Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66741

Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition
C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.
Solar Energy for Decontamination of Ricinus communis
The solar energy was used as a source of heating in Ricinus communis pie with the objective of eliminating or minimizing the percentage of the poison in it, so that it can be used as animal feed. A solar cylinder and plane collector were used as heating system. In the focal area of the solar concentrator a gutter support endowed with stove effect was placed. Parameters that denote the efficiency of the systems for the proposed objective was analyzed.
In-silico Antimicrobial Activity of Bioactive Compounds of Ricinus communis against DNA Gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus as Molecular Target
Medicinal Plant extracts and their bioactive compounds have been used for antimicrobial activities and have significant remedial properties. In the recent years, a wide range of investigations have been carried out throughout the world to confirm antimicrobial properties of different medicinally important plants. A number of plants showed efficient antimicrobial activities, which were comparable to that of synthetic standard drugs or antimicrobial agents. The large family Euphorbiaceae contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 speciesand one among is Ricinus communis or castor plant which has high traditional and medicinal value for disease free healthy life. Traditionally the plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicide etc. whereas the plant possess beneficial effects such as anti-oxidant, antihistamine, antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, immunomodulatory anti diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, and many other medicinal properties. This activity of the plant possess due to the important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids. The presents study includes the phytochemical properties of Ricinus communis and to prediction of the anti-microbial activity of Ricinus communis using DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus as molecular target. Docking results of varies chemicals compounds of Ricinus communis against DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus by maestro 9.8 of Schrodinger show that the phytochemicals are effective against the target protein DNA gyrase. our studies suggest that the phytochemical from Ricinus communis such has INDICAN (G.Score 4.98) and SUPLOPIN-2(G.Score 5.74) can be used as lead molecule against Staphylococcus infections.
In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Tamus communis L. from Algeria
The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts from roots of Tamus communis L. (TCRE), which is a plant used in traditional medicine in Algeria. The antioxidant potential of pattern was evaluated using tow complementary techniques, inhibition of free radical DPPH and the test of β-Carotene/linoleic acid. The antioxidant test indicates that non-polar fractions of TCRE (chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions) were more active than the polar fractions. Among these fractions, the chloroform extract appear in the DPPH test an IC50 of (18.89 µg/ml) comparable to that of BHT (18.6 µg/ml). This fraction was able to inhibiting the oxidation of β-Carotene with a percentage of inhibition (89.84 %). In antibacterial test, non-polar fractions showed antibacterial activity very important compared with the polar fractions. These fractions have inhibited the growth of four from nine bacterial strains, causing zones of inhibition from 08 to 23 mm of diameter.
Roles of Aquatic Plants on Erosion Relief of Stream Bed
Roles of the vegetation to mitigate the erosion of the stream bed or to facilitate the deposition of the fine sediments by the species of the aquatic plants were presented. Field investigation on the estimation of the change of the bed level and the estimation of the flow characteristics were performed. The results showed that Phragmites japonica has the mitigation function of 0.3m-0.4m of the erosion in the range of higher than 1.0m/s of flow velocity at the vegetated region. Phragmites communis has the mitigation function of 0.2m-0.3m of the erosion in the range of higher than 0.7m/s of flow velocity at the vegetated region. Salix gracilistyla has greater role than Phragmites japonica and Phragmites communis to sustain the stable channel. It has the mitigation function of 0.4m-0.5m of the erosion in the range of higher than 1.4m/s of flow velocity. Miscanthus sacchariflorus has a weak role compared with that of Phragmites japonica and Salix gracilistyla, but it has still function for sustaining the stable bed. From these results, the vegetation has effective roles to mitigate the erosion or to facilitate the deposition of the stream bed.
Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Oil Yield of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)
Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the important non-edible oilseed crops having immense industrial and medicinal value. Oil yield per unit area is the ultimate target in growing oilseed plants and sowing date is one of the important factors which have a clear role in the production of active substances particularly in oilseeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing date on the seed and oil yield of castor in Central Anatolia in Turkey in 2011. The field experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with three replication. Black Diamond-2 castor cultivar was used as plant material. The treatment was four sowing dates of May 10, May 25, June 10, June 25. In this research; seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. Results showed that the effect of different sowing dates was significant on all of the characteristics. In general; delayed sowing dates, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil content and oil yield. The highest value of seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 2523.7 kg ha-1, 51.18% and 1292.2 kg ha-1) were obtained from the first sowing date (May 10) while the lowest seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 1550 kg ha-1, 43.67%, 677.3 kg ha-1) were recorded from the latest sowing date (June 25). Therefore, it can be concluded that early May could be recommended as an appropriate sowing date in the studied location and similar climates for achieved high oil yield of castor.
Isolation and Characterization of Cotton Infecting Begomoviruses in Alternate Hosts from Cotton Growing Regions of Pakistan
Castor bean (Ricinus communis; family Euphorbiaceae) is cultivated for the production of oil and as an ornamental plant throughout tropical regions. Leaf samples from castor bean plants with leaf curl and vein thickening were collected from areas around Okara (Pakistan) in 2011. PCR amplification using diagnostic primers showed the presence of a begomovirus and subsequently the specific pair (BurNF 5’- CCATGGTTGTGGCAGTTGATTGACAGATAC-3’, BurNR 5’- CCATGGATTCACGCACAGGGGAACCC-3’) was used to amplify and clone the whole genome of the virus. The complete nucleotide sequence was determined to be 2,759 nt (accession No. HE985227). Alignments showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (98.8%) with Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV; accession No. JF416947) No. JF416947). The virus in castor beans lacks on intact C2 gene, as is typical of CLCuBuV in cotton. An amplification product of ca. 1.4 kb was obtained in PCR with primers for betasatellites and the complete nucleotide sequence of a clone was determined to be 1373 nt (HE985228). The sequence showed 96.3% nucleotide sequence identity to the recombinant Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB; JF502389). This is the first report of CLCuBuV and its betasatellite infecting castor bean, showing this plant species as an alternate host of the virus. Already many alternate host have been reported from different alternate host like tobacco, tomato, hibiscus, okra, ageratum, Digera arvensis, habiscus, Papaya and now in Ricinus communis. So, it is suggested that these alternate hosts should be avoided to grow near cotton growing regions.
Potential of Castor Bean (Ricinus Communis L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals
The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in industrially polluted soils containing high concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd, situated at different distances (0.3, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution - the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. On reaching commercial ripeness, the castor oil plants were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts – roots, stems, leaves and seeds, were determined after dry ashing. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric soil samples were carried. Translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with ICP. A soxhlet extraction was used for the extraction of the oil, using hexane as solvent. The oil was recovered by simple distillation of the solvent. The residual oil obtained was investigated for physicochemical parameters and fatty acid composition. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor values (BAF and TF > 1) were greater than one suggesting efficient accumulation in the shoot. The castor oil plant may be preferred as a good candidate for phytoremediation (phytoextraction). These results indicate that R. communis has good potential for removing Pb from contaminated soils attributed to its fast growth, high biomass, strong absorption and accumulation for Pb. The concentrations of heavy metals in the oil were low as seed coats accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb. In addition, the result of the fatty acid composition analysis confirms the oil to be of good quality and can be used for industrial purposes such as cosmetics, soaps and paint.
Immuno-Modulatory Role of Weeds in Feeds of Cyprinus Carpio
Cyprinus carpio has a wide spread occurrence in the lakes and rivers of Europe and Asia. Heavy losses in natural environment due to anthropogenic activities, including pollution as well as pathogenic diseases have landed this fish in IUCN red list of vulnerable species. The significance of a suitable diet in preserving the health status of fish is widely recognized. In present study, artificial feed supplemented with leaves of two weed plants, Eichhornia crassipes and Ricinus communis were evaluated for their role on the fish immune system. To achieve this objective fish were acclimatized to laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C; 12 L: 12D) for 10 days prior to start of experiment and divided into 4 groups: non-challenged (negative control= A), challenged [positive control (B) and experimental (C & D)]. Group A, B were fed with non-supplemented feed while group C & D were fed with feed supplemented with 5% Eichhornia crassipes and 5% Ricinus communis respectively. Supplemented feeds were evaluated for their effect on growth, health, immune system and disease resistance in fish when challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Fingerlings of C. carpio (weight, 2.0±0.5 g) were exposed with fresh overnight culture of V. harveyi through bath immunization (concentration 2 Χ 105) for 2 hours on 10 days interval for 40 days. The growth was monitored through increase in their relative weight. The rate of mortality due to bacterial infection as well as due to effect of feed was recorded accordingly. Immune response of fish was analyzed through differential leucocyte count, percentage phagocytosis and phagocytic index. The effect of V. harveyi on fish organs were examined through histo-pathological examination of internal organs like spleen, liver and kidney. The change in the immune response was also observed through gene expression analysis. The antioxidant potential of plant extracts was measured through DPPH and FRAP assay and amount of total phenols and flavonoids were calculates through biochemical analysis. The chemical composition of plant’s methanol extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which showed presence of various secondary metabolites and other compounds. Investigation revealed immuno-modulatory effect of plants, when supplemented with the artificial feed of fish.
Chemical Control Management Strategies for Corm Rot in Gladiolus communis L. under Field Conditions
Corm rot is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli and it causes remarkable losses to the growers. Experiment was conducted in order to find some viable recommendations for this agronomically as well as economically important problem. Four fungicides, namely Carbendazim, Mancozeb, Thiophanate methyl and Chlorothalonil were used to control corm rot in gladiolus field. Fungicides were applied singly as foliar, in irrigation as well as with sulphuric acid in variable doses. The results revealed that application of all fungicides was variably effective to control corm rot in acid mixed irrigation followed by fungicide in irrigation. The application of all fungicides in various combinations was observed to be ineffective at all three doses.
RAPD Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean
The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 40 castor genotypes using 8 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 40 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded in 66 fragments, with an average of 8.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. Values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.556 to 0.895 with an average of 0.784 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.621 to 0.896 with an average of 0.798. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared and analyzed genotypes were grouped into two main clusters and only two genotypes could not be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production for industrial uses.
Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens
Fifteen isolates of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were obtained from crown gall samples collected from six locations (Tripoli, Alzahra, Ain-Zara, Alzawia, Alazezia in Libya) from Grape (Vitis vinifera L.), Pear (Pyrus communis L.), Peach (Prunus persica L.) and Alexandria in Egypt from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees, Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L.) and Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Total DNA was extracted from the eight isolates as well as the identification of six isolates used into Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique were used. High similarity (55.5%) was observed among the eight A. tumefaciens isolates (Agro1, Agro2, Agro3, Agro4, Agro5, Agro6, Agro7, and Agro8). The PCR amplification products were resulting from the use of two specific primers (virD2A-virD2C). Analysis induction six isolates of A. tumefaciens obtained from different hosts. A visible band was specific to A. tumefaciens of (220 bp, 224 bp) and 338 bp produced with total DNA extracted from bacterial cells.
Comparative Efficacy of Benomyl and Three Plant Extracts in the Control of Cowpea Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sensu Lato
Field experiment was conducted to compare the efficacy of hot water extracts of three plants (Ricinus communis, Jatropha gossypifolia and Datura stramonium) with benomyl in the control of cowpea anthracnose disease. Three concentrations of the extracts (65, 50 and 30%) were used in the study. Result from the experiment shows that all the extracts at the tested concentration reduced the incidence and severity of the disease. D. stramonium at 65% concentration compares favourably with that of benomyl fungicide in reducing incidence and severity of infection. At 65% concentration of D. stramonium, incidence of the disease was 22% on pooled mean basis, and this was not significantly different from that of benomyl (21%). Similarly, the percentage of normal seeds recorded at this same concentration of the extract was 85% and was not significantly different from that of benomyl (86%). In terms of disease severity trace infections were observed on the cowpea plants at this concentration of the extract and that of benomyl. However, at lower concentrations of all the extracts, significant variations were observed on incidence of disease and percentage of normal seeds such that values obtained from use of benomyl were higher than those obtained from the use of the extracts. The study, therefore, shows that extracts of these indigenous plants can be used as a substitute for the benomyl fungicide in the management of anthracnose disease.
Effect of Varietal Feeding on Larval Duration and Cocoon Parameters of Six Strains of Eri Silkworm Samia ricini Donovan in Nagaland, India
Rearing of six strains of Samia ricini (eri silk worm) i.e. Yellow plain (YP), Yellow spotted (YS), Yellow Zebra (YZ), Greenish blue plain (GBP), Greenish blue spotted (GBS) and Greenish blue zebra (GBZ) was conducted on Ricinus communis (Castor), Heteropanax fragrans (Kesseru), Evodia fraxinifolia (Payam) and Manihot utilissima (Tapioca) to evaluate the effect of seasonal pattern on larval duration and cocoon parameters in Nagaland, India. Larval duration during spring season was maximum in all strains in all food plants; however minimum for all strains was recorded during summer season on Castor, Kesseru and Tapioca. Cocoon weight was recorded to be minimum (2.8 ± 2 0.55 gm) in YP on Kesseru and maximum (4.06 ± 0.68 gm) in GBZ on Castor during spring season; shell weight fluctuated between 0.34 ± 0.08 gm during spring in GBS on Kesseru and 0.58 ± 0.09 gm during summer in YZ on Castor and percentage of silk ratio was found to be minimum and maximum in YP on Payam during spring (11.37 ± 1.29) and in GBS on Castor during summer (16.05 ± 1.59) respectively. The variation in larval duration and cocoon parameters reflected variation in nutrient composition of food plants and dynamic environment conditions prevailing in different seasons of the year. Payam and Tapioca plants could be fed either singly or alternately with Castor or Kesseru to attain the commercial advantage to ensure more value added production. While there were differences in the productivity parameters with respect to strains and seasons, the present study shows that all the strains on four host plants expressed adaptability and suitability for commercial rearing under Nagaland climatic condition.
Phytogeography and Regional Conservation Status of Gymnosperms in Pakistan
In the present study, phytogeography and conservation status of gymnosperms of Pakistan were investigated. 44 gymnosperms species of 18 genera and 9 families were collected from 66 districts of the country. Among the 44 species, 20 species were native (wild) and 24 species were exotic (cultivated). Ephedra sarocarpa of Ephedraceae was not collected in this study from its distribution area and most probably it may be Nationally Extinct now from this area. Previously in Gymnosperms Flora of Pakistan 34 species was reported. 12 new gymnosperms species were recorded for the first time. Pinus wallichiana (40 districts), Cedrus deodara (39 districts) Pinus roxburghii (36 districts), Picea smithiana (36 districts) and Abies pindrow (34 districts) have the maximum ecological amplitude. Juniperus communis (17districts) and Juniperus excelsa (14 districts) were the widely distributed among the junipers. Ephedra foliata (23 districts), Ephedra gerardiana (20 districts) and Ephedra intermedia (19 districts) has the widest distribution range. Taxus fuana was also wider distribution range and recorded in 19 districts but its population was not very stable. These species was recorded to support local flora and fuana, especially endemics. PCORD version 5 clustered all gymnosperms species into 4 communities and all localities into 5 groups through cluster analyses. The Two Way Cluster Analyses of 66 districts (localities) resulted 4 various plant communities. The Gymnosperms in Pakistan are distributed in 3 floristic regions i.e. Western plains of the country, Northern and Western mountainous regions and Western Himalayas. The assessment of the National conservation status of these species, 10 species were found to be threatened, 6 species were endangered, 4 species were critically endangered and 1 species have become extinct (Ephedra sarcocarpa). The population of some species i.e. Taxus fuana, Ephedra gerardiana, Ephedra monosperma, Picea smithiana and Abies spectabilis is decreasing at an alarming rate.
The Evaluation of Superiority of Foot Local Anesthesia Method in Dairy Cows
Background: Nowadays, bovine limb interventions, especially any claw surgeries, raises selection of the most qualified and appropriate local anesthesia technique applicable for any superficial or deep interventions of the limbs. Currently, two local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA), as well as Nerve Blocks, have been routine to apply. However, the lack of studies investigating the quality and duration as well as quantity and onset of full (complete) local anesthesia, is noticeable. Therefore, the aim of our study was comparing the onset and quality of both IVRA and our modified NBA at the hind limb of dairy cows. For this abstract, only the onset of full local anesthesia would be consider. Materials and Methods: For that reason, we used six healthy non pregnant non lactating Holestein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design. Those cows divided into two groups to receive IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. For IVRA, 20 ml procaine without epinephrine was injected into the vein digitalis dorsalis communis III and for our modified four-point NBA, 10-15 ml procaine without epinephrine preneurally to the nerves, superficial and deep peroneal as well as lateral and medial branches of metatarsal nerves. For pain stimulation, electrical stimulator Grass S48 was applied. Results: The results of electrical stimuli revealed the faster onset of full local anesthesia (p < 0.05) by application of our modified NBA in comparison to IVRA about 10 minutes. Conclusion and discussion: Despite of available references showing faster onset of foot local anesthesia of IVRA, our study demonstrated that our modified four point NBA not only can be well known as a standard foot local anesthesia method applicable to desensitize the hind limb of dairy cows, but also, selection of this modified validated local anesthesia method can lead to have a faster start of complete desensitization of distal hind limb that is remarkable in any bovine limb interventions under time constraint.
Effects of Robot-Assisted Hand Training on Upper Extremity Performance in Patients with Stroke: A Randomized Crossover Controlled, Assessor-Blinded Study
Background: Upper extremity functional impairment that occurs after stroke includes hemiplegia, synergy movement, muscle hypertonicity, and somatosensory impairment, which result in inefficient and inaccurate movement. Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an intensive training approach that is effective in sensorimotor and hand function recovery. However, these systems mostly focused on the proximal part of the upper limb rather than the distal part. The device used in our study was Gloreha Sinfonia, which focuses on the distal part of the upper limb and uses a dynamic support system to facilitate the whole limb function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) with Gloreha device on sensorimotor, and ADLs in patients with stroke. Method: Patients with stroke (N=25) participated AB or BA (A = 12 RT sessions and B = 12 conventional therapy (CT) sessions) for 6 weeks (60 min at each session, twice a week), with 1-month break for washout period. The performance of the patients was assessed by a blinded assessor at 4 time points (pretest 1, posttest 1, pretest 2, posttest 2) which including the Fugl–Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE), box and block test, electromyography of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and brachioradialis, a grip dynamometer for motor evaluation; Semmes–Weinstein hand monofilament and Revision of the Nottingham Sensory Assessment for sensory evaluation; and the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) for assessing the ADL ability. Result: RT group significantly improved FMA-UE proximal scores (p = 0.038), FMA-UE total scores (p = 0.046), and MBI (p = 0.030). The EDC exhibited higher efficiency during the small block grasping task in the RT group than in the CT group (p = 0.050). Conclusions: RT with the Gloreha device might lead to beneficial effects on arm motor function, ADL ability, and EDC muscle recruitment efficacy in patients with subacute to chronic stroke.
The Effects on Hand Function with Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study
Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) usually suffered from mild to maximum upper limb dysfunction such as having difficulty in reaching and picking up objects, which profoundly affects their participation in activities of daily living (ADLs). Robot-assisted rehabilitation provides intensive physical training in improving sensorimotor function of the hand. Many researchers have extensively studied the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) for the paretic upper limb in patients with stroke in recent years. However, few studies have examined the effect of RT on hand function in children with CP. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Gloreha Sinfonia, a robotic device with a dynamic arm support system mainly focus on distal upper-limb training, on improvements of hand function and ADLs in children with CP. Methods: Seven children with moderate CP were recruited in this case series study. RT using Gloreha Sinfonia was performed 2 sessions per week, 60 min per session for 6 consecutive weeks, with 12 times in total. Outcome measures included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE), the Box and Block Test, the electromyography activity of the extensor digitorum communis muscle (EDC) and brachioradialis (BR), a grip dynamometer for motor evaluation, and the ABILHAND-Kids for measuring manual ability to manage daily activities, were performed at baseline, after 12 sessions (end of treatment) and at the 1-month follow-up. Results: After 6 weeks of robot-assisted treatment of hand function, there were significant increases in FMA-UE shoulder/elbow scores (p=0.002), FMA-UE wrist/hand scores (p=0.002), and FMA-UE total scores (p=0.002). There were also significant improvements in the BR mean value (p = 0.015) and electrical agonist-antagonist muscle ratio (p=0.041) in grasping a 1-inch cube task. These gains were maintained for a month after the end of the intervention. Conclusion: RT using Gloreha Sinfonia for hand function training may contribute toward the improvement of upper extremity function and efficacy in recruiting BR muscle in children with CP. The results were maintained at one month after intervention.
The Renewed Constitutional Roots of Agricultural Law in Hungary in Line with Sustainability
The study analyzes the special provisions of the highest level of national agricultural legislation in the Fundamental Law of Hungary (25 April 2011) with descriptive, analytic and comparative methods. The agriculturally relevant articles of the constitution are very important, because –in spite of their high level of abstraction– they can determine and serve the practice comprehensively and effectively. That is why the objective of the research is to interpret the concrete sentences and phrases in connection with agriculture compared with the methods of some other relevant constitutions (historical-grammatical interpretation). The major findings of the study focus on searching for the appropriate provisions and approach capable of solving the problems of sustainable food production. The real challenge agricultural law must face with in the future is protecting or conserving its background and subjects: the environment, the ecosystem services and all the 'roots' of food production. In effect, agricultural law is the legal aspect of the production of 'our daily bread' from farm to table. However, it also must guarantee the safe daily food for our children and for all our descendants. In connection with sustainability, this unique, value-oriented constitution of an agrarian country even deals with uncustomary questions in this level of legislation like GMOs (by banning the production of genetically modified crops). The starting point is that the principle of public good (principium boni communis) must be the leading notion of the norm, which is an idea partly outside the law. The public interest is reflected by the agricultural law mainly in the concept of public health (in connection with food security) and the security of supply with healthy food. The construed Article P claims the general protection of our natural resources as a requirement. The enumeration of the specific natural resources 'which all form part of the common national heritage' also means the conservation of the grounds of sustainable agriculture. The reference of the arable land represents the subfield of law of the protection of land (and soil conservation), that of the water resources represents the subfield of water protection, the reference of forests and the biological diversity visualize the specialty of nature conservation, which is an essential support for agrobiodiversity. The mentioned protected objects constituting the nation's common heritage metonymically melt with their protective regimes, strengthening them and forming constitutional references of law. This regimes also mean the protection of the natural foundations of the life of the living and also the future generations, in the name of intra- and intergenerational equity.
Antioxidant Activity of Some Important Indigenous Plant Foods of the North Eastern Region of India
Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or delay oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by reactive oxygen species. These help in lowering incidence of degenerative diseases such as cancer, arthritis, atherosclerosis, heart disease, inflammation, brain dysfunction and acceleration of the ageing process. The north eastern part of India falls among the global hotspots of biodiversity. Over the years, the local communities in the region have developed ingenious uses of many wild plants within their environment as food sources. Many of these less familiar foods form an integral part of the diet of these communities, and some are traditionally valued for its therapeutic effects. So the study was carried to estimate the antioxidant activity of some of these indigenous foods. Twenty-eight indigenous plant foods were studied for their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities were determined by using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assay and SOSA (Super Oxide Scavenging Assay). Out of the twenty-eight plant foods, there were thirteen leafy vegetables, four fruits, five roots and tubers, four spices and two mushrooms. Water extract and methanol extract of the samples were used for the analysis. The leafy vegetable samples exhibited antioxidant capacity with IC50 ranging from 8-1414 mg/ml for lipid extract and 34-37878 mg/ml for aqueous extract in DPPH assay. Total FRAP value ranging from 58-1005 mmol FeSO4 Eq/100g of the sample, which is comparatively higher than the antioxidant capacity of some commonly consumed leafy vegetables. In SOSA, water extract of leafy vegetables show a range of 0.05-193.68 µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g of the samples. While the methanol extract of the samples show 0.20-21.94 µmol Trolox equivalent/g of the samples. Polygonum barbatum, Wendlandia glabrata and Polygonum posumbu have higher antioxidant activity among the leafy vegetables analysed. Among the fruits, Rhus hookerii showed the highest antioxidant activities in both FRAP and SOSA methods while Spondias magnifera exhibited higher antioxidant activity in DPPH method. Alocasia cucullata exhibited higher antioxidant activity in DPPH and FRAP assays while Alpinia galanga showed higher antioxidant activity in SOSA assay when compared to the other samples of roots and tubers. Elsholtzia communis showed high antioxidant activity in all the three parameters among the spices. For the mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited higher antioxidant activity than Auricularia delicate in DPPH and SOSA. The samples analysed exhibited antioxidant activity at varying levels and some exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the commonly consumed foods. So consumption of these less familiar foods may play a role in preventing human disease in which free radicals are involved. Further studies on these food samples on phytonutrients and its contribution to the antioxidant activities are required.
Baseline Data for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Cole Crops
The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an agricultural important pest species. S. litura has a wide host range of approximately recorded 150 plant species worldwide. In Punjab, this pest attains sporadic status primarily on cauliflower, Brassica oleracea (L.). This pest destroys vegetable crop and particularly prefers the cruciferae family. However, it is also observed feeding on other crops such as arbi, Colocasia esculenta (L.), mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.), sunflower, Helianthus annuus (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), castor, Ricinus communis (L.), etc. Larvae of this pest completely devour the leaves of infested plant resulting in huge crop losses which ranges from 50 to 70 per cent. Indiscriminate and continuous use of insecticides has contributed in development of insecticide resistance in insects and caused the environmental degradation as well. Moreover, a base line data regarding the toxicity of the newer insecticides would help in understanding the level of resistance developed in this pest and any possible cross-resistance there in, which could be assessed in advance. Therefore, present studies on development of resistance in S. litura against four new chemistry insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) were carried out in the Toxicology laboratory, Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India during the year 2011-12. Various stages of S. litura (eggs, larvae) were collected from four different locations (Malerkotla, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar and Samrala) of Punjab. Resistance is developed in third instars of lepidopterous pests. Therefore, larval bioassays were conducted to estimate the response of field populations of thirty third-instar larvae of S. litura under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 65±5 per cent relative humidity. Leaf dip bioassay technique with diluted insecticide formulations recommended by Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was performed in the laboratory with seven to ten treatments depending on the insecticide class, respectively. LC50 values were estimated by probit analysis after correction to record control mortality data which was used to calculate the resistance ratios (RR). The LC50 values worked out for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, spinosad are 0.081, 0.088, 0.380, 4.00 parts per million (ppm) against pest populations collected from Malerkotla; 0.051, 0.060, 0.250, 3.00 (ppm) of Amritsar; 0.002, 0.001, 0.0076, 0.10 ppm for Samrala and 0.000014, 0.00001, 0.00056, 0.003 ppm against pest population of Hoshiarpur, respectively. The LC50 values for populations collected from these four locations were in the order Malerkotla>Amritsar>Samrala>Hoshiarpur for the insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) tested. Based on LC50 values obtained, emamectin benzoate (0.000014 ppm) was found to be the most toxic among all the tested populations, followed by chlorantraniliprole (0.00001 ppm), indoxacarb (0.00056 ppm) and spinosad (0.003 ppm), respectively. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC50 values indicated that there was lack of cross resistance for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, indoxacarb in populations of S. litura from Punjab. These insecticides may prove to be promising substitutes for the effective control of insecticide resistant populations of S. litura in Punjab state, India.