphism in microsatellite (MS) length due to a deficiency in mismatch repair (MMR) system. MSI is associated with several tumor types and its status can be considered as an important indicator for tumor prognostic. Conventional clinical diagnosis of MSI examines PCR products of a panel of MS markers using electrophoresis (MSI-PCR) which is laborious, time consuming, and less reliable. MSIpred, a python 2 package for automatic classification of MSI was released by this study. It computes important somatic mutation features from files in mutation annotation format (MAF) generated from paired tumor-normal exome sequencing data, subsequently using these to predict tumor MSI status with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier trained by MAF files of 1074 tumors belonging to four types. Evaluation of MSIpred on an independent 358-tumor test set achieved overall accuracy of over 98% and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.967. These results indicated that MSIpred is a robust pan-cancer MSI classification tool and can serve as a complementary diagnostic to MSI-PCR in MSI diagnosis.
100
87287
Acupuncture for Major Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Randomized Clinical Trials
Abstract:
Background: Acupuncture, a potential alternative, and complementary therapy revealed insufficient evidence in depression treatment. The efficacy of acupuncture treatment was still uncertainty. To evaluate the effect of acupuncture in treating depression, the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were examined. Methods: RCTs of the acupuncture therapy in treating major depression were searched from MEDLINE from 2007 to 2017. Keywords used for searching strategy included acupuncture, acupoint, and major depressive disorder. Results: Among the nine RCTs, four studies demonstrated great improvement in acupuncture treatment and five studies revealed the effectiveness of acupuncture intervention in medication. General trends suggest that acupuncture treatment is as effective as antidepressants with minimal side effects. Conclusion: Despite the promising results from the RCTs, there are still a variety of limitations, including small sample size, imprecise enrollment criteria, difficulties with blinding, randomization, short duration of study and lack of longitudinal follow-up. Therefore, the evidence that acupuncture as an alternative therapy for depression is inconclusive. More rigorously designed RCTs should be conducted in the future.
99
64291
Represent Light and Shade of Old Beijing: Construction of Historical Picture Display Platform Based on Geographic Information System (GIS)
Abstract:
With the drawing of ancient palace painter, the layout of Beijing famous architect and the lens under photographers, a series of pictures which described whether emperors or ordinary people, whether gardens or Hutongs, whether historical events or life scenarios has emerged into our society. These precious resources are scattered around and preserved in different places Such as organizations like archives and libraries, along with individuals. The research combined decentralized photographic resources with Geographic Information System (GIS), focusing on the figure, event, time and location of the pictures to map them with geographic information in webpage and to display them productively. In order to meet the demand of reality, we designed a metadata description proposal, which is referred to DC and VRA standards. Another essential procedure is to formulate a four-tier classification system to correspond with the metadata proposals. As for visualization, we used Photo Waterfall and Time Line to display our resources in front end. Last but not the least, leading the Web 2.0 trend, the research developed an artistic, friendly, expandable, universal and user involvement platform to show the historical and culture precipitation of Beijing.
98
31655
Acoustic Induced Vibration Response Analysis of Honeycomb Panel
Abstract:
The main-body structure of satellite is mainly constructed by lightweight material, it should be able to withstand certain vibration load during launches. Since various kinds of change possibility in the space, it is an extremely important work to study the random vibration response of satellite structure. This paper based on the reciprocity relationship between sound and structure response and it will try to evaluate the dynamic response of satellite main body under random acoustic load excitation. This paper will study the technical process and verify the feasibility of sonic-borne vibration analysis. One simple plate exposed to the uniform acoustic field is utilized to take some important parameters and to validate the acoustics field model of the reverberation chamber. Then import both structure and acoustic field chamber models into the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis software to predict the structure response. During the modeling process, experiment verification is performed to make sure the quality of numerical models. Finally, the surface vibration level can be calculated through the modal participation factor, and the analysis results are presented in PSD spectrum.
97
49593
Dynamic Response of Doubly Curved Composite Shell with Embedded Shape Memory Alloys Wires
Abstract:
In this paper, dynamic response of thin smart composite panel subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Shape memory wires are used to reinforced curved composite panel in a smart way. One-dimensional thermodynamic constitutive model by Liang and Rogers is used for estimating the structural recovery stress. The two degrees-of-freedom mass-spring model is used for evaluation of the contact force between the curved composite panel and the impactor. This work is benefited from the Hertzian linear contact model which is linearized for the impact analysis of curved composite panel. The governing equations of curved panel are provided by first-order shear theory and solved by Fourier series related to simply supported boundary condition. For this purpose, the equation of doubly curved panel motion included the uniform in-plane forces is obtained. By the present analysis, the curved panel behavior under low-velocity impact, and also the effect of the impact parameters, the shape memory wire and the curved panel dimensions are studied.
96
75463
Design and Thermal Simulation Analysis of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System Injector-I Cryomodule
Abstract:
The Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system (C-ADS) uses a high-energy proton beam to bombard the metal target and generate neutrons to deal with the nuclear waste. The Chinese ADS proton linear has two 0~10 MeV injectors and one 10~1500 MeV superconducting linac. Injector-I is studied by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) under construction in the Beijing, China. The linear accelerator consists of two accelerating cryomodules operating at the temperature of 2 Kelvin. This paper describes the structure and thermal performances analysis of the cryomodule. The analysis takes into account all the main contributors (support posts, multilayer insulation, current leads, power couplers, and cavities) to the static and dynamic heat load at various cryogenic temperature levels. The thermal simulation analysis of the cryomodule is important theory foundation of optimization and commissioning.
95
40565
Improved 3D Structure Prediction of Beta-Barrel Membrane Proteins by Using Evolutionary Coupling Constraints, Reduced State Space and an Empirical Potential Function
Abstract:
Beta-barrel membrane proteins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. They carry out diverse biological functions, including pore formation, membrane anchoring, enzyme activity, and bacterial virulence. In addition, beta-barrel membrane proteins increasingly serve as scaffolds for bacterial surface display and nanopore-based DNA sequencing. Due to difficulties in experimental structure determination, they are sparsely represented in the protein structure databank and computational methods can help to understand their biophysical principles. We have developed a novel computational method to predict the 3D structure of beta-barrel membrane proteins using evolutionary coupling (EC) constraints and a reduced state space. Combined with an empirical potential function, we can successfully predict strand register at > 80% accuracy for a set of 49 non-homologous proteins with known structures. This is a significant improvement from previous results using EC alone (44%) and using empirical potential function alone (73%). Our method is general and can be applied to genome-wide structural prediction.
94
5129
Compared Psychophysiological Responses under Stress in Patients of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Depressive Disorder
Abstract:
Background: People who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) frequently complain about continuous tiredness, weakness or lack of strength, but without apparent organic etiology. The prevalence rate of the CFS is nearly from 3% to 20%, yet more than 80% go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as depression. The biopsychosocial model has suggested the associations among the CFS, depressive syndrome, and stress. This study aimed to investigate the difference between individuals with the CFS and with the depressive syndrome on psychophysiological responses under stress. Method: There were 23 participants in the CFS group, 14 participants in the depression group, and 23 participants in the healthy control group. All of the participants first completed the measures of demographic data, CFS-related symptoms, daily life functioning, and depressive symptoms. The participants were then asked to perform a stressful cognitive task. The participants’ psychophysiological responses including the HR, BVP and SC were measured during the task. These indexes were used to assess the reactivity and recovery rates of the automatic nervous system. Results: The stress reactivity of the CFS and depression groups was not different from that of the healthy control group. However, the stress recovery rate of the CFS group was worse than that of the healthy control group. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that the CFS is a syndrome which can be independent from the depressive syndrome, although the depressive syndrome may include fatigue syndrome.
93
104093
Sense Environmental Hormones in Elementary School Teachers and Their in Service Learning Motivation
Abstract:
Our environment has been contaminated by many artificial chemicals, such as plastics, pesticides. Many of them have hormone-like activity and are classified as 'environmental hormone (also named endocrine disruptors)'. These chemicals interfere with or mimic hormones have adverse effects that persist into adulthood. Environmental education is an important way to teach students to become engaged in real-world issues that transcend classroom walls. Elementary education is the first stage to perform environmental education and it is an important component to help students develop adequate environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. However, elementary teachers' knowledge plays a critical role in this mission. Therefore, we use a questionnaire to survey the knowledge of environmental hormone of elementary school teachers and their learning motivation of the environmental hormone-regarding knowledge. We collected 218 questionnaires from Taiwanese elementary teachers and the results indicate around 73% of elementary teachers do not have enough knowledge about environmental hormones. Our results also reveal the in-service elementary teachers’ learning motivation of environmental hormones knowledge is positively enhanced once they realized their insufficient cognitive ability of environmental hormones. We believe our study will provide the powerful reference for Ministry of Education to set up the policy of environmental education to enrich all citizens sufficient knowledge of the effects of the environmental hormone on organisms, and further to enhance our correct environmental behaviors.
92
103313
Selecting Answers for Questions with Multiple Answer Choices in Arabic Question Answering Based on Textual Entailment Recognition
Abstract:
Question Answering (QA) system is one of the most important and demanding tasks in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). In QA systems, the answer generation task generates a list of candidate answers to the user's question, in which only one answer is correct. Answer selection is one of the main components of the QA, which is concerned with selecting the best answer choice from the candidate answers suggested by the system. However, the selection process can be very challenging especially in Arabic due to its particularities. To address this challenge, an approach is proposed to answer questions with multiple answer choices for Arabic QA systems based on Textual Entailment (TE) recognition. The developed approach employs a Support Vector Machine that considers lexical, semantic and syntactic features in order to recognize the entailment between the generated hypotheses (H) and the text (T). A set of experiments has been conducted for performance evaluation and the overall performance of the proposed method reached an accuracy of 67.5% with [email protected] score of 80.46%. The obtained results are promising and demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for TE recognition task.
91
15516
Simulation Studies of Solid-Particle and Liquid-Drop Erosion of NiAl Alloy
Abstract:
This article presents modeling studies of NiAl alloy under solid-particle erosion and liquid-drop erosion. In the solid particle erosion simulation, attention is paid to the oxide scale thickness variation on the alloy in high-temperature erosion environments. The erosion damage is assumed to be deformation wear and cutting wear mechanisms, incorporating the influence of the oxide scale on the eroded surface; thus the instantaneous oxide thickness is the result of synergetic effect of erosion and oxidation. For liquid-drop erosion, special interest is in investigating the effects of drop velocity and drop size on the damage of the target surface. The models of impact stress wave, mean depth of penetration, and maximum depth of erosion rate (Max DER) are employed to develop various maps for NiAl alloy, including target thickness vs. drop size (diameter), rate of mean depth of penetration (MDRP) vs. drop impact velocity, and damage threshold velocity (DTV) vs. drop size.
90
7539
User Selections on Social Network Applications
Authors:
Abstract:
MSN used to be the most popular application for communicating among social networks, but Facebook chat is now the most popular. Facebook and MSN have similar characteristics, including usefulness, ease-of-use, and a similar function, which is the exchanging of information with friends. Facebook outperforms MSN in both of these areas. However, the adoption of Facebook and abandonment of MSN have occurred for other reasons. Functions can be improved, but users’ willingness to use does not just depend on functionality. Flow status has been established to be crucial to users’ adoption of cyber applications and to affects users’ adoption of software applications. If users experience flow in using software application, they will enjoy using it frequently, and even change their preferred application from an old to this new one. However, no investigation has examined choice behavior related to switching from Facebook to MSN based on a consideration of flow experiences and functions. This investigation discusses the flow experiences and functions of social-networking applications. Flow experience is found to affect perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use influences information ex-change with friends, and perceived usefulness; information exchange influences perceived usefulness, but information exchange has no effect on flow experience.
89
48504
Performance of On-site Earthquake Early Warning Systems for Different Sensor Locations
Abstract:
Regional earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are not suitable for Taiwan, as most destructive seismic hazards arise due to in-land earthquakes. These likely cause the lead-time provided by regional EEW systems before a destructive earthquake wave arrives to become null. On the other hand, an on-site EEW system can provide more lead-time at a region closer to an epicenter, since only seismic information of the target site is required. Instead of leveraging the information of several stations, the on-site system extracts some P-wave features from the first few seconds of vertical ground acceleration of a single station and performs a prediction of the oncoming earthquake intensity at the same station according to these features. Since seismometers could be triggered by non-earthquake events such as a passing of a truck or other human activities, to reduce the likelihood of false alarms, a seismometer was installed at three different locations on the same site and the performance of the EEW system for these three sensor locations were discussed. The results show that the location on the ground of the first floor of a school building maybe a good choice, since the false alarms could be reduced and the cost for installation and maintenance is the lowest.
88
41380
Hsa-miR-326 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer through Targeting CCND1
Abstract:
Hsa-miRNA-326 (miR-326) has recently been discovered having anticancer efficacy in different organs. However, the role of miR-326 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-326 on the development of NSCLC. The results indicated that miR-326 was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues and very low levels were found in NSCLC cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-326 in NSCLC cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and BrdU staining, through inhibition of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, CDK4, and up-regulation of p57(Kip2) and p21(Waf1/Cip1). In addition, miR-326 induced apoptosis, as indicated by concomitantly with up-regulation of key apoptosis protein cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl2. Moreover, miR-326 inhibited cellular migration and invasiveness through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene CCND1 was revealed to be a putative target of miR-326, which was inversely correlated with miR-326 expression in NSCLC. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-326 played a pivotal role on NSCLC through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic CCND1.
87
52203
Anti-Obesity Effect of Cordyceps militaris Fermented Black Rice
Abstract:
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health, which are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Cordyceps militaris (CM) is a well-known traditional medicine in Asian countries and a rich source of biologically active components. Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a special cultivar of rice that contains rich anthocyanins and regarded as a health-promoting food in China and other Eastern. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of Cordyceps militaris fermented black rice (CB) on HFD-induced BALB/c mice model. The results indicated that administration of low and high dosage of CB powder significantly reduced the body weights (7.38% and 7.78%), body fat ratio (2.37% and 2.78%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels compared to the HF group (p< 0.05). Histopathological analysis showed that the score of fatty liver in HF group (5.0) was significantly higher than CB groups (2.1 and 3.6) (p< 0.05). In conclusion, Cordyceps militaris fermented black rice can reduce the body weight via inhibition of the fat accumulation in liver and body and possess the anti-obesity potency.
86
111890
A Framework for Improving Trade Contractors' Productivity Tracking Methods
Abstract:
Despite being one of the country’s most significant economic contributors, Canada’s construction industry is lagging behind other sectors when it comes to labor productivity improvements. The construction industry is very collaborative as a general contractor will hire trade contractors to perform most of a project’s work; meaning low productivity from one contractor can have a domino effect on the shared success of a project. To address this issue and encourage trade contractors to improve their productivity tracking methods, an investigative study was done on the productivity views and tracking methods of various trade contractors. Additionally, an in-depth review was done on four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry: cost codes, benchmarking, the job productivity measurement standard (JPM), and WorkFace Planning (WFP). The four tracking methods were used as a baseline in comparing the trade contractors’ responses, determining gaps within their current tracking methods, and for making improvement recommendations. Fifteen interviews were conducted with different trades to analyze how contractors value productivity. The results of these analyses indicated that there seem to be gaps within the construction industry when it comes to an understanding of the purpose and value in productivity tracking. The trade contractors also shared their current productivity tracking systems; which were then compared to the four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry. Gaps were identified in their various tracking methods and using a framework; recommendations were made based on the type of trade on how to improve how they track productivity.
85
41377
LncRNA NEAT1 Promotes NSCLC Progression through Acting as a ceRNA of miR-377-3p
Abstract:
Recently, the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 has been identified as an oncogenic gene in multiple cancer types and elevated expression of NEAT1 was tightly linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecular basis for this observation has not been characterized in progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our studies, we identified NEAT1 was highly expressed in NSCLC patients and was a novel regulator of NSCLC progression. Patients whose tumors had high NEAT1 expression had a shorter overall survival than patients whose tumors had low NEAT1 expression. Further, NEAT1 significantly accelerates NSCLC cell growth and metastasis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Additionally, by using bioinformatics study and RNA pull down combined with luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that NEAT1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for has-miR-377-3p, antagonized its functions and led to the de-repression of its endogenous targets E2F3, which was a core oncogene in promoting NSCLC progression. Taken together, these observations imply that the NEAT1 modulated the expression of E2F3 gene by acting as a competing endogenous RNA, which may build up the missing link between the regulatory miRNA network and NSCLC progression.
84
23241
Research of Control System for Space Intelligent Robot Based on Vision Servo
Abstract:
Space intelligent robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future. The robotic on-orbital service, whose key is the tracking and capturing technology, becomes research hot in recent years. In this paper, the authors propose a vision servo control system for target capturing. Robotic manipulator will be an intelligent robotic system with large-scale movement, functional agility, and autonomous ability, and it can be operated by astronauts in the space station or be controlled by the ground operator in the remote operation mode. To realize the autonomous movement and capture mission of SRM, a kind of autonomous programming strategy based on multi-camera vision fusion is designed and the selection principle of object visual position and orientation measurement information is defined for the better precision. Distributed control system hierarchy is designed and reliability is considering to guarantee the abilities of control system. At last, a ground experiment system is set up based on the concept of robotic control system. With that, the autonomous target capturing experiments are conducted. The experiment results validate the proposed algorithm, and demonstrates that the control system can fulfill the needs of function, real-time and reliability.
83
89244
Locating Speed Limit Signs for Highway Tunnel Entrance and Exit
Abstract:
The brightness changes at highway tunnel entrance and exit have an effect on the physical and psychological conditions of drivers. It is more conducive for examining driving safety with quantitative analysis of the physical and psychological characteristics of drivers to determine the speed limit sign locations at the tunnel entrance and exit sections. In this study, the physical and psychological effects of tunnels on traffic sign recognition of drivers are analyzed; subsequently, experiments with the assistant of Eyelink-II Type eye movement monitoring system are conducted in the typical tunnels in Ji-Qing freeway and Xi-Zha freeway, to collect the data of eye movement indexes “Fixation Duration” and “Eyeball Rotating Speed”, which typically represent drivers' mental load and visual characteristics. On this basis, the paper establishes a visual recognition model for the speed limit signs at the highway tunnel entrances and exits. In combination with related standards and regulations, it further presents the recommended values for locating speed limit signs under different tunnel conditions. A case application on Panlong tunnel in Ji-Qing freeway is given to generate the helpful improvement suggestions.
82
92165
Thermodynamic Performance Tests for 3D Printed Steel Slag Powder Concrete Walls
Abstract:
The three dimensional (3D) printing technology has undergone rapid development in the last few years and it is possible to print engineering structures. 3D printing buildings use wastes from constructions, industries and mine tailings as “ink”, and mix it with property improved materials, such as cement, fiber etc. This paper presents a study of the Thermodynamic performance of 3D printed walls using cement and steel slag powder. Analyses the thermal simulation regarding 3D printed walls and solid brick wall by the way of the hot-box methods and the infrared technology, and the results were contrasted with theoretical calculation. The results show that the excellent thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete wall made it suitable as the partial materials for self-thermal insulation walls in residential buildings. The thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete walls depended on the density of materials, distribution of holes, and the filling materials. Decreasing the density of materials, increasing the number of holes or replacing the filling materials with foamed concrete could improve its thermodynamic performance significantly. The average of heat transfer coefficient and thermal inertia index of 3D printed steel slag powder concrete wall all better than the traditional solid brick wall with a thickness of 240mm.
81
56136
Autophagy Regulates Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tumorigenesis through Selective Degradation of Cyclin D1
Abstract:
In hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), dysregulated expression of cyclin D1 and impaired autophagy has been reported separately. However, the relationship between them has not been explored. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy was inversely correlated with cyclin D1 expression in 147 paired HCC patient specimens. HCC specimen with highly expression of cyclin D1 shows correlation with poor overall survival rate. Furthermore, induction of autophagy by amiodarone (antiarrhythmic drug) in Hep 3B cells, cyclin D1 was recruited into autophagosomes demonstrated by immune-gold labeling of cyclin D1 after extraction of autophagosomes. We further demonstrated that autophagy suppresses Hep 3B cell proliferation, and further analysis revealed that cell cycle was arrested at G1 phase. The interaction between LC3 (maker of autophagy) and cyclin D1 was increased after autophagy induction. In addition, ubiquitinated-cyclin D1 was also increased after autophagy induction, which is selectively degraded by autophagosome through binding with SQSTM1/p62 (an adaptor protein). In vivo study showed that amiodarone induced autophagy suppresses liver tumor formation in xenograft mouse and orthotopic rat model through decreasing cyclin D1 expression and inhibition of cell proliferation. Altogether, we reveal a novel mechanism that ubiquitinated cyclin D1 degraded by autophagic pathway by p62 and amiodarone is a promising drug for targeting cyclin D1 in liver cancer therapy.
80
65494
Preparation of Silicon-Based Oxide Hollow Nanofibers Using Single-Nozzle Electrospinning
Abstract:
In this study, the silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure were prepared using single-nozzle electrospinning and heat treatment. Firstly, precursor solution was prepared: the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) dissolved in ethanol and to make sure the concentration of solution in appropriate using single-nozzle electrospinning to produce the nanofibers. Secondly, control morphology of the electrostatic spinning nanofibers was conducted, and design the temperature profile to created hollow nanofibers, exploring the morphology and properties of nanofibers. The characterized of nanofibers, following instruments were used: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers, and 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of fibers. FE-SEM and TEM were used to explore the morphology and diameter of nanofibers and hollow nanofiber. The excitation and emission spectra explored by PL. Finally, XRD was used for identified crystallization of ceramic nanofibers. Using electrospinning technique followed by subsequent heat treatment, we have successfully prepared silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure. Thus, the microstructure and morphology of electrostatic spinning silicon-base oxide hollow nanofibers were explored. Major characteristics of the nanofiber in terms of crystalline, optical properties and crystal structure were identified.
79
46615
Effect of Annealing Temperature on Microstructural Evolution of Nanoindented Cu/Si Thin Films
Abstract:
The nano-mechanical properties of as-deposited Cu/Si thin films indented to a depth of 2000 nm are investigated using a nanoindentation technique. The nanoindented specimens are annealed at a temperature of either 160 °C or 210°C, respectively. The microstructures of the as-deposited and annealed samples are then examined via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that both the loading and the unloading regions of the load-displacement curve are smooth and continuous, which suggests that no debonding or cracking occurs during nanoindentation. In addition, the hardness and Young’s modulus of the Cu/Si thin films are found to vary with the nanoindentation depth, and have maximum values of 2.8 GPa and 143 GPa, respectively, at the maximum indentation depth of 2000 nm. The TEM observations show that the region of the Cu/Si film beneath the indenter undergoes a phase transformation during the indentation process. In the case of the as-deposited specimens, the indentation pressure induces a completely amorphous phase within the indentation zone. For the specimens annealed at a temperature of 160°C, the amorphous nature of the microstructure within the indented zone is maintained. However, for the specimens annealed at a higher temperature of 210°C, the indentation affected zone consists of a mixture of amorphous phase and nanocrystalline phase. Copper silicide (η-Cu3Si) precipitates are observed in all of the annealed specimens. The density of the η-Cu3Si precipitates is found to increase with an increasing annealing temperature.
78
71701
Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Lanthanide Nanoparticles for NIR Luminescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy
Abstract:
Luminescence imaging is an important technique used in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic applications in recent years. Concurrently, the development of NIR luminescence probes / imaging contrast agents has helped the understanding of the structural and functional properties of cells and animals. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used clinically to treat a wide range of medical conditions, but the therapeutic efficacy of general PDT for deeper tumor was limited by the penetration of excitation source. The tumor targeting biomedical nanomaterials [email protected] (upconversion nanoparticle conjugated with photosensitizer) for photodynamic therapy and near-infrared imaging of cancer will be developed in our study. Synthesis and characterization of biomedical nanomaterials were completed in this studies. The spectrum of UCNP was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and the morphology was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). TEM and XRD analyses indicated that these nanoparticles are about 20~50 nm with hexagonal phase. NaYF₄:Ln³⁺ (Ln= Yb, Nd, Er) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with core / shell structure, synthesized by thermal decomposition method in 300°C, have the ability to emit visible light (upconversion: 540 nm, 660 nm) and near-infrared with longer wavelength (downconversion: NIR: 980 nm, 1525 nm) by absorbing 800 nm NIR laser. The information obtained from these studies would be very useful for applications of these nanomaterials for bio-luminescence imaging and photodynamic therapy of deep tumor tissue in the future.
77
2509
Causes Analysis of Vacuum Consolidation Failure to Soft Foundation Filled by Newly Dredged Mud
Abstract:
For soft foundation filled by newly dredged mud, after improved by Vacuum Preloading Technology (VPT), the soil strength was increased only a little, the effective improved depth was small, and the ground bearing capacity is still low. To analyze the causes in depth, it was conducted in laboratory of several comparative single well model experiments of VPT. It was concluded: (1) it mainly caused serious clogging problem and poor drainage performance in vertical drains of high content of fine soil particles and strong hydrophilic minerals in dredged mud, too fast loading rate at the early stage of vacuum preloading (namely rapidly reaching-80kPa) and too small characteristic opening size of the filter of the existed vertical drains; (2) it commonly reduced the drainage efficiency of drainage system, in turn weaken vacuum pressure in soils and soil improvement effect of the greater partial loss and friction loss of vacuum pressure caused by larger curvature of vertical drains and larger transfer resistance of vacuum pressure in horizontal drain.
76
36328
Parametric Study of a Solar-Heating-And-Cooling System with Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors in North China
Abstract:
A solar-heating-and-cooling (SHC) system, consisting of a hybrid photovoltaic/ thermal collector array, a hot water storage tank, and an absorption chiller unit is designed and modeled to satisfy thermal loads (space heating, domestic hot water, and space cooling). The system is applied for Dalian, China, a location with cold climate conditions, where cooling demand is moderate, while space heating demand is slightly high. The study investigates the potential of a solar system installed and operated onsite in a detached single-family household to satisfy all necessary thermal loads. The hot water storage tank is also connected to an auxiliary heater (electric boiler) to supplement solar heating, when needed. The main purpose of the study is to model the overall system and contact a parametric study that will determine the optimum economic system performance in terms of design parameters. The system is compared, through a cost analysis, to an electric heat pump (EHP) system. This paper will give the optimum system combination of solar collector area and volumetric capacity of the hot water storage tank, respectively.
75
21780
Sirt1 Promotes C2C12 Myoblast Cell Proliferation by Myostatin Signaling Pathway
Abstract:
Backgrounds: Previous studies showed that Sirt1 plays an important role in C2C12 myoblast cell proliferation, but the mechanism(s) involved in this process remains unclear. This work was undertaken to determine if Myostatin participates in the regulation of C2C12 proliferation by Sirt1. Methods: We administrated the Sirt1 activator resveratrol, inhibitor Nicotinamide (NAM) and Myostatin inhibitor SB431542 on C2C12 myoblast cells. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK8 assay. The expression of Sirt1 and MyoD were detected by qRT-PCR. Utilizing western blot to determinate the expression of myostatin, P107 and p-P107. Results: Our results showed that resveratrol promoted the proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells, while NAM suppressed the proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells; SB431542 promoted the proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells and attenuated the inhibition effect of NAM on C2C12 myoblast cells proliferation; Resveratrol can significantly increase the expression of Sirt1 and MyoD, decrease the expression of Myostatin, while NAM can significantly down-regulate the expression of Sirt1, MyoD and the phosphorylation of P107(p-P107), but up-regulate the expression of Myostatin and the protein P107; SB431542 can significantly mitigate the effect of NAM on the expression of MyoD, P107, and p-P107. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate that Sirt1 promotes the proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells via Myostatin signaling pathway.
74
10212
Effect of the Drawbar Force on the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle-Tool Holder System
Abstract:
This study presented the investigation of the influence of the tool holder interface stiffness on the dynamic characteristics of a spindle tool system. The interface stiffness was produced by drawbar force on the tool holder, which tends to affect the spindle dynamics. In order to assess the influence of interface stiffness on the vibration characteristic of spindle unit, we first created a three dimensional finite element model of a high speed spindle system integrated with tool holder. The key point for the creation of FEM model is the modeling of the rolling interface within the angular contact bearings and the tool holder interface. The former can be simulated by a introducing a series of spring elements between inner and outer rings. The contact stiffness was calculated according to Hertz contact theory and the preload applied on the bearings. The interface stiffness of the tool holder was identified through the experimental measurement and finite element modal analysis. Current results show that the dynamic stiffness was greatly influenced by the tool holder system. In addition, variations of modal damping, static stiffness and dynamic stiffness of the spindle tool system were greatly determined by the interface stiffness of the tool holder which was in turn dependent on the draw bar force applied on the tool holder. Overall, this study demonstrates that identification of the interface characteristics of spindle tool holder is of very importance for the refinement of the spindle tooling system to achieve the optimum machining performance.
73
87668
The Effect of a Probiotic: Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and Its Products on Growth Performance and Disease Resistance of Orange-Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate a probiotic, Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide and dextran, on growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune responses, and pathogen resistance of spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The grouper were fed control and diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (I + B4), and dextran (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (D + B4) for 8 weeks. The result showed that final weights and percent weight gains of the grouper fed diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 and I + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The activities of digestive enzymes in the grouper fed with I + B4 were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05), too. After challenge with Vibrio harveyi, the enzyme activities of antiprotease and lysozyme as well as of respiratory burst of the fish fed with I + B4 and D + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The grouper fed with the both diets also had higher survival rates than that of the control group after the challenge. Overall, the study indicated that feeding diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide, and dextran could be an effective method for enhancing the growth performance and disease resistance in orange-spotted grouper.
72
77834
The Effect of a Probiotic: Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and Its Products on Growth Performance and Disease Resistance of Orange-Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate a probiotic, Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide and dextran, on growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune responses, and pathogen resistance of spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The grouper were fed control and diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (I + B4), and dextran (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (D + B4) for 8 weeks. The result showed that final weights and percent weight gains of the grouper fed diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 and I + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The activities of digestive enzymes in the grouper fed with I + B4 were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05), too. After challenge with Vibrio harveyi, the enzyme activities of antiprotease and lysozyme as well as of respiratory burst of the fish fed with I + B4 and D + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The grouper fed with the both diets also had higher survival rates than that of the control group after the challenge. Overall, the study indicated that feeding diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide, and dextran could be an effective method for enhancing the growth performance and disease resistance in orange-spotted grouper.
71
36987
Large-Capacity Image Information Reduction Based on Single-Cue Saliency Map for Retinal Prosthesis System
Abstract:
In an effort to restore visual perception in retinal diseases, an electronic retinal prosthesis with thousands of electrodes has been developed. The image processing strategies of retinal prosthesis system converts the original images from the camera to the stimulus pattern which can be interpreted by the brain. Practically, the original images are with more high resolution (256x256) than that of the stimulus pattern (such as 25x25), which causes a technical image processing challenge to do large-capacity image information reduction. In this paper, we focus on developing an efficient image processing stimulus pattern extraction algorithm by using a single cue saliency map for extracting salient objects in the image with an optimal trimming threshold. Experimental results showed that the proposed stimulus pattern extraction algorithm performs quite well for different scenes in terms of the stimulus pattern. In the algorithm performance experiment, our proposed SCSPE algorithm have almost five times of the score compared with Boyle’s algorithm. Through experiment s we suggested that when there are salient objects in the scene (such as the blind meet people or talking with people), the trimming threshold should be set around 0.4max, in other situations, the trimming threshold values can be set between 0.2max-0.4max to give the satisfied stimulus pattern.
70
41379
Hsa-miR-329 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor through Targeting MET in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as key regulators of multiple cancers. Hsa-miR-329 (miR-329) functions as a tumor suppressor in some malignancies. However, its role on lung cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-329 on the development of lung cancer. The results indicated that miR-329 was decreased in primary lung cancer tissues compared with matched adjacent normal lung tissues and very low levels were found in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-329 in lung cancer cell lines substantially repressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and BrdU staining, through inhibiting cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and up-regulatiing p57(Kip2) and p21(WAF1/CIP1). In addition, miR-329 promoted NSCLC cell apoptosis, as indicated by up-regulation of key apoptosis gene cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2. Moreover, miR-329 inhibited cellular migration and invasiveness through inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene MET was revealed to be a putative target of miR-329, which was inversely correlated with miR-329 expression. Furthermore, down-regulation of MET by siRNA performed similar effects to over-expression of miR-329. Collectively, our results demonstrated that miR-329 played a pivotal role in lung cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic MET.
69
102252
Correlation of Residential Community Layout and Neighborhood Relationship: A Morphological Analysis of Tainan Using Space Syntax
Abstract:
Taiwan has formed diverse settlement patterns in different time and space backgrounds. Various socio-network links are created between individuals, families, communities, and societies, and different living cultures are also derived. But rapid urbanization and social structural change have caused the creation of densely-packed assembly housing complexes and made neighborhood community upward developed. This, among others, seemed to have affected neighborhood relationship and also created social problems. To understand the complex relations and socio-spatial structure of the community, it is important to use mixed methods. This research employs the theory of space syntax to analyze the layout and structural indicators of the selected communities in Tainan city. On the other hand, this research does the survey about residents' interactions and the sense of community by questionnaire of the selected communities. Then the mean values of the syntax measures from each community were correlated with the results of the questionnaire using a Pearson correlation to examine how elements in physical design affect the sense of community and neighborhood relationship. In Taiwan, most urban morphology research methods are qualitative study. This paper tries to use space syntax to find out the correlation between the community layout and the neighborhood relationship. The result of this study could be used in future studies or improve the quality of residential communities in Taiwan.
68
11741
Circadian Rhythm of Blood-Sucking Behavior of Female Forcipomyia taiwana
Abstract:
Forcipomyia taiwana, an important vexing pest, influences the development of the industry of Taiwan tourism and the quality of country life. Using human-attractant method to investigate the blood-sucking behavior of Forcipomyia taiwana in three districts in Taichung, it revealed that female F. taiwana only exhibits blood-sucking behavior in daytime, not in nighttime. The blooding-sucking behavior of female F. taiwana was affected by some factors, i.e., season and atmospheric factors. During 2008 to 2010, our study revealed that blood-sucking behavior commenced from 7:00 to 8:00 in the spring equinox, the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox, but from 8:00 to 9:00 in the winter solstice. However, regardless of any seasons, it revealed that blood-sucking behavior reached the acme between 13:00 and 15:00, and then descending. In those four seasons, the summer solstice had longer lighting and higher temperature, the average sucking activity was around 12 hours, on the contrary, the winter solstice had shorter lighting and lower temperature, the average sucking activity bridled to around 8 hours whilst it retrenched to 11 hours in the spring equinox and the autumnal equinox. To analyze the correlation between blood-sucking behavior and atmospheric factors, it revealed that female blood-sucking behavior was correlated positively to temperature and lighting but negatively to humidity. In addition, our study also showed that there is no blood-sucking behavior under 18ºC.
67
97044
Ultrathin Tin-Silicalite 1 Zeolite Membrane in Ester Solvent Recovery
Abstract:
Ester solvents are widely used in pharmaceutical, printing and flavor industry due to their good miscibility, low toxicity, and high volatility. Through pervaporation, these ester solvents can be recovered from industrial wastewater. While metal-doped silicalite 1 zeolite membranes are commonly used in organic solvent recovery in the pervaporation process, these ceramic membranes suffer from low membrane permeation flux, mainly due to the high thickness of the metal-doped zeolite membrane. Herein, a simple method of fabricating an ultrathin tin-silicalite 1 membrane supported on alumina tube is reported. This ultrathin membrane is able to achieve high permeation flux and separation factor for an ester in a diluted aqueous solution. Nanosized tin-Silicalite 1 seeds which are smaller than 500nm has been formed through hydrothermal synthesis. The sn-Silicalite 1 seeds were then seeded onto alumina tube through dip coating, and the tin-Silicalite 1 membrane was then formed by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave through secondary growth method. Multiple membrane synthesis factors such as seed size, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection, and secondary growth conditions were studied for their effects on zeolite membrane growth. The microstructure, morphology and the membrane thickness of tin-Silicalite 1 zeolite membrane were examined. The membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported.
66
48675
Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous People of Community Forest User Groups of Parbat District, Nepal
Abstract:
The community forests of Nepal serve as a major source of medicinal plants for majority of local people who are dependent on traditional health care system. This study aims to explore the ethnobotanical information of the medicinal plants used by five different community forest user groups of Parbat district of Nepal. The research was conducted during different periods of the year 2015, using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, formal and informal interviews, and group discussions. In total 145 different plant species within 77 families were documented, the majority of them being herb were found to be used to treat 84 different ailments. In terms of plant parts use: whole plants, barks, fruits, leaves were found to be in top priorities. Oral administration was the dominant route (57%), followed by both oral and dermal route (29%) and dermal only (14%). Females were found to have 24% more ethnobotanical knowledge than male. The knowledge of ethnobotanical medicinal plants was found excellent on age group 65-75. This study showed that community forests of Parbat district are rich in medicinal plants but the new generation was found less interested in using them. Easy access to modern medicines, lack of documentation and knowledge transfer to young generations are the major causes of diminishing utility of traditional medicinal practices.
65
99054
A Comparative Study of Innovative Regions in the World Based on the Theory of Innovation Ecosystem: Cases of the Silicon Valley, Cambridge, Tsukuba and Zhongguancun
Abstract:
With the rapid development of technology and urbanization, innovation has become an important driving force for urban development. Since the late 20th Century, a number of cities and regions have emerged in the world with innovation as the main driving force, and many of them are still the most important innovation centers in the world. Based on the perspective of innovation ecosystem theory, this paper compares Silicon Valley in the United States, Cambridge in the United Kingdom, Tsukuba in Japan and Zhongguancun in China to explore the reasons for the success of innovative regions and their respective characteristics, hoping to provide a reference for the development of other innovative cities. The main conclusions of this study are the following; firstly, different countries have different social backgrounds. The development model of innovative regions is closely related to the regional backgrounds. Secondly, the market force and the government power have important significance for the development of the innovation regions. The influence of the government power in the early stage of development is great, and in the latter stage, development is dominated by the market force. In addition, the self-organizing ability of the region has a great impact on the innovation ability of the region. Strong self-organizing ability is conducive to the development of innovation economy.
64
86815
Utilization of Acupuncture in Palliative Care for Cancer Patients
Abstract:
Modern medicine highly emphasizes the importance of palliative treatment. The inception of palliative and hospice care recently developed into the concept of caring for the patients’ and families’ physical, psychological and spiritual problems. There are several benefits related to palliative care such as reducing medical expenses, decreasing patients’ suffer, and supporting patient go through the finale of the life. Nowadays, in Taiwan, over 60-70% terminal cancer patients were covered in hospice care, and the coverage rate increased annually. Acupuncture is a well-known therapy used more than thousand years to relieve symptoms of cancer patient. Many reports showed that, even in the Western society, many reputable medical centers can provide Acupuncture therapy for patients. Accordingly, using Acupuncture for cancer patient care is a global trend. There are increased evidences indicate that Acupuncture can relieve the symptoms for cancer patients including pain, reduce the dosage of anesthetic, improve the cancer-related fatigue, relieve the chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, ease anxiety mood and even improving the quality of life. Furthermore, some trials show that Acupuncture may help relieve xerostomia, hot flash, sleep disorders, and some GI discomfort and so on. Acupuncture therapy has many advantages for clinical use with effective, low-cost, minimal side effect, suitable for cancer patients and even for elderly population. Especially in nowadays, there are more diversified challenges in modern medicine, all of them will make the higher medical budget. We suggest that Acupuncture will be one of methods for palliative care for cancer patients.
63
78042
3D Visualization for the Relationship of the Urban Rule and Building Form by Using CityEngine
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to visualize how the rule related to urban design influences the building form by 3D modeling software CityEngine. In order to make the goal of urban design clearly connect to urban form, urban planner or designer should understand how the rule affects the form, especially the building form. In Taiwan, the rule pertained to urban design includes traditional zoning, urban design review and building codes. However, zoning cannot precisely expect the outcome of building form and lack of thinking about public realm and 3D form. In addition to that, urban design review is based on case by case, do not have a comprehensive regulation plan and the building code is just for general regulation. Therefore, rule cannot make the urban form reach the vision or goal of the urban design. Consequently, another kind of zoning called Form-based code (FBC) has arisen. This study uses the component of FBC which pertained to urban fabric such as street width, block and plot size, etc., to be the variants of building form, and find out the relationship between the rule and building form. There are three stages of this research, it will start from a field survey of Taichung City in Taiwan to induce the rule-building form relationship by using cluster analysis and descriptive Statistics. Second, visualize the relationship through the parameterized and codified process in CityEngine which is the procedural modeling, and can analyze, monitor and visualize the 3D world. Last, compare the CityEngine result with real world to examine how extent do this model represent the real world appearance.
62
32528
Encapsulation and Protection of Bioactive Nutrients Based on Ligand-Binding Property of Milk Proteins
Abstract:
Functional foods containing bioactive nutrients offer benefits beyond basic nutrition and hence the possibility of delaying and preventing chronic diseases. However, many bioactive nutrients degrade rapidly under food processing and storage conditions. Encapsulation can be used to overcome these limitations. Food proteins have been widely used as carrier materials for the preparation of nano/micro-particles because of their ability to form gels and emulsions and to interact with polysaccharides. The mechanisms of interaction between bioactive nutrients and proteins must be understood in order to develop protein-based lipid-free delivery systems. Beta-lactoglobulin, a small globular protein in milk whey, exhibits an affinity to a wide range of compounds. Alfa-tocopherol, resveratrol and folic acid were respectively bound to the central cavity, the outer surface near Trp19–Arg124 and the hydrophobic pocket in the groove between the alfa-helix and the beta-barrel of the protein. Beta-lactoglobulin could thus bind the three bioactive nutrients simultaneously to form protein-multi-ligand complexes. Beta-casein, an intrinsically unstructured but major milk protein, could also interact with resveratrol and folic acid to form complexes. These results suggest the potential to develop milk-protein-based complex carrier systems for encapsulation of multiple bioactive nutrients for functional food application and also pharmaceutical and medical uses.
61
107963
Investigation and Research on Construction Technology of Tenon and Mortise in Traditional Chinese Architecture
Authors:
Abstract:
Chinese traditional architecture has developed a school of its own in the world. It has a different structure and construction technology from western architecture. Tenon and mortise structure and construction technology, as the key to the construction of traditional Chinese architecture, have been inherited for thousands of years by traditional craftsmen in various regions of China. However, the traditional architecture varies greatly in different times and regional cultures in China. It is still a lack of research whether this difference extends to mortise and tenon technology. In this study, we measured the mortise and tenon of traditional buildings in Fujian province, Yunnan province, and Northern China; Interviewed some old craftsmen about their traditional construction methods, And compared the today's traditional mortise and tenon technology with that of Song and Qing Dynasties. The results showed that although Chinese traditional architecture has the same origin, the mortise and tenon construction technology systems have been developed at different times, regions, and cultures. For example, tenon and mortise technology in Yunnan Province needs to ensure the ability of buildings to resist earthquakes, while that in Fujian Province needs to ensure the ability of buildings to withstand typhoons. People in different regions, cultures, and times have a different understanding of architectural aesthetics, and the evolution of tools also has different effects on mortise and tenon technology. This study explains the manifestations and causes of these differences. At the same time, due to the impact of modern architectural technology, mortise, and tenon, traditional technology is also rapidly disappearing. As a sorting and collection of mortise and tenon techniques of traditional Chinese architecture, this paper puts forward the corresponding traditional technology protection strategy, to guide the protection and maintenance of local traditional buildings.
60
19674
Sulforaphane Attenuates Fibrosis of Dystrophic Muscle in Mdx Mice via Nrf2-Mediated Inhibition of TGF-β/Smad Signaling
Abstract:
Backgrounds: A few lines of evidence show that Sulforaphane (SFN) has anti-fibrosis effect in liver tissue via Nrf2-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling. However, its effects on muscular dystrophic fibrosis remain unknown. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of SFN on fibrosis in dystrophic muscle. Methods: 3-month-old male mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 3 months. Gastrocnemius, tibial anterior and triceps brachii muscles were collected for related analysis. Fibrosis in skeletal muscles was analyzed by Sirius red staining. Histology and morphology of skeletal muscles were investigated by H&E staining. Moreover, the expressions of Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment significantly decreased and improved morphological features in mdx muscles. Moreover, SFN increased the expression of muscle phase II enzymes NQO1 and HO-1 and significantly decreased the expression of TGF-β1,p-smad2, p-smad3, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, PAI-1, and TIMP-1 in Nrf2 dependent manner. Additionally, SFN significantly decreased the expression of CD45 and TNF-α. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can ameliorate muscle fibrosis in mdx mice by Nrf2-induced inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, which indicate Nrf2 may be useful for the treatment of muscular dystrophy.
59
45200
The Effect of Surface Modified Nano-Hydroxyapatite Incorporation into Polymethylmethacrylate Cement on Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties
Abstract:
Poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA) is the most frequently used bone void filler for vertebral augmentation in osteoporotic fracture. PMMA bone cement not only exhibits strong mechanical properties but also can fabricate according to the shape of bone defect. However, the adhesion between the PMMA-based cement and the adjacent bone is usually weak and as PMMA bone cement is inherently bioinert. The combination of bioceramics and polymers as composites may increase cell adhesion and improve biocompatibility. The nano-hydroxyapatite(HAP) not only plays a significant role in maintaining the properties of the natural bone but also offers a favorable environment for osteoconduction, protein adhesion, and osteoblast proliferation. However, defects and cracks can form at the polymer/ceramics interface, resulting in uneven distribution of stress and subsequent inferior mechanical strength. Surface-modified HAP nano-crystals were prepared by chemically grafting poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) on surface-modified nano-HAP surface to increase the affinity of polymer/ceramic phases .Thus, incorporation of surface-modified nano-hydroxyapatite (EC-HAP) may not only improve the interfacial adhesion between cement and bone and between nanoparticles and cement, but also increase biocompatibility. In this research, PMMA mixing with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt% EC-HAP were examined. MC3T3-E1 cells were used for the biological evaluation of the response to the cements in vitro. Morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of HAP/PMMA and EC-HAP/PMMA cement were investigated by compression test. Surface wettability of the cements was measured by contact angles.
58
94469
Fortification of Concentrated Milk Protein Beverages with Soy Proteins: Impact of Divalent Cations and Heating Treatment on the Physical Stability
Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of adding calcium and magnesium chloride on heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate (8:2 respectively) mixtures containing 10% w/w total protein subjected to the in-container sterilization (115 °C x 15 min). The particle size does not change when emulsions are heated at pH between 6.7 and 7.3 irrespective of the mixed protein ratio. Increasing concentration of divalent cation salts resulted in an increase in protein particle size, dry sediment formation and sediment height and a decrease in pH, heat stability and hydration in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions on sterilization at 115°C. Fortification of divalent cation salts in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture solutions resulted in an accelerated protein sedimentation and two unique sediment regions during accelerated storage stability testing. Moreover, the heat stability decreased upon sterilization at 115°C, with addition of MgCl₂ causing a greater increase in sedimentation velocity and compressibility than CaCl₂. Increasing pH value of protein milk concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions from 6.7 to 7.2 resulted in an increase in viscosity following the heat treatment. The study demonstrated that the type and concentration of divalent cation salts used strongly impact heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture nutritional beverages.
57
63901
Impact of Education on Levels of Physical Activity and Depression in Taiwanese Vegetarians and Omnivores
Abstract:
Physical activity and mental health status are important for health. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activities and depression in Taiwanese vegetarians (VEG) and omnivores (OMNI). Sixty-three vegetarians (20 males) and 56 omnivores (23 males) with an average age of 51 years were recruited for a food frequency validation study at Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from July to September in 2016. Participants filled out a validated Chinese version international physical activity questionnaire-short-form (IPAQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II-Chinese version (BDI), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a questionnaire on demographics and medical history upon recruitment. Total BDI scores were calculated for depression and the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) was calculated for physical activity levels. Mann-Whitney U tests and Chi-square test were used to compare demographics, physical activity levels and depression scores. VEG and OMNI did not differ significantly on MET (1441.9 ± 3387.3 vs. 1605.8 ± 2486.1. p=0.2652, respectively). VEG scored slightly lower on BDI compared to OMNI without statistical significance (5.6 ± 5.7 vs. 7.4 ± 6.3. p=0.06). In addition, we found that regardless of diet practice, those who held a college degree and above scored better on MET (1788.1 ± 2532.6 vs. 1215.5 ± 3425.5. p=0.0014) and BDI (5.2 ± 5.1 vs. 7.8 ± 6.7. p=0.03). In this cross-sectional study, Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores scored comparatively on physical activity levels and depression. However, education is a significant determinant of physical activity and depression.
56
59425
Spatial Analysis of Flood Vulnerability in Highly Urbanized Area: A Case Study in Taipei City
Abstract:
Without adequate information and mitigation plan for natural disaster, the risk to urban populated areas will increase in the future as populations grow, especially in Taiwan. Taiwan is recognized as the world's high-risk areas, where an average of 5.7 times of floods occur per year should seek to strengthen coherence and consensus in how cities can plan for flood and climate change. Therefore, this study aims at understanding the vulnerability to flooding in Taipei city, Taiwan, by creating indicators and calculating the vulnerability of each study units. The indicators were grouped into sensitivity and adaptive capacity based on the definition of vulnerability of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The indicators were weighted by using Principal Component Analysis. However, current researches were based on the assumption that the composition and influence of the indicators were the same in different areas. This disregarded spatial correlation that might result in inaccurate explanation on local vulnerability. The study used Geographically Weighted Principal Component Analysis by adding geographic weighting matrix as weighting to get the different main flood impact characteristic in different areas. Cross Validation Method and Akaike Information Criterion were used to decide bandwidth and Gaussian Pattern as the bandwidth weight scheme. The ultimate outcome can be used for the reduction of damage potential by integrating the outputs into local mitigation plan and urban planning.
55
59888
Visual Simulation for the Relationship of Urban Fabric
Abstract:
This article is about the urban form of visualization by Cityengine. City is composed of different domains, and each domain has its own fabric because of arrangement. For example, a neighborhood unit contains fabrics such as schools, street networks, residential and commercial spaces. Therefore, studying urban morphology can help us understand the urban form in planning process. Streets, plots, and buildings seem as urban fabrics, and they configure urban form. Traditionally, urban morphology usually discussed single parameter, which is building type, ignoring other parameters such as streets and plots. However, urban space is three-dimensional, instead of two-dimensional. People perceive urban space by their visualization. Therefore, using visualization can fill the gap between two dimensions and three dimensions. Hence, the study of urban morphology will strengthen the understanding of whole appearance of a city. Cityengine is a software which can edit, analyze and monitor the data and visualize the result for GIS, a common tool to analyze data and display the map for urban plan and urban design. Cityengine can parameterize the data of streets, plots and building types and visualize the result in three-dimensional way. The research will reappear the real urban form by visualizing. We can know whether the urban form can be parameterized and the parameterized result can match the real urban form. Then, visualizing the result by software in three dimension to analyze the rule of urban form. There will be three stages of the research. It will start with a field survey of Tainan East District in Taiwan to conclude the relationships between urban fabrics of street networks, plots and building types. Second, to visualize the relationship, it will turn the relationship into codes which Cityengine can read. Last, Cityengine will automatically display the result by visualizing.
54
108537
Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in River Sediments and Suspended Matter in Small Tributaries of Abandoned Mercury Mines in Wanshan, Guizhou
Abstract:
Soil erosion around abandoned mines is one of the important geological agents for pollutant diffuses to the lower reaches of the local river basin system. River loading of pollutants is an important parameter for remediation of abandoned mines. In order to obtain information on pollutant transport and diffusion downstream in mining area, the small tributary system of the Xiaxi River in Wanshan District of Guizhou Province was selected as the research area. Sediment and suspended matter samples were collected and determined for Pb, As, Hg, Zn, Co, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Mn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) with the pretreatment of wet digestion. Discussions are made for pollution status and spatial distribution characteristics. The total Hg content in the sediments ranged from 0.45 to 16.0 g/g (dry weight) with an average of 5.79 g/g, which was ten times higher than the limit of Class II soil for mercury by the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard. The maximum occurred at the intersection of the Jin River and the Xiaxi River. The potential ecological hazard index (RI) was used to evaluate the ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediments. The average RI value for the whole study area suggests the high potential ecological risk level. High Cd potential ecological risk was found at individual sites.
53
84880
Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice
Abstract:
Chronic inflammatory pain results from peripheral tissue injury or local inflammation to increase the release of protons, histamines, adenosine triphosphate, and several proinflammatory cytokines. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in fibromyalgia, neuropathic, and inflammatory pain; however, its exact mechanisms in chronic inflammatory pain are still unclear. We investigate the analgesic effect of EA by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the hind paw of mice to induce chronic inflammatory pain ( > 14 d). Our results showed that EA significantly reduced chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic inflammatory pain model. Chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was also abolished in TRPV1−/− mice. TRPV1 increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) at 2 weeks after CFA injection. The expression levels of downstream molecules such as pPKA, pPI3K, and pPKC increased, as did those of pERK, pp38, and pJNK. Transcription factors (pCREB and pNFκB) and nociceptive ion channels (Nav1.7 and Nav1.8) were involved in this process. Inflammatory mediators such as GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein), S100B, and RAGE (Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) were also involved. The expression levels of these molecules were reduced in EA (electroacupuncture) and TRPV1−/−mice but not in the sham EA group. The present study demonstrated that EA or TRPV1 gene deletion reduced chronic inflammatory pain through TRPV1 and related molecules. In addition, our data provided evidence to support the clinical use of EA for treating chronic inflammatory pain.
52
87341
Digital Memory plus City Cultural Heritage: The Peking Memory Project Experience
Abstract:
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the world's second most populous city proper and most populous capital city. Beijing is a noted historical and cultural whose city history dates back three millennia which is extremely rich in terms of cultural heritage. In 2012, a digital memory project led by Humanistic Beijing Studies Center in Renmin University of China started with the goal to build a total digital collection of knowledge assets about Beijing and represent Beijing memories in new fresh ways. The title of the entire project is ‘Peking Memory Project(PMP)’. The main goal is for safeguarding the documentary heritage and intellectual memory of Beijing, more specifically speaking, from the perspective of historical humanities and public participation, PMP will comprehensively applied digital technologies like digital capture, digital storage, digital process, digital presentation and digital communication to transform different kinds of cultural heritage of Beijing into digital formats that can be stored, re-organized and shared. These digital memories can be interpreted with a new perspective, be organized with a new theme, be presented in a new way and be utilized with a new need. Taking social memory as theoretical basis and digital technologies as tools, PMP is framed with ‘Two Sites and A Repository’. Two sites mean the special website(s) characterized by ‘professional’ and an interactive website characterized by ‘crowdsourcing’. A Repository means the storage pool used for safety long-time preservation of the digital memories. The work of PMP has ultimately helped to highlight the important role in safeguarding the documentary heritage and intellectual memory of Beijing.
51
19664
Sulforaphane Attenuates Muscle Inflammation in Dystrophin-Deficient Mdx Mice via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway
Abstract:
Backgrounds: Inflammation is widely distributed in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and ultimately leads to progressive deterioration of muscle function with the co-effects of chronic muscle damage, oxidative stress, and reduced oxidative capacity. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a critical role in defending against inflammation in different tissues via activation of phase II enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, whether Nrf2/HO-1 pathway can attenuate muscle inflammation on DMD remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Sulforaphane (SFN) on DMD. Methods: 4-week-old male mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 4 weeks. Gastrocnemius, tibial anterior and triceps brachii muscles were collected for related analysis. Immune cell infiltration in skeletal muscles was analyzed by H&E staining and immuno-histochemistry. Moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines,pro-inflammatory cytokines and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment increased the expression of muscle phase II enzymes HO-1 in Nrf2 dependent manner. Inflammation in mdx skeletal muscles was reduced by SFN treatment as indicated by decreased immune cell infiltration and lower expressions of the inflammatory cytokines CD45, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can ameliorate muscle inflammation in mdx mice by Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which indicates Nrf2/HO-1 pathway may represent a new therapeutic target for DMD.
50
62390
Roll Forming Process and Die Design for a Large Size Square Tube
Abstract:
This paper proposed the cold roll forming process and the die design methods for a 400mm by 400 mm square tube with 16 mm in thickness. The tubular blank made by cold roll forming is 508mm in diameter. The square tube roll forming process was designed considering the layout of rolls and the compression ratio distribution for each stand. The final tube corner radius and the edge straightness in the front end of the tube are to be controlled according to the tube specification. A five-stand forming design using four rolls at each stand was proposed to establish the base reference of square tube roll forming quality. Different numbers of pass and roll designs were proposed and compared to the base design in order to find the feasibility of increase pass number to improve the square tube quality. The proposed roll forming processes were simulated using FEM analysis. The thickness variations of the corner and the edge areas were examined. The maximum loads and the torques of each stand were calculated to study the power consumption of the roll forming machine. The simulation results showed the square tube thickness variations and concavity of the edge are acceptable with the JIS tube specifications for the base design. But the maximum loads and torques are very high. By changing the layout and the number of the rolls were able to obtain better tube geometry and decrease the maximum load and torque of each stand. This paper had shown the feasibility of designing the roll forming process and the layout of dies using FEM simulation. The obtained information is helpful to the roll forming machine design for a large size square tube making.
49
77043
The Protective Role of Decoy Receptor 3 Analogue on Rat Steatotic Liver against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Blocking M1/Th1 Polarization and Multiple Upstream Pathogenic Cascades
Abstract:
TNF superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and macrophage (M1)/kupffer cells (KC) polarization are important in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) liver injury in animals with hepatic steatosis (HS). Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a common upstream inhibitor of the above-mentioned pathogenic cascades. The study evaluated whether modulation of these DcR3-related cascades was able to protect steatotic liver from IR injury. Serum and hepatic DcR3 levels were lower in patients and animals with HS. Accordingly, the effects of pharmacologic and genetic DcR3 replacement on the IR-related pathogenic changes were measured. Significantly, DcR3 replacement protected IR-Zucker(HS) rats and IR-DcR3-Tg(HS) mice from IR liver injury. The beneficial effects of DcR3 replacement were accompanied by decreased serum/hepatic TNF, soluble TNF-like cytokine 1A (TL1A), Fas ligand (Fas-L) and LIGHT, T-helper-cell-1 cytokine (INF) levels, neutrophil infiltration, M1 polarization, neutrophil-macrophage/KC-T-cell interaction, hepatocyte apoptosis and improved hepatic microcirculatory failure among animals with IR-injured steatotic livers. Additionally, TL1A, Fas-L, LIGHT and TLR4/NFB signals were found to mediate the DcR3-related protective effects of steatotic livers from IR injury. Using multimodal in vivo and in vitro approaches, we found that DcR3 was a potential agent to protect steatotic livers from IR injury by simultaneous blocking the multiple IR injury-related pathogenic changes.
48
71314
The Influence of Having Sons or Daughters on Rural Mothers Life Quality after Birth: A Sample from Hebei Province in China
Abstract:
Fertility is very important for women. The gender role of women gives them the fertility ability. Giving birth to a boy or a girl might have effect on the mother’s life in the past in China. However, with the shifting of traditional attitudes and views, the women's social status and living situation have been transformed. Although the pregnancy and childbirth can still bring them a major impact on their lives, the form and content of the impact have changed. So we investigated the rural women of Hebei province after birth to reflect their living situation changes before and after birth and the differences of their living situation from women in the past by using a self-made rural women life situation change questionnaire, the index of well-being, and the index of general effect questionnaire. It has shown that women’s living situation after babybirth in Hebei province is well in general, and their mind and body, as well as their interpersonal relationships and social status, were all enhanced. The women’s living situation after babybirth was positively related to and could anticipate subjective happiness, and specifically, the rural women’s mind and body, their interpersonal relationship and social status in rural women life situation change questionnaire are the main predicted factors to subjective happiness. Furthermore, the women’s self-identification on female roles was influenced by the children’s gender. Specifically, women with only one daughter had highest self-identification on female roles, consisting with their families' concept about children’s gender, which indicated family values have a great effect on women’s self-identification on female roles in rural. Moreover, the women’s living situation and subjective happiness are both impacted by home incomes.
47
106062
A Spatial Information Network Traffic Prediction Method Based on Hybrid Model
Abstract:
Compared with terrestrial network, the traffic of spatial information network has both self-similarity and short correlation characteristics. By studying its traffic prediction method, the resource utilization of spatial information network can be improved, and the method can provide an important basis for traffic planning of a spatial information network. In this paper, considering the accuracy and complexity of the algorithm, the spatial information network traffic is decomposed into approximate component with long correlation and detail component with short correlation, and a time series hybrid prediction model based on wavelet decomposition is proposed to predict the spatial network traffic. Firstly, the original traffic data are decomposed to approximate components and detail components by using wavelet decomposition algorithm. According to the autocorrelation and partial correlation smearing and truncation characteristics of each component, the corresponding model (AR/MA/ARMA) of each detail component can be directly established, while the type of approximate component modeling can be established by ARIMA model after smoothing. Finally, the prediction results of the multiple models are fitted to obtain the prediction results of the original data. The method not only considers the self-similarity of a spatial information network, but also takes into account the short correlation caused by network burst information, which is verified by using the measured data of a certain back bone network released by the MAWI working group in 2018. Compared with the typical time series model, the predicted data of hybrid model is closer to the real traffic data and has a smaller relative root means square error, which is more suitable for a spatial information network.
46
45292
Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes from Laggera alata Inhibiting Angiogenesis
Abstract:
Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel development. It has been recognized as a therapeutic target for blocking cancer growth four decades ago. Vascular sprouting is initiated by pro-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenic initiation, many patients with cancer or ocular neovascularization have been benefited from anti-VEGF therapy. Emerging approaches impacting in the later stages of vessel remodeling and maturation are expected to improve clinical efficacy. TIE receptor as well as the corresponding angiopoietin ligands, were identified as another endothelial cell specific receptor tyrosine kinase signaling system. Much efforts were made to reduce the activity of angiopoietin-TIE receptor axis. Two eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes from laggera alata, namely, 15-dihydrocostic acid and ilicic acid were found with strong anti-angiogenic properties in zebrafish model. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of VEGFR2 and TIE2 pathway related genes were down-regulated in the sesquiterpenes treated zebrafish embryos. Besides, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the sesquiterpenes have the ability to inhibit VEGF-induced HUVECs proliferation and migration at non-toxic concentration. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 induced TIE2 phosphorylation was inhibited by the sesquiterpenes, the inhibitory effect was detected in angiopoietin-1 induced HUVECs proliferation as well. Thus, we hypothesized the anti-angiogenic activity of the compounds may via the inhibition of VEGF and TIE2 related pathways. How the compounds come into play as the pathways inhibitors need to be evaluated in the future.
45
78712
Trinary Affinity—Mathematic Verification and Application (1): Construction of Formulas for the Composite and Prime Numbers
Abstract:
Trinary affinity is a description of existence: every object exists as it is known and spoken of, in a system of 2 differences (denoted dif1, dif₂) and 1 similarity (Sim), equivalently expressed as dif₁ / Sim / dif₂ and kn / 0 / tkn (kn = the known, tkn = the 'to be known', 0 = the zero point of knowing). They are mathematically verified and illustrated in this paper by the arrangement of all integers onto 3 columns, where each number exists as a difference in relation to another number as another difference, and the 2 difs as arbitrated by a third number as the Sim, resulting in a trinary affinity or trinity of 3 numbers, of which one is the known, the other the 'to be known', and the third the zero (0) from which both the kn and tkn are measured and specified. Consequently, any number is horizontally specified either as 3n, or as '3n – 1' or '3n + 1', and vertically as 'Cn + c', so that any number seems to occur at the intersection of its X and Y axes and represented by its X and Y coordinates, as any point on Earth’s surface by its latitude and longitude. Technically, i) primes are viewed and treated as progenitors, and composites as descending from them, forming families of composites, each capable of being measured and specified from its own zero called in this paper the realistic zero (denoted 0r, as contrasted to the mathematic zero, 0m), which corresponds to the constant c, and the nature of which separates the composite and prime numbers, and ii) any number is considered as having a magnitude as well as a position, so that a number is verified as a prime first by referring to its descriptive formula and then by making sure that no composite number can possibly occur on its position, by dividing it with factors provided by the composite number formulas. The paper consists of 3 parts: 1) a brief explanation of the trinary affinity of things, 2) the 8 formulas that represent ALL the primes, and 3) families of composite numbers, each represented by a formula. A composite number family is described as 3n + f₁‧f₂. Since there are an infinitely large number of composite number families, to verify the primality of a great probable prime, we have to have it divided with several or many a f₁ from a range of composite number formulas, a procedure that is as laborious as it is the surest way to verifying a great number’s primality. (So, it is possible to substitute planned division for trial division.)
44
84666
The Effects of Acupoint Catgut Embedding for Weight Control in Mice Model
Abstract:
Obesity (OB) is a hazardous global health problem that has been increasing in prevalence, more severely in last decade. It is the mainly resultant from the imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure, which is concordant with a modern lifestyle, implying an increase in calories with poorer quality of food intake accompanied by a decrease in physical activities. Obesity does not concern the appearance only but is also a major factor contributing to poor physiology, psychology, society and economic issues. Moreover, OB induces low-grade inflammation in the body through the regulatory effect it enacts on the adipocyte function. Various alternative treatments were investigated for body weight control, including Acupoint Catgut Embedding (ACE). ACE is the implantation of absorbable catgut sutures at specific acupoints, displaying durable and potent stimulation and thereby reducing the treatment frequency. Our study utilized a mouse model to exclude any psychological factors of OB and ACE treatment. High-fat diet and body weight were measured once a week before subjects in ACE and Sham group received the ACE treatment or placebo treatment. We hypothesized that ACE can control body weight through the interaction of the TRPV1 pathways, as TRPV1 accordingly responds to inflammatory factors. The results of body weight variation show a significant decrease in body weight in ACE group compared with the baseline of control and Sham group. Meanwhile, converse results were explored in TRPV1 knockout mice, where a significant maintenance of normal body weight throughout the experiment period was observed. There was no significant difference in food consumption of each group. These finding indicated that TRPV1 pathways and its associated pathways may be involved in the maintenance of body weight, which can be controlled by ACE treatment of genetic manipulation.
43
52563
The Risk of Post-stroke Pneumonia and Its One-Year Disability in Taiwan
Abstract:
Background: Evidence exists that pneumonia is a frequently encountered complication after stroke which is associated with a higher rate of mortality and increased long-term disability Purpose: To determine the predictors associated with the risk of one-year disability in acute stroke. Methods: Data for this longitudinal follow-up study were extracted from a tertiary referral medical center’s stroke registry database in Northern Taipei. Eligible patients with acute stroke admitted to the hospital and completed a one-year follow up were recruited for analysis. Favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2. SAS version 9.2 was used for the multivariable regression analyses to examine the factors correlated with the one-year disability in stroke patients. Results: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1373 (mean age: 70.49±15.4 years, 913(66.5%) males) consecutively administered acute stroke patients were recruited. Overall, the rate of one-year disability was 37.20%(404/1086) in those without post-stroke pneumonia. It increased to 82.93 %(238/287) in patients developed post-stroke pneumonia. Factors associated with increased risk of disability were age ≧ 75(OR= 4.845, p
42
96273
Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application
Abstract:
Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.
41
110406
Total Life Cycle Cost and Life Cycle Assessment of Mass Timber Buildings in the US
Abstract:
With current worldwide trend in designs to have net-zero emission buildings to mitigate climate change, widespread use of mass timber products, such as Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), or Nail Laminated Timber (NLT) or Dowel Laminated Timber (DLT) in buildings have been proposed as one approach in reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Consequentially, mass timber building designs are being adopted more and more by architectures in North America, especially for mid- to high-rise buildings where concrete and steel buildings are currently prevalent, but traditional light-frame wood buildings are not. Wood buildings and their associated wood products have tended to have lower environmental impacts than competing energy-intensive materials. It is common practice to conduct life cycle assessments (LCAs) and life cycle cost analyses on buildings with traditional structural materials like concrete and steel in the building design process. Mass timber buildings with lower environmental impacts, especially GHG emissions, can contribute to the Net Zero-emission goal for the world-building sector. However, the economic impacts from CLT mass timber buildings still vary from the life-cycle cost perspective and environmental trade-offs associated with GHG emissions. This paper quantified the Total Life Cycle Cost and cradle-to-grave GHG emissions of a pre-designed CLT mass timber building and compared it to a functionally-equivalent concrete building. The Total life cycle Eco-cost-efficiency is defined in this study and calculated to discuss the trade-offs for the net-zero emission buildings in a holistic view for both environmental and economic impacts. Mass timber used in buildings for the United States is targeted to the materials from the nation’s sustainable managed forest in order to benefit both national and global environments and economies.
40
104806
Reliability Analysis of Construction Schedule Plan Based on Building Information Modelling
Abstract:
In recent years, the application of BIM (Building Information Modelling) to construction schedule plan has been the focus of more and more researchers. In order to assess the reasonable level of the BIM-based construction schedule plan, that is whether the schedule can be completed on time, some researchers have introduced reliability theory to evaluate. In the process of evaluation, the uncertain factors affecting the construction schedule plan are regarded as random variables, and probability distributions of the random variables are assumed to be normal distribution, which is determined using two parameters evaluated from the mean and standard deviation of statistical data. However, in practical engineering, most of the uncertain influence factors are not normal random variables. So the evaluation results of the construction schedule plan will be unreasonable under the assumption that probability distributions of random variables submitted to the normal distribution. Therefore, in order to get a more reasonable evaluation result, it is necessary to describe the distribution of random variables more comprehensively. For this purpose, cubic normal distribution is introduced in this paper to describe the distribution of arbitrary random variables, which is determined by the first four moments (mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis). In this paper, building the BIM model firstly according to the design messages of the structure and making the construction schedule plan based on BIM, then the cubic normal distribution is used to describe the distribution of the random variables due to the collecting statistical data of the random factors influencing construction schedule plan. Next the reliability analysis of the construction schedule plan based on BIM can be carried out more reasonably. Finally, the more accurate evaluation results can be given providing reference for the implementation of the actual construction schedule plan. In the last part of this paper, the more efficiency and accuracy of the proposed methodology for the reliability analysis of the construction schedule plan based on BIM are conducted through practical engineering case.
39
14948
Causes of Death in Neuromuscular Disease Patients: 15-Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Abstract:
Background:Cardiopulmonary complications seem to cause high morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD) but so far there is no domestic data reported in Taiwan. We, therefore attempted to analyze the factors to cause the death in NMD patients from our cohort. Methods:From 1998 to 2013, we retrospectively collected the information of the NMD patients treated and followed up in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Forty-two patients with NMD who expired during these fifteen years were enrolled. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and the causes of death and the associated affecting factors were analyzed. Results:Eighteen patients with NMD (mean age=13.3, SD=12.4) with complete medical record and detailed information were finally included in this study, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (n=9, 7/9: type 1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n=6), congenital muscular dystrophy (n=1), carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency (n=1) and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD)(n=1). The place of death was in ICU (n=11, 61%), emergency room (n=3, 16.6%) or home (n=4, 22.2%). For SMA type 1 patients, most of them (71.4%, 5/7) died in emergency room or home and the other two expired during an ICU admission. The causes of death included acute respiratory failure due to pneumonia (n=13, 72.2 %), ventilator failure or dislocation (n=2, 11.1%), suffocation/choking (n=2, 11.1%), and heart failure with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=1, 5.55%). Among the 15 patients died of respiratory failure or choking, 73.3% of the patients (n=11) received no ventilator care at home. 80% of the patients (n=12) received no cough assist at home. The patient died of cardiomyopathy received no medications for heart failure until the last admission. Conclusion: Respiratory failure and choking are the leading causes of death in NMD patients. Appropriate respiratory support and airway clearance play the critical role to reduce the mortality.
38
75426
Seismic Protection of Automated Stocker System by Customized Viscous Fluid Dampers
Abstract:
The hi-tech industries in the Science Park at southern Taiwan were heavily damaged by a strong earthquake early 2016. The financial loss in this event was attributed primarily to the automated stocker system handling fully processed products, and recovery of the automated stocker system from the aftermath proved to contribute major lead time. Therefore, development of effective means for protection of stockers against earthquakes has become the highest priority for risk minimization and business continuity. This study proposes to mitigate the seismic response of the stockers by introducing viscous fluid dampers in between the ceiling and the top of the stockers. The stocker is expected to vibrate less violently with a passive control force on top. Linear damper is considered in this application with an optimal damping coefficient determined from a preliminary parametric study. The damper is small in size in comparison with those adopted for building or bridge applications. Component test of the dampers has been carried out to make sure they meet the design requirement. Shake table tests have been further conducted to verify the proposed scheme under realistic earthquake conditions. Encouraging results have been achieved by effectively reducing the seismic responses of up to 60% and preventing the FOUPs from falling off the shelves that would otherwise be the case if left unprotected. Effectiveness of adopting a viscous fluid damper for seismic control of the stocker on top against the ceiling has been confirmed. This technique has been adopted by Macronix International Co., LTD for seismic retrofit of existing stockers. Demonstrative projects on the application of the proposed technique are planned underway for other companies in the display industry as well.
37
98254
Discussion on the Impact and Improvement Strategy of Bike Sharing on Urban Space
Abstract:
Over the past two years, a new generation of No-Pile Bike sharing, represented by the Ofo, Mobike and HelloBike, has sprung up in various cities in China, and spread rapidly in countries such as Britain, Japan, the United States and Singapore. As a new green public transportation mode, bike sharing can bring a series of benefits to urban space. At first, this paper analyzes the specific impact of bike sharing on urban space in China. Based on the market research and data analyzing, it is found that bike sharing can improve the quality of urban space in three aspects: expanding the radius of public transportation service, filling service blind spots, alleviating urban traffic congestion, and enhancing the vitality of urban space. On the other hand, due to the immature market and the imperfect system, bike sharing has gradually revealed some difficulties, such as parking chaos, malicious damage, safety problems, imbalance between supply and demand, and so on. Then the paper investigates the characteristics of shared bikes, business model, operating mechanism on Chinese market currently. Finally, in order to make bike sharing serve urban construction better, this paper puts forward some specific countermeasures from four aspects. In terms of market operations, it is necessary to establish a public-private partnership model and set up a unified bike-sharing integrated management platform. From technical methods level, the paper proposes to develop an intelligent parking system for regulating parking. From policy formulation level, establishing a bike-sharing assessment mechanism would strengthen supervision. As to urban planning, sharing data and redesigning slow roadway is beneficial for transportation and spatial planning.
36
40149
An Exploration Survival Risk Factors of Stroke Patients at a General Hospital in Northern Taiwan
Abstract:
Background: The most common serious complication following acute stroke is pneumonia. It has been associated with the increased morbidity, mortality, and medical cost after acute stroke in elderly patients. Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between stroke patients, risk factors of pneumonia, and one-year survival rates in a group of patients, in a tertiary referal center in Northern Taiwan. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1730 consecutively administered stroke patients were recruited. The Survival analysis and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the predictors for the one-year survival in stroke patients of a stroke registry database from northern Taiwan. Results: The risk of stroke mortality increased with age≧ 75 (OR=2.305, p < .0001), cancer (OR=3.221, p= 30(d) , stroke severity (mRS=3-5) ,stroke Conclusion: In this study, different from previous research findings, we found that elderly age, severe neurological deficit and rehabilitation therapy were significantly associated with Post-stroke Pneumonia. However, specific preventive strategies are needed to target the high risk groups to improve their long-term outcomes after acute stroke. These findings could open new avenues in the management of stroke patients.
35
92179
Investigating the Potential Use of Unsaturated Fatty Acids as Antifungal Crop Protective Agents
Abstract:
Pathogenic fungi cause significant yield losses and quality reductions to major crops including wheat, canola, and barley. Toxic metabolites produced by phytopathogenic fungi also pose significant risks to animal and human health. Extensive application of synthetic fungicides is not a sustainable solution since it poses risks to human, animal and environmental health. Unsaturated fatty acids may provide an environmentally friendly alternative because of their direct antifungal activity against phytopathogens as well as through the stimulation of plant defense pathways. The present study assessed the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of two hydroxy fatty acids, coriolic acid and ricinoleic acid, against the phytopathogens Fusarium graminearum, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Pyrenophora teres f. teres, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans. Antifungal activity of coriolic acid and ricinoleic acid was evaluated using broth micro-dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results indicated that both ricinoleic acid and coriolic acid showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens, with the strongest inhibitory activity against L. maculans, but the MIC varied greatly between species. An antifungal effect was observed for coriolic acid in vivo against pathogenic fungi of wheat and barley. This effect was not correlated to the in vitro activity because ricinoleic acid with equivalent in vitro antifungal activity showed no protective effect in vivo. Moreover, neither coriolic acid nor ricinoleic acid controlled fungal pathogens of canola. In conclusion, coriolic acid inhibits some phytopathogens in vivo and may have the potential to be an effective crop protection agent.
34
33292
Microencapsulation of Tuna Oil and Mentha Piperita Oil Mixture using Different Combinations of Wall Materials with Whey Protein Isolate
Abstract:
Tuna oil (omega-3 oil) has become increasingly popular in the last ten years, because it is considered one of the treasures of food which has many beneficial health effects for the humans. Nevertheless, the susceptibility of omega-3 oils to oxidative deterioration, resulting in the formation of oxidation products, in addition to organoleptic problems including “fishy” flavors, have presented obstacles to the more widespread use of tuna oils in the food industry. This study sought to evaluate the potential impact of Mentha piperita oil on physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of tuna oil microcapsules formed by spray drying using the partial substitution to whey protein isolate by carboxymethyl cellulose and pullulan. The emulsions before the drying process were characterized regarding size and ζ-potential, viscosity, surface tension. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that all emulsions were sphericity and homogeneous distribution without any visible particle aggregation. The microcapsules obtained after spray drying were characterized regarding microencapsulation efficiency, water activity, color, bulk density, flowability, scanning surface morphology and oxidative stability. The microcapsules were spherical shape had low water activity (0.11-0.23 aw). The microcapsules containing both tuna oil and Mentha piperita oil were smaller than others and addition of pullulan into wall materials improved the morphology of microcapsules. Microencapsulation efficiency of powdered oil ranged from 90% to 94%. Using Mentha piperita oil in the process of microencapsulation tuna oil enhanced the oxidative stability using whey protein isolate only or with carboxymethyl cellulose or pullulan as wall materials, resulting in improved storage stability and mask fishy odor. Therefore, it is foreseen using tuna-Mentha piperita oil mixture microcapsules in the applications of the food industries.
33
56275
Effect of Citric Acid on Hydrogen-Bond Interactions and Tensile Retention Properties of Citric Acid Modified Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites
Abstract:
The tensile retention and waterproof properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were significantly enhanced by modifying with proper amounts of citric acid (CA) and by melt-blending with poly(lactic acid) (PLA), although no distinguished chemical reaction occurred between CA and starch molecules. As evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analyses, disruption of intra and interhydrogen-bondings within starch molecules did occur during the modification processes of CA modified TPS (i.e. TPS100CAx) specimens. The tensile strength (σf) retention values of TPS specimens reduced rapidly from 27.8 to 20.5 and 0.4 MPa, respectively, as the conditioning time at 20°C/50% relative humidity (RH) increased from 0 to 7 and 70 days, respectively. While the elongation at break (εf) retention values of TPS specimens increased rapidly from 5.9 to 6.5 and 34.8%, respectively, as the conditioning time increased from 0 to 7 and 70 days. After conditioning at 20°C/50% RH for 70 days, the σf and εf retention values of the best prepared (TPS100CA0.1)30PLA70 specimen are equivalent to 85% and 167% of its initial σf and εf values, respectively, and are more than 105 times higher but 48% lower than those of TPS specimens conditioned at 20°C/50% RH for the same amount of time. Demarcated diffraction peaks, new melting endotherms of recrystallized starch crystals and distinguished ductile characteristics with drawn debris were found for many conditioned TPS specimens, however, only slight retrogradation effect and much less drawn debris was found for most conditioned TPS100CAx and/or (TPS100CA0.1)xPLAy specimens. The significantly improved water proof, tensile retention properties and relatively unchanged in retrogradation effect found for most conditioned TPS100CAx and/or (TPS100CA0.1)xPLAy specimens are apparently due to the efficient blocking of the moisture-absorbing hydroxyl groups (free or hydrogen bonded) by hydrogen-bonding CA with starch molecules during their modification processes.
32
109595
Screening Ecological Risk Assessment at an Old Abandoned Mine in Northern Taiwan
Abstract:
Former Taiwan Metal Mining Corporation and its associated 3 wasted flue gas tunnels, hereinafter referred to as 'TMMC', was contaminated with heavy metals, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soil. Since the contamination had been exposed and unmanaged in the environment for more than 40 years, the extent of the contamination area is estimated to be more than 25 acres. Additionally, TMMC is located in a remote, mountainous area where almost no residents are residing in the 1-km radius area. Thus, it was deemed necessary to conduct an ecological risk assessment in order to evaluate the details of future contaminated site management plan. According to the winter and summer, ecological investigation results, one type of endangered, multiple vulnerable and near threaten plant was discovered, as well as numerous other protected species, such as Crested Serpent Eagle, Crested Goshawk, Black Kite, Brown Shrike, Taiwan Blue Magpie were observed. Ecological soil screening level (Eco-SSLs) developed by USEPA was adopted as a reference to conduct screening assessment. Since all the protected species observed surrounding TMMC site were birds, screening ecological risk assessment was conducted on birds only. The assessment was assessed mainly based on the chemical evaluation, which the contamination in different environmental media was compared directly with the ecological impact levels (EIL) of each evaluation endpoints and the respective hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) could be obtained. The preliminary ecological risk assessment results indicated HI is greater than 1. In other words, the biological stressors (birds) were exposed to the contamination, which was already exceeded the dosage that could cause unacceptable impacts to the ecological system. This result was mainly due to the high concentration of arsenic, metal and lead; thus it was suggested the above mention contaminants should be remediated as soon as possible or proper risk management measures should be taken.
31
66290
The Uptake of Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Healthcare in Gonji Kolela, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Exploration of What Is on the Ground and What Could Be Helpful
Abstract:
The health status of GonjiKolela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia is below its national average, and a sub-project of China UK Global Health Support Programme (GHSP) is expected to increase the uptake of a suite of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions there. To explore what is on the ground and what could be helpful for the uptake of RMNCH services in GonjiKolela, a qualitative study was performed as part of the baseline assessment before the implementation of the project. Nine key informants from GonjiKolela were interviewed with self-designed interview guides and they were from the district Health Office, health centers, health posts, women health development army (community volunteer groups), mothers of newborns, and also a gynecologist from the maternal and child health center which is the referral center for pregnant women for this project. The interview were transcribed into words and sorted with qualitative analysis software MAXqda. Content analysis was mainly used to analyze the data. The district health office, the health centers and the health posts all had focal persons taking care of the management and provision of RMNCH services, and RMNCH related indicators were recorded and reported at each level routinely. In addition, district government and administration at community/administrative village level kept a close eye on the reduction of maternal, neonatal and child mortality. Women Health Development Amy at household level supported health workers at community/administrative village level (called health extension workers) in tracing, recording and reporting pregnant women, newborn and under-five children,organizing events for health education, demonstrating and leading health promotion activities, and stimulating the utilization of RMNCH.
30
61945
The Heritagisation of the Titanic Culture for Urban Regeneration Use: A Case Study of the Titanic Belfast
Authors:
Abstract:
The study of heritage in different contexts has been discussed during the past decades, which the relationship with other fields such as tourism, museum, and urban regeneration has also been interested in scholars. Governmental and policy attention were also fascinated by the use of heritage, which it is a ‘heritagisation’ process, to achieve certain goals because the advantage will appear in both economic development and social inclusion with suitable planning. In the case of Belfast, this city has been through tough ages due to its complicated ideology issues in the past; however, it is obvious to see the transformation through representing their Belfast heritages in tourism. Planners are willing to use this method to attract cultural tourists, investors and also residents to reborn and retrieve their confidence. One of the target topics is the establishment of Titanic Belfast that explores the culture of Titanic and the history of the shipbuilding industry in Belfast. Even though the cultural flagship brought economic and social benefit, not all of the people agreed on the vision of relaunching a sunken ship and felt proud of it. The aim of this research is to clarify the concept of a ‘heritagisation’ that it could achieve certain goals in consolidating areas, increasing local self-identity pride, and promoting tourism activities if well-planned. Moreover, to discuss the preference and the pros and cons of its practice with the Titanic culture in Belfast’s regeneration process, especially the Titanic Belfast flagship project. From the methodological point of view, a mixed incorporating qualitative point of interviews, observation, and secondary sources with different perspectives and approaches are adopted in this case study. The expected result would show that a great majority of outsiders and the planners were pleasured about the concept of Titanic Belfast’s establishment and agreed its attraction traveling to Belfast. Nevertheless, there were still an amount of locals disagree that the Titanic culture and the flagship would be representative of this city and would bring other advantages to them. In other words, some residents doubt or less likely to support the issue since they have been ignored out of the planning process. Hence, opinions are divided among 38 residents, various outsiders, and stakeholders, and their perspectives have drawn an interesting task for sustainable research in the future.
29
64299
Constructing Digital Memory for Chinese Ancient Village: A Case on Village of Gaoqian
Abstract:
In China, some villages have survived in the long history of changes and remain until today with their unique styles and featured culture developed in the past. Those ancient villages, usually aged for hundreds or thousands of years, are the mirror for traditional Chinese culture, especially the farming-studying culture represented by the Confucianism. Gaoqian, an ancient village with a population of 3,000 in Zhejiang province, is such a case. With a history dating back to Yuan Dynasty, Gaoqian Village has 13 well-preserved traditional Chinese houses with a courtyard, which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. It is a fine specimen to study traditional rural China. In China, some villages have survived in the long history of changes and remain until today with their unique styles and featured culture developed in the past. Those ancient villages, usually aged for hundreds or thousands of years, are the mirror for traditional Chinese culture, especially the farming-studying culture represented by the Confucianism. Gaoqian, an ancient village with a population of 3,000 in Zhejiang province, is such a case. With a history dating back to Yuan Dynasty, Gaoqian Village has 13 well-preserved traditional Chinese houses with a courtyard, which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. It is a fine specimen to study traditional rural China. Then a repository for the memory of the Village will be completed by doing arrangement and description for those multimedia resources such as texts, photos, videos and so on. Production of Creative products with digital technologies is also possible based a thorough understanding of the culture feature of Gaoqian Village using research tools for literature and history studies and a method of comparative study. Finally, the project will construct an exhibition platform for the Village and its culture by telling its stories with completed structures and treads.
28
18257
Sibling Relationship of Adults with Intellectual Disability in China
Authors:
Abstract:
Although sibling relationship has been viewed as one of the most important family relationships that significantly impacted on the quality of life of both adults with Intellectual Disability (AWID) and their brothers/sisters, very few research have been done to investigate this relationship in China. This study investigated Chinese siblings of AWID’s relational motivations in sibling relationship and their determining factors. Quantitative research method has been adopted and 284 samples were recruited in this study. Siblings of AWID’s two types of relational motivations, including obligatory motivations and discretionary motivations were examined. Their emotional closeness, senses of responsibility, experiences of ID stigma, and expectancy of self-reward in sibling relationship were measured by validated scales. Personal, and familial-social demographic characteristics were also investigated. Linear correlation test and standard multiple regression analysis were the major statistical methods that have been used to analyze the data. The findings of this study showed that all the measured factors, including siblings of AWID’s emotional closeness, their senses of responsibility, experiences of ID stigma, and self-reward expectations had significant relationships with their both types of motivations. However, when these factors were grouped together to measure each type of these motivations, the prediction results were varied. The order of factors that best predict siblings of AWID’s obligatory motivations was: their senses of responsibility, emotional closeness, experiences of ID stigma, and their expectancy of self-reward, whereas the order of these factors that best determine siblings of AWID’s discretionary motivations was: their self-reward expectations, experiences of ID stigma, senses of responsibility, and emotional closeness. Among different demographic characteristics, AWID’s disability condition, their siblings’ age, gender, marital status, number of children, both siblings’ living arrangements and family financial status were found to have significant impacts on siblings of AWID’s both types of motivations in sibling relationship. The results of this study could enhance social work practitioners’ understandings about the needs and challenges of siblings of AWID. Suggestions on advocacies for policy changes and services improvements for these siblings were discussed in this study.
27
78742
An East-West Trans-Cultural Study: Zen Enlightenment in Asian and John Cage's Visual Arts
Abstract:
American composer John Cage (1912-1992) is an influential figure in musical, visual and performing arts after World War II and has also been claimed as a forerunner of the western avant-garde in the artistic field. However, the crucial factors contributed to his highly acclaimed achievements include the Zen enlightenment, which he mainly got from Japanese Zen master D. T. Suzuki (1870-1966). As a kind of reflection and afterthought of the Zen inspiration, John Cage created various forms of arts in which visual arts have recently attracted more and more attention and discussion, especially from the perspectives of Zen. John Cage had started to create visual art works since he was 66 years old and the activity had lasted until his death. The quality and quantity of the works are worthy of in-depth study— the 667 pieces of print, 114 pieces of water color, and about 150 pieces of sketch. Cage’s stylistic changes during the 14 years of creation are quite obvious, and the Zen elements in the later works seem to be omnipresent. Based on comparative artistic study, a historical and conceptual view of Zen art that was formed initially in the traditional Chinese and Japanese visual arts will be discussed. Then, Chinese and Japanese representative Zen works will be mentioned, and the technique aspect, as well as stylistic analysis, will be revealed. Finally, a comprehensive comparison of the original Oriental Zen works with John Cage’s works and focus on the influence, and art transformation will be addressed. The master pieces from Zen tradition by Chinese artists like Liang Kai (d. 1210) and Ma Yuan (1160-1225) from Southern Sung Dynasty, the Japanese artists like Sesshū (1420-1506), Miyamoto Musashi (1584-1645) and some others would be discussed. In the current study, these art works from different periods of historical development in Zen will serve as the basis of analogy, interpretation, and criticism to Cage's visual art works. Through the perspectives of the Zen authenticity from Asia, we see how John Cage appropriated the eastern culture to his innovation, which changed the art world forever. And it is believed that through a transition from inter-, cross-, toward trans-cultural inspiration, John Cage set up a unique pathway of art innovations.
26
22433
Preventative Maintenance, Impact on the Optimal Replacement Strategy of Secondhand Products
Abstract:
This paper investigates optimal replacement and preventative maintenance policies of secondhand products under a Finite Planning Horizon (FPH). Any consumer wishing to replace their product under FPH would have it undergo minimal repairs. The replacement provided would be required to undergo periodical preventive maintenance done to avoid product failure. Then, a mathematical formula for disbursement cost for products under FPH can be derived. Optimal policies are then obtained to minimize cost. In the first of two segments of the paper, a model for initial product purchase of either new or secondhand products is used. This model is built by analyzing product purchasing price, surplus value of product, as well as the minimal repair cost. The second segment uses a model for replacement products, which are also secondhand products with no limit on usage. This model analyzes the same components as the first as well as expected preventative maintenance cost. Using these two models, a formula for the expected final total cost can be developed. The formula requires four variables (optimal preventive maintenance level, preventive maintenance frequency, replacement timing, age of replacement product) to find minimal cost requirement. Based on analysis of the variables using the expected total final cost model, it was found that the purchasing price and length of ownership were directly related. Also, consumers should choose the secondhand product with the higher usage for replacement. Products with higher initial usage upon acquisition require an earlier replacement schedule. In this case, replacements should be made with a secondhand product with less usage. In addition, preventative maintenance also significantly reduces cost. Consumers that plan to use products for longer periods of time replace their products later. Hence these consumers should choose the secondhand product with lesser initial usage for replacement. Preventative maintenance also creates significant total cost savings in this case. This study provides consumers with a method of calculating both the ideal amount of usage of the products they should purchase as well as the frequency and level of preventative maintenance that should be conducted in order to minimize cost and maintain product function.
25
37292
Performance Demonstration of Extendable NSPO Space-Borne GPS Receiver
Abstract:
National Space Organization (NSPO) has completed in 2014 the development of a space-borne GPS receiver, including design, manufacture, comprehensive functional test, environmental qualification test and so on. The main performance of this receiver include 8-meter positioning accuracy, 0.05 m/sec speed-accuracy, the longest 90 seconds of cold start time, and up to 15g high dynamic scenario. The receiver will be integrated in the autonomous FORMOSAT-7 NSPO-Built satellite scheduled to be launched in 2019 to execute pre-defined scientific missions. The flight model of this receiver manufactured in early 2015 will pass comprehensive functional tests and environmental acceptance tests, etc., which are expected to be completed by the end of 2015. The space-borne GPS receiver is a pure software design in which all GPS baseband signal processing are executed by a digital signal processor (DSP), currently only 50% of its throughput being used. In response to the booming global navigation satellite systems, NSPO will gradually expand this receiver to become a multi-mode, multi-band, high-precision navigation receiver, and even a science payload, such as the reflectometry receiver of a global navigation satellite system. The fundamental purpose of this extension study is to port some software algorithms such as signal acquisition and correlation, reused code and large amount of computation load to the FPGA whose processor is responsible for operational control, navigation solution, and orbit propagation and so on. Due to the development and evolution of the FPGA is pretty fast, the new system architecture upgraded via an FPGA should be able to achieve the goal of being a multi-mode, multi-band high-precision navigation receiver, or scientific receiver. Finally, the results of tests show that the new system architecture not only retains the original overall performance, but also sets aside more resources available for future expansion possibility. This paper will explain the detailed DSP/FPGA architecture, development, test results, and the goals of next development stage of this receiver.
24
60282
Permeable Reactive Pavement for Controlling the Transport of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene, and Xylene (BTEX) Contaminants
Abstract:
Volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) are common contaminants in environment, which could come from asphalt concrete or exhaust emissions of vehicles. The BTEX may invade to the subsurface environment via wet and dry atmospheric depositions. If there aren’t available ways for controlling contaminants’ fate and transport, they would extensively harm natural environment. In the 1st phase of this study, various adsorbents were screened for a suitable one to be an additive in the porous asphalt mixture. In the 2nd phase, addition of the selected adsorbent was incorporated with the design of porous asphalt concrete (PAC) to produce the permeable reactive pavement (PRP), which was subsequently tested for the potential of adsorbing aqueous BTEX as compared to the PAC, in the 3rd phase. The PRP was prepared according to the following steps: firstly, the suitable adsorbent was chosen based on the analytical results of specific surface area analysis, thermal-gravimetric analysis, adsorption kinetics and isotherms, and thermal dynamics analysis; secondly, the materials of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler, asphalt, and fiber were tested in order to meet regulated specifications (e.g., water adsorption, soundness, viscosity etc.) for preparing the PRP; thirdly, the amount of adsorbent additive was determined in the PRP; fourthly, the prepared PAC and PRP were examined for their physical properties (e.g., abrasion loss, drain-down loss, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, dynamic stability etc.). As a result of comparison between PRP and PAC, the PRP showed better physical performance than the traditional PAC. At last, the Marshall Specimen column tests were conducted to explore the adsorption capacities of PAC and PRPs. The BTEX adsorption capacities of PRPs are higher than those obtained from traditional PAC. In summary, PRPs showed superior physical performance and adsorption capacities, which exhibit the potential of PRP to be applied as a replacement of PAC for better controlling the transport of non-point source pollutants.
23
41357
The Effect of Stent Coating on the Stent Flexibility: Comparison of Covered Stent and Bare Metal Stent
Abstract:
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is the standard procedure for patients with severe carotid stenosis at high risk for carotid endarterectomy (CAE). A major drawback of CAS is the higher incidence of procedure-related stroke compared with traditional open surgical treatment for carotid stenosis - CEA, even with the use of the embolic protection devices (EPD). As the currently available bare metal stents cannot address this problem, our research group developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet maintaining the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of membrane coating on the stent flexibility in order to improve the clinical performance of our novel covered stents. A total of 21 stents were evaluated in this study: 15 self expanding bare nitinol stents and 6 PTFE-covered stents. 10 of the bare stents were coated with 11%, 16% and 22% Polyurethane(PU), 4%, 6.25% and 11% EE, as well as 22% PU plus 5 μm Parylene. Different laser cutting designs were performed on 4 of the PTFE covert stents. All the stents, with or without the covered membrane, were subjected to a three-point flexural test. The stents were placed on two supports that are 30 mm apart, and the actuator is applying a force in the exact middle of the two supports with a loading pin with radius 2.5 mm. The loading pin displacement change, the force and the variation in stent shape were recorded for analysis. The flexibility of the stents was evaluated by the lumen area preservation at three displacement bending levels: 5mm, 7mm, and 10mm. All the lumen areas in all stents decreased with the increase of the displacement from 0 to 10 mm. The bare stents were able to maintain 0.864 ± 0.015, 0.740 ± 0.025 and 0.597 ± 0.031of original lumen area at 5 mm, 7 mm and 10mm displacement respectively. For covered stents, the stents with EE coating membrane showed the best lumen area preservation (0.839 ± 0.005, 0.7334 ± 0.043 and 0.559 ± 0.014), whereas, the stents with PU and Parylene coating were only 0.662, 0.439 and 0.305. Bending stiffness was also calculated and compared. These results provided optimal material information and it was crucial for enhancing clinical performance of our novel covered stents.
22
86807
Application Research of Stilbene Crystal for the Measurement of Accelerator Neutron Sources
Abstract:
Stilbene, C₁₄H₁₂, is well known as one of the most useful organic scintillators for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for its good scintillation properties. An on-line acquisition system and an off-line acquisition system were developed with several CAMAC standard plug-ins, NIM plug-ins, neutron/γ discriminating plug-in named 2160A and a digital oscilloscope with high sampling rate respectively for which stilbene crystals and photomultiplier tube detectors (PMT) as detector for accelerator neutron sources measurement carried out in China Institute of Atomic Energy. Pulse amplitude spectrums and charge amplitude spectrums were real-time recorded after good neutron/γ discrimination whose best PSD figure-of-merits (FoMs) are 1.756 for D-D accelerator neutron source and 1.393 for D-T accelerator neutron source. The probability of neutron events in total events was 80%, and neutron detection efficiency was 5.21% for D-D accelerator neutron sources, which were 50% and 1.44% for D-T accelerator neutron sources after subtracting the background of scattering observed by the on-line acquisition system. Pulse waveform signals were acquired by the off-line acquisition system randomly while the on-line acquisition system working. The PSD FoMs obtained by the off-line acquisition system were 2.158 for D-D accelerator neutron sources and 1.802 for D-T accelerator neutron sources after waveform digitization off-line processing named charge integration method for just 1000 pulses. In addition, the probabilities of neutron events in total events obtained by the off-line acquisition system matched very well with the probabilities of the on-line acquisition system. The pulse information recorded by the off-line acquisition system could be repetitively used to adjust the parameters or methods of PSD research and obtain neutron charge amplitude spectrums or pulse amplitude spectrums after digital analysis with a limited number of pulses. The off-line acquisition system showed equivalent or better measurement effects compared with the online system with a limited number of pulses which indicated a feasible method based on stilbene crystals detectors for the measurement of prompt neutrons neutron sources like prompt accelerator neutron sources emit a number of neutrons in a short time.
21
54128
Periodicity of Solutions to Impulsive Equations
Abstract:
It is known that there exist many physical phenomena where abrupt or impulsive changes occur either in the system dynamics, for example, ad-hoc network, or in the input forces containing impacts, for example, the bombardment of space antenna by micrometeorites. There are many other examples such as ultra high-speed optical signals over communication networks, the collision of particles, inventory control, government decisions, interest changes, changes in stock price, etc. These are impulsive phenomena. Hence, as a combination of the traditional initial value problems and the short-term perturbations whose duration can be negligible in comparison with the duration of the process, the systems with impulsive conditions (i.e., impulsive systems) are more realistic models for describing the impulsive phenomenon. Such a situation is also suitable for the delay systems, which include some of the past states of the system. So far, there have been a lot of research results in the study of impulsive systems with delay both in finite and infinite dimensional spaces. In this paper, we investigate the periodicity of solutions to the nonautonomous impulsive evolution equations with infinite delay in Banach spaces, where the coefficient operators (possibly unbounded) in the linear part depend on the time, which are impulsive systems in infinite dimensional spaces and come from the optimal control theory. It was indicated that the study of periodic solutions for these impulsive evolution equations with infinite delay was challenging because the fixed point theorems requiring some compactness conditions are not applicable to them due to the impulsive condition and the infinite delay. We are happy to report that after detailed analysis, we are able to combine the techniques developed in our previous papers, and some new ideas in this paper, to attack these impulsive evolution equations and derive periodic solutions. More specifically, by virtue of the related transition operator family (evolution family), we present a Poincaré operator given by the nonautonomous impulsive evolution system with infinite delay, and then show that the operator is a condensing operator with respect to Kuratowski's measure of non-compactness in a phase space by using an Amann's lemma. Finally, we derive periodic solutions from bounded solutions in view of the Sadovskii fixed point theorem. We also present a relationship between the boundedness and the periodicity of the solutions of the nonautonomous impulsive evolution system. The new results obtained here extend some earlier results in this area for evolution equations without impulsive conditions or without infinite delay.
20
70945
Study on Spatial Structure and Evolvement Process of Traditional Villages’ Courtyard Based on Clannism
Authors:
Abstract:
The origination and development of Chinese traditional villages have a strong link with clan society. Thousands of traditional villages are constituted by one big family who have the same surname. Villages’ basic social relationships are built on the basis of family kinship. Clan power controls family courtyards’ spatial structure and influences their evolvement process. Compared with other countries, research from perspective of clanism is a particular and universally applicable manner to recognize Chinese traditional villages’ space features. This paper takes traditional villages in astern Zhejiang province as examples, especially a single-clan village named Zoumatang. Through combining rural sociology with architecture, it clarifies the coupling relationship between clan structure and village space, reveals spatial composition and evolvement logic of family courtyards. Clan society pays much attention to the patrilineal kinship and genealogy. In astern Zhejiang province, clan is usually divided to ‘clan-branches-families’ three levels. Its structural relationship looks like pyramid, which results in ‘center-margin’ structure when projecting to villages’ space. Due to the cultural tradition of ancestor worship, family courtyards’ space exist similar ‘center-margin’ structure. Ancestor hall and family temple are respectively the space core of village and courtyard. Other parts of courtyard also shows order of superiority and inferiority. Elder and men must be the first. However, along with the disintegration of clan society, family courtyard gradually appears fragmentation trend. Its spatial structure becomes more and more flexible and its scale becomes smaller and smaller. Living conditions rather than ancestor worship turn out to be primary consideration. As a result, there are different courtyard historical prototype in different historic period. To some extent, Chinese present traditional villages’ conservation ignore the impact of clan society. This paper discovers the social significance of courtyard’s spatial texture and rebuilds the connection between society and space. It is expected to promote Chinese traditional villages’ conservation paying more attention to authenticity which defined in the historical process and integrity which built on the basis of social meaning.
19
19659
Sulforaphane Alleviates Muscular Dystrophy in Mdx Mice by Activation of Nrf2
Abstract:
Backgrounds: Sulforaphane, one of the most important isothiocyanates in the human diet, is known to have chemopreventive and antioxidant activities in different tissues via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of antioxidant/phase II enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). However, its effects on muscular dystrophy remain unknown. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of Sulforaphane on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: 4-week-old mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 8 weeks. Blood was collected from eye socket every week, and tibial anterior, extensor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius, soleus, triceps brachii muscles and heart samples were collected after 8-week gavage. Force measurements and mice exercise capacity assays were detected. GSH/GSSG ratio, TBARS, CK and LDH levels were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. H&E staining was used to analyze histological and morphometric of skeletal muscles of mdx mice, and Evas blue dye staining was made to detect sarcolemmal integrity of mdx mice. Further, the role of Sulforaphane on Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway was analyzed by ELISA, western blot and qRT-PCR. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment increased the expression and activity of muscle phase II enzymes NQO1 and HO-1 with Nrf2 dependent manner. SFN significantly increased skeletal muscle mass, muscle force (~30%), running distance (~20%) and GSH/GSSG ratio (~3.2 folds) of mdx mice, and decreased the activities of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CK) (~45%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (~40%), gastrocnemius hypertrophy (~25%), myocardial hypertrophy (~20%) and MDA levels (~60%). Further, SFN treatment also reduced the central nucleation (~40%), fiber size variability, inflammation and improved the sarcolemmal integrity of mdx mice. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can improve muscle function, pathology and protect dystrophic muscle from oxidative damage in mdx mice through Nrf2 signaling pathway, which indicate Nrf2 may have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with muscular dystrophy.
18
68569
Identification of Lipo-Alkaloids and Fatty Acids in Aconitum carmichaelii Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
Authors:
Abstract:
Lipo-alkaloid is a kind of C19-norditerpenoid alkaloids existed in Aconitum species, which usually contains an aconitane skeleton and one or two fatty acid residues. The structures are very similar to that of diester-type alkaloids, which are considered as the main bioactive components in Aconitum carmichaelii. They have anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-proliferative activities. So far, more than 200 lipo-alkaloids were reported from plants, semisynthesis, and biotransformations. In our research, by the combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and an in-house database, 148 lipo-alkaloids were identified from A. carmichaelii, including 93 potential new compounds and 38 compounds with oxygenated fatty acid moieties. To our knowledge, this is the first time of the reporting of the oxygenated fatty acids as the side chains in naturally-occurring lipo-alkaloids. Considering the fatty acid residues in lipo-alkaloids should come from the free acids in the plant, the fatty acids and their relationship with lipo-alkaloids were further investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS. Among 17 fatty acids identified by GC-MS, 12 were detected as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids, which accounted for about 1/3 of total lipo-alkaloids, while these fatty acid residues were less than 1/4 of total fatty acid residues. And, total of 37 fatty acids were determined by UHPCL-Q-TOF-MS, including 18 oxidized fatty acids firstly identified from A. carmichaelii. These fatty acids were observed as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids. In addition, although over 140 lipo-alkaloids were identified, six lipo-alkaloids, 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (1), 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylaconine (2), 8-O-palmitoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (3), 8-O-oleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (4), 8-O-pal-benzoylaconine (5), and 8-O-ole-Benzoylaconine (6), were found to be the main components, which accounted for over 90% content of total lipo-alkaloids. Therefore, using these six components as standards, a UHPLC-Triple Quadrupole-MS (UHPLC-QQQ-MS) approach was established to investigate the influence of processing on the contents of lipo-alkaloids. Although it was commonly supposed that the contents of lipo-alkaloids increased after processing, our research showed that no significant change was observed before and after processing. Using the same methods, the lipo-alkaloids in the lateral roots of A. carmichaelii and the roots of A. kusnezoffii were determined and quantified. The contents of lipo-alkaloids in A. kusnezoffii were close to that of the parent roots of A. carmichaelii, while the lateral roots had less lipo-alkaloids than the parent roots. This work was supported by Macao Science and Technology Development Fund (086/2013/A3 and 003/2016/A1).
17
64304
Visualization of Chinese Genealogies with Digital Technology: A Case of Genealogy of Wu Clan in the Village of Gaoqian
Abstract:
Recording history is a tradition in ancient China. A record of a dynasty makes a dynastic history; a record of a locality makes a chorography, and a record of a clan makes a genealogy – the three combined together depicts a complete national history of China both macroscopically and microscopically, with genealogy serving as the foundation. Genealogy in ancient China traces back to a family tree or pedigrees in the early and medieval historical times. After Song Dynasty, the civilian society gradually emerged, and the Emperor had to allow people from the same clan to live together and hold the ancestor worship activities, thence compilation of genealogy became popular in the society. Since then, genealogies, regarded as important as ancestor and religious temples in a traditional villages even today, have played a primary role in identification of a clan and maintain local social order. Chinese genealogies are rich in their documentary materials. Take the Genealogy of Wu Clan in Gaoqian as an example. Gaoqian is a small village in Xianju County of Zhejiang Province. The Genealogy of Wu Clan in Gaoqian is composed of a whole set of materials from Foreword to Family Trees, Family Rules, Family Rituals, Family Graces and Glories, Ode to An ancestor’s Portrait, Manual for the Ancestor Temple, documents for great men in the clan, works written by learned men in the clan, the contracts concerning landed property, even notes on tombs and so on. Literally speaking, the genealogy, with detailed information from every aspect recorded in stylistic rules, is indeed the carrier of the entire culture of a clan. However, due to their scarcity in number and difficulties in reading, genealogies seldom fall into the horizons of common people. This paper, focusing on the case of the Genealogy of Wu Clan in the Village of Gaoqian, intends to reproduce a digital Genealogy by use of ICTs, through an in-depth interpretation of the literature and field investigation in Gaoqian Village. Based on this, the paper goes further to explore the general methods in transferring physical genealogies to digital ones and ways in visualizing the clanism culture embedded in the genealogies with a combination of digital technologies such as software in family trees, multimedia narratives, animation design, GIS application and e-book creators.
16
113686
Network Based Speed Synchronization Control for Multi-Motor via Consensus Theory
Abstract:
This paper addresses the speed synchronization control problem for a network-based multi-motor system from the perspective of cluster consensus theory. Each motor is considered as a single agent connected through fixed and undirected network. This paper presents an improved control protocol from three aspects. First, for the purpose of improving both tracking and synchronization performance, this paper presents a distributed leader-following method. The improved control protocol takes the importance of each motor’s speed into consideration, and all motors are divided into different groups according to speed weights. Specifically, by using control parameters optimization, the synchronization error and tracking error can be regulated and decoupled to some extent. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy. In practical engineering, the simplified models are unrealistic, such as single-integrator and double-integrator. And previous algorithms require the acceleration information of the leader available to all followers if the leader has a varying velocity, which is also difficult to realize. Therefore, the method focuses on an observer-based variable structure algorithm for consensus tracking, which gets rid of the leader acceleration. The presented scheme optimizes synchronization performance, as well as provides satisfactory robustness. What’s more, the existing algorithms can obtain a stable synchronous system; however, the obtained stable system may encounter some disturbances that may destroy the synchronization. Focus on this challenging technological problem, a state-dependent-switching approach is introduced. In the presence of unmeasured angular speed and unknown failures, this paper investigates a distributed fault-tolerant consensus tracking algorithm for a group non-identical motors. The failures are modeled by nonlinear functions, and the sliding mode observer is designed to estimate the angular speed and nonlinear failures. The convergence and stability of the given multi-motor system are proved. Simulation results have shown that all followers asymptotically converge to a consistent state when one follower fails to follow the virtual leader during a large enough disturbance, which illustrates the good performance of synchronization control accuracy.
15
103511
Multi-Scale Spatial Difference Analysis Based on Nighttime Lighting Data
Abstract:
The ‘Dragon-Elephant Debate’ between China and India is an important manifestation of global multipolarity in the 21st century. The two rising powers have carried out economic reforms one after another in the interval of more than ten years, becoming the fastest growing developing country and emerging economy in the world. At the same time, the development differences between China and India have gradually attracted wide attention of scholars. Based on the continuous annual night light data (DMSP-OLS) from 1992 to 2012, this paper systematically compares and analyses the regional development differences between China and India by Gini coefficient, coefficient of variation, comprehensive night light index (CNLI) and hot spot analysis. The results show that: (1) China's overall expansion from 1992 to 2012 is 1.84 times that of India, in which China's change is 2.6 times and India's change is 2 times. The percentage of lights in unlighted areas in China dropped from 92% to 82%, while that in India from 71% to 50%. (2) China's new growth-oriented cities appear in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, Ordos, and Urumqi in the west, and the declining cities are concentrated in Liaoning Province and Jilin Province in the northeast; India's new growth-oriented cities are concentrated in Chhattisgarh in the north, while the declining areas are distributed in Uttar Pradesh. (3) China's differences on different scales are lower than India's, and regional inequality of development is gradually narrowing. Gini coefficients at the regional and provincial levels have decreased from 0.29, 0.44 to 0.24 and 0.38, respectively, while regional inequality in India has slowly improved and regional differences are gradually widening, with Gini coefficients rising from 0.28 to 0.32. The provincial Gini coefficient decreased slightly from 0.64 to 0.63. (4) The spatial pattern of China's regional development is mainly east-west difference, which shows the difference between coastal and inland areas; while the spatial pattern of India's regional development is mainly north-south difference, but because the southern states are sea-dependent, it also reflects the coastal inland difference to a certain extent. (5) Beijing and Shanghai present a multi-core outward expansion model, with an average annual CNLI higher than 0.01, while New Delhi and Mumbai present the main core enhancement expansion model, with an average annual CNLI lower than 0.01, of which the average annual CNLI in Shanghai is about five times that in Mumbai.
14
104828
Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Its Association with Birth Outcomes
Abstract:
Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in consumer products, such as inner coatings of cans and polycarbonated bottles. BPA is considered to be an endocrine disrupting substance (EDs) that affects normal human hormones and may cause adverse effects on human health. Pregnant women and fetuses are susceptible groups of endocrine disrupting substances. Prenatal exposure to BPA has been shown to affect the fetus through the placenta. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential health risk of fetal exposure to BPA during pregnancy. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the urinary concentration of BPA in pregnant women, and (2) to investigate the association between BPA exposure during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Methods: This study recruited 117 pregnant women and their fetuses from 2012 to 2014 from the Taiwan Maternal- Infant Cohort Study (TMICS). Maternal urine samples were collected in the third trimester and questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits and medical conditions of the participants. Information about birth outcomes of the fetus was obtained from medical records. As for chemicals analysis, BPA concentrations in urine were determined by off-line solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The urinary concentrations were adjusted with creatinine. The association between maternal concentrations of BPA and birth outcomes was estimated using the logistic regression model. Results: The detection rate of BPA is 99%; the concentration ranges (μg/g) from 0.16 to 46.90. The mean (SD) BPA levels are 5.37(6.42) μg/g creatinine. The mean ±SD of the body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference and gestational age at birth are 3105.18 ± 339.53 g, 49.33 ± 1.90 cm, 34.16 ± 1.06 cm, 32.34 ± 1.37 cm and 38.58 ± 1.37 weeks, respectively. After stratifying the exposure levels into two groups by median, pregnant women in higher exposure group would have an increased risk of lower body weight (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.271-1.193), smaller chest circumference (OR=0.70, 95%CI=0.335-1.47) and shorter gestational age at birth newborn (OR=0.46, 95%CI=0.191-1.114). However, there are no associations between BPA concentration and birth outcomes reach a significant level (p < 0.05) in statistics. Conclusions: This study presents prenatal BPA profiles and infants in northern Taiwan. Women who have higher BPA concentrations tend to give birth to lower body weight, smaller chest circumference or shorter gestational age at birth newborn. More data will be included to verify the results. This report will also present the predictors of BPA concentrations for pregnant women.
13
46617
Cell Adhesion, Morphology and Cytokine Expression of Synoviocytes Can Be Altered on Different Nano-Topographic Oxidized Silicon Nanosponges
Abstract:
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disorder in rehabilitation clinic. The main characteristics include joint pain, localized tenderness and enlargement, joint effusion, cartilage destruction, loss of adhesion of perichondrium, synovium hyperplasia. Synoviocytes inflammation might be a cause of local tenderness and effusion. Inflammation cytokines might also play an important role in joint pain, cartilage destruction, decrease adhesion of perichondrium to the bone. Treatments of osteoarthritis include non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAID), glucosamine supplementation, hyaluronic acid, arthroscopic debridement, and total joint replacement. Total joint replacement is commonly used in patients with severe OA who failed respond to pharmacological treatment. However, some patients received surgery had serious adverse events, including instability of the implants due to insufficient adhesion to the adjacent bony tissue or synovial inflammation. We tried to develop ideal nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges by using with various chemicals to produce thickness difference in nanometers in order to study more about the cell-environment interactions in vitro like the alterations of cell adhesion, morphology, extracellular matrix secretions in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Cytokines studies like growth factor, reactive oxygen species, reactive inflammatory materials (Like nitrous oxide and prostaglandin E2), extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation enzymes, and synthesis of collagen will also be observed and discussed. Extracellular and intracellular expression transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) will be studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The degradation of ECM will be observed by the bioactivity ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase by ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). When rabbit synoviocytes were cultured on these nano-topographic structures, they demonstrate better cell adhesion rate, decreased expression of MMP-2,9 and PGE2, and increased expression of TGF-β when cultured in nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges than in the planar oxidized silicon ones. These results show cell behavior, cytokine production can be influenced by physical characteristics from different nano-topographic structures. Our study demonstrates the possibility of manipulating cell behavior in these nano-topographic biomaterials.
12
103737
Spatial Heterogeneity of Urban Land Use in the Yangtze River Economic Belt Based on DMSP/OLS Data
Abstract:
Taking the Yangtze River Economic Belt as an example, using long-term nighttime lighting data from DMSP/OLS from 1992 to 2012, support vector machine classification (SVM) was used to quantitatively extract urban built-up areas of economic belts, and spatial analysis of expansion intensity index, standard deviation ellipse, etc. was introduced. The model conducts detailed and in-depth discussions on the strength, direction, and type of the expansion of the middle and lower reaches of the economic belt and the key node cities. The results show that: (1) From 1992 to 2012, the built-up areas of the major cities in the Yangtze River Valley showed a rapid expansion trend. The built-up area expanded by 60,392 km², and the average annual expansion rate was 31%, that is, from 9615 km² in 1992 to 70007 km² in 2012. The spatial gradient analysis of the watershed shows that the expansion of urban built-up areas in the middle and lower reaches of the river basin takes Shanghai as the leading force, and the 'bottom-up' model shows an expanding pattern of 'upstream-downstream-middle-range' declines. The average annual rate of expansion is 36% and 35%, respectively. 17% of which the midstream expansion rate is about 50% of the upstream and downstream. (2) The analysis of expansion intensity shows that the urban expansion intensity in the Yangtze River Basin has generally shown an upward trend, the downstream region has continued to rise, and the upper and middle reaches have experienced different amplitude fluctuations. To further analyze the strength of urban expansion at key nodes, Chengdu, Chongqing, and Wuhan in the upper and middle reaches maintain a high degree of consistency with the intensity of regional expansion. Node cities with Shanghai as the core downstream continue to maintain a high level of expansion. (3) The standard deviation ellipse analysis shows that the overall center of gravity of the Yangtze River basin city is located in Anqing City, Anhui Province, and it showed a phenomenon of reciprocating movement from 1992 to 2012. The nighttime standard deviation ellipse distribution range increased from 61.96 km² to 76.52 km². The growth of the major axis of the ellipse was significantly larger than that of the minor axis. It had obvious east-west axiality, in which the nighttime lights in the downstream area occupied in the entire luminosity scale urban system leading position.
11
58523
Growth and Characterization of Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) Nanorods by Reactive Ion Beam Sputter Deposition (Ibsd) Method
Abstract:
In recent semiconductor and nanotechnology, quality material synthesis, proper characterizations, and productions are the big challenges. As cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a promising semiconductor material for photovoltaic (PV) and other optoelectronic applications, this study was aimed at to grow and characterize high quality Cu2O nanorods for the improvement of the efficiencies of thin film solar cells and other potential applications. In this study, well-structured cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanorods were successfully fabricated using IBSD method in which the Cu2O samples were grown on silicon substrates with a substrate temperature of 400°C in an IBSD chamber of pressure of 4.5 x 10-5 torr using copper as a target material. Argon, and oxygen gases were used as a sputter and reactive gases, respectively. The characterization of the Cu2O nanorods (NRs) were done in comparison with Cu2O thin film (TF) deposited with the same method but with different Ar:O2 flow rates. With Ar:O2 ratio of 9:1 single phase pure polycrystalline Cu2O NRs with diameter of ~500 nm and length of ~4.5 µm were grow. Increasing the oxygen flow rates, pure single phase polycrystalline Cu2O thin film (TF) was found at Ar:O2 ratio of 6:1. The field emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements showed that both samples have smooth morphologies. X-ray diffraction and Rama scattering measurements reveals the presence of single phase Cu2O in both samples. The differences in Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) bands of the two samples were also investigated and the results showed us there are differences in intensities, in number of bands and in band positions. Raman characterization shows that the Cu2O NRs sample has pronounced Raman band intensities, higher numbers of Raman bands than the Cu2O TF which has only one second overtone Raman signal at 2 (217 cm-1). The temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurements, showed that the defect luminescent band centered at 720 nm (1.72 eV) is the dominant one for the Cu2O NRs and the 640 nm (1.937 eV) band was the only PL band observed from the Cu2O TF. The difference in optical and structural properties of the samples comes from the oxygen flow rate change in the process window of the samples deposition. This gave us a roadmap for further investigation of the electrical and other optical properties for the tunable fabrication of the Cu2O nano/micro structured sample for the improvement of the efficiencies of thin film solar cells in addition to other potential applications. Finally, the novel morphologies, excellent structural and optical properties seen exhibits the grown Cu2O NRs sample has enough quality to be used in further research of the nano/micro structured semiconductor materials.
10
67888
Experiment on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater Implemented Project: Effect on the Infiltration Velocity by Vegetation Mulch
Abstract:
This study was conducted at the Wanglung Farm in Pingtung County to test the groundwater seepage influences on the implemented project for artificial groundwater recharge. The study was divided into three phases. The first phase, conducted on natural groundwater that was recharged through the local climate and growing conditions, observed the natural form of vegetation species. The original plants were flooded, and after 60 days it was observed that of the original plants only Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) and Black heart (Polygonum lapathifolium Linn.) remained. Direct infiltration tests were carried out, and calculations for the effect of vegetation on infiltration velocity of the recharge pool were noted. The second phase was an indoor test. Bahia grass and wild amaranth were selected as vegetation roots. After growth, the distribution of different grassroots was observed in order to facilitate a comparison permeability coefficient calculated by the amount of penetration and to explore the relationship between density and the efficiency to groundwater recharge. The third phase was the root tomography analysis, further observation of the development of plant roots using computed tomography technology. Computed Tomography, also known as (CT), is a diagnostic imaging examination, normally used in the medical field. In the first phase of the feasibility study, most non-aquatic plants wilted and died within seven days. In seven days, the remaining plants were used for experimental infiltration analysis. Results showed that in eight hours of infiltration test, Eleusine indica stems averaged 0.466 m/day and wild amaranth averaged 0.014 m/day. The second phase of the experiment was conducted on the remains of the plant a week in it had died and rotted, and the infiltration experiment was performed under these conditions. The results showed eight hours in end of the infiltration test, Eleusine indica stems averaged 0.033 m/day, and wild amaranth averaged 0.098 m/day. Non-aquatic plants died within two weeks, and their rotted remains clogged the pores of bottom soil particles, causing obstruction of recharge pool infiltration. Experiment results showed that eight hours in the test the average infiltration velocity for Eleusine indica stems was 0.0229 m/day and wild amaranth averaged 0.0117 m/day. Since the rotted roots of the plants blocked the pores of the soil in the recharge pool, which resulted in the obstruction of the artificial infiltration pond and showed an immediate impact on recharge efficiency. In order to observe the development of plant roots, the third phase used computed tomography imaging. Iodine developer was injected into the Black heart, allowing its cross-sectional images to be shown on CT and to be used to observe root development.
9
84468
Structure Domains Tuning Magnetic Anisotropy and Motivating Novel Electric Behaviors in LaCoO₃ Films
Abstract:
Great efforts have been taken to reveal the intrinsic origins of emerging ferromagnetism (FM) in strained LaCoO₃ (LCO) films. However, some macro magnetic performances of LCO are still not well understood and even controversial, such as magnetic anisotropy. Determining and understanding magnetic anisotropy might help to find the true causes of FM in turn. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was the first time to be directly observed in high-quality LCO films with different thickness. The in-plane (IP) and out of plane (OOP) remnant magnetic moment ratio of 30 unit cell (u.c.) films is as large as 20. The easy axis lays in the OOP direction with an IP/OOP coercive field ratio of 10. What's more, the PMA could be simply tuned by changing the thickness. With the thickness increases, the IP/OOP magnetic moment ratio remarkably decrease with magnetic easy axis changing from OOP to IP. Such a huge and tunable PMA performance exhibit strong potentials in fundamental researches or applications. What causes PMA is the first concern. More OOP orbitals occupation may be one of the micro reasons of PMA. A cluster-like magnetic domain pattern was found in 30 u.c. with no obvious color contrasts, similar to that of LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ films. And the nanosize domains could not be totally switched even at a large OOP magnetic field of 23 T. It indicates strong IP characters or none OOP magnetism of some clusters. The IP magnetic domains might influence the magnetic performance and help to form PMA. Meanwhile some possible nonmagnetic clusters might be the reason why the measured moments of LCO films are smaller than the calculated values 2 μB/Co, one of the biggest confusions in LCO films.What tunes PMA seems much more interesting. Totally different magnetic domain patterns were found in 180 u.c. films with cluster magnetic domains surrounded by < 110 > cross-hatch lines. These lines were regarded as structure domain walls (DWs) determined by 3D reciprocal space mapping (RSM). Two groups of in-plane features with fourfold symmetry were observed near the film diffraction peaks in (002) 3D-RSM. One is along < 110 > directions with a larger intensity, which is well match the lines on the surfaces. The other is much weaker and along < 100 > directions, which is from the normal lattice titling of films deposited on cubic substrates. The < 110 > domain features obtained from (103) and (113) 3D-RSMs exhibit similar evolution of the DWs percentages and magnetic behavior. Structure domains and domain walls are believed to tune PMA performances by transform more IP magnetic moments to OOP. Last but not the least, thick films with lots of structure domains exhibit different electrical transport behaviors. A metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) and an angular dependent negative magnetic resistivity were observed near 150 K, higher than FM transition temperature but similar to that of spin-orbital coupling related 1/4 order diffraction peaks.
8
41343
Polyurethane Membrane Mechanical Property Study for a Novel Carotid Covered Stent
Abstract:
Carotid artery is the major vessel supplying blood to the brain. Carotid artery stenosis is one of the three major causes of stroke and the stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the first leading cause of disability in most developed countries. Although there is an increasing interest in carotid artery stenting for treatment of cervical carotid artery bifurcation therosclerotic disease, currently available bare metal stents cannot provide an adequate protection against the detachment of the plaque fragments over diseased carotid artery, which could result in the formation of micro-emboli and subsequent stroke. Our research group has recently developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet retaining the ability to preserve the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid therosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical property of PU membrane of different concentration configurations in order to refine the stent coating technique and enhance the clinical performance of our novel carotid covered stent. Results from this study also provide necessary material property information crucial for accurate simulation analysis for our stents. Method: Medical grade Polyurethane (ChronoFlex AR) was used to prepare PU membrane specimens. Different PU membrane configurations were subjected to uniaxial test: 22%, 16%, and 11% PU solution were made by mixing the original solution with proper amount of the Dimethylacetamide (DMAC). The specimens were then immersed in physiological saline solution for 24 hours before test. All specimens were moistened with saline solution before mounting and subsequent uniaxial testing. The specimens were preconditioned by loading the PU membrane sample to a peak stress of 5.5 Mpa for 10 consecutive cycles at a rate of 50 mm/min. The specimens were then stretched to failure at the same loading rate. Result: The results showed that the stress-strain response curves of all PU membrane samples exhibited nonlinear characteristic. For the ultimate failure stress, 22% PU membrane was significantly higher than 16% (p< 0.05). In general, our preliminary results showed that lower concentration PU membrane is stiffer than the higher concentration one. From the perspective of mechanical properties, 22% PU membrane is a better choice for the covered stent. Interestingly, the hyperelastic Ogden model is able to accurately capture the nonlinear, isotropic stress-strain behavior of PU membrane with R2 of 0.9977 ± 0.00172. This result will be useful for future biomechanical analysis of our stent designs and will play an important role for computational modeling of our covered stent fatigue study.
7
86729
An Introduction to the Radiation-Thrust Based on Alpha Decay and Spontaneous Fission
Abstract:
As the key system of the spacecraft, various propelling system have been developing rapidly, including ion thrust, laser thrust, solar sail and other micro-thrusters. However, there still are some shortages in these systems. The ion thruster requires the high-voltage or magnetic field to accelerate, resulting in extra system, heavy quantity and large volume. The laser thrust now is mostly ground-based and providing pulse thrust, restraint by the station distribution and the capacity of laser. The thrust direction of solar sail is limited to its relative position with the Sun, so it is hard to propel toward the Sun or adjust in the shadow.In this paper, a novel nuclear thruster based on alpha decay and spontaneous fission is proposed and the principle of this radiation-thrust with alpha particle has been expounded. Radioactive materials with different released energy, such as 210Po with 5.4MeV and 238Pu with 5.29MeV, attached to a metal film will provides various thrust among 0.02-5uN/cm2. With this repulsive force, radiation is able to be a power source. With the advantages of low system quantity, high accuracy and long active time, the radiation thrust is promising in the field of space debris removal, orbit control of nano-satellite array and deep space exploration. To do further study, a formula lead to the amplitude and direction of thrust by the released energy and decay coefficient is set up. With the initial formula, the alpha radiation elements with the half life period longer than a hundred days are calculated and listed. As the alpha particles emit continuously, the residual charge in metal film grows and affects the emitting energy distribution of alpha particles. With the residual charge or extra electromagnetic field, the emitting of alpha particles performs differently and is analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, three more complex situations are discussed. Radiation element generating alpha particles with several energies in different intensity, mixture of various radiation elements, and cascaded alpha decay are studied respectively. In combined way, it is more efficient and flexible to adjust the thrust amplitude. The propelling model of the spontaneous fission is similar with the one of alpha decay, which has a more complex angular distribution. A new quasi-sphere space propelling system based on the radiation-thrust has been introduced, as well as the collecting and processing system of excess charge and reaction heat. The energy and spatial angular distribution of emitting alpha particles on unit area and certain propelling system have been studied. As the alpha particles are easily losing energy and self-absorb, the distribution is not the simple stacking of each nuclide. With the change of the amplitude and angel of radiation-thrust, orbital variation strategy on space debris removal is shown and optimized.
6
58650
The Network Effect on Green Information on Taiwan Social Network Sites
Authors:
Abstract:
The rise of Facebook, Twitter, and other social networks significantly changes in interconnections between people, enhancing the process of information dissemination and amplify the influence of that information. Therefore, to develop informational efficiency or signaling equilibrium type of information environment among social networks, without adverse selection effects, becomes an important issue. Thus, someone may post a piece of intentional information in relation to personal interest for trying to create marginal influence. Therefore, economists are seeking to establish theories of informational efficiency under social network environment in order to resolve adverse selection issues. Reputation could be one of the important factors in the process of creating informational efficiency. Additionally, investors how to process green information, or information of corporate social responsibility is a very important study. This study essentially employs experimental study for examining how investors use stock relevant green information in Facebook and various Taiwan local networks. Facebook, and blogs of Money DJ, Technews and cnYES, respectively, are the primary sites for this examination that also allow to differentiate effects between Facebook and other local social networks. Questionnaire is developed for such an experimental testing. Note that questionnaire allows this study to group, for example, decision frequency and length of time duration focusing on social networks that are used for discriminating investor type and competence of informed investor. This study selects 500 investors that can be separated into two respective 250 samples as the control group and 250 samples in such an experimental. The quantity of sample investor sufficiently results in statistic significance of this experimental study. The empirical results of this study can be used for explaining how financial information in relation to corporate social responsibility would be disseminated in social websites. Therefore, we can lead to better interpretation of price/earnings relationship type of study and empirical studies of green information usefulness or informational efficiency Note that the above mentioned empirical studies did not exist any social network and annual report of corporate social responsibility. This study expects to find the results that both network degree and network cluster significantly affected green information dissemination frequency. In other words, investors with more connections and with high clustered connections might exert a greater influence on their green information dissemination process. The preferred users of financial social networks could make better stock decision that could amplify effects of green information. In addition, Facebook would be more influential than other local Taiwan financial social networks, although Facebook is not a specialized financial social network. In other words, the popularity and reputation effects of Facebook significantly contribute to usefulness of green information and influence of green information. Third, it has a better chance to find rumor or cheating information in local Taiwan financial social networks than Facebook. In other words, Facebook possesses reputation effect, or a better informational efficiency. Or, even though Taiwan local financial social networks have marginal informational effects on stock price, because of shortage of informational efficiency or monitoring system, information could be a tool for those whom owning superior information.
5
55601
Portable Environmental Parameter Monitor Based on STM32
Abstract:
Introduction: According to statistics, people spend 80% to 90% of time indoor, so indoor air quality, either at home or in the office, greatly impacts the quality of life, health and work efficiency. Therefore, indoor air quality is very important to human activities. With the acceleration of urbanization, people are spending more time in indoor activity. The time in indoor environment, the living space, and the frequency interior decoration are all increasingly increased. However, housing decoration materials contain formaldehyde and other harmful substances, causing environmental and air quality problems, which have brought serious damage to countless families and attracted growing attention. According to World Health Organization statistics, the indoor environments in more than 30% of buildings in China are polluted by poisonous and harmful gases. Indoor pollution has caused various health problems, and these widespread public health problems can lead to respiratory diseases. Long-term inhalation of low-concentration formaldehyde would cause persistent headache, insomnia, weakness, palpitation, weight loss and vomiting, which are serious impacts on human health and safety. On the other hand, as for offices, some surveys show that good indoor air quality helps to enthuse the staff and improve the work efficiency by 2%-16%. Therefore, people need to further understand the living and working environments. There is a need for easy-to-use indoor environment monitoring instruments, with which users only have to power up and monitor the environmental parameters. The corresponding real-time data can be displayed on the screen for analysis. Environment monitoring should have the sensitive signal alarm function and send alarm when harmful gases such as formaldehyde, CO, SO2, are excessive to human body. System design: According to the monitoring requirements of various gases, temperature and humidity, we designed a portable, light, real-time and accurate monitor for various environmental parameters, including temperature, humidity, formaldehyde, methane, and CO. This monitor will generate an alarm signal when a target is beyond the standard. It can conveniently measure a variety of harmful gases and provide the alarm function. It also has the advantages of small volume, convenience to carry and use. It has a real-time display function, outputting the parameters on the LCD screen, and a real-time alarm function. Conclusions: This study is focused on the research and development of a portable parameter monitoring instrument for indoor environment. On the platform of an STM32 development board, the monitored data are collected through an external sensor. The STM32 platform is for data acquisition and processing procedures, and successfully monitors the real-time temperature, humidity, formaldehyde, CO, methane and other environmental parameters. Real-time data are displayed on the LCD screen. The system is stable and can be used in different indoor places such as family, hospital, and office. Meanwhile, the system adopts the idea of modular design and is superior in transplanting. The scheme is slightly modified and can be used similarly as the function of a monitoring system. This monitor has very high research and application values.
4
64290
Visual Representation of Ancient Chinese Rites with Digitalization Technology: A Case of Confucius Worship Ceremony
Abstract:
Confucius is the first sage in Chinese culture. Confucianism, the theories represented by Confucius, has long been at the core of Chinese traditional society, as the dominating political ideology of centralized feudal monarchy for more than two thousand years. Confucius Worship Ceremony held in the Confucian Temple in Qufu (Confucius’s birthplace), which is dedicated to commemorate Confucius and other 170 elites in Confucianism with a whole set of formal rites, pertains to “Auspicious Rites”, which worship heaven and earth, humans and ghosts. It was first a medium-scaled ritual activity but then upgraded to the supreme one at national level in the Qing Dynasty. As a national event, it was celebrated by Emperor as well as common intellectuals in traditional China. The Ceremony can be solemn and respectful, with prescribed and complicated procedures, well-prepared utensil and matched offerings operated in rhythm with music and dances. Each participant has his place, and everyone follows the specified rules. This magnificent ritual Ceremony, while embedded with rich culture connotation, actually symbolizes the social acknowledgment for orthodox culture represented by Confucianism. Rites reflected in this Ceremony, is one of the most important features of Chinese culture, serving as the key bond in the identification and continuation of Chinese culture. These rites and ritual ceremonies, as culture memories themselves, are not only treasures of China, but of the whole world. However, while the ancient Chinese Rite has been one of the thorniest and most complicated topics for academics, the more regrettable is that due to their interruption in practice and historical changes, these rites and ritual ceremonies have already become a vague language in today’s academic discourse and strange terms of the past for common people. Luckily, we, today, by virtue of modern digital technology, may be able to reproduce these ritual ceremonies, as most of them can still be found in ancient manuscripts, through which Chinese ancestors tell the beauty and gravity of their dignified rites and more importantly, their spiritual pursuits with vivid language and lively pictures. This research, based on review and interpretation of the ancient literature, intends to construct the ancient ritual ceremonies, with the Confucius Worship Ceremony as a case and by use of digital technology. Using 3D technology, the spatial scenes in the Confucian Temple can be reconstructed by virtual reality; the memorial tablet exhibited in the temple by GIS and different rites in the ceremonies by animation technology. With reference to the lyrics, melodies and lively pictures recorded in ancient scripts, it is also possible to reproduce the live dancing site. Also, image rendering technology can help to show the life experience and accomplishments of Confucius. Finally, lining up all the elements in a multimedia narrative form, a complete digitalized Confucius Worship Ceremony can be reproduced, which will provide an excellent virtual experience that goes beyond time and space by bringing its audience back to that specific historical time. This digital project, once completed, will play an important role in the inheritance and dissemination of cultural heritage.
3
87289
Luminescent Properties of Plastic Scintillator with Large Area Photonic Crystal Prepared by a Combination of Nanoimprint Lithography and Atomic Layer Deposition
Abstract:
Plastic scintillators play an important role in the measurement of a mixed neutron/gamma pulsed radiation, neutron radiography and pulse shape discrimination technology. In some research, these luminescent properties are necessary that photons produced by the interactions between a plastic scintillator and radiations can be detected as much as possible by the photoelectric detectors and more photons can be emitted from the scintillators along a specific direction where detectors are located. Unfortunately, a majority of these photons produced are trapped in the plastic scintillators due to the total internal reflection (TIR), because there is a significant light-trapping effect when the incident angle of internal scintillation light is larger than the critical angle. Some of these photons trapped in the scintillator may be absorbed by the scintillator itself and the others are emitted from the edges of the scintillator. This makes the light extraction of plastic scintillators very low. Moreover, only a small portion of the photons emitted from the scintillator easily can be detected by detectors effectively, because the distribution of the emission directions of this portion of photons exhibits approximate Lambertian angular profile following a cosine emission law. Therefore, enhancing the light extraction efficiency and adjusting the emission angular profile become the keys for improving the number of photons detected by the detectors. In recent years, photonic crystal structures have been covered on inorganic scintillators to enhance the light extraction efficiency and adjust the angular profile of scintillation light successfully. However, that, preparation methods of photonic crystals will deteriorate performance of plastic scintillators and even destroy the plastic scintillators, makes the investigation on preparation methods of photonic crystals for plastic scintillators and luminescent properties of plastic scintillators with photonic crystal structures inadequate. Although we have successfully made photonic crystal structures covered on the surface of plastic scintillators by a modified self-assembly technique and achieved a great enhance of light extraction efficiency without evident angular-dependence for the angular profile of scintillation light, the preparation of photonic crystal structures with large area (the diameter is larger than 6cm) and perfect periodic structure is still difficult. In this paper, large area photonic crystals on the surface of scintillators were prepared by nanoimprint lithography firstly, and then a conformal layer with material of high refractive index on the surface of photonic crystal by atomic layer deposition technique in order to enhance the stability of photonic crystal structures and increase the number of leaky modes for improving the light extraction efficiency. The luminescent properties of the plastic scintillator with photonic crystals prepared by the mentioned method are compared with those of the plastic scintillator without photonic crystal. The results indicate that the number of photons detected by detectors is increased by the enhanced light extraction efficiency and the angular profile of scintillation light exhibits evident angular-dependence for the scintillator with photonic crystals. The mentioned preparation of photonic crystals is beneficial to scintillation detection applications and lays an important technique foundation for the plastic scintillators to meet special requirements under different application backgrounds.
2
105666
A Corpus-Based Study on the Lexical, Syntactic and Sequential Features across Interpreting Types
Abstract:
Among the various modes of interpreting, simultaneous interpreting (SI) is regarded as a ‘complex’ and ‘extreme condition’ of cognitive tasks while consecutive interpreters (CI) do not have to share processing capacity between tasks. Given that SI exerts great cognitive demand, it makes sense to posit that the output of SI may be more compromised than that of CI in the linguistic features. The bulk of the research has stressed the varying cognitive demand and processes involved in different modes of interpreting; however, related empirical research is sparse. In keeping with our interest in investigating the quantitative linguistic factors discriminating between SI and CI, the current study seeks to examine the potential lexical simplification, syntactic complexity and sequential organization mechanism with a self-made inter-model corpus of transcribed simultaneous and consecutive interpretation, translated speech and original speech texts with a total running word of 321960. The lexical features are extracted in terms of the lexical density, list head coverage, hapax legomena, and type-token ratio, as well as core vocabulary percentage. Dependency distance, an index for syntactic complexity and reflective of processing demand is employed. Frequency motif is a non-grammatically-bound sequential unit and is also used to visualize the local function distribution of interpreting the output. While SI is generally regarded as multitasking with high cognitive load, our findings evidently show that CI may impose heavier or taxing cognitive resource differently and hence yields more lexically and syntactically simplified output. In addition, the sequential features manifest that SI and CI organize the sequences from the source text in different ways into the output, to minimize the cognitive load respectively. We reasoned the results in the framework that cognitive demand is exerted both on maintaining and coordinating component of Working Memory. On the one hand, the information maintained in CI is inherently larger in volume compared to SI. On the other hand, time constraints directly influence the sentence reformulation process. The temporal pressure from the input in SI makes the interpreters only keep a small chunk of information in the focus of attention. Thus, SI interpreters usually produce the output by largely retaining the source structure so as to relieve the information from the working memory immediately after formulated in the target language. Conversely, CI interpreters receive at least a few sentences before reformulation, when they are more self-paced. CI interpreters may thus tend to retain and generate the information in a way to lessen the demand. In other words, interpreters cope with the high demand in the reformulation phase of CI by generating output with densely distributed function words, more content words of higher frequency values and fewer variations, simpler structures and more frequently used language sequences. We consequently propose a revised effort model based on the result for a better illustration of cognitive demand during both interpreting types.
1
91782
IEEE802.15.4e Based Scheduling Mechanisms and Systems for Industrial Internet of Things
Abstract:
With the advances in advanced technology, wireless sensor network (WSN) has become one of the most promising candidates to implement the wireless industrial internet of things (IIOT) architecture. However, the legacy IEEE 802.15.4 based WSN technology such as Zigbee system cannot meet the stringent QoS requirement of low powered, real-time, and highly reliable transmission imposed by the IIOT environment. Recently, the IEEE society developed IEEE 802.15.4e Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) access mode to serve this purpose. Furthermore, the IETF 6TiSCH working group has proposed standards to integrate IEEE 802.15.4e with IPv6 protocol smoothly to form a complete protocol stack for IIOT. In this work, we develop key network technologies for IEEE 802.15.4e based wireless IIoT architecture, focusing on practical design and system implementation. We realize the OpenWSN-based wireless IIOT system. The system architecture is divided into three main parts: web server, network manager, and sensor nodes. The web server provides user interface, allowing the user to view the status of sensor nodes and instruct sensor nodes to follow commands via user-friendly browser. The network manager is responsible for the establishment, maintenance, and management of scheduling and topology information. It executes centralized scheduling algorithm, sends the scheduling table to each node, as well as manages the sensing tasks of each device. Sensor nodes complete the assigned tasks and sends the sensed data. Furthermore, to prevent scheduling error due to packet loss, a schedule inspection mechanism is implemented to verify the correctness of the schedule table. In addition, when network topology changes, the system will act to generate a new schedule table based on the changed topology for ensuring the proper operation of the system. To enhance the system performance of such system, we further propose dynamic bandwidth allocation and distributed scheduling mechanisms. The developed distributed scheduling mechanism enables each individual sensor node to build, maintain and manage the dedicated link bandwidth with its parent and children nodes based on locally observed information by exchanging the Add/Delete commands via two processes. The first process, termed as the schedule initialization process, allows each sensor node pair to identify the available idle slots to allocate the basic dedicated transmission bandwidth. The second process, termed as the schedule adjustment process, enables each sensor node pair to adjust their allocated bandwidth dynamically according to the measured traffic loading. Such technology can sufficiently satisfy the dynamic bandwidth requirement in the frequently changing environments. Last but not least, we propose a packet retransmission scheme to enhance the system performance of the centralized scheduling algorithm when the packet delivery rate (PDR) is low. We propose a multi-frame retransmission mechanism to allow every single network node to resend each packet for at least the predefined number of times. The multi frame architecture is built according to the number of layers of the network topology. Performance results via simulation reveal that such retransmission scheme is able to provide sufficient high transmission reliability while maintaining low packet transmission latency. Therefore, the QoS requirement of IIoT can be achieved.