Influence of Moringa Leaves Extract on the Response of Hb Molecule to Dose Rates’ Changes: II. Relaxation Time and Its Thermodynamic Driven State Functions
Irradiation deposits energy through ionisation changing the bio-system’s net dipole, allowing the use of dielectric parameters and thermodynamic state functions related to these parameters as biophysical detectors to electrical inhomogeneity within the biosystem. This part is concerned with the effect of Moringa leaves extract, natural supplement, on the response of the biosystem to two different dose rates of irradiation. Having Hb molecule as a representative to the biosystem to be least invasive to the biosystem, dielectric measurements were used to extract the relaxation time of certain process found in the Hb spectrum within the indicated frequency window and the interrelated thermodynamic state functions were calculated from the deduced relaxation time. The results showed that relaxation time was decreased for both dose rates indicating a strong influence of Moringa on the response of biosystem and consequently Hb molecule. This influence was presented in the relaxation time and other parameters as well.
Major Depressive Disorder: Diagnosis based on Electroencephalogram Analysis
In this paper, a technique based on electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis is presented, aiming for diagnosing major depressive disorder (MDD) among a potential population of MDD patients and healthy controls. EEG is recognized as a clinical modality during applications such as seizure diagnosis, index for anesthesia, detection of brain death or stroke. However, its usability for psychiatric illnesses such as MDD is less studied. Therefore, in this study, for the sake of diagnosis, 2 groups of study participants were recruited, 1) MDD patients, 2) healthy people as controls. EEG data acquired from both groups were analyzed involving inter-hemispheric asymmetry and composite permutation entropy index (CPEI). To automate the process, derived quantities from EEG were utilized as inputs to classifier such as logistic regression (LR) and support vector machine (SVM). The learning of these classification models was tested with a test dataset. Their learning efficiency is provided as accuracy of classifying MDD patients from controls, their sensitivities and specificities were reported, accordingly (LR =81.7 % and SVM =81.5 %). Based on the results, it is concluded that the derived measures are indicators for diagnosing MDD from a potential population of normal controls. In addition, the results motivate further exploring other measures for the same purpose.
A Longitudinal Study of the Readability of the Chairman’s Narratives in Corporate Reports: Malaysian Evidence
This paper examines the readability of the chairman’s narratives, as determined by the Flesch score, of a Malaysian public listed company’s corporate reports from 1962 to 2009. It partially supports earlier studies which demonstrated that corporate reports were difficult to read, and had shown very negligible decrease in difficulty over time. Net profit to sales and readability was significantly positively correlated but number of financial statements was significantly negatively correlated with readability.
The Influence of Crude Oil on Growth of Freshwater Algae
The effects of Iraqi crude oil on growth of three freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beij., Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat. and Oscillatoria princeps Vauch.) were investigated, basing on it's biomass expressed as Chl.a. Growth rate and doubling time of the cell were calculated. Results showed that growth rate and species survival varied with concentrations of crude oil and species type. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acuminatus were more sensitive in culture containing crude oil as compared with Oscillatoria princeps cultures. The growth of green algae were significantly inhibited in culture containing (5 mg/l) crude oil, while the growth of Oscillatoria princeps reduced in culture containing (10 mg/l) crude oil.
Evaluation of the Impact of Pavement Roughness on Vehicle Emissions by HDM-4
Vehicular emissions have increased in recent years due to rapid growth in world traffic resulting in an increase in associated problems such as air pollution and climate change, therefore it’s necessary to control vehicle emissions. This study looks at the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. The Highway Development and Management Tool (HDM-4) was used to find the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. Key data collected were traffic volume and composition, vehicle characteristics, pavement characteristics and climate data of the study area. Two options were analysed using the HDM-4 software; the base case or do nothing while the second is overlay maintenance. The study also showed a strong correlation between average roughness and yearly emission levels in both the alternatives. Finally, the study showed that proper maintenance reduces the roughness and emissions.
A Review on Light Shafts Rendering for Indoor Scenes
Rendering light shafts is one of the important topics in computer gaming and interactive applications. The methods and models that are used to generate light shafts play crucial role to make a scene more realistic in computer graphics. This article discusses the image-based shadows and geometric-based shadows that contribute in generating volumetric shadows and light shafts, depending on ray tracing, radiosity, and ray marching technique. The main aim of this study is to provide researchers with background on a progress of light scattering methods so as to make it available for them to determine the technique best suited to their goals. It is also hoped that our classification helps researchers find solutions to the shortcomings of each method.
Chitin Degradation in Pseudomonas fluorescens
Chitin, the second most abundant bio-polymer in nature after cellulose, composed of β (1→4) linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is a major structural component in the cell walls of fungi and the shells of crustaceans. Chitin and its derivatives are gaining importance of economic value due to its biological activity and its industrial and biomedical applications. There are several methods to hydrolyze chitin to NAG, but they are typically expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Chitinase which catalyzes the breakdown of chitin to NAG has received much attention owing to its various applications in biotechnology. The presented research examines the ability of the versatile soil microbe, Pseudomonas fluorescens grown in chitin medium to produce chitinase and a variety of value-added products under abiotic stress. We have found that with high pH, Pseudomonas fluorescens enable to metabolize chitin more than with neutral pH and the overexpression of chitinase was also increased. P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) assay for NAG production will be monitored and a combination of sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gels will be used to monitor the proteomic and metabolomic changes as a result of the abiotic stress. The bioreactor of chitinase will also be utilized.
An Investigation on Material Removal Rate of EDM Process: A Response Surface Methodology Approach
In the present work response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) is used for analyzing the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. For experimentation, mild steel is selected as work piece and copper is used as electrode. Three machining parameters namely current (I), spark on time (Ton) and spark off time (Toff) are selected as the input variables. The output or response chosen is material removal rate (MRR) which is to be maximized. To reduce the number of runs face centered central composite design (FCCCD) was used. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of parameter and interactions. The suitability of model is tested using Anderson darling (AD) plot. The results conclude that different parameters considered i.e. current, pulse on and pulse off time; all have dominant effect on the MRR. At last, the optimized parameter setting for maximizing MRR is found through main effect plot analysis.
Achieving Supply Chain Competitiveness through Successful Buyer-Supplier Relationships
Current research aims to understand the role of successful buyer-supplier relationship in achieving supply chain competitiveness in a developing country perspective. Five hypotheses are developed to test structural model. Survey data is collected from the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. Analysis is conducted using Partial Least Squares (PLS) Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through Smart PLS version 2.0 M3. Results demonstrate positive impact of effective supplier selection, buyer-supplier engagement, and information sharing capability on success of buyer supplier relationship. This successful buyer supplier relationship drives the supply chain firm financial and market performance. Additional analyses with large sample sizes are required in other developing countries to cross validate the results. Current study provides empirical evidence of the role of successful buyer supplier relationship in achieving supply chain competitiveness.
A Fast Silhouette Detection Algorithm for Shadow Volumes in Augmented Reality
Real-time shadow generation in virtual environments
and Augmented Reality (AR) was always a hot topic in the last
three decades. Lots of calculation for shadow generation among AR
needs a fast algorithm to overcome this issue and to be capable of
implementing in any real-time rendering. In this paper, a silhouette
detection algorithm is presented to generate shadows for AR systems.
Δ+ algorithm is presented based on extending edges of occluders
to recognize which edges are silhouettes in the case of real-time
rendering. An accurate comparison between the proposed algorithm
and current algorithms in silhouette detection is done to show the
reduction calculation by presented algorithm. The algorithm is tested
in both virtual environments and AR systems. We think that this
algorithm has the potential to be a fundamental algorithm for shadow
generation in all complex environments.
Diversity Management of Gender, Age and Disability in the Banking Sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
As a developing country, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) needs to make the best possible use of its workforce for social and economic reasons. The workforce is diverse, calling for appropriate diversity management (DM). The thesis focuses on the banking sector in KSA. To date, there have been no studies on DM in the banking sector in this country. Many organizations have introduced specific policies and programmes to improve the recruitment, inclusion, promotion, and retention of diverse employees, in addition to the legal requirements existing in many countries. However, Western-centric models of DM may not be applicable, at least not in their entirety, in other regions. The aim of the study is to devise a framework for understanding gender, age and disability DM in the banking sector in KSA in order to enhance DM in this sector. A sample of 24 managers, 2 from each of the 12 banks, was interviewed to obtain their views on DM in the banking sector in KSA. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. These themes were used to develop the questionnaire, which was administered to 10 managers in each of the 12 banks. After analysis of these data, and completion of the study, the research will make a theoretical contribution to the knowledge on DM and a practical contribution to the management of diversity in Saudi banks. This paper concerns a work in progress.
Subfamilial Relationships within Solanaceae as Inferred from atpB-rbcL Intergenic Spacer
A phylogenetic analysis of family Solanaceae was conducted using sequence data from the chloroplast intergenic atpB-rbcL spacer. Sequence data was generated from 17 species representing 09 out of 14 genera of Solanaceae from Pakistan. Cladogram was constructed using maximum parsimony method and results indicate that Solanaceae is mainly divided into two subfamilies; Solanoideae and Cestroideae. Four major clades within Solanoideae represent tribes; Physaleae, Capsiceae, Datureae and Solaneae are supported by high bootstrap value and the relationships among them are not corroborating with the previous studies. The findings established that subfamily Cestroideae comprised of three genera; Cestrum, Lycium, and Nicotiana with high bootstrap support. Position of Nicotiana inferred with atpB-rbcL sequence is congruent with traditional classification, which placed the taxa in Cestroideae. In the current study Lycium unexpectedly nested with Nicotiana with 100% bootstrap support and identified as a member of tribe Nicotianeae. Expanded sampling of other genera from Pakistan could be valuable towards improving our understanding of intrafamilial relationships within Solanaceae.
Triangular Geometric Feature for Offline Signature Verification
Handwritten signature is accepted widely as a biometric characteristic for personal authentication. The use of appropriate features plays an important role in determining accuracy of signature verification; therefore, this paper presents a feature based on the geometrical concept. To achieve the aim, triangle attributes are exploited to design a new feature since the triangle possesses orientation, angle and transformation that would improve accuracy. The proposed feature uses triangulation geometric set comprising of sides, angles and perimeter of a triangle which is derived from the center of gravity of a signature image. For classification purpose, Euclidean classifier along with Voting-based classifier is used to verify the tendency of forgery signature. This classification process is experimented using triangular geometric feature and selected global features. Based on an experiment that was validated using Grupo de Senales 960 (GPDS-960) signature database, the proposed triangular geometric feature achieves a lower Average Error Rates (AER) value with a percentage of 34% as compared to 43% of the selected global feature. As a conclusion, the proposed triangular geometric feature proves to be a more reliable feature for accurate signature verification.
Effect of TPA and HTLV-1 Tax on BRCA-1 and ERE Controlled Genes Expression
BRCA-1 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor, whose expression is activated by the estrogen (E2)-liganded ERα receptor. The activated ERα is a transcriptional factor which activates various genes either by direct binding to the DNA at E2-responsive elements (EREs) and indirectly associated with a range of alternative non-ERE elements. Interference with BRCA-1 expression and/or functions leads to high risk of breast or/and ovarian cancer. Our lab investigated the involvement of Human T-cell leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) in breast cancer, since HTLV-1 Tax was found to strongly inhibit BRCA-1 expression. In addition, long exposure of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which is one of the stress-inducing agents activated the HTLV-1 promoter. So here the involvement of TPA in breast cancer had been examined by testing the effect of TPA on BRCA-1 and ERE expression. The results showed that TPA activated both BRCA-1 and ERE expression. In the 12 hours TPA activated the tow promoters more than others time, and after 24 hours the level of the tow promoters was decreased. Tax inhibited BRCA-1 expression but did not succeed to inhibit the effect of TPA. Then the activation of the two promoters was not through ERα pathway because TPA had no effect on ERα binding to the two promoters of the BRCA-1 and ERE. Also, the activation was not via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway because when the inhibitory of NF-κB had been added to the TPA, it still activated the tow promoters. However, it seems that 53BP1 may be involved in TPA activation of these promoters because ectopic high expression of 53BP1 significantly reduced the TPA activity. In addition, in the presence of Bisindolylmaleimide-I (BI)- the inhibitor of Protein Kinase C (PKC)- there was no activation for the two promoters, so the PKC is agonized BRCA-1 and ERE activation.
Simultaneous Analysis of 25 Trace Elements in Micro Volume of Human Serum by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry
In recent years, trace elements have gained importance as biomarkers in many chronic diseases. Unfortunately, the requirement for sample volume increases according to the extent of investigation for diagnosis or elucidating the mechanism of the disease. Here, we describe the method development and validation for simultaneous determination of 25 trace elements (lithium (Li), beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), gallium (Ga), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), caesium (Cs), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), uranium (U)) using just 20 µL of human serum. Serum samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (ratio 1:1, v/v) and analysed using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seronorm®, a human-derived serum control material was used as quality control samples. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were consistently < 15% for all elements. The validated method was later applied to 30 human serum samples to evaluate its suitability. In conclusion, we have successfully developed and validated a precise and accurate analytical method for determining 25 trace elements requiring very low volume of human serum.
The Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on Endothelial Function in Atherosclerosis Patients Living in Saudi Arabia
Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that is required for the maintenance of good health. It is obtained either through exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet B radiation) or through dietary sources. The role of vitamin D is beyond bone health. Indeed, it plays a critical role in the immune system and a broad range of organ functions such as the cardiovascular system. Moreover, vitamin D plays a critical role in the endothelial function, which is one of the main indicators of atherosclerosis. This study is investigating the correlation between vitamin D status and endothelial function in preventing and treating atherosclerosis especially in country that has ample of sunshine but yet, Saudis from suffering from this issue vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Ninety participants from both genders and aged 40 to 60will be involved. The participants will be categorised into three groups: the control group will be healthy persons, patients at risk of developing atherosclerosis, patients formally diagnosed atherosclerosis. Half of the participants in each group should already have been taking vitamin D supplementations. Fasting blood samples will be taken from the participants for biochemical assays. Endothelial function will be assist by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. Participants will be asked to complete a questionnaire on their social and economic status, education level, daily exposure to sunlight, smoking status, consumption of supplements and medication, and a food frequency of vitamin D intake. The data will be analysed using SPSS.
Association of AGT (M268T) Gene Polymorphism in Diabetes and Nephropathy in Pakistan
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide. DM may lead to many vascular complications like hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and foot infections. Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is implicated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding the specific components of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) which include angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-II receptor and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes. This study was designed to explore the possible association of AG (M268T) polymorphism in the patients of diabetes and nephropathy in Pakistan. Study subjects included 100 controls, 260 diabetic patients without renal insufficiency and 190 diabetic nephropathy patients with persistent albuminuria. Fasting blood samples were collected from all the subjects after getting institutional ethical approval and informed consent. The biochemical estimations, PCR amplification and direct sequencing for the specific region of AGT gene was carried out. A significantly high frequency of TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) was observed in the patients of diabetes with nephropathy as compared to controls and diabetic patients without any known renal impairment. The TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) polymorphism may be considered as a genetic risk factor for the development and progression of nephropathy in diabetes. Further cross sectional population studies would be of help to establish and confirm the observed possible association of AGT gene variations with development of nephropathy in diabetes.
Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk
The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.
Estimation of the Effectiveness of Tasik Kemajuan and Tasik Inovasi as Flood Detention Pond at UTHM Campus
Flooding is a common natural disaster in Malaysia triggered by heavy rainfall. Urbanization that increases the construction of paved areas, subsequently raise surface runoff and reduce time of concentration. It increases flood magnitude and so that leads to greater flood problems as what has happened at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) area in December 2006 and earlier 2007. Tasik Kemajuan and Tasik Inovasi were constructed as recreation ponds and have also functioned as flood ponds. Unfortunately, the flood problem still occurs persistently. Thus, the effectiveness of Tasik Kemajuan and Tasik Inovasi in reducing the flood problems need to be investigated and the causes of flood events at UTHM Campus need to be evaluated. The results from this study show that the conditions of Tasik Kemajuan and Tasik Inovasi are effective in reducing the flood water levels. It also can be concluded that increasing water level in both lakes in UTHM Campus are significantly influenced by presence of the grass and rubbish. During dry condition, the flow rates with three different days are 59.38m3/s, 60.71m3/s and 59.08m3/s and while for wet condition in two different days are 89.59 m3/s and 86.61m3/s. In conclusion, this system should be improved to prevent future flooding either widened or reduced drainage floor, and also perform maintenance on the plants that live around the lake.
Physical Fitness Evaluation of MARA Junior Science Collage Rugby Player
Athletes at the school should have good physical fitness to participate in tournament. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for MARA Junior Science Collage (MJSC). Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of rugby player at MJSC. A total of 62 samples (age 16.4 ± 0.75) among rugby players at MJSC were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for rugby players is 23.4 ± 4:51. Body mass index (BMI) of rugby players can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. BMI for rugby players was categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 7 and shuttle 5; average VO2max was 37.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of rugby players at MJSC is lower compared to the rugby junior athletes in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of rugby players must be improved to ensure the rugby players at MJSC could be performs better in the tournament.
Analyzing the Role of Visual Preferences for Designing of Urban Leftover Spaces
A city’s space is comprehended as a phenomenon that emerges from the ongoing negotiation between the constructed environment, urban processes, and bodily experience. Many spaces do not represent a static notion but are continually challenged and reconstituted. The ability to recognize those leftover spaces in the urban context is an integral part of an urban redevelopment process, where structured and layered approaches become useful in understanding to transform these spaces into places. Contemporary urban leftover spaces exist as a result of several factors and are present in every major city that often disrupts the flow of districts by creating visually unappealing places. These spaces can be designed, transformed and integrated so as to achieve environmental gains and social preferences. The paper explores how those small changes in visual quality of an urban leftover spaces in Wellington city influence a person’s experience significantly and its potential usage. These spaces can be seen as a catalyst for a change through an ecological sustainability’s framework. A creative and flexible design would lead to psychologically healthy places by improving the image of a city from within. The qualitative research is undertaken through the visual preference studies which will inform the planning initiatives by knowing what people feel about those visual changes in these leftover spaces. Those visual preferences can guide behavior and the emotional responses of different users for the redesign of those spaces with the meaningful attributes. The research is driven by the hypothesis that if the attributes are made visible, the likelihood of stimulating the interest of users should increase.
Evaluating Health-Related Quality of Life of Lost to Follow-Up Tuberculosis Patients in Yemen
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as a major disease that affects daily activities and impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The impact of TB on HRQoL can affect treatment outcome and may lead to treatment defaulting. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the HRQoL of TB treatment lost to follow-up during and after treatment in Yemen. For this aim, this prospective study enrolled a total of 399 TB lost to follow-up patients between January 2011 and December 2015. By applying HRQoL criteria, only 136 fill the survey during treatment. Moreover, 96 were traced and fill out the HRQoL survey. All eight HRQol domains were categorized into the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS), which were calculated using QM scoring software. Results show that all lost to follow-up TB patients reported a score less than 47 for all eight domains, except general health (67.3) during their treatment period. Low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 were reported for emotional role limitation (RE) and mental health (MH), respectively. Moreover, the mental component score (MCS) was found to be only 28.9. The trace lost follow-up shows a significant improvement in all eight domains and a mental component score of 43.1. The low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 for role emotion and mental health, respectively, in addition to the MCS score of 28.9, show that severe emotional condition and reflect the higher depression during treatment period that can result to lost to follow-up. The low MH, RE, and MCS can be used as a clue for predicting future TB treatment lost to follow-up.
GIS Based Public Transport Accessibility of Lahore using PTALs Model
Accessible transport systems play a crucial role in infrastructure management and ease of access to destinations. Thus, the necessity of knowledge of service coverage and service deprived areas is a prerequisite for devising policies. Integration of PTALs model with GIS network analysis models (Service Area Analysis, Closest Facility Analysis) facilitates the analysis of deprived areas. In this research, models presented determine the accessibility. The empirical evidence suggests that current bus network system caters only 18.5% of whole population. Using network analysis results as inputs for PTALs, it is seen that excellent accessibility indexed bands cover a limited areas, while 78.8% of area is totally deprived of any service. To cater the unserved catchment, new route alignments are proposed while keeping in focus the Socio-economic characteristics, land-use type and net population density of the deprived area. Change in accessibility with proposed routes show a 10% increment in service delivery and enhancement in terms of served population is up to 20.4%. PTALs result shows a decrement of 60 Km2 in unserved band. The result of this study can be used for planning, transport infrastructure management, allocation of new route alignments in combination with future land-use development and for adequate spatial distribution of service access points.
Physical Fitness Evaluation of Physical Education Teachers in Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM)
Physical Education teacher at the school should have good physical fitness to educate and guide students in the school. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for teachers who teaches physical education at the school. Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of teacher of Physical Education at Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM). A total of 28 samples (18 men and 10 women, age 33 ± 4.91), teachers of physical education at MRSM, were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for teachers of Physical Education is 25.9 ± 4:57. Body mass index (BMI) of teachers can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Body fat percentage for male (age; 34.3 ± 5.13) and female (age; 30.9 ± 3.81) teachers is 24.7% ± 6.54 and 30.6% ± 6.28, respectively. Male teachers were categorized as overfat, however, female teachers were categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 4 and shuttle 2; average VO2max was 27.5 ± 5.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of physical education teachers at MRSM is much lower compared to the rugby junior athlete in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of teachers must be improved to ensure the physical education classes at MRSM could be done better.
A Retrospective Study on the Age of Onset for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis
There is a progressive increase in the prevalence of early onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early detection of Type 2 diabetes enhances the length and/or quality of life which might result from a reduction in the severity, frequency or prevent or delay of its long-term complications. The study aims to determine the onset age for the first diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective study conducted in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Penang, Malaysia, January- December 2016. Records of 519 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened to collect demographic data and determine the age of first-time diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Patients classified according to the age of diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity. The study included 519 patients with age (55.6±13.7) years, female 265 (51.1%) and male 254 (48.9%). The ethnicity distribution was Malay 191 (36.8%), Chinese 189 (36.4%) and Indian 139 (26.8%). The age of Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was (42±14.8) years. The female onset of diabetes mellitus was at age (41.5±13.7) years, while male (42.6±13.7) years. Distribution of diabetic onset by ethnicity was Malay at age (40.7±13.7) years, Chinese (43.2±13.7) years and Indian (42.3±13.7) years. Diabetic onset was classified by age as follow; ≤20 years’ cohort was 33 (6.4%) cases. Group >20- ≤40 years was 190 (36.6%) patients, and category >40- ≤60 years was 270 (52%) subjects. On the other hand, the group >60 years was 22 (4.2%) patients. The range of diagnosis was between 10 and 73 years old. Conclusion: Malay and female have an earlier onset of diabetes than Indian, Chinese and male. More than half of the patients had diabetes between 40 and 60 years old. Diabetes mellitus is becoming more common in younger age
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensinogen (AGT) Gene Variants in Pakistani Patients of Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide. In most high-income countries as well as middle-income and low- income countries. DM is among the top causes of deaths. DM may lead to many vascular complications like hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and foot. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) characterized by persistent albuminuria is a leading cause of end stage renal failure (ESRF). Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is implicated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding the components of reninangiotensin- aldosteron system (RAAS) which include angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-II receptor and particularly angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene. Method: Study subjects include 110 control, 110 patients with DM without hypertension, 110 patients with DM with hypertension and 110 patients with DN. Blood samples were collected for Biochemical analysis and PCR and sequencing for the specific region of both genes. Results: The frequency of DD genotype and D allele of ACE (I/D) was significantly (p< 0.05) high in DM normotensive, DM hypertensive and DN patients when compared to control. The ACE G2350A genotypes and allele frequencies were significantly different (p< 0.05) in DM hypertensive patients as compared to control and DN, while no difference was observed between DM normotensive and DN when compared to control. The genotypes and alleles of AGT (M268T) polymorphism were significantly different (p< 0.05) in DM normotensive, DM hypertensive and DN when compared to control. Conclusion: The DD genotype and D allele of ACE (I/D), GG genotype and G allele of ACE (G2350A) and the TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) polymorphism have shown a significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies between controls and patients.
Frequency Control of Self-Excited Induction Generator Based Microgrid during Transition from Grid Connected to Island Mode
Frequency behaviour of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) wind turbines during control mode transition from grid connected to islanded mode is studied in detail. A robust control scheme for frequency regulation based on combined action of STATCOM, energy storage system (ESS) and pitch angle control for wind powered microgrid (MG) is proposed. Suggested STATCOM controller comprises a 3-phase voltage source converter (VSC) that contains insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) based pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters along with a capacitor bank. Energy storage system control consists of current controlled voltage source converter and battery bank. Both of them acting simultaneously after detection of island compensates for reactive and active power demands, thus regulating frequency at point of common coupling (PCC) and also improves load stability. STATCOM integrates at point of common coupling and ESS is connected to microgrids main bus. Results reveal that proposed control not only stabilizes frequency during transition duration but also minimizes sudden frequency imbalance caused by load variation or wind intermittencies in islanded operation. System is investigated with and without suggested control scheme. The efficacy of proposed strategy has been verified by simulation in MATLAB/Simulink.
Fungi Associated with Decline of Kikar (Acacia nilotica) and Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in Faisalabad
During this research, a comprehensive survey of tree growing areas of Faisalabad district of Pakistan was conducted to observe the symptoms, spectrum, occurrence and severity of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis decline. Objective of current research was to investigate specific fungal pathogens involved in decline of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis. For this purpose, infected roots, bark, neck portion, stem, branches, leaves and infected soils were collected to identify associated fungi. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czepak dox agar media were used for isolations. Identification of isolated fungi was done microscopically and different fungi were identified. During survey of urban locations of Faisalabad, disease incidence on Kikar and Eucalyptus was recorded as 3.9-7.9% and 2.6-7.1% respectively. Survey of Agroforest zones of Faisalabad revealed decline incidence on kikar 7.5% from Sargodha road while on Satiana and Jhang road it was not planted. In eucalyptus trees, 4%, 8% and 0% disease incidence was observed on Jhang road, Sargodha road and Satiana road respectively. The maximum fungus isolated from the kikar tree was Drechslera australiensis (5.00%) from the stem part. Aspergillus flavus also gave the maximum value of (3.05%) from the bark. Alternaria alternata gave the maximum value of (2.05%) from leaves. Rhizopus and Mucor spp. were recorded minimum as compared to the Drechslera, Alternaria and Aspergillus. The maximum fungus isolated from the Eucalyptus tree was Armillaria luteobubalina (5.00%) from the stem part. The other fungi isolated were Macrophamina phaseolina and A. niger.
The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility in the National Commercial Bank in Saudi Arabia
The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of
corporate social responsibility (CSR) CSR on the National
Commercial Bank (NCB) in Saudi Arabia. In order to achieve this, a
case study was made of the CSR activities of this bank from the
perspective of its branch managers. The NCB was chosen as it was
one of the first Saudi banks to engage in CSR and currently has a
wide range of CSR initiatives. A qualitative research method was
used. Open-ended questionnaires were administered to eighty branch
managers of the NCB, with fifty-five usable questionnaires returned
and twenty managers were interviewed as part of the primary
research. Data from both questionnaires and interviews were
analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six themes emerged from
the questionnaire findings were used to develop the interview
questions. These themes are the following: Awareness of employees
about CSR in the NCB; CSR activities as a type of investment;
Government and media support; Increased employee loyalty in the
NCB; Prestige and profit to the NCB; and View of CSR in Islam.
This paper makes a theoretical contribution in that it investigates and
increases understanding of the effect of CSR on the NCB in Saudi
Arabia. In addition, it makes a practical contribution by making
recommendations which can support the development of CSR in the
NCB. A limitation of the paper is that it is a case study of only one
bank. It is therefore recommended that future research could be
conducted with other banks in Saudi Arabia, or indeed, with a range
of other types of firm within the financial services area in Saudi
Arabia. In this way, the same issues could be explored but with a
greater potential generalisability of findings of CSR within the Saudi
Arabian financial services industry. In addition, this paper takes a
qualitative approach and it is suggested that future research be carried
out using mixed methods, which could provide a greater depth of
Comparison of Statins Dose Intensity on HbA1c Control in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study
The effect of statins dose intensity (SDI) on glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes is unclear. Also, there are many contradictory findings were reported in the literature; thus, it is limiting the possibility to draw conclusions. This project was designed to compare the effect of SDI on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) control in outpatients with Type 2 diabetes in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, between July 2015 and August 2016. A prospective cohort study was conducted, where records of 345 patients with Type 2 diabetes (Moderate-SDI group 289 patients and high-SDI cohort 56 patients) were reviewed to identify demographics and laboratory tests. The target of glycemic control (HbA1c < 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, and the results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 289 moderate-SDI cohorts with a mean age of 57.3 ± 12.4 years, only 86 (29.8%) cases were shown to have controlled glycemia, while there were 203 (70.2%) cases with uncontrolled glycemia with confidence interval (CI) of 95% (6.2–10.8). On the other hand, the high-SDI group of 56 patients with Type 2 diabetes with a mean age 57.7±12.4 years is distributed among 11 (19.6%) patients with controlled diabetes, and 45 (80.4%) of them had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (7.1–11.9). The study has demonstrated that the relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes that used high-SDI is 1.15, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) is 15%. The absolute risk (AR) is 10.2%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) is 10. Outpatients with Type 2 diabetes who use high-SDI of statin have a higher risk of uncontrolled glycemia than outpatients who had been treated with a moderate-SDI.
Peat Resources, Paleo-Environmental Interpretation as well as Their Utilization, Hakaluki Haor, Moulvibazar and Sylhet District, Bangladesh
The study area is the Hakaluki Haor which is the second largest wet land of Bangladesh. It spans over the districts of Moulvibazar and Sylhet in southeast Bangladesh. The study was focused in the exploration of peat reserve, reconstruction of the paleo-environment as well as the utilization of the peat resources. Peat is found randomly from 0.5 m to 7 m below the surface and 1 m to 11 m thickness at over 40 beels as well as small plain lands of 90 km2 area of Hakaluki Haor. The total reserve of peat is 282 million ton in wet condition and 112 million ton in dry condition. The peat deposits of Hakaluki Haor area is the largest peat reserves of the Bangladesh. Peat bearing Hakaluki Haor is a low-lying wet land which geological term is synclinal depression. It may be a syncline between two anticlines which was filled with sediments as well as various plant materials derived from the hilly region (anticline) on both sides (west and east) of the Haor. The transportation may be triggered by large natural disasters or any tectonic reason. On the other hand vegetation occurred in this depression as aquatic plants which might have been destroyed by large
natural disasters or any tectonic reason. As environment dictates the characteristics and the source of sediments, various aspects of the sediment are indicators of the environment. Peat has mainly industrial importance as a fuel for power production, traditionally used for cooking, domestic heating and in brick fields, also used as insulator in many industries, agricultural purposes, retaining moisture in soil, raw material in horticulture and colour industries etc. Power plants of about 100 MW capacities may be established in this region based on peat of Hakaluki Haor which may be continued more than one hundred years.
A Prospective Study on the Evaluation of Statins Usage on HbA1c Control among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in an Outpatients Setting
Medication safety is always an issue. In 2015, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau released a statement requesting all statins manufacturers in Malaysia to include the risk of diabetes information in the drug information leaflet in response to United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) report. However, the data regarding this warning label in Malaysia is limited, so there is still some uncertainty whether such risk can also be observed in the Malaysian population or not. The study aims to determine the effect of statins on HbA1c% in type 2 diabetic outpatients in endocrine clinics at Hospital Pulau Pinang between June 2015 and May 2016 in Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study, records of 400 type 2 diabetic patients (control group 104 patients not using statin and treatment group 296 patients using statin) were reviewed to identify demographic criteria and lab tests. The prevalence of glycemic control (Glycated hemoglobin, HbA1C ≤ 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, according to American Diabetes Association guidelines 2015. The results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 296 patients with Type 2 diabetes using statins cohort with a mean age of 57.52 ± 12.2 years, only 81 (27.4%) cases had controlled glycemia, and 215 (72.6%) had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (6.3–11.1). While the control group 104 diabetic patients had a mean age 46.1 ± 18 years and distributed among 59 (56.7%) patients with controlled diabetes and 45 (43.3%) cases, had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (5.2–10.3). The relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in diabetic patients used statins was 1.68, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) was 68%. The absolute risk (AR) was 29.3%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) was 4. Diabetic patients using statins have more risk of uncontrolled glycemia than the patients with Type 2 diabetes non-using statins.
Induction of Different Types of Callus and Somatic Embryogenesis in Various Explants of Taraxacum Kok-Saghyz Rodin
To explore the potential for in vitro rapid regeneration of Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin), different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D) and BAP combined with Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were evaluated for their effects on the induction of somatic embryos from leaf, seed stem and root explants. Different explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 mg/l) of each kind of hormone. Callus induction percentage, fresh weight, color and texture of the callus were assessed after 14 and 28 days of culture. The optimum medium for the proliferation of embryogenic calli from leaf and root explants was MS supplemented with 2.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L 2.4-D. Concentrations of 2.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L IAA also had a remarkable effect on root and stem explants. The best concentration to produce callus from stem explants was 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L IAA. Results of mean comparison showed that BAP and 2.4-D were more effective on different explants than BAP and IAA. Results of the double staining method proved that somatic embryogenesis occurred in the most concentrations of BAP and 2.4-D. Under microscopic observations, the different developmental stages of the embryos (globular, heart, torpedo and cotyledonary) were revealed together in callus cells, indicating that the most tested hormone combinations were effective for somatic embryogenesis formation in this species. Seed explants formed torpedo and cotyledonary stages faster than leaf and root explants in the most combinations. Most calli from seed explants were cream colored and friable, while calli were compact and light green from leaf and root explants. Some combinations gave direct regeneration and (3 mg/L BAP and 2 mg/L IAA) in seed explants and (0.5 mg/L BAP and 2.5 mg/L IAA) in leaf explants had the highest number of shoots with average of 21 and 27 shoots per callus. The developed protocol established the production of different callus types from seed, leaf, and root explants and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis.
Bean in Turkey: Characterization, Inter Gene Pool Hybridization Events, Breeding, Utilizations
Turkey is considered a bridge between Europe, Asia, and Africa and possibly played an important role in the distribution of many crops including common bean. Hundreds of common bean landraces can be found in Turkey, particularly in farmers’ fields, and they consistently contribute to the overall production. To investigate the existing genetic diversity and hybridization events between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools in the Turkish common bean, 188 common bean accessions (182 landraces and 6 modern cultivars as controls) were collected from 19 different Turkish geographic regions. These accessions were characterized using phenotypic data (growth habit and seed weight), geographic provenance, 12557 high-quality whole-genome DArTseq markers, and 3767 novel DArTseq loci were also identified. The clustering algorithms resolved the Turkish common bean landrace germplasm into the two recognized gene pools, the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. Hybridization events were observed in both gene pools (14.36% of the accessions) but mostly in the Mesoamerican (7.97% of the accessions), and was low relative to previous European studies. The lower level of hybridization witnessed the existence of Turkish common bean germplasm in its original form as compared to Europe. Mesoamerican gene pool reflected a higher level of diversity, while the Andean gene pool was predominant (56.91% of the accessions), but genetically less diverse and phenotypically more pure, reflecting farmers greater preference for the Andean gene pool. We also found some genetically distinct landraces and overall, a meaningful level of genetic variability which can be used by the scientific community in breeding efforts to develop superior common bean strains.
Human TP53 Three Dimentional (3D) Core Domain Hot Spot Mutations at Codon, 36, 72 and 240 are Associated with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the leading cause of death in the developing countries like Pakistan. This problem aggravates because of the excessive use of available chewing products. In spite of widespread information on their use and purported legislations against their use the Pakistani markets are classical examples of selling chewable carcinogenic mutagens. Reported studies indicated that these products are rich in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polyphenols. TP53 gene is involved in the suppression of tumor. It has been reported that somatic mutations caused by TP53 gene are the foundation of the cancer. This study aims to find the loss of TP53 functions due to mutation/polymorphism caused by genomic alteration and interaction with tobacco and its related ingredients. Total 260 tissues and blood specimens were collected from OSCC patients and compared with age and sex matched controls. Mutations in exons 2-11 of TP53 were examined by PCR-SSCP. Samples showing mobility shift were directly sequenced. Two mutations were found in exon 4 at nucleotide position 108 and 215 and one in exon 7 at nucleotide position 719 of the coding sequences in patient’s tumor samples. These results show that substitution of proline with arginine at codon 72 and serine with threonine at codon 240 of p53 protein. These polymorphic changes, found in tumor samples of OSCC, could be involved in loss of heterozygocity and apoptotic activity in the binding domain of TP53. The model of the mutated TP53 gene elaborated a nonfunctional unfolded p53 protein, suggesting an important role of these mutations in p53 protein inactivation and malfunction. This nonfunctional 3D model also indicates that exogenous tobacco related carcinogens may act as DNA-damaging agents affecting the structure of DNA. The interpretations could be helpful in establishing the pathways responsible for tumor formation in OSCC patients.
Identifying the Determinants of the Shariah Non-Compliance Risk via Principal Axis Factoring
The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the rise of Shariah non-compliance risk that can bring Islamic banks to succumb to monetary loss. Prior literatures have never analyzed such risk in details despite lots of it arguing on the validity of some Shariah compliance products. The Shariah non-compliance risk in this context is looking to the potentially failure of the facility to stand from the court test say that if the banks bring it to the court for compensation from the defaulted clients. The risk may also arise if the customers refuse to make the financing payments on the grounds of the validity of the contracts, for example, when relinquishing critical requirement of Islamic contract such as ownership, the risk that may lead the banks to suffer loss when the customer invalidate the contract through the court. The impact of Shariah non-compliance risk to Islamic banks is similar to that of legal risks faced by the conventional banks. Both resulted into monetary losses to the banks respectively. In conventional banking environment, losses can be in the forms of summons paid to the customers if they won the case. In banking environment, this normally can be in very huge amount. However, it is right to mention that for Islamic banks, the subsequent impact to them can be rigorously big because it will affect their reputation. If the customers do not perceive them to be Shariah compliant, they will take their money and bank it in other places. This paper provides new insights of risks faced by credit intensive Islamic banks by providing a new extension of knowledge with regards to the Shariah non-compliance risk by identifying its individual components that directly affecting the risk together with empirical evidences. Not limited to the Islamic banking fraternities, the regulators and policy makers should be able to use findings in this paper to evaluate the components of the Shariah non-compliance risk and make the necessary actions. The paper is written based on Malaysia’s Islamic banking practices which may not directly related to other jurisdictions. Even though the focuses of this study is directly towards to the Bay Bithaman Ajil or popularly known as BBA (i.e. sale with deferred payments) financing modality, the result from this study may be applicable to other Islamic financing vehicles.
Spontaneous Rupture of Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm; A Rare Presentation of Acute Abdominal Pain in the Emergency Department: Case Report
Background: Spontaneous Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture is a rare condition which is potentially life threatening, if not detected and managed early. We report a case of abdominal pain with intraperitoneal free fluid, which turned out to be spontaneous rupture of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm, and was treated with arterial embolization. Case presentation: A 28-year old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with a history of sudden onset upper abdominal pain and fainting attack. The patient denied any history of trauma or prior similar attacks. On examination, the patient had tachycardia and a low-normal BP (HR 110, BP 106/66) but his other vital signs were normal (Temp. 37.2, RR 18 and SpO2 100%). His abdomen was initially soft with mild tenderness in the upper region. Blood tests showed leukocytosis of 12.3 X109/L, Hb of 12.6 g/dl and lactic acid of 5.9 mmol/L. Ultrasound showed trace of free fluid in the perihepatic and perisplenic areas, and a splenic hypoechoic lesion. The patient remained stable; however, his abdomen became increasingly tender with guarding. We made a provisional diagnosis of a perforated viscus and the patient was started on IV fluids and IV antibiotics. An erect abdominal x-ray did not show any free air under the diaphragm so a CT abdomen was requested. Meanwhile, bedside ultrasound was repeated which showed increased amount of free fluid, suggesting intra-abdominal bleeding as the most probable etiology for the condition. His CT abdomen revealed a splenic injury with multiple lacerations, a focal intrasplenic enhancing area on venous phase scan (suggesting a pseudoaneurysm with associated splenic intraparenchymal, sub capsular and perisplenic hematomas). Free fluid in the subhepatic and intraperitoneal regions along the small bowel was also detected. Angiogram was done which confirmed a diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm of intrasplenic arterial branch, and angio-embolization was done to control the bleeding. The patient was later discharged in good condition with a surgery follow-up. Conclusion: Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture is a rare cause of abdominal pain which should be considered in any case of abdominal pain with intraperitoneal bleeding. Early management is crucial as it carries a high mortality. Bedside ultrasound is a useful tool to help for early diagnosis of such cases.
Solid Waste and Its Impact on the Human Health
Unplanned urbanization together with change in life from simple to more technologically advanced style with flow of rural masses to urban areas has played a vital role in pilling loads of solid wastes in our environment. The cities and towns have expanded beyond boundaries. Even the uncontrolled population expansion has caused the overall environmental burden. Thus, today the indifference remains as one of the biggest trash that has come up due to the non-responsive behavior of the people. Everyday huge amount of solid waste is thrown in the streets, on the roads, parks, and in all those places that are frequently and often visited by the human beings. This behavior based response in many countries of the world has led to serious health concerns and environmental issues. Over 80% of our products that are sold in the market are packed in plastic bags. None of the bags are later recycled but simply become a permanent environment concern that flies, choke lines or are burnt and release toxic gases in the environment or form dumps of heaps. Lack of classification of the daily waste generated from houses and other places lead to worst clogging of the sewerage lines and formation of ponding areas which ultimately favor vector borne disease and sometimes become a cause of transmission of polio virus. Solid waste heaps were checked at different places of the cities. All of the wastes on visual assessments were classified into plastic bags, papers, broken plastic pots, clay pots, steel boxes, wrappers etc. All solid waste dumping sites in the cities and wastes that were thrown outside of the trash containers usually contained wrappers, plastic bags, and unconsumed food products. Insect populations seen in these sites included the house flies, bugs, cockroaches and mosquito larvae breeding in water filled wrappers, containers or plastic bags. The population of the mosquitoes, cockroaches and houseflies were relatively very high in dumping sites close to human population. This population has been associated with cases like dengue, malaria, dysentery, gastro and also to skin allergies during the monsoon and summer season. Thus, dumping of the huge amount of solid wastes in and near the residential areas results into serious environmental concerns, bad smell circulation, and health related issues. In some places, the same waste is burnt to get rid of mosquitoes through smoke which ultimately releases toxic material in the atmosphere. Therefore, a proper environmental strategy is needed to minimize environmental burden and promote concepts of recycled products and thus, reduce the disease burden.