Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66741

200
103030
Validating the Theme Park Service Quality Scale: A Case Study of Zhuhai Chimelong Ocean Kingdom
Abstract:
The development of theme parks in China has been through a rapid growth in the past decades. Increasing competition within service quality has forced theme park managers concerned the relationship between service quality and visitors’ satisfaction. Even though those existing service quality measurements such as SERVQUAL and THEMEQUAL have been applied in related researches, none of them is exclusive for Chinese theme park service quality. This study aims to investigate the service quality of the most popular theme park in China currently and develop a unique, reliable and valid scale. The reliability and validity analysis results from a survey of over 200 tourists in Chimelong ocean kingdom in Zhuhai city, south of China, indicate that the dimension of waiting time is a discover factor in the measurement of Chinese theme park service quality excluding in the THEMEQUAL instrument (i.e., tangibles, reliability, responsiveness and access, assurance, empathy and courtesy). The newly developed scale gives a better understand service quality in Chinese theme park industry, and the managerial implications in regard to the research, how to improve theme park service quality are discussed.
199
51201
Appraising the Need to Improve Sumu Wildlife Park Bauchi, North-Eastern Nigeria to International Standard
Abstract:
Wildlife Park stands a chance of contributing to tourism development in different ways, but available infrastructure, and facilities required by visitors when they arrive, access road to the destination, and resources to facilitate positive experience are lacking in certain areas. The study set out to find out the need to develop Sumu Wildlife Park Bauchi State, to an international standard. The study focused on identifying the existing facilities and infrastructure at the park and to further identify the available resources used by visitors. In attempt to find out the impact of developing Sumu Wildlife Park and ways of filling the gap of the actual standard data were obtained from fifteen administrative staff of Sumu Wildlife Park, ten staff of Bauchi state Tourism Board and twenty-five residents of the community in Kafin Madaki, Bauchi. Relevant literature were reviewed in the study; data collected were organized and analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS), software for analysis. Findings revealed that though Sumu Wildlife Park has attractions to keep visitors patronage but has insufficient facilities to maintain visitors and has not been developed to an expected standard. The problem faced by the management of Sumu wildlife Park is lack of adequate facilities, infrastructure and resources. The need to develop Sumu Wildlife Park has enormous benefits in increasing patronage. Provision of more funds would help improve standard as there would be more activities within and around the park. Regular maintenance of those facilities protects the life span of the park.
198
109560
Economic Valuation of Environmental Services Sustained by Flamboyant Park in Goiania-Go, Brazil
Abstract:
This study aims to estimate the economic value environmental services sustained by Flamboyant Lourival Louza Municipal Park in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The Flamboyant Park is one of the most relevant urban parks, and it is located near a stadium, a shopping center, and two supercenters. In order to define the methods used for the valuation of Flamboyant Park, the first step was carrying out bibliographical research with the view to better understand which method is most feasible to valuate the Park. Thus, the following direct methods were selected: travel cost, hedonic pricing, and contingent valuation. In addition, an indirect method (replacement cost) was applied at Flamboyant Park. The second step was creating and applying two surveys. The first survey aimed at the visitors of the park, addressing socio-economic issues, the use of the Park, as well as its importance and the willingness the visitors, had to pay for its existence. The second survey was destined to the existing trade in the Park, in order to collect data regarding the profits obtained by them. In the end, the characterization of the profile of the visitors and the application of the methods of contingent valuation, travel cost, replacement cost and hedonic pricing were obtained, thus monetarily valuing the various ecosystem services sustained by the park. Some services were not valued due to difficulties encountered during the process.
197
3638
A Descriptive Preference Analysis on Waterfront Parks Neighboring Lake Shihwa
Abstract:
Nowadays, as the ecology of Lake Shihwa has been restored significantly, the urban development is in progress around Lake Shihwa areas. Each development project includes a plan on utilizing waterfront areas, but there exist a difference on waterfront design criteria between experts and users. Therefore, it is significant to analyze preferences in design elements of existing waterfront parks around Lake Shihwa (Ansan Waterfront Park, Shihwa Reed Wetland Park, and T-Light Park) based on users’ perspectives and to reflect the result on upcoming waterfront developments. This study derives design elements on waterfront parks from literature reviews. The survey questionnaires are created based on these classified elements and the surveys are conducted to experts and users with in-depth interviews. For all three parks, several park facilities appear to be not recognized by users. Therefore, the circulation path should be introduced in guide maps and information activities and furthermore in disposition of park facilities.
196
107072
Evaluation of Japanese Kyoto Park in Terms of User Satisfaction
Abstract:
The need for open space, which is an important problem especially since the 19th century, has become more important in today's conditions. The most important factor in increasing the livability of cities is the open and green areas. Parks are the most important of the urban open and green space elements that provide the most benefit to users. In this context, the user satisfaction of the Japanese Kyoto Park, which is the subject of the research, was evaluated in the light of the questionnaires. With this analysis, the satisfaction level of the user using the park was determined. Suggestions have been developed for the park to be handled and regulated according to the user requests and requirements changing over time.
195
97502
Enhance Customer Experience through Sustainable Development: The Case of a Natural Park
Abstract:
This article aims to better understand how a natural park, with a touristic vocation, can benefit from its sustainable development approach to enhance the customer experience. For this aim, we analyze, on the one hand, the interactions between the different stakeholders in this sustainable tourism offer, their ways of cooperating to build this offer and, on the other hand, the perceptions of customers. To serve this purpose, two complementary qualitative methodologies have been conducted. As part of a systemic approach, a first study, through group discussions, was conducted with three categories of participants: (I) customers, (II) representatives of the park, communities, tourism offices and associations and 3-service providers in the park. For the second study, semi-directive interviews were realized with park managers and customers. Two levels of contributions have been found. First, we have demonstrated the value of a systemic approach to understanding sustainable tourism. Then, we developed, in the empirical part, a model of causal loops that allowed us to identify the various factors of the offer that decided potential tourists to visit the park and their impact on customer experience. The complementarity of this approach with semi-directive interviews with all the stakeholders enabled us to issue recommendations to improve the customer experience.
194
73565
A Study on the Strategy of Pocket Park in the Renewal of Old City in China
Authors:
Abstract:
In recent years, the tendency that the decline of material and social vitality of old city in China becomes more and more serious. Nowadays, transformation and renewal of the old city have become a hot topic in urban research. The traditional mode of large-scale promotion has been criticized. Thus, exploration of new ways to update the city turns to be a necessity on the way of sustainable urban development. Pocket Park is a small city open space, its location choose is based on abandoned or idle lands on urban structure, is scattered or hidden in corner of the urban. It has a great significance on improving the old city environment. Based on the theory of ‘pocket park’, this paper summarizes the successful experience of domestic and foreign practice, and discusses the update strategies which are suitable for China's national conditions according to the characteristics and predicament of the old city in China. The main methods and results are as follows: 1)Based on the conception of ‘pocket park’, though describing the research status in domestic and foreign, summarizing the experience which is worth learning and existing problems. 2) From the analysis of ‘pocket park’ function, general design principles and types of the deep-seated difficulties in renewal the old city and the possibility of the application of ‘pocket park’,the varied implementation of ‘pocket park’ form are established, and application value in the old city renewal are summed up. 3) It can’t be denied that pocket park plays an irreplaceable role in solving the recession and renewing the vitality of the old city. Anymore, It is recommended to develop corresponding supportive development policies.
193
43951
The Tourism Management: The Case of Kingdom of Cambodia
Abstract:
The purpose of this study are (1) development plan and management strategy of Virachey Natioanl Park, (2) to study stakeholders’ perception on tourism development for sustainable tourism planning and management. The data was collected through 28 sets of questionnaires with the total population of international visitors who were interested in Ecotourism in northeast Cambodia and traveled to Virachey National Park. The SPSS programme was used to analyze the level of visitors’ satisfaction and perception on tourism development. The results of the study indicated that moderate potentiality to be developed as tourist attraction for sustainable tourism development in the park. The components with moderate potential are physical condition, management, activities and process of natural and cultural tourism, and organization and participation of the local community. The study also found that most local communities satisfy with tourism development in the park as well as in their community.
192
24561
CFD Simulations to Study the Cooling Effects of Different Greening Modifications
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to conduct computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for evaluating the cooling efficacy from vegetation implanted in a public park in the Taipei, Taiwan. To probe the impacts of park renewal by means of adding three pavilions and supplementary green areas on urban microclimates, the simulated results have revealed that the park having a higher percentage of green coverage ratio (GCR) tended to experience a better cooling effect. These findings can be used to explore the effects of different greening modifications on urban environments for achieving an effective thermal comfort in urban public spaces.
191
2852
Eco-Friendly Cleansers Initiation for Eco-Campsite Development in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand
Abstract:
Environmental impact has occurred at Khao Yai National Park, especially the water pollution by tourist activities as a result of 800,000 tourists visiting annually. To develop an eco-campsite, eco-friendly cleansers were implemented in Lam Ta Khlong and Pha Kluay Mai Campsites for tourists and restaurants. The results indicated the positive effects of environmentally friendly cleansers on water quality in Lam Ta Khlong River and can be implemented in other protected areas to decrease chemical contamination in ecosystems.
190
65619
Profile Analysis and Experiences on the Tourism of Jalapao State Park, Tocantins, Brazil
Abstract:
The State Park Jalapao - PEJ proved to be one of the protected areas that has attracted tourists from all over the world with its unique scenic landscapes. Although the region already has a considerable tourist flow, to our knowledge there is a lack of continuity of studies in the region capable of drawing a plan of activities, such as the profile of the tourist and analysis of their experiences in the region, carried out from 2006-2007. Therefore, this study was proposed to know the profile and experiences of tourists visiting the park today, making a connection with the earlier study, in order to generate subsidies to trace improvement actions. We conducted interviews with tourists in the main tourism season 2015. The results show that after eight years of carrying out the first study, there were no changes, highlighting the lack of a tourism plan for the park.
189
21445
Numerical Modeling of the Depth-Averaged Flow over a Hill
Abstract:
This paper reports the development and application of a 2D depth-averaged model. The main goal of this contribution is to apply the depth averaged equations to a wind park model in which the treatment of the geometry, introduced on the mathematical model by the mass and momentum source terms. The depth-averaged model will be used in future to find the optimal position of wind turbines in the wind park. K-E and 2D LES turbulence models were consider in this article. 2D CFD simulations for one hill was done to check the depth-averaged model in practise.
188
49345
A Contested Territory in a Sacralized Landscape: The Fight of the Gich Community over Semien Mountains National Park
Abstract:
Local community involvement is widely considered vital for the sustainability of heritage management. Yet, it is often the case that heritage-related projects lag behind in community involvement. In the Semien Mountains the creation, first, and expansion, later, of the National Park has led to several conflicts with the local communities that for centuries have inhabited the area. Local communities have only been passive actors in the plans to expand the Park set up by UNESCO and by local decision makers. This paper investigates the causes that led the Gich community, one of the communities affected by the Park’s expansion, to refuse the resettlement plan offered by the authorities. Qualitative research methods were employed, including document analysis, community conference and interview of informants. The paper shows that although the local community of Gich was highly attached to the Park’s heritage assets, their level of involvement in the heritage management was very low due to shortcomings in the design and implementation of official policies. Therefore, their attitude towards the Park’s managers has been until the present one of mistrust and opposition. The paper recommends to policy-makers a series of measures more sensitive towards local communities, such as that the development agencies act as true communication facilitators and regional authorities nurture sincere relationships with the locals.
187
8630
Theme Park Investments: How to Beat the Average: A Case Study from the Netherlands
Abstract:
European theme parks invest approximately 10 percent of their yearly turnover into new rides and park improvements. Without these investments these parks assume not to be a very competitive and appealing daytrip for their target audiences. However, the impact of investments in attracting new visitors is not well-known and seems to differ dramatically between parks. This paper presents a case study from the Netherlands in which a small amusement park applied a suggested, not yet proven, investment method. The results of the investment are discussed in (a) the form of return on investment and (b) the success of the predictions with regard to this investment. Suggestions for future research are presented.
186
29239
Physical Habitat Simulation and Comparison within a Lerma River Reach, with Respect to the Same but Modified Reach, to Create a Linear Park
Abstract:
In this work, the Ictalurus punctatus species estimated available physical habitat is compared with the estimated physical habitat for the same but modified river reach, with the aim of creating a linear park, along a length of 5 500 m. To determine the effect of ecological park construction, on physical habitat of the Lerma river stretch of study, first, the available habitat for the Ictalurus punctatus species was estimated through the simulation of the physical habitat, by using surveying, hydraulics, and habitat information gotten at the river reach in its actual situation. Second, it was estimated the available habitat for the above species, upon the simulation of the physical habitat through the proposed modification for the ecological park creation. Third, it is presented a comparison between both scenarios in terms of available habitat estimated for Ictalurus punctatus species, concluding that in cases of adult and spawning life stages, changes in the channel to create an ecological park would produce a considerable loss of potentially usable habitat (PUH), while in the case of the juvenile life stage PUH remains virtually unchanged, and in the case of life stage fry the PUH would increase due to the presence of velocities and depths of lesser magnitude, due to the presence of minor flow rates and lower volume of the wet channel. It is expected that habitat modification for linear park construction may produce the lack of Ictalurus punktatus species conservation at the river reach of the study.
185
37478
Revisiting Ecotourism Development Strategy of Cuc Phuong National Park in Vietnam: Considering Residents’ Perception and Attitudes
Authors:
Abstract:
Ecotourism in national parks seemed to be one of the options in the conservation of the natural resources and to improve the living condition of local communities. However, ecotourism development will be useless if it lacks the perception and support of local communities and appropriate ecotourism strategies. The aims of this study were to measure residents’ perception and satisfaction towards ecotourism impacts and their attitudes for ecotourism development in Cuc Phuong National Park; to assess the current ecotourism strategies based on ecotourism criteria and then to provide recommendations on ecotourism development strategies. The primary data were collected through personal observations, in-depth interviews with residents and national park staffs, and from surveys on households in all of the five communes in the Cuc Phuong National Park. The results depicted that local communities were aware of ecotourism impacts and had positive attitudes toward ecotourism development, and were satisfied of ecotourism development. However, higher perception rate was found on specific groups such as the young, the high income and educated, and those with jobs related to ecotourism. The study revealed the issues of concerns about the current ecotourism development strategies in Cuc Phuong National Park. The major hindrances for ecotourism development were lack of local participation and unattractive ecotourism services. It was also suggested that Cuc Phuong National Park should use ecotourism criteria to implement ecotourism activities sustainably and to harmonize the sharing of benefits amongst the stakeholders. The approaches proposed were to: create local employment through reengineering, improve the ecotourism quality, appropriate tourism benefits to the stakeholders, and carry out education and training programs. Furthermore, the results of the study helped tour operators and tourism promoters aware the real concerns, issues on current ecotourism activities in Cuc Phuong National Park.
184
28166
Thematic Redesign of “Nah Al Balaghe” Riverside Park: Constructing the First Cultural Tourism Center in City of Tehran
Abstract:
After Two years of operation, the “Nahj Al Balaghe” riverside park, redesigning research was ordered by second region of Tehran municipality, the goal was to construct the first cultural tourism center in city of Tehran. After Pathological and analytical studies of existing situation, that made by field work research’s and interviews, the main problems was identified as lack of thematic design and some physical problems that reduced the activity and livability ratio of the park. The main approach of this project was thematic physical redesign and redefinition of activities in order to the “Nahj Al Balaghe’s” ideas, cultural days in “shamsi calendar”, the “7 artistic dimensions” and “four classical elements”. This paper is the abstraction of a full research that was done by writers.
183
65013
Applying Big Data to Understand Urban Design Quality: The Correlation between Social Activities and Automated Pedestrian Counts in Dilworth Park, Philadelphia
Authors:
Abstract:
Presence of people and intensity of activities have been widely accepted as an indicator for successful public spaces in urban design literature. This study attempts to predict the qualitative indicators, presence of people and intensity of activities, with the quantitative measurements of pedestrian counting. We conducted participant observation in Dilworth Park, Philadelphia to collect the total number of people and activities in the park. Then, the participant observation data is compared with detailed pedestrian counts at 10 exit locations to estimate the number of park users. The study found that there is a clear correlation between the intensity of social activities and automated pedestrian counts.
182
130957
Knowledge Integration from Concept to Practice: An Exploratory Study of Designing a Flood Resilient Urban Park in Viet Nam
Abstract:
Urban centres worldwide are affected differently by flooding. In Vietnam this impact is increasingly negative caused by a process of rapid urbanisation. Traditional spatial planning and flood mitigation planning are not able to deal with this growing threat. This article therefore proposes to focus on increasing the participation of local communities in flood control and management. It explores, on the basis of a design studio exercise, how lay knowledge on flooding can be integrated within planning processes. The article presents a theoretical basis for the structured criterion for site selection for a flood resilient urban park from the perspective of science, then discloses the tacit and explicit knowledge of the flood-prone area and finally integrates this knowledge into the design strategies for flood resilient urban park design.
181
110261
Professional Management on Ecotourism and Conservation to Ensure the Future of Komodo National Park
Abstract:
Komodo National Park can be associated with the implementation of ecotourism program. The result of Principal Components Analysis is synthesized, tested, and compared to the basic concept of ecotourism with some field adjustments. Principal aspects of professional management should involve ecotourism and wildlife welfare. The awareness should be focused on the future of the Natural Park as 7th Wonder Natural Heritage and its wildlife components, free from human wastes and beneficial to wildlife and local people. According to perceptions and expectations of visitors from various results of tourism programs, the visitor’s perceptions showed that the tourism management in Komodo National Park should pay more attention to visitor's satisfaction and expectation and gives positive impact directly to the ecosystem sustainability, local community and transparency to the conservation program.
180
133303
Research on the Evaluation and Delineation of Value Units of New Industrial Parks Based on Implementation-Orientation
Abstract:
At present, much attention is paid to the development of new industrial parks in the era of inventory planning. Generally speaking, there are two types of development models: incremental development models and stock development models. The former relies on key projects to build a value innovation park, and the latter relies on the iterative update of the park to build a value innovation park. Take the Baiyun Western Digital Park as an example, considering the growth model of value units, determine the evaluation target. Based on a GIS platform, comprehensive land-use status, regulatory detailed planning, land use planning, blue-green ecological base, rail transit system, road network system, industrial park distribution, public service facilities, and other factors are used to carry out the land use within the planning multi-factor superimposed comprehensive evaluation, constructing a value unit evaluation system, and delineating value units based on implementation orientation and combining two different development models. The research hopes to provide a reference for the planning and construction of new domestic industrial parks.
179
67561
Seasons and Saproxylic Beetles Biodiversity in an Urban Park in Tunisia
Abstract:
Forest ecosystems are known for its ability to contain a large diversity of fauna especially insects that represent a huge taxonomic group. A portion of forest insects are recognized as saproxylic including the group of organisms that ‘depend on dead or dying wood’ about them, 20% are beetles. We focused our study on saproxylic beetles in an old urban park ‘the park of Belvedere’, located in the north west of Tunis (36° 49'21’ N 10°10'24’ W). The vegetation is dominated by old trees (Eucalyptus, Olea, Aberia, Pinus) and many fallen wood exist. Saproxylic beetles were collected using three interception traps set in the park over one year (from June 2014 to May 2015) and recovered monthly. In total, we collected 189 beetles belonging to 20 families and 57 species. Several saproxylic families (Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Melyridae, Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae), and well known genus (Rhizopertha, Thrychoplerus, Otiorhychus, Dolichosoma, Epuraea, Anotylus) are recorded. We have retained the largest activity of beetles in spring and a very low richness in winter with zero insect per traps. This result was certainly caused by the variation of meteorological factors that mainly influenced the activity of these organisms. Therefore, we were interested on the saproxylic diversity in an urban ‘forest’, and these results will be more interesting when they are compared in the future with other works from natural forest.
178
28203
Human-Tiger Conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal
Abstract:
Human-tiger conflicts are serious issues of conflicts between local people and park authority and the conflicting situation potentially play negative role in park management. The study aimed (1) To determine the trend and nature of human-tiger conflicts (2) To understand people's perception and mitigation measures towards tiger conservation. Both primary and secondary information were used to determine human- tiger conflicts in Chitwan National Park. Systematic random sampling with 5% intensity was done to collect the perception of the villagers regarding human-tiger conflicts. The study sites were selected based on frequencies of incidences of human attacks and livestock depredation viz. Rajahar and Ayodhyapuri VDCs respectively. The trend of human casualties by tiger has increased in last five year whereas the trend of livestock has decreased. Reportedly, between 2008 and 2012, tigers killed 22 people, injured 10 and killed at least 213 livestock. Conflict was less common in the park and more intense in the sub-optimal habitats of Buffer Zone. Goat was the most vulnerable livestock followed by cattle. The livestock grazing and human intrusion into tiger habitat were the causes of conflicts. Developing local stewardship and support for tiger conservation, livestock insurance, and compensation policy simplification may help reduce human-tiger conflicts.
177
13788
Does the Perceived Value of a National Park Increases Visitor Satisfaction and Loyalty?
Abstract:
This study focused on tourist subjects who have experience visiting national parks in Korea. The reason for selecting national parks as the subject of this study was that many Koreans visit national parks on weekends, and their visits continue even as changes are made to the parks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate what type of value perceived by tourists who visit national parks positively influences their satisfaction. Concurrently, the relationship between satisfaction and future behavioral intention was also examined. The understanding and analysis of this relationship is very important for the success of destination tourism development. This analysis can contribute to the creation of a marketing strategy that will induce tourists to stay longer, revisit, and recommend a national park to others. If national park administrators fully utilize the study results, they will be able to increase the number of visitors to their national parks. Furthermore, the results of this study will contribute to the development of Korean national parks as a tourist destination.
176
102903
Preliminary Study of Medicinal Plants in Phu Langka National Park, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand
Abstract:
Phu Langka National Park is located in Nakhon Phanom Province, the Northeast of Thailand. It contains about 50 km2 of one mountain and three types of forest including deciduous dipterocarp, mixed deciduous and dry evergreen forests. It was interesting area because of that there were some local ethnic groups living around the national park and most people use plants in this area for their life. The objective of this research is to preliminary survey of the use of medicinal plants from this area by local ethnic groups living around the national park. Colour photographs of each species were prepared. In addition, ecology, distribution in the study area, utilization and vernacular names were provided. The result showed that sixteen species of medicinal plant species were found and most plants were used for digestive system and wound. The voucher specimens were deposited in the Forest Herbarium, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation (BKF), Thailand.
175
26539
The Gezi Park Protests in the Columns
Abstract:
The Gezi Park protests of 2013 have significantly changed the Turkish agenda and its effects have been felt historically. The protests, which rapidly spread throughout the country, were triggered by the proposal to recreate the Ottoman Army Barracks to function as a shopping mall on Gezi Park located in Istanbul’s Taksim neighbourhood despite the oppositions of several NGOs and when trees were cut in the park for this purpose. Once the news that construction vehicles entered the park on May 27 spread on social media, activists moved into the park to stop the demolition, against whom the police used disproportioned force. With this police intervention and the then prime-minister Tayyip Erdoğan's insistent statements about the construction plans, the protests turned into anti-government demonstrations, which then spread to the rest of the country, mainly in big cities like Ankara and Izmir. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ June 23rd reports, 2.5 million people joined the demonstrations in 79 provinces, that is all of them, except for the provinces of Bayburt and Bingöl, while even more people shared their opinions via social networks. As a result of these events, 8 civilians and 2 security personnel lost their lives, namely police chief Mustafa Sarı, police officer Ahmet Küçükdağ, citizens Mehmet Ayvalıtaş, Abdullah Cömert, Ethem Sarısülük, Ali İsmail Korkmaz, Ahmet Atakan, Berkin Elvan, Burak Can Karamanoğlu, Mehmet İstif, and Elif Çermik, and 8163 more were injured. Besides being a turning point in Turkish history, the Gezi Park protests also had broad repercussions in both in Turkish and in global media, which focused on Turkey throughout the events. Our study conducts content analysis of three Turkish reporting newspapers with varying ideological standpoints, Hürriyet, Cumhuriyet ve Yeni Şafak, in order to reveal their basic approach to columns casting in context of the Gezi Park protests. Columns content relating to the Gezi protests were treated and analysed for this purpose. The aim of this study is to understand the social effects of the Gezi Park protests through media samples with varying political attitudes towards news casting.
174
6231
A Structural Equation Model of Risk Perception of Rockfall for Revisit Intention
Abstract:
The study aims to explore the relationship between risk perceptions of rockfall and revisit intention using a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis. A total of 573 valid questionnaires are collected from travelers to Taroko National Park, Taiwan. The findings show the majority of travellers have the medium perception of rockfall risk, and are willing to revisit the Taroko National Park. The revisit intention to Taroko National Park is influenced by hazardous preferences, willingness-to-pay, obstruction and attraction. The risk perception has an indirect effect on revisit intention through influencing willingness-to-pay. The study results can be a reference for mitigation the rockfall disaster.
173
122651
Microthermometry of Carbonated Rocks of the Hondita-Lomagorda Formations, the Tiger Cave Sector, Municipality of Yaguara, Colombia
Abstract:
Colombia's limited oil reserves make the finding of new fields of extraction or the potentiate of the existing ones a more important task to do every day; the exploration projects that allow to have a better knowledge of the oil basins are essential. The upper Magdalena Valley basin - VSM, whose reserves are limited, has been one of the first basins for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons in Colombia. The Hondita and Lomagorda formations were deposited in the Late Cretaceous Middle Albian to the Coniacian and are characterized by being the hydrocarbon-generating rocks in the VSM basin oil system along with the Shale de Bambucá; therefore multiple studies have been made. In the oil industry, geochemical properties are used to understand the origin, migration, accumulation, and alteration of hydrocarbons and, in general, the evolution of the basin containing them. One of the most important parameters to understand this evolution is the formation temperature of the oil system. For this reason, a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions was carried out to recognize formation temperatures and to determine certain basic physicochemical variables, homogenization temperature, pressure, density and salinity of the fluid at the time of entrapment, providing evidence on the history of different events in different geological environments in the evolution of a sedimentary basin. Prior to this study, macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analyses of the samples collected in the field were performed. The results of the mentioned properties of the fluid inclusions in the different samples analyzed have salinities ranging from 20.22% to 26.37% eq. by weight NaCl, similar densities found in the ranges of 1.05 to 1.16 g/cc and an average homogenization temperature at 142.92°C, indicating that, at the time of their entanglement, the rock was in the window of generation of medium hydrocarbons –light with fragile characteristics of the rock that would make it useful to treat them as naturally fractured reservoirs.
172
36241
The Exploration of Sustainable Landscape in Iran: From Persian Garden to Modern Park
Abstract:
This paper concentrates on the result of research based on studies on parameters of sustainability in Persian Garden design as a traditional Iranian landscape and in a contemporary park, Jamshidieh in Iran as a new experience of re-creation of Persian Gardens’ sustainable design. Since, sustainable development has three parts: social, economic and environmental. The complexities of each part are too great to discuss in a paper of this length, thus the authors decided to analyze the design of Persian garden by considering their environmental sustainability. By the analysis of sustainable features and characteristics of traditional gardens, and exploration of parameters of sustainability in Iranian modern landscape, Such as Jamshideh Park, the main objective of this research is to identify the strategies for sustainable landscaping and parameters of creating sustainable green spaces for contemporary cities. The results demonstrate that in Persian Gardens, sustainable parameters such as productive networks and local renewable materials have been used to achieve sustainable development. At the conclusion, guidelines and recommendations for sustainable landscaping are presented.
171
92239
Research on the Planning Spatial Mode of China's Overseas Industrial Park
Abstract:
Recently, the government of China has provided strong support the developments of overseas industrial parks. The global distribution of China overseas industrial parks has gradually moved from the 'sparks of fire' to the 'prairie fires.' The support and distribution have promoted developing overseas industrial parks to a strategy of constructing a China's new open economic system and a typical representative of the 'Chinese wisdom' and the 'China's plans' that China has contributed to the globalization of the new era under the initiative of the Belt and Road. As the industrial parks are the basis of 'work/employment', a basic function of a city (Athens Constitution), planning for developments of industrial parks has become a long-term focus of urban planning. Based on the research of the planning and the analysis of the present developments of some typical China overseas industrial parks, we found some interesting rules: First, large numbers of the China overseas industrial parks are located in less developed countries. These industrial parks have become significant drives of the developments of the host cities and even the regions in those countries, especially in investment, employment and paid tax fee for the local, etc. so, the planning and development of overseas industrial parks have received extensive attention. Second, there are some problems in the small part of the overseas Park, such as the planning of the park not following the planning of the host city and lack of implementation of the park planning, etc. These problems have led to the difficulties of the implementation of the planning and the sustainable developments of the parks. Third, a unique pattern of space development has been formed. in the dimension of the patterns of regional spatial distribution, there are five characteristics - along with the coast, along the river, along with the main traffic lines and hubs, along with the central urban area and along the connections of regions economic. In the dimension of the spatial relationships between the industrial park and the city, there is a growing and evolving trend as 'separation – integration - union'. In the dimension of spatial mode of the industrial parks, there are different patterns of development, such as a specialized industrial park, complex industrial park, characteristic town and new urban area of industry, etc. From the perspective of the trends of the developments and spatial modes, in the future, the planning of China overseas industrial parks should emphasize the idea of 'building a city based on the industrial park'. In other words, it's making the developments of China overseas industrial parks move from 'driven by policy' to 'driven by the functions of the city', accelerating forming the system of China overseas industrial parks and integrating the industrial parks and the cities.
170
82757
Conviviality as a Principle in Natural and Social Realms
Authors:
Abstract:
There exists a challenge of accommodating/integrating people at risk and those from various backgrounds in urban areas. The success of interdependence as a tool for survival largely rests on the mutually beneficial relationships amongst individuals within a given society. One approach to meeting this challenge has been written by Ivan Illich in his book, Tools for Conviviality, where he defines 'conviviality' as interactions that help individuals. With the goal of helping the community and applying conviviality as a principle to actors in both natural and social realms of Moss Park in Toronto, the proposal involves redesigning the park and buildings as a series of different health care, extended learning, employment support, armoury, and recreation facilities that integrate the exterior landscape as treatment, teaching, military, and recreation areas; in other words, the proposal links services with access to park space. While buildings are traditionally known to physically provide shelter, parks embody shelter and act as service, as people often find comfort and relief from being in nature, and Moss Park, in particular, is home to many people at risk. This landscape is not only an important space for the homeless community but also the rest of the neighborhood. The thesis proposes that the federal government rebuilds the current armoury, as it is an obsolete building while acknowledging the extensive future developments proposed by developers and its impact on public space. The neighbourhood is an underserved area, and the new design develops not just a new armoury, but also a complex of interrelated services, which are completely integrated into the park. The armoury is redesigned as an integral component of the community that not only serves as training facilities for reservists but also serves as an emergency shelter in sub-zero temperatures for the homeless community. This paper proposes a new design for Moss Park through examining how 'park buildings', interconnected buildings and parks, can foster empowering relationships that create a supportive public realm.
169
73371
Examination of Woody Taxa in Urban Parks in the Context of Climate Change: Resat Oyal Kulturpark and Hudavendigar Urban Park Samples
Abstract:
Climate change, which has become effective on a global scale, is accompanied by an increase in negative conditions for human, plant and animal life. Especially these negative conditions (drought, warming, glowing, etc.) are felt more rapidly in urban life and affect the sustainability of green areas which are of great importance in terms of life comfort. In this context, the choice of woody taxa used in the design and design of green spaces in the city increase one more time. Within the scope of this study, two of four urban parks located in the city center of Bursa province were selected and evaluated for woody taxa. Urban parks have been identified as the oldest and newest urban park in Bursa, and it has been tried to emphasize the differences that may exist over time. It was determined that 54 woody taxa took place in Resat Oyal Kulturpark and 76 woody taxa in Hudavendigar Urban Park. These taxa have been evaluated in terms of water consumption and ecological tolerances by taking into account climate change, and suggestions have been developed against possible problems.
168
21491
Park’s Vector Approach to Detect an Inter Turn Stator Fault in a Doubly Fed Induction Machine by a Neural Network
Authors:
Abstract:
An electrical machine failure that is not identified in an initial stage may become catastrophic and it may suffer severe damage. Thus, undetected machine faults may cascade in it failure, which in turn may cause production shutdowns. Such shutdowns are costly in terms of lost production time, maintenance costs, and wasted raw materials. Doubly fed induction generators are used mainly for wind energy conversion in MW power plants. This paper presents a detection of an inter turn stator fault in a doubly fed induction machine whose stator and rotor are supplied by two pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The method used in this article to detect this fault, is based on Park’s Vector Approach, using a neural network.
167
92768
Development of a Shape Based Estimation Technology Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Abstract:
The goal of this research is to estimate a structural shape change using terrestrial laser scanning. This study proceeds with development of data reduction and shape change estimation algorithm for large-capacity scan data. The point cloud of scan data was converted to voxel and sampled. Technique of shape estimation is studied to detect changes in structure patterns, such as skyscrapers, bridges, and tunnels based on large point cloud data. The point cloud analysis applies the octree data structure to speed up the post-processing process for change detection. The point cloud data is the relative representative value of shape information, and it used as a model for detecting point cloud changes in a data structure. Shape estimation model is to develop a technology that can detect not only normal but also immediate structural changes in the event of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, and fires, thereby preventing major accidents caused by aging and disasters. The study will be expected to improve the efficiency of structural health monitoring and maintenance.
166
123793
A Novel Multi-Objective Park and Ride Control Scheme Using Renewable Energy Sources: Cairo Case Study
Abstract:
A novel multi-objective park and ride control approach is presented in this research. Park and ride will encourage the owners of the vehicles to leave their cars in the nearest points (on the edges of the crowded cities) and use public transportation facilities (train, bus, metro, or mon-rail) to reach their work inside the crowded city. The proposed control scheme is used to design electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) to charge 1000 electric vehicles (EV) during their owners' work time. Cairo, Egypt is used as a case study. Photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) are used to meet the EVCS demand. Two multi-objective optimization techniques (MOGA and epsilon-MOGA) are utilized to get the optimal sizes of PV and BESS so as to meet the load demand and minimize the total life cycle cost. Detailed analysis and comparison are held to investigate the performance of the proposed control scheme using MATLAB.
165
18701
A Study on Removal of SO3 in Flue Gas Generated from Power Plant
Abstract:
SO3 is created in small quantities during the combustion of fuel that contains sulfur, with the quantity produced a function of the boiler design, fuel sulfur content, excess air level, and the presence of oxidizing agents. Typically, about 1% of the fuel sulfur will be oxidized to SO3, but it can range from 0.5% to 1.5% depending on various factors. Combustion of fuels that contain oxidizing agents, such as certain types of fuel oil or petroleum coke, can result in even higher levels of oxidation. SO3 levels in the flue gas emitted by combustion are very high, which becomes a cause of machinery corrosion or a visible blue plume. Because of that, power plants firing petroleum residues need to installation of SO3 removal system. In this study, SO3 removal system using salt solution was developed and several salts solutions were tested for obtain optimal solution for SO3 removal system. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the operation parameters such as gas-liquid ratio, concentration of salts.
164
48045
Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.
163
28244
Human Pressure Threaten Swayne’s Hartebeest to Point of Local Extinction from the Savannah Plains of Nech Sar National Park, South Rift Valley, Ethiopia
Abstract:
We investigated the population size of the endemic and endangered Swayne’s Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Nech Sar National Park from 2012 to 2014 and document the major threats why the species is on the verge of local extinction. The park was once known for its abundant density of Swayne’s Hartebeest. We used direct total count methods for a census. We administered semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires with senior scouts who are the member of the local communities. Historical records were obtained to evaluate the population trends of the animals since 1974. The density of the animal decreased from 65 in 1974 to 1 individual per 100 km2 in 2014 with a decline of 98.5% in the past 40 years. The respondents agreed that the conservation status of the park was in its worst condition ever now with only 2 Swayne’s Hartebeest left, with a rapid decline from 4 individuals in 2012 and 12 individuals in 2009. Mainly hunting and habitat loss, but also the unsuitable season of reproduction and shortage of forage as minor factors were identified as threats for a local extinction of the Swayne’s Hartebeests. On the other hand, predation, fire, disease, and ticks were not considered a cause for the declining trend. Hunting happens mostly out of some kind of revenge since the local community thought that they were pushed out from the land because of the presence of Swayne's Hartebeest in the area. Respondents agreed that the revenge action of the local communities was in response to their unwillingness to be displaced from the park in 1982/3. This conflict situation is resulting from the exclusionary wildlife management policy of the country. We conclude that the human interventions in general and illegal hunting, in particular, pushed the Swayne’s Hartebeest to a point of local extinction. Therefore, we recommend inclusive wildlife management approach for continuing existence of the park together with its natural resources so that sustainable use of the resources is in place.
162
66476
Deliberative Democracy: As an Approach for Analyzing Gezi Movement Public Forums
Abstract:
Deliberation has been seen one of the most important components of democratic ideals especially since liberal democratic attributions have been under fire. Deliberative democracy advocates that people should participate in collective decision-making processes by other mechanisms rather than conventional ones in order to reach legitimate decisions. Deliberative democratic theory makes emphasis on deliberative communication between people and encourages them not to merely express their political opinions (through surveys and referendum) but to form those opinions through public debates. This paper focuses on deliberative democratic visions of Gezi Park Public Forums by taking deliberative democracy as theoretical basis and examining Gezi Park Public Forums in the light of core elements of deliberative democracy. Gezi Movement started on 28 May 2013 in İstanbul as a reaction to local government's revision plans for Taksim Gezi Park, spread throughout the country and created new zones in public sphere which are called Public Park Forums. During the summer of 2013, especially in İstanbul but also in other cities, people gathered in public parks, discussed and took collective decisions concerning actions which they will take. It is worth to mention that since 3 and half years some Public Park Forums are still continuing their meetings regularly in city of İzmir. This paper analyzes four 'Public Park Forums' in İzmir which are called Bornova Public Forum; Karşıyaka Public Forum, Foça Public Forum and Güzelyalı Public Forum. These Forums are under investigation in terms of their understanding of democracy and the values that support that understanding. Participant observation and in-depth interview methods are being used as research methods. Core element of deliberative democracy are being collected under three main category: common interest versus private interest, membership, rational argument and these values are being questioning within one of each Forum in order to draw an overall picture and also make comparison between them. Discourse analysis is being used in order to examine empirical data and paper aims to reveal how participants of public forums perceive deliberative democratic values and whether they give weight to these values.
161
123605
Park Improvements in a High-Density City: Ecological, Social and Economy Concerns
Abstract:
In the past decades, rapid urbanization in China has significantly promoted economic growth and caused a large number of environmental problems. In consideration of land resources shortage, high-density cities will become a common phenomenon in the future. How to improve the living environment under high density is a new challenge. Shenzhen is a typical high-density city, but also the forefront of China's development and reform area. This study selects 9 urban parks with different natural attributes in Shenzhen and explores the relationship of natural, economic, and social conditions within the service scope. Based on correlation analysis and system analysis, the results indicate that improvement of park design and management methods contribute to obtaining higher ecological value and promote economic and social development.
160
7900
Semantic Differential Technique as a Kansei Engineering Tool to Enquire Public Space Design Requirements: The Case of Parks in Tehran
Abstract:
The complexity of public space design makes it difficult for designers to simultaneously consider all issues for thorough decision-making. Among public spaces, the public space around people’s house is the most prominent space that affects and impacts people’s daily life. Considering recreational public spaces in cities, their main purpose would be to design for experiences that enable a deep feeling of peace and a moment of being away from the hectic daily life. Respecting human emotions and restoring natural environments, although difficult and to some extent out of reach, are key issues for designing such spaces. In this paper we propose to analyse the structure of recreational public spaces and the related emotional impressions. Furthermore, we suggest investigating how these structures influence people’s choice for public spaces by using differential semantics. According to Kansei methodology, in order to evaluate a situation appropriately, the assessment variables must be adapted to the user’s mental scheme. This means that the first step would have to be the identification of a space’s conceptual scheme. In our case study, 32 Kansei words and 4 different locations, each with a different sensual experience, were selected. The 4 locations were all parks in the city of Tehran (Iran), each with a unique structure and artifacts such as a fountain, lighting, sculptures, and music. It should be noted that each of these parks has different combination and structure of environmental and artificial elements like: fountain, lightning, sculpture, music (sound) and so forth. The first one was park No.1, a park with natural environment, the selected space was a fountain with motion light and sculpture. The second park was park No.2, in which there are different styles of park construction: ways from different countries, the selected space was traditional Iranian architecture with a fountain and trees. The third one was park No.3, the park with modern environment and spaces, and included a fountain that moved according to music and lighting. The fourth park was park No.4, the park with combination of four elements: water, fire, earth, wind, the selected space was fountains squirting water from the ground up. 80 participant (55 males and 25 females) aged from 20-60 years participated in this experiment. Each person filled the questionnaire in the park he/she was in. Five-point semantic differential scale was considered to determine the relation between space details and adjectives (kansei words). Received data were analyzed by multivariate statistical technique (factor analysis using SPSS statics). Finally the results of this analysis are criteria as inspiration which can be used in future space designing for creating pleasant feeling in users.
159
60708
A Study on Optimum Shape in According to Equivalent Stress Distributions at the Die and Plug in the Multi-Pass Drawing Process
Abstract:
Multi-stage drawing process is an important technique for forming a shape that cannot be molded in a single process. multi-stage drawing process in number of passes and the shape of the die are an important factors influencing the productivity and formability of the product. The number and shape of the multi-path in the mold of the drawing process is very influencing the productivity and formability of the product. Half angle of the die and mandrel affects the drawing force and it also affects the completion of the final shape. Thus reducing the number of pass and the die shape optimization are necessary to improve the formability of the billet. Analyzing the load on the die through the FEM analysis and in consideration of the formability of the material presents a die model.
158
51024
Development of Standard Evaluation Technique for Car Carpet Floor
Abstract:
Statistical Energy Analysis is to be the most effective CAE Method for air-born noise analysis in the Automotive area. This study deals with a method to predict the noise level inside of the car under the steady-state condition using the SEA model of car for air-born noise analysis. We can identify weakened part due to the acoustic material properties using it. Therefore, it is useful for the material structural design.
157
53350
Study on Filter for Semiconductor of Minimizing Damage by X-Ray Laminography
Abstract:
This research used the MCNPX simulation program to evaluate the utility of a filter that was developed to minimize the damage to a semiconductor device during defect testing with X-ray. The X-ray generator was designed using the MCNPX code, and the X-ray absorption spectrum of the semiconductor device was obtained based on the designed X-ray generator code. To evaluate the utility of the filter, the X-ray absorption rates of the semiconductor device were calculated and compared for Ag, Rh, Mo and V filters with thicknesses of 25μm, 50μm, and 75μm. The results showed that the X-ray absorption rate varied with the type and thickness of the filter, ranging from 8.74% to 49.28%. The Rh filter showed the highest X-ray absorption rates of 29.8%, 15.18% and 8.74% for the above-mentioned filter thicknesses. As shown above, the characteristics of the X-ray absorption with respect to the type and thickness of the filter were identified using MCNPX simulation. With these results, both time and expense could be saved in the production of the desired filter. In the future, this filter will be produced, and its performance will be evaluated.
156
117741
Evaluation and Possibilities of Valorization of Ecotourism Potentials in the Mbam and Djerem National Park
Abstract:
Protected areas are the potential areas for the development of ecotourism because of their biodiversity, landscapes, waterfalls, lakes, caves, salt lick and cultural heritage of local or indigenous people. These potentials have not yet been valorized, so this study will enable to investigate the evaluation and possibilities of valorization of ecotourism potentials in the Mbam and Djerem National Park. Hence, this was done by employing a combination of field observations, examination, data collection and evaluation, using a SWOT analysis. The SWOT provides an analysis to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and strategic suggestions for ecological planning. The study helps to determine an ecotouristic inventory and mapping of ecotourism potentials of the park, evaluate the degree of valorization of these potentials and the possibilities of valorization. Finally, the study has proven that the park has much natural potentials such as rivers, salt licks, waterfall and rapids, lakes, caves and rocks, etc. Also, from the study, it was realized that as concerns the degree of valorization of these ecotourism potentials, 50% of the population visit the salt lick of Pkayere because it’s a biodiversity hotspot and rich in mineral salt attracting a lot of animals and the least is the lake Miyere with 1% due to the fact that it is sacred. Moreover, from the results, there are possibilities that these potentials can be valorized and put into use because of their attractive nature such as creating good roads and bridges, good infrastructural facilities, good communication network etc. So, the study recommends that, in this process, MINTOUR, WCS, tour operators must interact sufficiently in order to develop the potential interest to ecotourism, ecocultural tourism and scientific tourism.
155
71340
Inverter IGBT Open–Circuit Fault Detection Using Park's Vectors Enhanced by Polar Coordinates
Abstract:
The three-phase power converter voltage structure is widely used in many power applications but its failure can lead to partial or total loss of control of the phase currents and can cause serious system malfunctions or even a complete system shutdown. To ensure continuity of service in all circumstances, effective and rapid techniques of detection and location of inverter fault is to be implemented. The present paper is dedicated to open-circuit fault detection in a three-phase two-level inverter fed induction motor. For detection purpose, the proposed contribution addresses the Park’s current vectors associated to a polar coordinates calculation tool to compute the exact value of the fault angle corresponding directly to the faulty IGBT switch. The merit of the proposed contribution is illustrated by experimental results.
154
55667
Pregnancy and Women's Subjectivity Represented in Ali's Brick Lane, Cusk's Arlington Park, and Mcgregor's If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things
Abstract:
The study object in this research is 'pregnancy and women’s subjectivity represented in Ali’s Brick Lane, Cusk’s Arlington Park, and McGregor’s If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things'. Pregnancy is invested with both figurative and literal significance in the novels. Being a symbol of domesticity of the woman in the novels, pregnancy conveys the relationship of the women due to their role as a mother and wife in a family and their subjectivity as a woman. The aim of this study is to examine to what extent pregnancy affects the subjectivity of woman in Ali’s 'Brick Lane', Cusk’s 'Arlington Park', and McGregor’s 'If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things'. It also discusses on how pregnancy can be seen as a symbolic sense and the things that symbolise it. The study uses theoretical ideas of female subjectivity proposed by Julia Kristeva. She stated that in patriarchal culture, the meaning of a woman is always being reduced to the function of reproduction. She has emphasized a new discourse about pregnancy that recognizes the importance of maternal function in the development of subjectivity and in culture. The result shows that the three novels represent pregnancy as something which can affect women’s subjectivity but the way in representing the pregnancy are different from each other. Kristeva’s idea about pregnancy and women’s subjectivity can be applied in both Cusk’s Arlington Park, and McGregor’s If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things as the characters in the texts come from the same background as her. However, it can hardly be applied to Ali’s Brick Lane because this idea can justify the women to choose their own way and South Asian culture still bound to the strong patriarchal system.
153
28441
Buffer Zone a Means of Reduction of Deforestation on Protected Area: A Case Study of Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan, Indonesia
Abstract:
Protected area management in Indonesia is based on MAB program and ICDPs have become Indonesia’s main approach to biodiversity conservation since the early 1990s. However, very few ICDPs have realized the importance of biodiversity conservation in Indonesia and significantly enhanced as a result of currently planned project activities. Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan was damaged illegal logging after decentralization. It made clear through the field survey: (1) Agroforestry did not make reduce to deforestation on regional level and (2) local people who engaging illegal logging activities have two characteristics that for their life and for vent of surplus labor in village. From these results, it became clear that a local resident had a bilateral character as an actor of conservation and the deforestation and also it confirmed that a market also was working on both of the conservation and deforestation. Therefore, surplus labor can be the key actors for future program design and at the same time it is necessary corroborative system which central government, local government, and local people are concerned with the process of policy making under the situation that management body of national park and buffer zone was separated.
152
92770
Proposal of Non-Destructive Inspection Function Based on Internet of Things Technology Using Drone
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a technology to monitor the soundness of an Internet-based bridge using a non-conductive inspection function. There has been a collapse accident due to the aging of the bridge structure, and it is necessary to prepare for the deterioration of the bridge. The NDT/SHM system for maintenance of existing bridge structures requires a large number of inspection personnel and expensive inspection costs, and access of expensive and large equipment to measurement points is required. Because current drone inspection equipment can only be inspected through camera, it is difficult to inspect inside damage accurately, and the results of an internal damage evaluation are subjective, and it is difficult for non-specialists to recognize the evaluation results. Therefore, it is necessary to develop NDT/SHM techniques for maintenance of new-concept bridge structures that allow for free movement and real-time evaluation of measurement results. This work is financially supported by Korea Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MOLIT) as 'Smart City Master and Doctor Course Grant Program' and a grant (14SCIP-B088624-01) from Construction Technology Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.
151
32047
SAP: A Smart Amusement Park System for Tourist Services
Abstract:
Many existing amusement parks have been operated with assistance of a variety of information and communications technologies to design friendly and efficient service systems for tourists. However, these systems leave various levels of decisions to tourists to make by themselves. This incurs pressure on tourists and thereby bringing negative experience in their tour. This paper proposes a smart amusement park system to offer each tourist the GPS-based customized plan without tourists making decisions by themselves. The proposed system consists of the mobile app subsystem, the central subsystem, and the detecting/counting subsystem. The mobile app subsystem interacts with the central subsystem. The central subsystem performs the necessary computing and database management of the proposed system. The detecting/counting subsystem aims to detect and compute the number of visitors to an attraction. Experimental results show that the proposed system can not only work well, but also provide an innovative business operating model for owners of amusement parks.
150
51156
Investigating the Environmental Impact of Tourists Activities on Yankari Resort and Safari
Abstract:
Habitat can be degraded by tourism leisure activities for example wildlife viewing can bring abrupt stress for animals and alter their natural behaviors when tourist come too close and wildlife watching have degradation effects on the habitats as they often are accompanied by the noise and commotion created by tourist as they chase wild animals. It is observed that Jos Wild Life Park is usually congested during on-peak periods which causes littering and contamination of the environment by tourist which may lead to changes in the soil nutrient. The issue of unauthorized feeding of animals by a tourist in which the food might be dangerous and harmful to their health and making them be so aggressive is also observed. The aim of the study is to investigate the environmental impact of tourists’ activities in Jos Wild Life Park, Nigeria. The study used survey questionnaires to both tourists and the staff of the wildlife park. One hundred questionnaires were self-administered to randomly selected tourists as the visit the park and some staff. The average mean score of the response was used to show agreement or disagreement. Major findings show the negative impact of tourist’s activities to the environment as air pollution, overcrowding, and congestion, solid littering of the environment, distress to animals and alteration of the ecosystem. Furthermore, the study found the positive impact of tourists activities on the environment to be income generation through tourists activities and infrastructural development. It is recommended that the impact of tourism should be minimized through admitting the right carrying capacity and impact assessment.
149
11763
Climate Change and Its Effects on Terrestrial Insect Diversity in Mukuruthi National Park, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Tamilnadu, India
Abstract:
In recent years climate change is one of the most emerging threats facing by biodiversity both the animals and plants species. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations, extreme temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, insects-plant interaction are the main criteria that affect biodiversity. In the present study, which emphasis the climate change and its effects on terrestrial insect diversity in Mukuruthi National Park a protected areas of Western Ghats in India. Sampling was done seasonally at the three areas using pitfall traps, over the period of January to December 2013. The statistical findings were done by Shannon wiener diversity index (H). A significant seasonal variation pattern was detected for total insect’s diversity at the different study areas. Totally nine orders of insects were recorded. Diversity and abundance of terrestrial insects shows much difference between the Natural, Shoal forest and the Grasslands.
148
22006
Stator Short-Circuits Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors Using Extended Park’s Vector Approach through the Discrete Wavelet Transform
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of stator faults diagnosis in induction motors. Using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for the current Park’s vector modulus (CPVM) analysis, the inter-turn short-circuit faults diagnosis can be achieved. This method is based on the decomposition of the CPVM signal, where wavelet approximation and detail coefficients of this signal have been extracted. The energy evaluation of a known bandwidth detail permits to define a fault severity factor (FSF). This method has been tested through the simulation of an induction motor using a mathematical model based on the winding-function approach. Simulation, as well as experimental, results show the effectiveness of the used method.
147
132137
A Study on the Current Challenges Hindering Urban Park Development in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia
Abstract:
Urban parks are important assets to every community in terms of providing space for health, cultural and leisure activities. However, Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, faces a shortage of green spaces, particularly urban parks, due to overpopulation and haphazard growth. Therefore, in order to increase green space per person, the city government has planned to increase green space per person up to 20m² by 2020 and 30m² by 2030 by establishing more urban parks throughout the city. But this plan was estimated that it is highly unlikely to reach those goals according to the analysis of the present status of plan implementation because the current amount of green space per person is still 4m². In the past studies globally, city planners and scientists agree that it is highly improbable to develop urban parks and keep maintenance sustainably without reflecting community perceptions and their involvement in the park establishment. Therefore, this research aims to find the challenges which stymie urban park development in Ulaanbaatar city and recommend dealing with the problems. In order to reach the goal, communities’ perceptions about the current challenges and their necessity for urban parks were identified and determined whether they differentiated depending on two different types of residential areas (urban and suburban areas). It also attempted to investigate international good practices on how they deal with similar problems. The research methodology was based on a questionnaire survey among city residents, a document review regarding the involvement of stakeholders, and a literature review of relevant past studies. According to the residents’ perceptions, the biggest challenge was a lack of land availability and followed by a lack of proper policy, planning, management, and maintenance out of seven key challenges identified. The biggest community demand from the urban park was a playground for children and followed by recreation and relaxation out of six types of needs. Based on research findings, the study proposed several recommendations for enhancements as institutional and legal framework, park plan and management, supportive environment and monitoring, evaluation, and reporting.
146
38024
Effect of the Initial Billet Shape Parameters on the Final Product in a Backward Extrusion Process for Pressure Vessels
Abstract:
In this numerical study, we have proposed a method for evaluation of backward extrusion process of pressure vessel made up of steel. Demand for lighter and stiffer products have been increasing in the last years especially in automobile engineering. Through detailed finite element analysis, effective stress, strain and velocity profile have been obtained with optimal range. The process design of a forward and backward extrusion axe-symmetric part has been studied. Forging is mainly carried out because forged products are highly reliable and possess superior mechanical properties when compared to normal products. Performing computational simulations of 3D hot forging with various dimensions of billet and optimization of weight is carried out using Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA) Optimization technique. The technique used in this study can be used for newly developed materials to investigate its forgeability for much complicated shapes in closed hot die forging process.
145
111601
The Implementation of Science Park Policy and Their Impacts on Regional Economic Development in Emerging Economy Country: Case of Thailand
Abstract:
Science parks are an essential component of localized innovation ecosystems. Science Parks have played a critical role in enhancing local innovation ecosystems in developed market economies. Attempts have been made to replicate best practice in other national contexts. To our best knowledge, the study about the development of Science Parks has not been undertaken on the economic impact on the developing countries. Further research is required to understand the adoption of Science Park policies in developing and emerging economies. This study explores the implementation of Science Park policy and its impacts on economic growth and development in Thailand, focusing on the relationship between universities and businesses. The Thailand context is essential. Thailand’s economy is dominated by agriculture and tourism. The Science Park policy is trying to develop an agriculturally orientated innovative ecosystem. Thailand established four Science Parks based on a policy that highlighted the importance of cooperation between government, HEIs, and businesses. These Science Parks are intended to increase small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs) innovativeness, employment, and regional economic growth by promoting collaboration and knowledge transfer between HEIs and the private sector. This study explores one regional Science Park in Thailand with an emphasis on understanding the implementation and operation of a triple helix innovation policy. The analysis explores the establishment of the Science Park and its impacts on firms and the regional economy through interviews with Science Parks directors, firms, academics, universities, and government officials. The analysis will inform Science Park policy development in Thailand to support the national objective to develop an innovation ecosystem based on the integration of technology with innovation policy, supporting technology-based SMEs in the creation of local jobs. The finding shows that the implementation of the Science Park policy in Thailand requires support and promotion from the government. The regional development plan must be related to the regional industry development strategy, considering the strengths and weaknesses of local entrepreneurs. The long time in granting a patent is the major obstacle in achieving the government’s aim in encouraging local economic activity. The regional Science Parks in Thailand are at the early stage of the operation plan. Thus, the impact on the regional economy cannot be measured and need further investigation in a more extended period. However, local businesses realize the vital of research and development (R&D). There have been more requests for funding support in doing R&D. Furthermore, there is the creation of linkages between businesses, HEIs, and government authorities as expected.
144
22849
Gammarus: Asellus Ratio as an Index of Organic Pollution: A Case Study in Markeaton, Kedleston Hall, and Allestree Park Lakes Derby, UK
Authors:
Abstract:
Macro-invertebrates have been used to monitor organic pollution in rivers and streams. Several biotic indices based on macro-invertebrates have been developed over the years including the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). A new biotic index, the Gammarus:Asellus ratio has been recently proposed as an index of organic pollution. This study tested the validity of the Gammarus:Asellus ratio as an index of organic pollution, by examining the relationship between the Gammarus:Asellus ratio and physical-chemical parameters, and other biotic indices such as BMWP and, Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) from lakes and streams at Markeaton Park, Allestree Park, and Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire. Macro invertebrates were sampled using the standard five-minute kick sampling techniques physical and chemical environmental variables were obtained based on standard sampling techniques. Eighteen sites were sampled, six sites from Markeaton Park (three sites across the stream and three sites across the lake). Six sites each were also sampled from Allestree Park and Kedleston Hall lakes. The Gammarus:Asellus ratio showed an opposite significant positive correlations with parameters indicative of organic pollution such as the level of nitrates, phosphates, and calcium and also revealed a negatively significant correlations with other biotic indices (BMWP/ASPT). The BMWP score correlated positively significantly with some water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen and flow rate, but revealed no correlations with other chemical environmental variables. The BMWP score was significantly higher in the stream than the lake in Markeaton Park, also The ASPT scores appear to be significantly higher in the upper Lakes than the middle and lower lakes. This study has further strengthened the use of BMWP/ASPT score as an index of organic pollution. But, additional application is required to validate the use of Gammarus:Asellus as a rapid bio monitoring tool.
143
66154
Design of a Remote Radiation Sensing Module Based on Portable Gamma Spectrometer
Abstract:
A personal gamma spectrometer has to be sensitive, pocket-sized, and carriable on the users. To serve these requirements, we developed the SiPM-based portable radiation detectors. The prototype uses a Ce:GAGG scintillator coupled to a silicon photomultiplier and a radio frequency(RF) module to measure gamma-ray, and can be accessed wirelessly or remotely by mobile equipment. The prototype device consumes roughly 4.4W, weighs about 180g (including battery), and measures 5.0 7.0. It is able to achieve 5.8% FWHM energy resolution at 662keV.
142
53352
Study on Beta-Ray Detection System in Water Using a MCNP Simulation
Abstract:
In the modern days, the use of radioactive substances is on the rise in the areas like chemical weaponry, industrial usage, and power plants. Although there are various technologies available to detect and monitor radioactive substances in the air, the technologies to detect underwater radioactive substances are scarce. In this study, computer simulation of the underwater detection system measuring beta-ray, a radioactive substance, has been done through MCNP. CaF₂, YAP(Ce) and YAG(Ce) have been used in the computer simulation to detect beta-ray as scintillator. Also, the source used in the computer simulation is Sr-90 and Y-90, both of them emitting only pure beta-ray. The distance between the source and the detector was shifted from 1mm to 10mm by 1 mm in the computer simulation. The result indicated that Sr-90 was impossible to measure below 1 mm since its emission energy is low while Y-90 was able to be measured up to 10mm underwater. In addition, the detector designed with CaF₂ had the highest efficiency among 3 scintillators used in the computer simulation. Since it was possible to verify the detectable range and the detection efficiency according to modeling through MCNP simulation, it is expected that such result will reduce the time and cost in building the actual beta-ray detector and evaluating its performances, thereby contributing the research and development.
141
16683
Trophic Ecology of Sarotherodon Melanotheron Heudelotii and Tilapia Guineensis from the Banc D'Arguin National Park, Mauritania
Abstract:
The diet of Sarotherodon melanotheron and Tilapia guineensis were investigated in the National Park of Banc d'Arguin (PNBA) from September 2012 to October 2013. A total of 499 individuals ranging in size between 219 and 400 mm total length of S. melanotheron (253 males and 246 females), and 280 individuals of T.guineensis (229 males and 51 females) ranged between 180 and 424mm total length. We used for studying the feeding habits of both two species the frequency of occurrence method. The coefficient of emptiness was 40.88% for S. melanotheron and 38.57% for T. guineensis. Both two species were herbivorous and very close feedings. Their diet consists of Seagrass, green, red, blue, and brown algae, diatoms, gastropods, bivalves, Crustaceans, and mud. The Seagrass and green algae were prey preference of these two species. The diet feeding showed that the composition varies slightly depending on the season and size of individuals.
140
43433
The Functions of Spatial Structure in Supporting Socialization in Urban Parks
Abstract:
Human evolution has designed us to be dependent on social and natural settings, but designed of our modern cities often ignore this fact. It is evident that high-rise buildings dominate most metropolitan city centers. As a result urban parks are very limited and in many cases are not socially responsive to our social needs in these urban ‘jungles’. This paper emphasizes the functions of urban morphology in supporting socialization in Lake Garden, one of the main urban parks in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It discusses two relevant theories; first the concept of users’ experience coined by Kevin Lynch (1960) which states that way-finding is related to the process of forming mental maps of environmental surroundings. Second, the concept of social activity coined by Jan Gehl (1987) which holds that urban public spaces can be more attractive when they provide welcoming places in which people can walk around and spend time. Until recently, research on socio-spatial behavior mainly focused on social ties, place attachment and human well-being; with less focus on the spatial dimension of social behavior. This paper examines the socio-spatial behavior within the spatial structure of the urban park by exploring the relationship between way-finding and social activity. The urban structures defined by the paths and nodes were analyzed as the fundamental topological structure of space to understand their effects on the social engagement pattern. The study uses a photo questionnaire survey to inspect the spatial dimension in relation to the social activities within paths and nodes. To understand the legibility of the park, spatial cognition was evaluated using sketch maps produced by 30 participants who visited the park. The results of the sketch mapping indicated that a spatial image has a strong interrelation with socio-spatial behavior. Moreover, an integrated spatial structure of the park generated integrated use and social activity. It was found that people recognized and remembered the spaces where they engaged in social activities. They could experience the park more thoroughly, when they found their way continuously through an integrated park structure. Therefore, the benefits of both perceptual and social dimensions of planning and design happened simultaneously. The findings can assist urban planners and designers to redevelop urban parks by considering the social quality design that contributes to clear mental images of these places.
139
34462
Interoperable Platform for Internet of Things at Home Applications
Abstract:
With the growing number of personal devices such as smartphones, tablets, smart watches, among others, in addition to recent devices designed for IoT, it is observed that residential environment has potential to generate important information about our daily lives. Therefore, this work is focused on showing and evaluating a system that integrates all these technologies considering the context of a smart house. To achieve this, we define an architecture capable of supporting the amount of data generated and consumed at a residence and, mainly, the variety of this data presents. We organize it in a particular cloud containing information about robots, recreational vehicles, weather, in addition to data from the house, such as lighting, energy, security, among others. The proposed architecture can be extrapolated to various scenarios and applications. Through the core of this work, we can define new functionality for residences integrating them with more resources.
138
18570
Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Potential by Deploying the Green Cars in Korean Road Transport Sector
Abstract:
South Korea, as the 7th largest greenhouse gas emitting country in 2011, announced that the national reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions was 30% based on BAU (Business As Usual) by 2020. And the reduction rate of the transport sector is 34.3% which is the highest figure among all sectors. This paper attempts to analyze the environmental effect on deploying the green cars in Korean road transport sector. In order to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions, the LEAP model is applied in this study.
137
43680
Ultra-Sensitive and Real Time Detection of ZnO NW Using QCM
Abstract:
Nanomaterials occur toxic effects to human being or ecological systems. Some sensors have been developed to detect toxic materials and the standard for toxic materials has been established. Zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) is known for toxic material. By ionizing in cell body, ionized Zn ions are overexposed to cell components, which cause critical damage or death. In this paper, we detected ZnO NW in water using QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) and ssDNA (single strand DNA). We achieved 30 minutes of response time for real time detection and 100 pg/mL of limit of detection (LOD).
136
64260
Identify the Renewable Energy Potential through Sustainability Indicators and Multicriteria Analysis
Abstract:
The growth in demand for electricity, caused by human development, depletion and environmental impacts caused by traditional sources of electricity generation have made new energy sources are increasingly encouraged and necessary for companies in the electricity sector. Based on this scenario, this paper assesses the negative environmental impacts associated with thermoelectric power plants in Brazil, pointing out the importance of using renewable energy sources, reducing environmental aggression. This article points out the existence of an energy alternative, wind energy, of the municipalities of São Paulo, represented by georeferenced maps with the help of GIS, using as a premise the indicators of sustainability and multicriteria analysis in the decision-making process.
135
20337
Effect of Ultrasound on the Hydrolysis of Soy Oil Catalyzed by 1,3-Specific Lipase Abstract
Abstract:
The hydrolysis of soy oil catalyzed by 1,3-specific enzyme (Lecitase Ultra) in a well-stirred bioreactor was studied. Two forms of applications of the ultrasound were evaluated aiming to increase reaction rates, wherein the use of probe ultrasound associated with the use of surfactant to pre-emulsify the substrate showed the best results. Two different reaction periods were found: the first where the ultrasound has great influence on reaction rates, and the second where ultrasound influence is minimal. Studies on the time of pre-emulsification, surfactant concentration and enzyme concentration showed that the initial rate of hydrolysis depends on the interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing the enzyme.
134
60654
Study of Drawing Characteristics due to Friction between the Materials by FEM
Abstract:
Pipes for offshore plants require specifications that satisfy both high strength and high corrosion resistance. Therefore, currently, clad pipes are used in offshore plants. Clad pipes can be made using either overlay welding or clad plates. The present study was intended to figure out the effects of friction between two materials, which is a factor that affects two materials, were figured out using FEM to make clad pipes through heterogenous material drawing instead of the two methods mentioned above. Therefore, FEM has conducted while all other variables that the variable friction was fixed. The experimental results showed increases in pullout force along with increases in the friction in the boundary layer.
133
132289
Smart Safari: Safari Guidance Mobile Application
Abstract:
Safari traveling is one of the most famous hobbies all over the world. In Sri Lanka, 'Yala' is the second-largest national park, which is a better place to go for a safari. Many number of local and foreign travelers are coming to go for a safari in 'Yala'. But 'Yala' does not have a mobile application that is made to facilitate the traveler with some important features that the traveler wants to achieve in the safari experience. To overcome these difficulties, the proposed mobile application by adding those identified features to make travelers, guiders, and administration's works easier. The proposed safari traveling guidance mobile application is called 'SMART SAFARI' for the 'Yala' National Park in Sri Lanka. There are four facilities in this mobile application that provide for travelers as well as the guiders. As the first facility, the guider and traveler can view the created map of the park, and the guider can add temporary locations of animals and special locations on the map. This is a Geographic Information System (GIS) to capture, analyze, and display geographical data. And as the second facility is to generate optimal paths according to the travelers' requirements through the park by using machine learning techniques. In the third part, the traveler can get information about animals using an animal identification system by capturing the animal. As in the other facility, the traveler will be facilitated to add reviews and a rate and view those comments under categorized sections and pre-defined score range. With those facilities, this user-friendly mobile application provides the user to get a better experience in safari traveling, and it will probably help to develop tourism culture in Sri Lanka.
132
19408
Some Imaginative Geomorphosites in Malaysia: Study on Their Formations and Geotourism Potentials
Abstract:
This paper aims to present some imaginative geomorphological sites in Malaysia. This study comprises desk study and field study. Desk study was conducted by reviewing some literatures related to the topic and some geomorphosites in Malaysia. Field study was organized in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the recent situation of these sites and to take some measurements, photographs and rock samples. Some examples of imaginative geomorphosites all over Malaysia have been identified for this purpose. In Peninsular Malaysia, some geomorphosites in Langkawi Islands (the state of Kedah) have imaginative features such as a “turtle” atop the limestone hill of Setul Formation at the Kilim Geoforest Park, a “shoe” at the Kasut island of the Kilim Geoforest Park, a “lying pregnant lady” at the Dayang Bunting island of the Dayang Bunting Marble Geoforest Park, and a “ship” of the Singa Kecil island. Meanwhile, some other examples are from the state of Kelantan, such as a mogote hill with a “human face looking upward” at Gunung Reng, Jeli District and a “boat rock” at Mount Chamah, Gua Musang District. In East Malaysia, there is only one example can be identified, it is the “Abraham Lincoln’s face” at the Deer Cave, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. Karst landforms dominate the imaginative geomorphosites in Malaysia. The formations of these features are affected by some endogenic and exogenic processes, such as tectonic uplift, weathering (including solution), erosion, and so on. This study will recommend that these imaginative features should be conserved and developed for some purposes, such as research, education, and geotourism development in Malaysia.
131
28224
CO2 Emissions Quantification of the Modular Bridge Superstructure
Abstract:
Many industries put emphasis on environmentally-friendliness as environmental problems are on the rise all over the world. Among themselves, the Modular Bridge research is going on. Also performing cross-section optimization and duration reducing, this research aims at developing the modular bridge with Environment-Friendliness and economic feasibility. However, the difficulty lies in verifying environmental effectiveness because there are no field applications of the modular bridge until now. Therefore, this thesis is categorized according to the form of the modular bridge superstructure and assessed CO₂ emission quantification per work types and materials according to each form to verify the environmental effectiveness of the modular bridge.
130
70159
Investigating the Impact Range of Southern Taiwan Science Park by Using Electronic Toll Collection Data
Abstract:
Big Data has been used in many studies in recent years, and ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is currently the development priorities of the world. Taiwan's Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) has collected a large amount of traffic data from the detectors between interchanges since 2014. This paper will combine ETC data and urban planning to investigate the impact range of Southern Taiwan Science Park. The impact range has two parts: First one is the extent of the interchanges affected by specified construction, it could be far from one of the interchanges from the south to the north. The second is how much traffic volume each affected interchange has. And then we visualized the impact result while building the database. According to the specific time of different categories, we compared to the spatial distribution of differences. The study interval is the weekday commuting time in the morning, and the study object is about passenger car. It is hoped that this study will provide a reference for Taiwanese construction sites in the future. And this study is not only more persuasive through the real data, but also establish a set of ETC data analysis process. At the same time, we can help to build the database of impact range of other important constructions and visualize them as the basis for long-term observation, and trying to combine ETC data and urban planning by this study to make effective suggestions.
129
50159
Flow Characteristic Analysis for Hatch Type Air Vent Head of Bulk Cargo Ship by Computational Fluid Dynamics
Abstract:
The air vent head prevents the inflow of seawater into the cargo holds when it is used for the ballast tank on heavy weather. In this study, the flow characteristics and the grid size were created by the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics by taking into the consideration of comparison of test results. Then, the accuracy of the analysis was verified by comparing with experimental results. Based on this analysis, accurate turbulence model and grid size can be selected. Thus, the design characteristic of air vent head for bulk carrier contributes the reliability based on the research results.
128
118859
Intelligent Decision Support for Wind Park Operation: Machine-Learning Based Detection and Diagnosis of Anomalous Operating States
Authors:
Abstract:
The operation and maintenance cost for wind parks make up a major fraction of the park’s overall lifetime cost. To minimize the cost and risk involved, an optimal operation and maintenance strategy requires continuous monitoring and analysis. In order to facilitate this, we present a decision support system that automatically scans the stream of telemetry sensor data generated from the turbines. By learning decision boundaries and normal reference operating states using machine learning algorithms, the decision support system can detect anomalous operating behavior in individual wind turbines and diagnose the involved turbine sub-systems. Operating personal can be alerted if a normal operating state boundary is exceeded. The presented decision support system and method are applicable for any turbine type and manufacturer providing telemetry data of the turbine operating state. We demonstrate the successful detection and diagnosis of anomalous operating states in a case study at a German onshore wind park comprised of Vestas V112 turbines.
127
5073
A Study on Improvement of Performance of Anti-Splash Device for Cargo Oil Tank Vent Pipe Using CFD Simulation and Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:
This study is focused on the comparative analysis and improvement to grasp the flow characteristic of the Anti-Splash Device located under the P/V Valve and new concept design models using the CFD analysis and Artificial Neural Network. The P/V valve located upper deck to solve the pressure rising and vacuum condition of inner tank of the liquid cargo ships occurred oil outflow accident by transverse and longitudinal sloshing force. Anti-Splash Device is fitted to improve and prevent this problem in the shipbuilding industry. But the oil outflow accidents are still reported by ship owners. Thus, four types of new design model are presented by study. Then, comparative analysis is conducted with new models and existing model. Mostly the key criterion of this problem is flux in the outlet of the Anti-Splash Device. Therefore, the flow and velocity are grasped by transient analysis. And then it decided optimum model and design parameters to develop model. Later, it needs to develop an Anti-Splash Device by Flow Test to get certification and verification using experiment equipment.
126
88976
Bee Keeping for Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation: A Success Story for Sustainable Tourism in Kibale National Park, Western Uganda
Abstract:
The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) remains one of the most crop-damaging species around Kibale National Park, western Uganda. Elephant crop raiding deprives communities of food and incomes, consequently impacting livelihoods, attitude, and support for conservation. It also attracts an aggressive reaction from local communities including the retaliatory killing of a species that is already endangered and listed under Appendix I of the Convention on Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES). In order to mitigate against elephant crop raiding and minimize conflict, a number of interventions were devised by the government of Uganda such as physical guarding, scare-shooting, excavation of trenches, growing of unpalatable crops and fire lighting all of which have over the years been implemented around the park. These generated varying degrees of effectiveness but largely never solved the problem of elephants crossing into communities to destroy food and shelter which had a negative effect onto sustainable tourism of the communities who often resorted to killing these animals and hence contributing the falling numbers of these animals. It was until government discovered that there are far more effective ways of deterring these animals from crossing to communities that it commissioned a study to deploy the African honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) as a deterrent against elephant crop raiding and income enhancement for local people around the park. These efforts led to a number of projects around Kibale National Park where communities were facilitated to keep bees for human-elephant conflict mitigation and rural income enhancement through the sale of honey. These projects have registered tremendous success in reducing crop damage, enhance rural incomes, influence positive attitude change and ultimately secure community support for elephant and park conservation which is a clear manifestation of sustainable tourism development in the area. To address the issue of sustainability, the project was aligned with four major objectives that contributed to the overall goal of maintaining the areas around the parks and the national park itself in such a manner that it remains viable over an infinite period. Among these included determining deterrence effects of bees against elephant crop raiding, assessing the contribution of beekeeping towards rural income enhancement, determining the impact of community involvement of park conservation and management among others. The project deployed 500 improved hives by placing them at specific and previously identified and mapped out elephant crossing points along the park boundary. A control site was established without any intervention to facilitate comparison of findings and data was collected on elephant raiding frequency, patterns, honey harvested, and community attitude towards the park. A socio-economic assessment was also undertaken to ascertain the contribution of beekeeping to incomes and attitude change. In conclusion, human-wildlife conflicts have disturbed conservation and sustainable tourism development efforts. Such success stories like the beekeeping strategy should hence be extensively discussed and widely shared as a conservation technique for sustainable tourism.
125
56482
Analysis of Stacked SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit with Low Trigger Voltage and Latch-Up Immunity
Abstract:
In this paper, we proposed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuit for latch-up immunity. The proposed circuit has a lower trigger voltage and a higher holding voltage characteristic by using the zener diode structure. These characteristics prevent latch-up problem in normal operating conditions. The proposed circuit was analyzed to figure out the electrical characteristics by the variations of design parameters D1, D2 and stack technology to obtain the n-fold electrical characteristics. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. When using the stack technology, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 6.9V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 10.9V.
124
51023
The Optimization Design of Sound Absorbing for Automotive Interior Material
Abstract:
Nonwoven fabric such as an automobile interior material becomes consists of several material layers required for the sound-absorbing function. Because several material layers, many experimental tuning is required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, a lot of time and money is spent in the development of the car interior materials. In this study, we present the method to predict the sound-absorbing performance of the various layers with physical properties of each material. and we will verify it with the measured value of a prototype. If the sound absorption can be estimated, it can be optimized without a number of tuning tests of the interiors. So, it can reduce the development cost and time during development
123
67342
Genetic Identification of Crop Cultivars Using Barcode System
Abstract:
For genetic identification of crop cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, PCR based, co-dominant and relatively abundant. However, new InDels need to be developed for genetic studies of new varieties due to the difference of allele frequencies in InDels among the population groups. These new varieties are evolved with low levels of genetic diversity in specific genome loci with high recombination rate. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a variation block (VB), where the genomes split by all assumed recombination sites. Firstly, VBs in crop cultivars were mined for transferability to VB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, putative InDels in the VB regions were identified for the development of barcode system by analyzing particular cultivar’s whole genome data. Thirdly, common VB-specific InDels from all cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the selected markers was assessed with other cultivars, and the barcode system that allows a clear distinction among those cultivars is described. The same approach can be applicable for other commercial crops. Hence, VB-based genetic identification not only minimize the molecular markers but also useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in other crop species.
122
68735
Genetic Identification of Crop Cultivars Using Barcode System
Abstract:
For genetic identification of crop cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, PCR based, co-dominant and relatively abundant. However, new InDels need to be developed for genetic studies of new varieties due to the difference of allele frequencies in InDels among the population groups. These new varieties are evolved with low levels of genetic diversity in specific genome loci with high recombination rate. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a variation block (VB), where the genomes split by all assumed recombination sites. Firstly, VBs in crop cultivars were mined for transferability to VB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, putative InDels in the VB regions were identified for the development of barcode system by analyzing particular cultivar’s whole genome data. Thirdly, common VB-specific InDels from all cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the selected markers was assessed with other cultivars, and the barcode system that allows a clear distinction among those cultivars is described. The same approach can be applicable for other commercial crops. Hence, VB-based genetic identification not only minimize the molecular markers but also useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in other crop species.
121
68732
Genetic Identification of Crop Cultivars Using Barcode System
Abstract:
For genetic identification of crop cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, PCR based, co-dominant and relatively abundant. However, new InDels need to be developed for genetic studies of new varieties due to the difference of allele frequencies in InDels among the population groups. These new varieties are evolved with low levels of genetic diversity in specific genome loci with high recombination rate. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a variation block (VB), where the genomes split by all assumed recombination sites. Firstly, VBs in crop cultivars were mined for transferability to VB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, putative InDels in the VB regions were identified for the development of barcode system by analyzing particular cultivar’s whole genome data. Thirdly, common VB-specific InDels from all cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the selected markers was assessed with other cultivars, and the barcode system that allows a clear distinction among those cultivars is described. The same approach can be applicable for other commercial crops. Hence, VB-based genetic identification not only minimize the molecular markers but also useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in other crop species.
120
9997
Remotely Sensed Data Fusion to Extract Vegetation Cover in the Cultural Park of Tassili, South of Algeria
Abstract:
The cultural park of the Tassili, occupying a large area of Algeria, is characterized by a rich vegetative biodiversity to be preserved and managed both in time and space. The management of a large area (case of Tassili), by its complexity, needs large amounts of data, which for the most part, are spatially localized (DEM, satellite images and socio-economic information etc.), where the use of conventional and traditional methods is quite difficult. The remote sensing, by its efficiency in environmental applications, became an indispensable solution for this kind of studies. Multispectral imaging sensors have been very useful in the last decade in very interesting applications of remote sensing. They can aid in several domains such as the de¬tection and identification of diverse surface targets, topographical details, and geological features. In this work, we try to extract vegetative areas using fusion techniques between data acquired from sensor on-board the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite and Landsat ETM+ and TM sensors. We have used images acquired over the Oasis of Djanet in the National Park of Tassili in the south of Algeria. Fusion technqiues were applied on the obtained image to extract the vegetative fraction of the different classes of land use. We compare the obtained results in vegetation end member extraction with vegetation indices calculated from both Hyperion and other multispectral sensors.
119
99832
Assessment of the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken Fern) Invasion on the Grassland Plateau in Nyika National Park
Abstract:
Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution of invasive plants in protected areas provides a base from which hypotheses explaining proliferation of plant invasions can be made alongside development of relevant invasive plant monitoring programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of bracken fern on the grassland plateau of Nyika National Park over the past 30 years (1986-2016) as well as to determine the current extent of the invasion. Remote sensing, machine learning, and statistical modelling techniques (object-based image analysis, image classification and linear regression analysis) in geographical information systems were used to determine both the spatial and temporal distribution of bracken fern in the study area. Results have revealed that bracken fern has been increasing coverage on the Nyika plateau at an estimated annual rate of 87.3 hectares since 1986. This translates to an estimated net increase of 2,573.1 hectares, which was recorded from 1,788.1 hectares (1986) to 4,361.9 hectares (2016). As of 2017 bracken fern covered 20,940.7 hectares, approximately 14.3% of the entire grassland plateau. Additionally, it was observed that the fern was distributed most densely around Chelinda camp (on the central plateau) as well as in forest verges and roadsides across the plateau. Based on these results it is recommended that Ecological Niche Modelling approaches be employed to (i) isolate the most important factors influencing bracken fern proliferation as well as (ii) identify and prioritize areas requiring immediate control interventions so as to minimize bracken fern proliferation in Nyika National Park.
118
15243
Diversity of Large Mammals in Awash National Park and its Ecosystem Role and Biodiversity Conservation, Ethiopia
Abstract:
An ecological and biodiversity conservation study on species composition, population status and habitat association of large mammals and the impact of human interference on their distribution was carried out in Awash National Park, Ethiopia during October, 2012 to July, 2013. A total of 25 species of large mammals were recorded from the study area. Representative sample sites were taken from each habitat type and surveyed using random line transect method. For medium and large mammal survey, indirect methods (foot print and dung) and direct observations were used. Twenty three species of medium to large-sized mammals were identified and recorded from ANP. A total of 25 species of median and large size mammals were recorded from the study area. Out of this, 20 species were rodents of three families and five species were insectivores of two families. Beisa Oryx (Oryx beisa beisa),Soemmerings gazelle (Gazella soemmeringi),Defassa waterbuck (Kobus defassa), Lesser Kudu (Strepsiceros imberbis), Greater Kudu (Strepsiceros strepsiceros), Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Baboon (Papio anubis baboon) and Salt's dikdik (Madoqua saltiana) were the most common seen median and large mammals in the study area. Beisa Oryx (Oryx beisa beisa) and Sommering Gazelles (Gazella soemmeringi) are commonly found in the open areas, where as Greater Kudus (Strepsiceros strepsiceros) and Lesser Kudus (Strepsiceros imberbis) was seen in the bushed areas. Defarsa waterbuck (Kobus defassa) was observed in the bushy river area in Northern part of the Park. Anubis baboon (Papio anubis baboon) was seen near to the river side. Hamadryas baboon founded in semi-desert areas of Awash National Park, particularly in Filwoha area. The area is one of a key biodiversity conservation and provide pure water, air, food, grazing land and storage of carbon.
117
57130
Illegal Anthropogenic Activity Drives Large Mammal Population Declines in an African Protected Area
Abstract:
High levels of anthropogenic activity such as habitat destruction, poaching and encroachment into natural habitat have resulted in significant global wildlife declines. In order to protect wildlife, many protected areas such as national parks have been created. However, it is argued that many protected areas are only protected in name and are often exposed to continued, and often illegal, anthropogenic pressure. In West African protected areas, declines of large mammals have been documented between 1962 and 2008. This study aimed to produce occupancy estimates of the remaining large mammal fauna in the third largest National Park in Nigeria, Old Oyo, and to compare the estimates with historic estimates while also attempting to quantify levels of illegal anthropogenic activity using a multi-disciplinary approach. Large mammal populations and levels of illegal anthropogenic activity were assessed using empirical field data (camera trapping and transect surveys) in combination with data from questionnaires completed by local villagers and park rangers. Four of the historically recorded species in the park, lion (Panthera leo), hunting dog (Lycaon pictus), elephant (Loxodonta africana) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were not detected during field studies nor were they reported by respondents. In addition, occupancy estimates of hunters and illegal grazers were higher than the majority of large mammal species inside the park. This finding was reinforced by responses from the villagers and rangers who’s perception was that large mammal densities in the park were declining, and that a large proportion of the local people were entering the park to hunt wild animals and graze their domestic livestock. Our findings also suggest that widespread poverty and a lack of alternative livelihood opportunities, culture of consuming bushmeat, lack of education and awareness of the value of protected areas, and weak law enforcement are some of the reasons for the illegal activity. Law enforcement authorities were often constrained by insufficient on-site personnel and a lack of modern equipment and infrastructure to deter illegal activities. We conclude that there is a need to address the issue of illegal hunting and livestock grazing, via provision of alternative livelihoods, in combination with community outreach programmes that aim to improve conservation education and awareness and develop the capacity of the conservation authorities in order to achieve conservation goals. Our findings have implications for the conservation management of all protected areas that are available for exploitation by local communities.
116
88656
Iterative Panel RC Extraction for Capacitive Touchscreen
Abstract:
Electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen need to be accurately analyzed to result in better performance for multi-channel capacitance sensing. In this paper, we extracted the panel resistances and capacitances of the touchscreen by comparing measurement data and model data. By employing a lumped RC model for driver-to-receiver paths in touchscreen, we estimated resistance and capacitance values according to the physical lengths of channel paths which are proportional to the RC model. As a result, we obtained the model having 95.54% accuracy of the measurement data.
115
20964
Nonparametric Estimation of Risk-Neutral Densities via Empirical Esscher Transform
Abstract:
This paper introduces an empirical version of the Esscher transform for risk-neutral option pricing. Traditional parametric methods require the formulation of an explicit risk-neutral model and are operational only for a few probability distributions for the returns of the underlying. In our proposal, we make only mild assumptions on the pricing kernel and there is no need for the formulation of the risk-neutral model for the returns. First, we simulate sample paths for the returns under the physical distribution. Then, based on the empirical Esscher transform, the sample is reweighted, giving rise to a risk-neutralized sample from which derivative prices can be obtained by a weighted sum of the options pay-offs in each path. We compare our proposal with some traditional parametric pricing methods in four experiments with artificial and real data.
114
57385
Online Electric Current Based Diagnosis of Stator Faults on Squirrel Cage Induction Motors
Abstract:
In the present paper, five electric current based methods to analyze electric faults on the stator of induction motors (IM) are used and compared. The analysis tries to extend the application of the multiple reference frames diagnosis technique. An eccentricity indicator is presented to improve the application of the Park’s Vector Approach technique. Most of the fault indicators are validated and some others revised, agree with the technical literatures and published results. A tri-phase 3hp squirrel cage IM, especially modified to establish different fault levels, is used for validation purposes.
113
99850
Status of Alien Invasive Trees on the Grassland Plateau in Nyika National Park
Abstract:
Early detection of plant invasions is a necessary prerequisite for effective invasive plant management in protected areas. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of alien invasive trees in Nyika National Park (NNP). Data on species' presence and abundance were collected from belt transects (n=31) in a 100 square kilometer area on the central plateau. The data were tested for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test; Mann-Whitney test was carried out to compare frequencies and abundances between the species, and geographical information systems were used for spatial analyses. Results revealed that Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii), Mexican Pine (Pinus patula) and Himalayan Raspberry (Rubus ellipticus) were the main alien invasive trees on the plateau. A. mearnsii was localized in the areas where it was first introduced, whereas P. patula and R. ellipticus were spread out beyond original points of introduction. R. ellipticus occurred as dense, extensive (up to 50 meters) thickets on the margins of forest patches and pine stands, whilst P. patula trees were frequent in the valleys, occurring most densely (up to 39 stems per 100 square meters) south-west of Chelinda camp on the central plateau with high variation in tree heights. Additionally, there were no significant differences in abundance between R. ellipticus (48) and P. patula (48) in the study area (p > 0.05) It was concluded that R. ellipticus and P. patula require more attention as compared to A. mearnsii. Howbeit, further studies into the invasion ecology of both P. patula and R. ellipticus on the Nyika plateau are highly recommended so as to assess the threat posed by the species on biodiversity, and recommend appropriate conservation measures in the national park.
112
28201
Study of Deflection at Junction in the Precast on Cyclic Loading
Abstract:
While the numerous structures built the industrialization are aging, the effort for the maintenance is concentrated in many countries. However, the traffic jam, environmental damage, and enormous maintenance cost, and etc become a problem. So, in order to solve this, the modular bridge has been studied. This bridge is the structure which utilizes and assembles the standard precast member. Through this, the substitution of the existing bridge and advantage of the easy maintenance will be achieved. However, the reliability in the long-term behavior is insufficient due to the junction part between modular precast members. Therefore, in this research, the cyclic load loading experiment was performed on the junction and deflection was analyzed by long-term service in modular slab connection. The deflection of modular slab with junction was mostly generated when initial and final test.
111
25639
Optimal Rotor Design of an 150kW-Class IPMSM through the 3D Voltage-Inductance Map Analysis Method
Abstract:
This presents a methodology to determine detail design directions of an 150kW-class IPMSM (interior permanent magnet synchronous motor) and its detail design. The basic design of the stator and rotor was conducted. After dividing the designed models into the best cases and the worst cases based on rotor shape parameters, Sensitivity analysis and 3D Voltage-Inductance Map (3D EL-Map) parameters were analyzed. Then, the design direction for the final model was predicted. Based on the prediction, the final model was extracted with Trend analysis. Lastly, the final model was validated with experiments.
110
26441
South-Mediterranean Oaks Forests Management in Changing Climate Case of the National Park of Tlemcen-Algeria
Abstract:
The expected climatic changes in North Africa are the increase of both intensity and frequencies of the summer droughts and a reduction in water availability during growing season. The exiting coppices and forest formations in the national park of Tlemcen are dominated by holm oak, zen oak and cork oak. These opened-fragmented structures don’t seem enough strong so to hope durable protection against climate change. According to the observed climatic tendency, the objective is to analyze the climatic context and its evolution taking into account the eventual behaving of the oak species during the next 20-30 years on one side and the landscaped context in relation with the most adequate sylvicultural models to choose and especially in relation with human activities on another side. The study methodology is based on Climatic synthesis and Floristic and spatial analysis. Meteorological data of the decade 1989-2009 are used to characterize the current climate. An another approach, based on dendrochronological analysis of a 120 years sample Aleppo pine stem growing in the park, is used so to analyze the climate evolution during one century. Results on the climate evolution during the 50 years obtained through climatic predictive models are exploited so to predict the climate tendency in the park. Spatially, in each forest unit of the Park, stratified sampling is achieved so to reduce the degree of heterogeneity and to easily delineate different stands using the GPS. Results from precedent study are used to analyze the anthropogenic factor considering the forecasts for the period 2025-2100, the number of warm days with a temperature over 25°C would increase from 30 to 70. The monthly mean temperatures of the maxima’s (M) and the minima’s (m) would pass respectively from 30.5°C to 33°C and from 2.3°C to 4.8°C. With an average drop of 25%, precipitations will be reduced to 411.37 mm. These new data highlight the importance of the risk fire and the water stress witch would affect the vegetation and the regeneration process. Spatial analysis highlights the forest and the agricultural dimensions of the park compared to the urban habitat and bare soils. Maps show both fragmentation state and forest surface regression (50% of total surface). At the level of the park, fires affected already all types of covers creating low structures with various densities. On the silvi cultural plan, Zen oak form in some places pure stands and this invasion must be considered as a natural tendency where Zen oak becomes the structuring specie. Climate-related changes have nothing to do with the real impact that South-Mediterranean forests are undergoing because human constraints they support. Nevertheless, hardwoods stand of oak in the national park of Tlemcen will face up to unexpected climate changes such as changing rainfall regime associated with a lengthening of the period of water stress, to heavy rainfall and/or to sudden cold snaps. Faced with these new conditions, management based on mixed uneven aged high forest method promoting the more dynamic specie could be an appropriate measure.
109
97878
Examination of Recreation Possibilities and Determination of Efficiency Zone in Bursa, Province Nilufer Creek
Abstract:
Water and water resources are characteristic areas with their special ecosystems Their natural, cultural and economic value and recreation opportunities are high. Recreational activities differ according to the natural, cultural, socio-economic resource values of the areas. In this sense, water and water edge areas, which are important for their resource values, are also important landscape values for recreational activities. From these landscapes values, creeks and the surrounding areas have become a major source of daily life in the past, as well as a major attraction for people's leisure time. However, their qualities and quantities must be sufficient to enable these areas to be used effectively in a recreational sense and to be able to fulfill their recreational functions. The purpose of the study is to identify the recreational use of the water-based activities and identify effective service areas in dense urbanization zones along the creek and green spaces around them. For this purpose, the study was carried out in the vicinity of Nilufer Creek in Bursa. The study area and its immediate surroundings are in the boundaries of Osmangazi and Nilufer districts. The study was carried out in the green spaces along the creek with an individual interaction of 17.930m. These areas are Hudavendigar Urban Park, Atatürk Urban Forest, Bursa Zoo, Soganlı Botanical Park, Mihrapli Park, Nilufer Valley Park. In the first phase of the study, the efficiency zones of these locations were calculated according to international standards. 3200m of this locations are serving the city population and 800m are serving the district and neighborhood population. These calculations are processed on the digitized map by the AUTOCAD program using the satellite image. The efficiency zone of these green spaces in the city were calculated as 71.04 km². In the second phase of the study, water-based current activities were determined by evaluating the recreational potential of these green spaces, which are located along the Nilufer Creek, where efficiency zones have been identified. It has been determined that water-based activities are used intensively in Hudavendigar Urban Park and interacted with Nilufer Creek. Within the scope of effective zones for the study area, appropriate recreational planning proposals have been developed and water-based activities have been suggested.
108
81022
Artificial Neural Network-Based Bridge Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering Environmental Conditions
Abstract:
In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind and so on to improve the performance of the BWIM system. The environmental conditions can make difficult to analyze measured data and hence those factors should be compensated. Various conditions were considered as input parameters for ANN (Artificial Neural Network). The number of hidden layers for ANN was decided so that nonlinearity could be sufficiently reflected in the BWIM results. The weight of vehicles and axle weight were more accurately estimated by applying ANN approach. Additionally, the type of bridge which was a target structure was considered as an input parameter for the ANN.
107
17160
The Use of Remotely Sensed Data to Extract Wetlands Area in the Cultural Park of Ahaggar, South of Algeria
Abstract:
The cultural park of the Ahaggar, occupying a large area of Algeria, is characterized by a rich wetlands area to be preserved and managed both in time and space. The management of a large area, by its complexity, needs large amounts of data, which for the most part, are spatially localized (DEM, satellite images and socio-economic information...), where the use of conventional and traditional methods is quite difficult. The remote sensing, by its efficiency in environmental applications, became an indispensable solution for this kind of studies. Remote sensing imaging data have been very useful in the last decade in very interesting applications. They can aid in several domains such as the detection and identification of diverse wetland surface targets, topographical details, and geological features... In this work, we try to extract automatically wetlands area using multispectral remotely sensed data on-board the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) and Landsat satellite. Both are high-resolution multispectral imager with a 30 m resolution. The instrument images an interesting surface area. We have used images acquired over the several area of interesting in the National Park of Ahaggar in the south of Algeria. An Extraction Algorithm is applied on the several spectral index obtained from combination of different spectral bands to extract wetlands fraction occupation of land use. The obtained results show an accuracy to distinguish wetlands area from the other lad use themes using a fine exploitation on spectral index.
106
74475
Flexural Strength of Alkali Resistant Glass Textile Reinforced Concrete Beam with Prestressing
Abstract:
Due to the aging of bridges, increasing of maintenance costs and decreasing of structural safety is occurred. The steel corrosion of reinforced concrete bridge is the most common problem and this phenomenon is accelerating due to abnormal weather and increasing CO2 concentration due to climate change. To solve these problems, composite members using textile have been studied. A textile reinforced concrete can reduce carbon emissions by reduced concrete and without steel bars, so a lot of structural behavior studies are needed. Therefore, in this study, textile reinforced concrete beam was made and flexural test was performed. Also, the change of flexural strength according to the prestressing was conducted. As a result, flexural strength of TRC with prestressing was increased compared and flexural behavior was shown as reinforced concrete.
105
71481
A Study on Temperature and Drawing Speed for Diffusion Bonding Enhancement in Drawing of Hot Lined Pipes by FEM Analysis
Abstract:
Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in hot drawing even if the reduction in the section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.
104
57266
Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles
Abstract:
In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.
103
64450
Static Analysis Deployment Model for Code Quality on Research and Development Projects of Software Development
Abstract:
This paper presents static analysis deployment model for code quality on R&D Projects of SW Development. The proposed model includes the scope of R&D projects and index for static analysis of source code, operation model and execution process, environments and infrastructure system for R&D projects of SW development. There is the static analysis result of pilot project as case study based on the proposed deployment model and environment, and strategic considerations for success operation of the proposed static analysis deployment model for R&D Projects of SW Development. The proposed static analysis deployment model in this paper will be adapted and improved continuously for quality upgrade of R&D projects, and customer satisfaction of developed source codes and products.
102
67487
Adhesion Performance According to Lateral Reinforcement Method of Textile
Abstract:
Reinforced concrete has been mainly used in construction field because of excellent durability. However, it may lead to reduction of durability and safety due to corrosion of reinforcement steels according to damage of concrete surface. Recently, research of textile is ongoing to complement weakness of reinforced concrete. In previous research, only experiment of longitudinal length were performed. Therefore, in order to investigate the adhesion performance according to the lattice shape and the embedded length, the pull-out test was performed on the roving with parameter of the number of lateral reinforcement, the lateral reinforcement length and the lateral reinforcement spacing. As a result, the number of lateral reinforcement and the lateral reinforcement length did not significantly affect the load variation depending on the adhesion performance, and only the load analysis results according to the reinforcement spacing are affected.
101
57643
Climate Impact-Minimizing Road Infrastructure Layout for Growing Cities
Abstract:
City road transport contributes significantly to climate change, and the ongoing world urbanization is only increasing the problem. The paper describes a city planning concept minimizing the number of vehicles on the roads while increasing overall mobility. This becomes possible by utilizing a recently invented two-level road junction with a unique property of serving both as an intersection of uninterrupted traffic and an easily accessible transport hub capable of accumulating private vehicles, and therefore becoming an especially effective park-and-ride solution, and a logistics or business center. Optimized layouts of city road infrastructure, living and work areas, and major roads are presented. The layouts are suitable both for the development of new cities as well as for the expansion of existing ones. Costs of the infrastructure and a positive impact on climate are evaluated in comparison to current city growth patterns.
100
17723
Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo: Heritage, Tourism, and Traditions
Abstract:
The paper discusses the cultural identity of the communities located in Environmental Protection Area (APAs), in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro, constituted almost entirely by descendants of Swiss immigrants who arrived in Brazil in the nineteenth century. The communication is the result of an extension project named "Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo." The objectives of this project were framed in the identification of local history, cultural demonstrations, crafts, religious events, festivals, the "know-how" and traditions. While an extension project, developed by students and teachers of a Bachelor of Tourism Management program, the work provided a more practical action: awareness the communities that inhabit the APAs on the possible implementation of the cultural community-based tourism, a sustainable alternative for economic development, involving local people as propagators of local culture, and tourism as a way of valuing and safeguarding of Intangible Heritage.
99
13686
Analytical Study on the Shape of T-Type Girder Modular Bridge Connection by Using Parametric
Abstract:
Recently, to cope with the rapidly changing construction trend because of aging infrastructures, modular bridge technology has been studied actively. Modular bridge is easily constructed by assembling standardized precast structure members in the field. It will be possible to construct rapidly and reduce construction cost efficiently. However, the shape examination of the transverse connection of T-type girder newly developed between the segmented modules is not performed. Therefore, the investigation of the connection shape is needed. In this study, shape of the modular T-girder bridge transverse connection was analyzed by finite element model that was verified in study which was verification of model for transverse connection using Abaqus. Connection angle was chosen as the parameter. The result of analyses showed that optimal value of angle is 130 degree.
98
67482
Pullout Strength of Textile Reinforcement in Concrete by Embedded Length and Concrete Strength
Abstract:
The deterioration of the reinforced concrete is continuously accelerated due to aging of the reinforced concrete, enlargement of the structure, increase if the self-weight due to the manhattanization and cracking due to external force. Also, due to the abnormal climate phenomenon, cracking of reinforced concrete structures is accelerated. Therefore, research on the Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) which replaced reinforcement with textile is under study. However, in previous studies, adhesion performance to single yarn was examined without parameters, which does not reflect the effect of fiber twisting and concrete strength. In the present paper, the effect of concrete strength and embedded length on 2400tex (gram per 1000 meters) and 640tex textile were investigated. The result confirm that the increasing compressive strength of the concrete did not affect the pullout strength. However, as the embedded length increased, the pullout strength tended to increase gradually, especially at 2400tex with more twists.
97
31450
Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors Using the Discrete Wavelet Transform
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of stator faults diagnosis in induction motors. Using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for the current Park’s vector modulus (CPVM) analysis, the inter-turn short-circuit faults diagnosis can be achieved. This method is based on the decomposition of the CPVM signal, where wavelet approximation and detail coefficients of this signal have been extracted. The energy evaluation of a known bandwidth detail permits to define a fault severity factor (FSF). This method has been tested through the simulation of an induction motor using a mathematical model based on the winding-function approach. Simulation, as well as experimental, results show the effectiveness of the used method.
96
57255
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Cable Damage Detection Using an MFL Technique
Abstract:
Non-destructive testing on cable is in great demand due to safety accidents at sites where many equipments using cables are installed. In this paper, the quantitative change of the obtained signal was analyzed using a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method. A two-dimensional simulation was conducted with a FEM model replicating real elevator cables. The simulation data were compared for three parameters (depth of defect, width of defect and inspection velocity). Then, an experiment on same conditions was carried out to verify the results of the simulation. Signals obtained from both the simulation and the experiment were transformed to characterize the properties of the damage. Throughout the results, a cable damage detection based on an MFL method was confirmed to be feasible. In further study, it is expected that the MFL signals of an entire specimen will be gained and visualized as well.
95
22886
The Relevance of the Generalist Judge’s Discretionary Limits in the Institutional Debate
Abstract:
The judicial practice faces a tension between normative discretion and institutional capacities. There are clarity graduations of the statutory text that might induce different specialization levels of the judges. A major problem stemming from that tension is a greater discretion without a proportional specialization. The normative clarity, although its absence can be overcome through specialization, avoids problems related to disproportionate discretion and judicial dissonance. When judicial interpretation deals with the lack of legal clarity, a significant juridical insecurity frame is verified. Decisional uniformity mechanisms are created in order to surpass these problems. Brazil brings great examples, such as the súmulas, the enunciados, and the súmulas vinculantes. Despite of the resistance presented to the latter, mainly based on judges’ independence, even countries of the Common Law tradition develop such mechanisms. The British Guidelines face the lack of legal clarity problem and promote a decisional consonance system.
94
40207
Acacia mearnsii De Wild-A New Scourge on Cork Oak Forests of El Kala National Park (North-Eastern Algeria)
Abstract:
Nowadays, more and more species are introduced outside their natural range. If most of them remain difficult, some may adopt a much more dynamic behavior. Indeed, we have witnessed in recent decades, the development of high forests of Acacia mearnsii in El Kala National Park. Introduced indefinitely, this leguminous intended to make money (nitrogen supply for industrial plantations of Eucalyptus), became one of the most invasive and more costly in terms of forest management. It has crossed all barriers: it has acclimatized, naturalized and then expanded through diverse landscapes; entry into competition with native species such as cork oak and altered ecosystem functioning. Therefore, it is interesting to analyze this new threat by relying on plants as bio-indicator for assessing biodiversity at different scales. We have identified the species present in several plots distributed in a range of vegetation types subjected to different degrees of disturbance by using the braun-blanquet method. Fifty-six species have been recorded. They are distributed in 48 genera and 29 families. The analysis of the relative frequency of species correlated with relative abundance clearly shows that the Acacia mearnsii feels marginalized. The ecological analysis of this biological invasion shows that disruption of either natural or anthropogenic origin (fire, prolonged drought, cut) represent the factors that exacerbate invasion by opening invasion windows. The lifting of seeds of Acacia mearnsii lasting physical dormancy (and variable) is ensured by the thermal shock in relation to its heliophilous character.
93
59886
Development and Sound Absorption and Insulation Performance Evaluation of Nonwoven Fabric Material including Paper Honeycomb Structure for Insulator Covering Shelf Trim
Abstract:
Insulator Covering Shelf Trim is one of the automotive interior parts located in the rear seat of a car, and it is a component that is the most strongly demanded for impact resistance, strength, and heat resistance. Such an Insulator Covering Shelf Trim is composed of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fabric which is a surface material appearing externally and a substrate layer which exerts shape and mechanical strength. In this paper, we develop a lightweight Insulator Covering Shelf Trim using the nonwoven fabric material with a high strength honeycomb structure and evaluate sound absorption and insulation performance by using acoustic impedance tubes.
92
46094
Strength of Fine Concrete Used in Textile Reinforced Concrete by Changing Water-Binder Ratio
Abstract:
Recently, the abnormal climate phenomenon has enlarged due to the global warming. As a result, temperature variation is increasing and the term is being prolonged, frequency of high and low temperature is increasing by heat wave and severe cold. Especially for reinforced concrete structure, the corrosion of reinforcement has occurred by concrete crack due to temperature change and the durability of the structure that has decreased by concrete crack. Accordingly, the textile reinforced concrete (TRC) which does not corrode due to using textile is getting the interest and the investigation of TRC is proceeding. The study of TRC structure behavior has proceeded, but the characteristic study of the concrete used in TRC is insufficient. Therefore, characteristic of the concrete by changing mixing ratio is studied in this paper. As a result, mixing ratio with different water-binder ratio has influenced to the strength of concrete. Also, as the water-binder ratio has decreased, strength of concrete has increased.
91
22046
Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors Using Discrete Wavelet Transform
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of stator faults diagnosis in induction motors. Using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for the current Park’s vector modulus (CPVM) analysis, the inter-turn short-circuit faults diagnosis can be achieved. This method is based on the decomposition of the CPVM signal, where wavelet approximation and detail coefficients of this signal have been extracted. The energy evaluation of a known bandwidth detail permits to define a fault severity factor (FSF). This method has been tested through the simulation of an induction motor using a mathematical model based on the winding-function approach. Simulation, as well as experimental, results show the effectiveness of the used method.
90
82115
Stator Short-Circuits Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of stator faults diagnosis in induction motors. Using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for the current Park’s vector modulus (CPVM) analysis, the inter-turn short-circuit faults diagnosis can be achieved. This method is based on the decomposition of the CPVM signal, where wavelet approximation and detail coefficients of this signal have been extracted. The energy evaluation of a known bandwidth detail permits to define a fault severity factor (FSF). This method has been tested through the simulation of an induction motor using a mathematical model based on the winding-function approach. Simulation, as well as experimental results, show the effectiveness of the used method.
89
80106
A Method for Allocation of Smart Intersections Using Traffic Information
Abstract:
This study aims is to suggest the basic factors by considering the priority of intersection in the diffusion project of Smart intersection. Busan Metropolitan City is conducting a smart intersection project for efficient traffic management. The smart intersection project aims to make breakthrough improvement of the intersection congestion by optimizing the signal system using CCTV (closed-circuit television camera) image analysis technology. This study investigated trends of existing researches and analyzed by setting three things of traffic volume, characteristics of intersection road, and whether or not to conduct the main arterial road as factors for selecting new intersection when spreading smart intersection. Using this, we presented the priority of the newly installed intersection through the present situation and analysis for the Busan Metropolitan City which is the main destination of the spreading project of the smart intersection. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in the implementation of smart intersection business.
88
78114
A Method for Allocation of Smart Intersections Using Traffic Information
Abstract:
This study aims is to suggest the basic factors by considering the priority of intersection in the diffusion project of Smart intersection. Busan Metropolitan City is conducting a smart intersection project for efficient traffic management. The smart intersection project aims to make breakthrough improvement of the intersection congestion by optimizing the signal system using CCTV (closed-circuit television camera) image analysis technology. This study investigated trends of existing researches and analyzed by setting three things of traffic volume, characteristics of intersection road, and whether or not to conduct the main arterial road as factors for selecting new intersection when spreading smart intersection. Using this, we presented the priority of the newly installed intersection through the present situation and analysis for the Busan Metropolitan City which is the main destination of the spreading project of the smart intersection. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in the implementation of smart intersection business.
87
29506
Evaluating the Service Quality and Customers’ Satisfaction for Lihpaoland in Taiwan
Abstract:
As the national income in Taiwan has been raised, the life style of the public has also been changed, so that the tourism industry gradually moves from a service industry to an experience economy. The Lihpaoland is one of the most popular theme parks in Taiwan. However, the related works on performance of service quality of the park have been lacking since its re-operation in 2012. Therefore, this study investigates the quality of software/hardware facilities and services of the Lihpaoland, and aims to achieve the following three goals: 1) analyzing how various sample data of tourists leads to different results for service quality of LihpaoLand; 2) analyzing how tourists respond to the service tangibility, service reliability, service responsiveness, service guarantee, and service empathy of LihpaoLand; 3) according to the theoretical and empirical results, proposing how to improve the overall facilities and services of LihpaoLand, and hoping to provide suggestions to the LihpaoLand or other related businesses to make decision. The survey was conducted on the tourists to the LihpaoLand using convenience sampling, and 400 questionnaires were collected successfully. Analysis results show that tourists paid much attention to maintenance of amusement facilities and safety of the park, and were satisfied with them, which are great advantages of the park. However, transportation around the LihpaoLand was inadequate, and the price of the Fullon hotel (which is the hotel closest to the LihpaoLand) were not accepted by tourists – more promotion events are recommended. Additionally, the shows are not diversified, and should be improved with the highest priority. Tourists did not pay attention to service personnel’s clothing and the ticket price, but they were not satisfied with them. Hence, this study recommends to design more distinctive costumes and conduct ticket promotions. Accordingly, the suggestions made in this study for LihpaoLand are stated as follows: 1) Diversified amusement facilities should be provided to satisfy the needs at different ages. 2) Cheep but tasty catering and more distinctive souvenirs should be offered. 3) Diversified propaganda schemes should be strengthened to increase number of tourists. 4) Quality and professional of the service staff should be enhanced to acquire public praise and tourists revisiting. 5) Ticket promotions in peak seasons, low seasons, and special events should be conducted. 6) Proper traffic flows should be planned and combined with technologies to reduce waiting time of tourists. 7) The features of theme landscape in LihpaoLand should be strengthened to increase willingness of the tourists with special preferences to visit the park. 8) Ticket discounts or premier points card promotions should be adopted to reward the tourists with high loyalty.
86
133119
The Beauty and the Cruel: The Price of Ethics
Abstract:
Understood as the preference for products and services that do not involve moral dilemmas, ethical consumption has been increasingly discussed by scholars, practitioners, and consumers. Among its diverse trends, the defense of animal rights and welfare seems to have gained particular momentum in past decades. Not surprisingly, companies, governments, ideologues, and virtually any institution or group interested in (re)shaping society invest in the building of narratives oriented to influence consumption behavior. The animal rights movement, for example, is devoted to the elimination of the use of animals in science, as well as of commercial animal agriculture and hunting activities. Although advances in ethical consumption may be observed in practice, it still seems more popular as rhetoric. Diverse scholars have addressed the disparities between self-professed ethical consumers and their actual purchase patterns, with differences being attributed to factors such as price sensitivity, lack of information, quality, cynicism, and limited availability. The gap is also linked to the 'consumer sovereignty myth', according to which consumers are only able to choose from a pre-determined range of choices made before products reach them. On the other hand, academics also debate ethical consumption behavior as more likely to occur when it assumes compliance with social norms. As sustainability becomes a permanent issue, customers may tend to adhere to ethical consumption, either because of an individual value or due to a social one. Regardless of these efforts, the actual value attributed to ethical businesses remains unclear. Likewise, the power of stakeholders’ initiatives to influence corporate strategies is dubious. In search to offer new perspectives on these matters, the present study concentrates on the following research questions: Do customers value products/companies that respect animal rights? If so, does such enhanced value convert into actions from the part of the companies? Broadly, we aim to understand if customers’ perception holds performative traits (i.e., are capable of either trigger or contribute to changes in organizational behaviour around the respect for animal rights). In addressing these issues, two preliminary behavioral vignette-based experiments were conducted, with the perspectives of 307 participants being assessed. Building on a case of the cosmetics industry, social, emotional, and functional values were hypothesized as directly impacting positive word-of-mouth, which, in turn, would carry direct effects on purchase intention. A first structural equation model was analyzed with the combined samples of studies I and II. Results suggest that emotional value strongly impacts both positive word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Data confirms initial expectations on customers valuing products and companies that comply with ethical postures concerning animals, especially if social-oriented practices are also present.
85
31207
Shape Optimization of a Hole for Water Jetting in a Spudcan for a Jack-Up Rig
Abstract:
A Spudcan is mounted on the lower leg of the jack-up rig, a device for preventing a rollover of a structure and to support the structure in a stable sea floor. At the time of inserting the surface of the spud can to penetrate when the sand layer is stable and smoothly pulled to the clay layer, and at that time of recovery when uploading the spud can is equipped with a water injection device. In this study, it is significant to optimize the shape of pipelines holes for water injection device and it was set in two kinds of shape, the oval and round. Interpretation of the subject into the site of Gulf of Mexico offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessels (WTIV)was chosen as a target platform. Using the ANSYS Workbench commercial programs, optimal design was conducted. The results of this study can be applied to the hole-shaped design of various marine structures.
84
99811
Heavy Metals in the Water of Lakes in the 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park of Biosphere Reserve
Abstract:
Bory Tucholskie (Tucholskie Forest) is one of the largest pine forest complexes in Poland. It occupies approx. 3,000 square kilometers of Sandr in the Brda and Wda basin and the Tuchola Plain and the Charzykowskie Plain. Since 2010 it has transformed into The Bory Tucholskie Biosphere Reserve, according to the UNESCO decision. The area of the Bory Tucholskie National Park (BTNP), the park area, has been designated in 1996. There is little data on the presence of heavy metals in the Park's lakes. Concentration of heavy metals in the water of 19 lakes in the BTNP was examined. The lakes were divided into two groups: subglacial channel lakes of Struga Siedmiu Jezior (the Seven Lakes Stream) and other lakes. Heavy metals (transition metals) belong to d-block of elements. The part of these metals plays an important role in the function of living organisms as metalloproteins (enzymes, hemoproteins, vitamins, etc.). However, heavy metals are also typical; heavy metals are typical anthropogenic pollutants. Water samples were collected at the deepest points of lakes during spring and during summer stagnation. The analysis of metals was performed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer Varian Spectra A300/400 in electric atomizer (GTA 96) in graphite cuvette. In the waters of the Seven Lakes Stream (Ostrowite, Zielone, Jelen, Belczak, Glowka, Plesno, Skrzynka, Mielnica) the increase in the concentration of the manganese and iron from outflow to inflow of Charzykowskie lake was found, while the concentration of copper (approx. 4 μg dm⁻³) and cadmium ( < 0.5 μg dm⁻³) was similar in all lakes. The concentration of the lead also varied within 2.1-3.6 μg dm⁻³. The concentration of nickel was approx. 3-fold higher in Ostrowite lake than other lakes of Struga. In turn the waters of the lakes Ostrowite, Jelen and Belczak were rich in zinc. The lowest level of heavy metals was observed in Zielone lake. In the second group of lakes, i.e., Krzywce Wielkie and Krzywce Male the heavy metal concentrations were lower than in the waters of Struga but higher than in oligotrophic lakes, i.e., Nierybno, Gluche, Kociol, Gacno Wielkie, Gacno Mae, Dlugie, Zabionek, and Sosnowek. The concentration of cadmium was below 0.5 μg dm⁻³ in all the studied lakes from this group. In the group of oligotrophic lakes the highest concentrations of metals such as manganese, iron, zinc and nickel in Gacno Male and Gacno Wielkie were observed. The high level of manganese in Sosnowek and Gacno Wielkie lakes was found. The lead level was also high in Nierybno lake and nickel in Gacno Wielkie lake. The lower level of heavy metals was in oligotrophic lakes such as Kociol, Dlugie, Zabionek and α-mesotrophic lake, Krzywce Wielkie. Generally, the level of heavy metals in studied lakes situated in Bory Tucholskie National Park was lower than in other lakes of Bory Tucholskie Biosphere Reserve.
83
127238
Requirements for a Shared Management of State-Owned Building in the Archaeological Park of Pompeii
Abstract:
Maintenance, in Italy, is not yet a consolidated practice despite the benefits that could come from. Among the main reasons, there are the lack of financial resources and personnel in the public administration and a general lack of knowledge about how to activate and to manage a prevented and programmed maintenance. The experimentation suggests that users and tourists could be involved in the maintenance process from the knowledge phase to the monitoring ones by using mobile devices. The goal is to increase the quality of Facility Management for cultural heritage, prioritizing usage needs, and limiting interference between the key stakeholders. The method simplifies the consolidated procedures for the Information Systems, avoiding a loss in terms of quality and amount of information by focusing on the users' requirements: management economy, user safety, accessibility, and by receiving feedback information to define a framework that will lead to predictive maintenance. This proposal was designed to be tested in the Archaeological Park of Pompeii on the state property asset.
82
89847
Environmental Enrichment of Endangered Manipur Brow-Antlered Deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) for Sustainable Population Management under the ex situ Conservation in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India
Abstract:
The Manipur Brow-antlered deer, which is under 'Endangered' category of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been listed by the Central Zoo Authority of India under Conservation Breeding Programme in National Zoological Park, Delhi along with two other participating zoos viz. Assam Zoo, Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata and the coordinating zoo, Manipur Zoological Garden. A successful conservation and sustainable population management of Manipur Brow-antlered deer in captive conditions require a more scientific and systematic approach towards seasonal specific environmental enrichment under ex situ management. A detailed study has been carried out on Manipur Brow-antlered deer population in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India. Scientific observations were taken between 1000-1600 hours during summer, monsoon and winter seasons in 8001 square meters enclosure area of Manipur Brow-antlered deer from September 2015 to September 2017. Sampling occurrences of a specific behavior method in captive herd were used to assess seasonal requirements as well as behavioral responses of Manipur Brow-antlered deer toward the present environment inside the enclosure. The systematic observations on physical, social and behavioral enrichment factors like housing, exhibit design, ration, and weather gear arrangement were carried out in every season. The findings of the present study were compared with the pilot studies conducted in Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Assam and Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, Manipur Zoological Garden, Manipur and also with their natural habitat, i.e., Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur India. Gap areas in existing environmental enrichment of the captive habitat were identified and the recommendations have been made in accordance with Central Zoo Authority guidelines to establish scientific enrichment techniques for sustainable growth and development of Manipur Brow-antlered deer irrespective of seasonal changes. An attempt also has been made to suggest incorporation of some components of the natural habitat into the existing captive environment of Manipur Brow-antlered deer. The findings of the present study are very important to identify potential environmental challenges for establishing a naturalistic captive environment by maintaining an instinct behavioural pattern and thus reducing several behavioural abnormalities. It will also lead to manage better health condition and a successful Animal Exchange Programme among various zoos of India. Moreover, improvement in existing environmental enrichment will also help Manipur Brow-antlered deer population to adapt well in the extreme weather condition as well as to cope up with captive environmental challenges in a more natural way in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India.
81
89844
Environmental Enrichment of Endangered Manipur Brow-Antlered Deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) for Sustainable Population Management under the ex situ Conservation in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India
Abstract:
The Manipur Brow-antlered deer, which is under 'Endangered' category of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been listed by the Central Zoo Authority of India under Conservation Breeding Programme in National Zoological Park, Delhi along with two other participating zoos viz. Assam Zoo, Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata and the coordinating zoo, Manipur Zoological Garden. A successful conservation and sustainable population management of Manipur Brow-antlered deer in captive conditions require a more scientific and systematic approach towards seasonal specific environmental enrichment under ex situ management. A detailed study has been carried out on Manipur Brow-antlered deer population in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India. Scientific observations were taken between 1000-1600 hours during summer, monsoon and winter seasons in 8001 square meters enclosure area of Manipur Brow-antlered deer from September 2015 to September 2017. Sampling occurrences of a specific behavior method in captive herd were used to assess seasonal requirements as well as behavioral responses of Manipur Brow-antlered deer toward the present environment inside the enclosure. The systematic observations on physical, social and behavioral enrichment factors like housing, exhibit design, ration, and weather gear arrangement were carried out in every season. The findings of the present study were compared with the pilot studies conducted in Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Assam and Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, Manipur Zoological Garden, Manipur and also with their natural habitat, i.e., Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur India. Gap areas in existing environmental enrichment of the captive habitat were identified and the recommendations have been made in accordance with Central Zoo Authority guidelines to establish scientific enrichment techniques for sustainable growth and development of Manipur Brow-antlered deer irrespective of seasonal changes. An attempt also has been made to suggest incorporation of some components of the natural habitat into the existing captive environment of Manipur Brow-antlered deer. The findings of the present study are very important to identify potential environmental challenges for establishing a naturalistic captive environment by maintaining an instinct behavioural pattern and thus reducing several behavioural abnormalities. It will also lead to manage better health condition and a successful Animal Exchange Programme among various zoos of India. Moreover, improvement in existing environmental enrichment will also help Manipur Brow-antlered deer population to adapt well in the extreme weather condition as well as to cope up with captive environmental challenges in a more natural way in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India.
80
89851
Environmental Enrichment of Endangered Manipur Brow-Antlered Deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) for Sustainable Population Management under the ex situ Conservation in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India
Abstract:
The Manipur Brow-antlered deer, which is under 'Endangered' category of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been listed by the Central Zoo Authority of India under Conservation Breeding Programme in National Zoological Park, Delhi along with two other participating zoos viz. Assam Zoo, Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata and the coordinating zoo, Manipur Zoological Garden. A successful conservation and sustainable population management of Manipur Brow-antlered deer in captive conditions require a more scientific and systematic approach towards seasonal specific environmental enrichment under ex situ management. A detailed study has been carried out on Manipur Brow-antlered deer population in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India. Scientific observations were taken between 1000-1600 hours during summer, monsoon and winter seasons in 8001 square meters enclosure area of Manipur Brow-antlered deer from September 2015 to September 2017. Sampling occurrences of a specific behavior method in captive herd were used to assess seasonal requirements as well as behavioral responses of Manipur Brow-antlered deer toward the present environment inside the enclosure. The systematic observations on physical, social and behavioral enrichment factors like housing, exhibit design, ration, and weather gear arrangement were carried out in every season. The findings of the present study were compared with the pilot studies conducted in Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Assam and Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, Manipur Zoological Garden, Manipur and also with their natural habitat, i.e., Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur India. Gap areas in existing environmental enrichment of the captive habitat were identified and the recommendations have been made in accordance with Central Zoo Authority guidelines to establish scientific enrichment techniques for sustainable growth and development of Manipur Brow-antlered deer irrespective of seasonal changes. An attempt also has been made to suggest incorporation of some components of the natural habitat into the existing captive environment of Manipur Brow-antlered deer. The findings of the present study are very important to identify potential environmental challenges for establishing a naturalistic captive environment by maintaining an instinct behavioural pattern and thus reducing several behavioural abnormalities. It will also lead to manage better health condition and a successful Animal Exchange Programme among various zoos of India. Moreover, improvement in existing environmental enrichment will also help Manipur Brow-antlered deer population to adapt well in the extreme weather condition as well as to cope up with captive environmental challenges in a more natural way in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India.
79
89848
Environmental Enrichment of Endangered Manipur Brow-Antlered Deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) for Sustainable Population Management under the ex situ Conservation in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India
Abstract:
The Manipur Brow-antlered deer, which is under 'Endangered' category of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been listed by the Central Zoo Authority of India under Conservation Breeding Programme in National Zoological Park, Delhi along with two other participating zoos viz. Assam Zoo, Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata and the coordinating zoo, Manipur Zoological Garden. A successful conservation and sustainable population management of Manipur Brow-antlered deer in captive conditions require a more scientific and systematic approach towards seasonal specific environmental enrichment under ex situ management. A detailed study has been carried out on Manipur Brow-antlered deer population in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India. Scientific observations were taken between 1000-1600 hours during summer, monsoon and winter seasons in 8001 square meters enclosure area of Manipur Brow-antlered deer from September 2015 to September 2017. Sampling occurrences of a specific behavior method in captive herd were used to assess seasonal requirements as well as behavioral responses of Manipur Brow-antlered deer toward the present environment inside the enclosure. The systematic observations on physical, social and behavioral enrichment factors like housing, exhibit design, ration, and weather gear arrangement were carried out in every season. The findings of the present study were compared with the pilot studies conducted in Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Assam and Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, Manipur Zoological Garden, Manipur and also with their natural habitat, i.e., Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur India. Gap areas in existing environmental enrichment of the captive habitat were identified and the recommendations have been made in accordance with Central Zoo Authority guidelines to establish scientific enrichment techniques for sustainable growth and development of Manipur Brow-antlered deer irrespective of seasonal changes. An attempt also has been made to suggest incorporation of some components of the natural habitat into the existing captive environment of Manipur Brow-antlered deer. The findings of the present study are very important to identify potential environmental challenges for establishing a naturalistic captive environment by maintaining an instinct behavioural pattern and thus reducing several behavioural abnormalities. It will also lead to manage better health condition and a successful Animal Exchange Programme among various zoos of India. Moreover, improvement in existing environmental enrichment will also help Manipur Brow-antlered deer population to adapt well in the extreme weather condition as well as to cope up with captive environmental challenges in a more natural way in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India.
78
89846
Environmental Enrichment of Endangered Manipur Brow-Antlered Deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) for Sustainable Population Management under the ex situ Conservation in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India
Abstract:
The Manipur Brow-antlered deer, which is under 'Endangered' category of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been listed by the Central Zoo Authority of India under Conservation Breeding Programme in National Zoological Park, Delhi along with two other participating zoos viz. Assam Zoo, Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata and the coordinating zoo, Manipur Zoological Garden. A successful conservation and sustainable population management of Manipur Brow-antlered deer in captive conditions require a more scientific and systematic approach towards seasonal specific environmental enrichment under ex situ management. A detailed study has been carried out on Manipur Brow-antlered deer population in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India. Scientific observations were taken between 1000-1600 hours during summer, monsoon and winter seasons in 8001 square meters enclosure area of Manipur Brow-antlered deer from September 2015 to September 2017. Sampling occurrences of a specific behavior method in captive herd were used to assess seasonal requirements as well as behavioral responses of Manipur Brow-antlered deer toward the present environment inside the enclosure. The systematic observations on physical, social and behavioral enrichment factors like housing, exhibit design, ration, and weather gear arrangement were carried out in every season. The findings of the present study were compared with the pilot studies conducted in Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Assam and Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, Manipur Zoological Garden, Manipur and also with their natural habitat, i.e., Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur India. Gap areas in existing environmental enrichment of the captive habitat were identified and the recommendations have been made in accordance with Central Zoo Authority guidelines to establish scientific enrichment techniques for sustainable growth and development of Manipur Brow-antlered deer irrespective of seasonal changes. An attempt also has been made to suggest incorporation of some components of the natural habitat into the existing captive environment of Manipur Brow-antlered deer. The findings of the present study are very important to identify potential environmental challenges for establishing a naturalistic captive environment by maintaining an instinct behavioural pattern and thus reducing several behavioural abnormalities. It will also lead to manage better health condition and a successful Animal Exchange Programme among various zoos of India. Moreover, improvement in existing environmental enrichment will also help Manipur Brow-antlered deer population to adapt well in the extreme weather condition as well as to cope up with captive environmental challenges in a more natural way in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India.
77
89845
Environmental Enrichment of Endangered Manipur Brow-Antlered Deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) for Sustainable Population Management under the ex situ Conservation in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India
Abstract:
The Manipur Brow-antlered deer, which is under 'Endangered' category of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been listed by the Central Zoo Authority of India under Conservation Breeding Programme in National Zoological Park, Delhi along with two other participating zoos viz. Assam Zoo, Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata and the coordinating zoo, Manipur Zoological Garden. A successful conservation and sustainable population management of Manipur Brow-antlered deer in captive conditions require a more scientific and systematic approach towards seasonal specific environmental enrichment under ex situ management. A detailed study has been carried out on Manipur Brow-antlered deer population in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India. Scientific observations were taken between 1000-1600 hours during summer, monsoon and winter seasons in 8001 square meters enclosure area of Manipur Brow-antlered deer from September 2015 to September 2017. Sampling occurrences of a specific behavior method in captive herd were used to assess seasonal requirements as well as behavioral responses of Manipur Brow-antlered deer toward the present environment inside the enclosure. The systematic observations on physical, social and behavioral enrichment factors like housing, exhibit design, ration, and weather gear arrangement were carried out in every season. The findings of the present study were compared with the pilot studies conducted in Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Assam and Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, Manipur Zoological Garden, Manipur and also with their natural habitat, i.e., Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur India. Gap areas in existing environmental enrichment of the captive habitat were identified and the recommendations have been made in accordance with Central Zoo Authority guidelines to establish scientific enrichment techniques for sustainable growth and development of Manipur Brow-antlered deer irrespective of seasonal changes. An attempt also has been made to suggest incorporation of some components of the natural habitat into the existing captive environment of Manipur Brow-antlered deer. The findings of the present study are very important to identify potential environmental challenges for establishing a naturalistic captive environment by maintaining an instinct behavioural pattern and thus reducing several behavioural abnormalities. It will also lead to manage better health condition and a successful Animal Exchange Programme among various zoos of India. Moreover, improvement in existing environmental enrichment will also help Manipur Brow-antlered deer population to adapt well in the extreme weather condition as well as to cope up with captive environmental challenges in a more natural way in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India.
76
88667
Environmental Enrichment of Endangered Manipur Brow-Antlered Deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) for Sustainable Population Management under the ex situ Conservation in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India
Abstract:
The Manipur Brow-antlered deer, which is under 'Endangered' category of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been listed by the Central Zoo Authority of India under Conservation Breeding Programme in National Zoological Park, Delhi along with two other participating zoos viz. Assam Zoo, Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata and the coordinating zoo, Manipur Zoological Garden. A successful conservation and sustainable population management of Manipur Brow-antlered deer in captive conditions require a more scientific and systematic approach towards seasonal specific environmental enrichment under ex situ management. A detailed study has been carried out on Manipur Brow-antlered deer population in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India. Scientific observations were taken between 1000-1600 hours during summer, monsoon and winter seasons in 8001 square meters enclosure area of Manipur Brow-antlered deer from September 2015 to September 2017. Sampling occurrences of a specific behavior method in captive herd were used to assess seasonal requirements as well as behavioral responses of Manipur Brow-antlered deer toward the present environment inside the enclosure. The systematic observations on physical, social and behavioral enrichment factors like housing, exhibit design, ration, and weather gear arrangement were carried out in every season. The findings of the present study were compared with the pilot studies conducted in Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Assam and Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, Manipur Zoological Garden, Manipur and also with their natural habitat, i.e., Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur India. Gap areas in existing environmental enrichment of the captive habitat were identified and the recommendations have been made in accordance with Central Zoo Authority guidelines to establish scientific enrichment techniques for sustainable growth and development of Manipur Brow-antlered deer irrespective of seasonal changes. An attempt also has been made to suggest incorporation of some components of the natural habitat into the existing captive environment of Manipur Brow-antlered deer. The findings of the present study are very important to identify potential environmental challenges for establishing a naturalistic captive environment by maintaining an instinct behavioural pattern and thus reducing several behavioural abnormalities. It will also lead to manage better health condition and a successful Animal Exchange Programme among various zoos of India. Moreover, improvement in existing environmental enrichment will also help Manipur Brow-antlered deer population to adapt well in the extreme weather condition as well as to cope up with captive environmental challenges in a more natural way in National Zoological Park, Delhi, India.
75
44013
Adjusted LOLE and EENS Indices for the Consideration of Load Excess Transfer in Power Systems Adequacy Studies
Abstract:
When evaluating the capacity of a generation park to cover the load in transmission systems, traditional Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) and Expected Energy not Served (EENS) indices can be used. If those indices allow computing the annual duration and severity of load non-covering situations, they do not take into account the fact that the load excess is generally shifted from one penury state (hour or quarter of an hour) to the following one. In this paper, a sequential Monte Carlo framework is introduced in order to compute adjusted LOLE and EENS indices. Practically, those adapted indices permit to consider the effect of load excess transfer on the global adequacy of a generation park, providing thus a more accurate evaluation of this quantity.
74
20326
Intensification of Ethyl Esters Synthesis Using a Packed-Bed Tubular Reactor at Supercritical Conditions
Abstract:
In the present study, the non-catalytic transesterification of soybean oil in continuous mode using supercritical ethanol were investigated. Experiments were performed in a packed-bed tubular reactor (PBTR) and variable studied were reaction temperature (523 K to 598 K), pressure (10 MPa to 20 MPa), oil to ethanol molar ratio (1:10 to 1:40) and water concentration (0 wt% to 10 wt% in ethanol). Results showed that ethyl esters yields obtained in the PBTR were higher (&gt; 20 wt%) than those verified in a tubular reactor (TR), due to improved mass transfer conditions attained in the PBTR. Results demonstrated that temperature, pressure, oil to ethanol molar ratio and water concentration had a positive effect on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) production in the experimental range investigated, with appreciable reaction yields (90 wt%) achieved at 598 K, 20 MPa, oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:40 and 10 wt% of water concentration.
73
26970
Encoding the Design of the Memorial Park and the Family Network as the Icon of 9/11 in Amy Waldman's the Submission
Authors:
Abstract:
After 9/11, the American literary scene was confronted with new perspectives that enabled both writers and readers to recognize the hidden aspects of their political, economic, legal, social, and cultural phenomena. There appeared an argument over new and challenging multicultural aspects after 9/11 and this argument is presented by a tension of space related to 9/11. In Amy Waldman’s the Submission (2011), designing both the memorial park and the family network has a significant meaning in establishing the progress of understanding from multiple perspectives. The most intriguing and controversial topic of racism is reflected in the Submission, where one young architect’s blind entry to the competition for the memorial of Ground Zero is nominated, yet he is confronted with strong objections and hostility as soon as he turns out to be a Muslim named Mohammad Khan. This ‘Khan’ issue, immediately enlarged into a social controversial issue on American soil, causes repeated acts of hostility to Muslim women by ignorant citizens all over America. His idea of the park is to design a new concept of tracing the cultural background of the open space. Against his will, his name is identified as the ‘ingredient’ of the networking of the resistant community with his supporters: on the other hand, the post 9/11 hysteria and victimization is presented in such family associations as the Angry Family Members and Grieving Family Members. These rapidly expanding networks, whether political or not, constructed by the internet, embody the contemporary societal connection and representation. The contemporary quest for the significance of human relationships is recognized as a quest for global peace. Designing both the memorial park and the communication networks strengthens a process of facing the shared conflicts and healing the survivors’ trauma. The tension between the idea and networking of the Garden for the memorial site and the collapse of Ground Zero signifies the double mission of the site: to establish the space to ease the wounded and to remember the catastrophe. Reading the design of these icons of 9/11 in the Submission means that decoding the myth of globalization and its representations in this century.
72
95563
Assessing Missouri State Park Employee Perceptions of Vulnerability and Resilience to Extreme Weather Events
Abstract:
State parks and historic sites are vulnerable to extreme weather events which can affect visitor experiences, management priorities, and legislative requests for disaster relief funds. Recently, global attention has been focused on the perceptions of global warming and how the presence of extreme weather events might impact protected areas, both now and in the future. The effects of climate change are not equally distributed across the United States, leading to varied perceptions based on personal experience with extreme weather events. This study describes employee perceptions of vulnerability and resilience in Missouri State Parks & Historic Sites due to extreme weather events that occur across the state but grouped according to physiographic provinces. Using a four-point rating scale, perceptions of vulnerability and resilience were divided into high and low sub-groups, thus allowing researchers to construct a two by two typology of employee responses. Subsequently, this data was used to develop a three-point continuum of environmental concern (higher scores meant more concern). Employee scores were then compared against a statewide assessment which combined social, economic, infrastructural and environmental indicators of vulnerability and resilience. State park employees thought the system was less vulnerable and more resilient to climate change than data found in statewide assessment This result was also consistent in three out of five physiographic regions across Missouri. Implications suggest that Missouri state park should develop a climate change adaptation strategy for emergency preparedness.
71
81735
Examining the Role of Tree Species in Absorption of Heavy Metals; Case Study: Abidar Forest Park
Abstract:
Industrial and traffic activities cause large amounts of heavy metals enter into the atmosphere and the use of plant species can be effective in assessing and reducing air pollution by metals. This study aimed to investigate the adsorption level of heavy metals in leaves of Fraxinus rotundifolia, Robinia, Platanus orientalis, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus eldarica trees in Abidar forest park. For this purpose, samples leaves of the trees were prepared from the contaminated and control areas in each region in 3 stations with 3 replicates in mid-August and finally 90 samples were sent to the laboratory. Then, the concentrations of heavy metals were measured by graphite furnace. To do this, factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with two factors of location on two levels (contaminated area and control area) and the factor of species on five levels (Fraxinus rotundifolia, Robinia, Platanus orientalis, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus eldarica) with three replications was used. The analysis of collected data was performed by SPSS software and Duncan's multiple range test was used to compare the means. The results showed that the accumulation of all metals in the leaves of most species in the infected area with a significant difference at 95% level was higher than the control area. In the contaminated area, with a significant difference at 5% level, the highest accumulations of metals were observed as the following: lead, cadmium, zinc and manganese in Platanus orientalis, nickel in Fraxinus rotundifolia and copper in Platycladus orientalis.
70
92043
The Exploration on the Mode of Renovation and Reconstruction of Old Factory Buildings for Cultural and Creative Industrial Parks
Abstract:
Since the reform and opening, China's cities have developed rapidly, and the industrial structure has been constantly adjusted and optimized. A large number of industrial plants have lost their production functions and become idle buildings. The renovation projects for the old factory buildings are important parts of the urban renewal, and most of them are the cultural and creative industrial park projects. In this paper, a statistical analysis of renovation projects of the representative cultural and creative industrial parks in recent years was conducted. According to the user's spatial experience satisfaction survey, the physical and spatial factors affecting the space regeneration of the old factory were concluded. Thus the relationship between space regeneration and material, structure, internal and external space design has been derived. Finally, we summarized the general spatial processing model in which the contradiction between ‘new’ and ‘old’ can be grafted and transformed.
69
47808
Research on Development and Accuracy Improvement of an Explosion Proof Combustible Gas Leak Detector Using an IR Sensor
Abstract:
In this paper, we presented not only development technology of an explosion proof type and portable combustible gas leak detector but also algorithm to improve accuracy for measuring gas concentrations. The presented techniques are to apply the flame-proof enclosure and intrinsic safe explosion proof to an infrared gas leak detector at first in Korea and to improve accuracy using linearization recursion equation and Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Together, we tested sensor characteristics and calibrated suitable input gases and output voltages. Then, we advanced the performances of combustible gaseous detectors through reflecting demands of gas safety management fields. To check performances of two company&#39;s detectors, we achieved the measurement tests with eight standard gases made by Korea Gas Safety Corporation. We demonstrated our instruments better in detecting accuracy other than detectors through experimental results.
68
71704
Influence of Coenzyme as a Corrosion Barrier for Biodegradable Magnesium
Abstract:
Magnesium is an essential element in human body and has unique characteristics such as bioabsorbable and biodegradable properties. Therefore, there has been much attention on studies on the implants based on magnesium to avoid subsequent surgery. However, high amount of hydrogen gas is generated by relatively severe corrosion of magnesium especially in aqueous condition with chloride ions. And it contributes to the causes of swelling of skin and causes consequent inflammation of soft tissue where is directly in contact with implants. Therefore, there is still concern about the safety of the using biodegradable magnesium alloys, which is limited to various applications. In this study, we analyzed the influence of coenzyme on corrosion behavior of magnesium. The analysis of corrosion rate was held by using Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) as a body stimulated fluid and in condition of 37°C. Thus, with deferring the concentration of the coenzyme used in this study, corrosion rates from 0.0654ml/ cm² to 0.0438ml/cm² were observed in immersion tests. Also, comparable results were obtained in electrochemical tests. Results showed that hydrogen gas produced from corrosion of magnesium can be controlled.
67
77162
Optimal Design of Shape for Increasing the Bonding Pressure Drawing of Hot Clad Pipes by Finite Element Method Analysis
Abstract:
Clad Pipe is made of a different kind of material, which is different from the internal and external materials, for the corrosive crude oil transportation tube. Most of the clad pipes are produced by hot rolling. However, problems arise due to high product prices and excessive process numbers. Therefore, in this study, the hot drawing process with excellent product cost, process number and productivity is applied. Due to the nature of the drawing process, the shape of the mold greatly influences the formability of the material and the bonding pressure of the two materials because it is a process of drawing the material to the die and reducing the cross-sectional area. Also, in case of hot drawing, if the mold shape is not suitable due to the increased fluidity of the material, it may cause problems such as tearing and stretching. Therefore, in this study, we try to find the shape of the mold which suppresses the occurrence of defects in the hot drawing process and maximizes the bonding pressure between the two materials through the mold shape optimization design by FEM analysis.
66
26170
Development, Testing, and Application of a Low-Cost Technology Sulphur Dioxide Monitor as a Tool for use in a Volcanic Emissions Monitoring Network
Abstract:
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) has been defined as a non-flammable, non-explosive, colourless gas, having a pungent, irritating odour, and is one of the main gases emitted from volcanoes. Sulphur dioxide has been recorded in concentrations hazardous to humans (0.25 – 0.5 ppm (~650 – 1300 μg/m3), downwind of many volcanoes and hence warrants constant air-quality monitoring around these sites. It has been linked to an increase in chronic respiratory disease attributed to long-term exposures and alteration in lung and other physiological functions attributed to short-term exposures. Sulphur Springs in Saint Lucia is a highly active geothermal area, located within the Soufrière Volcanic Centre, and is a park widely visited by tourists and locals. It is also a current source of continuous volcanic emissions via its many fumaroles and bubbling pools, warranting concern by residents and visitors to the park regarding the effects of exposure to these gases. In this study, we introduce a novel SO2 measurement system for the monitoring and quantification of ambient levels of airborne volcanic SO2 using low-cost technology. This work involves the extensive production of low-cost SO2 monitors/samplers, as well as field examination in tandem with standard commercial samplers (SO2 diffusion tubes). It also incorporates community involvement in the volcanic monitoring process as non-professional users of the instrument. We intend to present the preliminary monitoring results obtained from the low-cost samplers, to identify the areas in the Park exposed to high concentrations of ambient SO2, and to assess the feasibility of the instrument for non-professional use and application in volcanic settings
65
64376
Informalization and Feminization of Labour Force in the Context of Globalization of Production: Case Study of Women Migrant Workers in Kinfra Apparel Park of India
Abstract:
In the current phase of globalization, the mobility of capital facilitates outsourcing and subcontracting of production processes to the developing economies for cheap and flexible labour force. In such process, the globalization of production networks operates at multi-locational points within the nation. Under the new quota regime in the globalization period, the Indian manufacturing exporters came under the influence of corporate buyers and large retailers from the importing countries. As part of such process, the garment manufacturing sector is expected to create huge employment opportunities and to expand the export market in the country. While following these, expectations, the apparel and garment industries mostly target to hire female migrant workers with a purpose of establishing more flexible industrial relations through the casual nature of employment contract. It leads to an increasing women’s participation in the labour market as well as the rise in precarious forms of female paid employment. In the context, the main objective of the paper is to understand the wider dynamics of globalization of production and its link with informalization, feminization of labour force and internal migration process of the country. For this purpose, the study examines the changing labour relations in the KINFRA Apparel Park at Kerala’s Special Economic Zone which operates under the scheme ‘Apparel Parks for Export’ (APE) of the Government of India. The present study was based on both quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the first, the secondary sources of data were collected from the source location (SEAM centre) and destination (KINFRA Park). The official figures and data were discussed and analyzed in order to find out the various dimensions of labour relations under globalization of production. In the second, the primary survey was conducted to make a comparative analysis of local and migrant female workers. The study is executed by taking 100 workers in total. The local workers comprised of 53% of the sample whereas the outside state workers were 47%. Even personal interviews with management staff, and workers were also made for collecting the information regarding the organisational structure, nature, and mode of recruitment, work environment, etc. The study shows the enormous presence of rural women migrant workers in KINFRA Apparel Park. A Public Private Partnership (PPP) arranged migration system is found as Skills for Employment in Apparel Manufacturing (SEAM) from where young women and girls are being sent to work in garment factories of Kerala’s KINFRA International Apparel Park under the guise of an apprenticeship based recruitment. The study concludes that such arrangements try to avoid standard employment relationships and strengthen informalization, casualization and contractualization of work. In this process, the recruitment of women migrant workers is to be considered as best option for the employers of private industries which could be more easily hired and fired.
64
5000
Pattern Recognition Using Feature Based Die-Map Clustering in the Semiconductor Manufacturing Process
Abstract:
Depending on the big data analysis becomes important, yield prediction using data from the semiconductor process is essential. In general, yield prediction and analysis of the causes of the failure are closely related. The purpose of this study is to analyze pattern affects the final test results using a die map based clustering. Many researches have been conducted using die data from the semiconductor test process. However, analysis has limitation as the test data is less directly related to the final test results. Therefore, this study proposes a framework for analysis through clustering using more detailed data than existing die data. This study consists of three phases. In the first phase, die map is created through fail bit data in each sub-area of die. In the second phase, clustering using map data is performed. And the third stage is to find patterns that affect final test result. Finally, the proposed three steps are applied to actual industrial data and experimental results showed the potential field application.
63
83771
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Floating Body Motion Interacting with Focused Waves
Abstract:
Rogue waves cause frequent accidents of ships and offshore structures, which can result in severe damage to the structures. The Rogue waves, which are also known as big waves, freak waves, extreme waves, monster waves, focused waves, giant waves and abnormal waves, are unexpected and suddenly appearing, and can have a breaking force to destroy the structure even though modern structures are designed to tolerate a breaking wave. In the present study, a series of focused waves are numerically reproduced by concentrating nonlinear multi-directional waves into a target point using a commercial CFD software, Star-CCM+. A flow analysis for investigating the physical characteristics of the focused waves is performed using the Star-CCM+, while it has several difficulties to examine the inner properties of the waves in existing potential theory and experiments. Additionally, the 6-DOF (Degree of Freedom) motion of a floating body interacting with the focused waves are simulated, and the dynamic response of the body are discussed.
62
119177
Estimating Visitor’s Willingness to Pay for the Conservation Fund: Sustainable Financing Approach in Protected Areas in Ethiopia
Abstract:
Increasingly, protected areas have been confronting with inadequate conservation funds that make it tough to antithesis the continuing of annihilation. The problem is even grave in developing countries, where Protected Areas (Pas) are mainly government-administered. Subsequently, it needs a strong effort to toughen the self-financing capability of PAs by ripening alternative sources of sustainable financing for realizing the conservation goals, in particular, to save the remaining natural planet. This study, therefore, designed to estimate visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the additional conservation fees using a contingent valuation method. The effect relationship between WTP and both socio-demographic and non-economic factors was scrutinized by binary logistic regression. The mean WTP of foreign visitors has estimated at US$ 7.4 and for that of domestic visitors at US$1, with annual aggregate revenue of US$29, 200. The WTP was strongly influenced by income, satisfaction, environmental concern and attitude. The study has policy implications for the conservationists and park authorities to estimate the non-use values of PAs for developing market-based conservation instruments.
61
111975
Human-Elephant Conflict and Mitigation Measures in Buffer Zone of Bardia National Park, Nepal
Abstract:
Understanding Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC) is very important in countries like Nepal, where solutions to escalating conflicts are urgently required. However, most of the HEC mitigation measures implemented so far have been done on an ad hoc basis without the detailed understanding of nature and extent of the damage. This study aims to assess the current scenario of HEC in regards to crop and property damages by Wild Asian Elephant and people’s perception towards existing mitigating measures and elephant conservation in Buffer zone area of Bardia National Park. The methods used were a questionnaire survey (N= 178), key-informant interview (N= 18) and focal group discussions (N= 6). Descriptive statistics were used to determine the nature and extent of damage and to understand people’s perception towards HEC, its mitigation measures and elephant conservation. Chi-square test was applied to determine the significance of crop and property damages with respect to distance from the park boundary. Out of all types of damage, crop damage was found to be the highest (51%), followed by house damage (31%) and damage to stored grains (18%) with winter being the season with the greatest elephant damage. Among 178 respondents, the majority of them (82%) were positive towards elephant conservation despite the increment in HEC incidents as perceived by 88% of total respondents. Among the mitigation measures present, the most applied was electric fence (91%) followed by barbed wire fence (5%), reinforced concrete cement wall (3%) and gabion wall (1%). Most effective mitigation measures were reinforced concrete cement wall and gabion wall. To combat increasing crop damage, the insurance policy should be initiated. The efficiency of the mitigation measures should be timely monitored, and corrective measures should be applied as per the need.
60
134633
Exploring the Aesthetics of Sexual Violence in Therese Park’s ‘A Gift of the Emperor’: A Brief Study on Korean Comfort Women
Abstract:
The use of rape as a weapon of war has been in existence for as early as the middle ages. Women, during the conflict, have been treated as the spoils of war, a reward for the conquering soldiers granted to them by their superiors which is, arguably, most often overlooked as part of the collateral damage that is unavoidable in conflict zones. Korean-born Therese Park’s first novel, A Gift of the Emperor (1997), describes one such atrocious incidence wherein she highlights the active role the Japanese military played in procuring and condoning trafficking of women, who were euphemistically referred to as ‘comfort women’, for prostitution during World War II. This paper thus aims to look at the remembering and reckonings of these women, which fueled a range of creative gestures in the artistic representations and knowledge production by Korean American artists and writers. The essay divides into three parts wherein first it tries to highlight the relationship of the state and the self in relation to the ‘comfort women’ as to who bears the onus of the exploitation of these women, or the responsibility for the redressal with the present-day notions of human rights as studied through Ueno Chizuko’s ‘The Politics of Memory: Nation, Individual and Self’ (1999). There are several narratological elements of the text that are of interest here which shall be viewed and analysed throughout the paper as well. The second part of the paper talks about the aesthetics of rape and sexual violence as represented or (mis)represented by Park in her novel as she attempts to give voice to the victim and retain her and her suffering as the central focus of the narrative. Finally, the third part of the novel explores as well as places the novel in the context of debates over the highly contested issue of ‘comfort women’ and the actual ‘comfort women’ survivors’ testimonies. For this purpose, the present study focuses on Dori Laub’s ‘Truth and Testimony: The Process and the Struggle’ (1991).
59
57055
Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plants in Bridim Village Development Committee in Langtang National Park, Nepal
Authors:
Abstract:
Bridim Village Development Committee (VDC) is one of the medicinal plants hot spots of Nepal. It is located on a ridge above the lower Langtang Khola, steep and narrow spot in between 1944 m to 4833 m altitude. The study area is homogeneously inhabited by Tamang communities. An investigation on folk herbal medicine on the basis of traditional uses of medicinal plants was done in 2014. The local traditional healers, elder men and women, traders and teachers, were consulted as key informants for documentation of indigenous knowledge on the medicinal plants. It was found that altogether seventy-one medicinal plant species belonging to sixty genera and thirty-three families were used by local people for twenty-seven diseases. Roots of thirty-four species were the most frequently used plant parts and bigger numbers of species were found to be used in fever of ten species. Most medicines were prepared in the form of juice of forty species. The attempt of the study was to document ethno medicinal practices to treat different diseases in the study area for conservation of indigenous knowledge.
58
60069
The Prediction of Sound Absorbing Coefficient for Multi-Layer Non-Woven
Abstract:
Automotive interior material consisting of several material layers has the sound-absorbing function. It is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because of several material layers. So, many experimental tunings are required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, while the car interior materials are developed, so much time and money is spent. In this study, we present a method to predict the sound absorbing performance of the material with multi-layer using physical properties of each material. The properties are predicted by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Then, we will compare and analyze the predicted sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If the method is used instead of experimental tuning in the development of car interior material, the time and money can be saved, and then, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation.
57
61540
Preliminary Design of Maritime Energy Management System: Naval Architectural Approach to Resolve Recent Limitations
Abstract:
Energy management in the maritime industry is being required by economics and in conformity with new legislative actions taken by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the European Union (EU). In response, the various performance monitoring methodologies and data collection practices have been examined by different stakeholders. While many assorted advancements in operation and technology are applicable, their adoption in the shipping industry stays small. This slow uptake can be considered due to many different barriers such as data analysis problems, misreported data, and feedback problems, etc. This study presents a conceptual design of an energy management system (EMS) and proposes the methodology to resolve the limitations (e.g., data normalization using naval architectural evaluation, management of misrepresented data, and feedback from shore to ship through management of performance analysis history). We expect this system to make even short-term charterers assess the ship performance properly and implement sustainable fleet control.
56
62315
Comparison of Techniques for Detection and Diagnosis of Eccentricity in the Air-Gap Fault in Induction Motors
Abstract:
The induction motors are used worldwide in various industries. Several maintenance techniques are applied to increase the operating time and the lifespan of these motors. Among these, the predictive maintenance techniques such as Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), Motor Square Current Signature Analysis (MSCSA), Park's Vector Approach (PVA) and Park's Vector Square Modulus (PVSM) are used to detect and diagnose faults in electric motors, characterized by patterns in the stator current frequency spectrum. In this article, these techniques are applied and compared on a real motor, which has the fault of eccentricity in the air-gap. It was used as a theoretical model of an electric induction motor without fault in order to assist comparison between the stator current frequency spectrum patterns with and without faults. Metrics were purposed and applied to evaluate the sensitivity of each technique fault detection. The results presented here show that the above techniques are suitable for the fault of eccentricity in the air gap, whose comparison between these showed the suitability of each one.
55
13544
Cultural Regeneration and Social Impacts of Industrial Heritage Transformation: The Case of Westergasfabriek Cultural Park, Netherland
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to strengthen the social cohesion of the local community by injecting the cultural and creative concept into the industrial heritage transformation. The paradigms of industrial heritage research tend to explore from the perspective of space analysis, which concerned less about the cultural regeneration and the development of local culture. The paradigms of cultural quarter research use to from the perspective of creative economy and urban planning, concerned less about the social impacts and the interaction between residents and industrial sites. This research combines these two research areas of industrial heritage and cultural quarter, and focus on the social and cultural aspects. The transformation from the industrial heritage into a cultural park not only enhances the cultural capital and the quality of residents’ lives, but also preserves the unique local values. Internally it shapes the local identity, while externally establishes the image of the city. This paper uses Westergasfabriek Cultural Park in Amsterdam as the case study, through literature analysis, field work, and depth interview to explore how the cultural regeneration transforms industrial heritage. In terms of the planners’ and residents’ point of view adopt the theory of community participation, social capital, and sense of place to analyze the social impact of the industrial heritage transformation. The research finding is through cultural regeneration policies like holding cultural activities, building up public space, social network and public-private partnership, and adopting adaptive reuse to fulfil the people’s need and desire and reach the social cohesion. Finally, the study will examine the transformation of Taiwan's industrial heritage into cultural and creative quarters. The results are expected to use the operating experience of the Amsterdam cases and provide directions for Taiwan’s industrial heritage management to meet the cultural, social, economic symbiosis.
54
49800
Visitor's Perception toward Boating in Silver River, Florida
Abstract:
Silver Springs are one of Florida's first tourist attractions. They are one of the largest artesian spring formations in the world, producing nearly 550 million gallons of crystal-clear water daily that is one of the most popular sites for water-based leisure activities. As part of managing the use of a state park, the state is interested in establishing a baseline count of number of boating users to compare this to the quality of the natural resources and environment in the park. Understanding the status of the environmental resources and also the human recreational experience is the main objective of the project. Two main goals of current study are 1) to identify the distribution of different types of watercrafts (kayak, canoe, motor boat, Jet Ski, paddleboard and pontoon). 2) To document the level of real crowdedness in the river during different seasons, months, and hours of each day based on the reliable information gained from camera versus self-reported method by tourists themselves in the past studies (the innovative achievement of this study). In line with these objectives, on-site surveys and also boat counting using a time-lapse camera at the Riverside launch was done during 12 months of 2015. 700 on-site surveys were conducted at three watercraft boat ramp sites (Rays Wayside, Riverside launch area, Ft. King Waterway) of recreational users. We used Virtualdub and ImageJ software for counting boats for meeting the first and second goals, since this two software can report even the hour of presence of watercraft in the water in addition to the number of users and the type of watercraft. The most crowded hours were between 9-11AM from February to May and kayak was the most popular watercraft. The findings of this research can make a good foundation for better management in this state park in future.
53
76402
Assessment Proposal to Establish the First Geo-Park in Egypt at Abu-Roash Area, Cairo
Abstract:
Egypt is known as cradle of civilization due to its ancient history and archeological sites, but Egypt possess also a cradle of Geo-sites, which qualify it to be listed as one of the most important Geo-heritage sites all over the country. Geology and landscape in Abu-Roash area is considered as one of the most important geological places (geo-sites) inside Cairo which help us to know and understand geology and geologic processes, so the area is used mainly for geological education purposes, also the area contain an archeological sites; pyramid complex, tombs, and Coptic monastery which give the area unique importance. Abu-Roash area is located inside Cairo 9 km north of the Giza Pyramids, which make the accessibility to the area easy and safe, the geology of Abu-Roash constitutes a complex Cretaceous sedimentary succession mass with showing outstanding tectonic features (Syrian Arc system event), these features are considered as a Geo-heritage, which will be the main designation of ‘Geo-parks’ establishing. The research is dealing with the numerous geo-sites found in the area, and its geologic and archeological importance, the relation between geo-sites and archeology, also the research proposed a detailed maps for these sites depicting Geo-routes and the hazardous places surrounding Abu-Roash area. The research is proposing a new proposal not applied in Egypt before, establishing a Geo-park, to promote this unique geo-heritage from hazardous factors and anthropogenic effects, also it will offer geo-educational opportunities to the general public and to the scientific community, enhancement of Geo-tourism which will be linked easily with the Ancient Egyptian tourism, it will also provide a significant economic benefit to Abu-Roash residential area. Finally, the research recommends that The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations promote conservation of geological and geo-morphological heritage to list this area for its importance under the umbrella of geo-parks.
52
57282
Case Study: Hybrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall System Built on Basal Reinforced Raft
Abstract:
The truck park of a warehouse for a chain of supermarket was going to be constructed on a poor ground. Rather than using a piled foundation, the client was convinced that a ground improvement using a reinforced foundation raft also known as “basal reinforcement” shall work. The retaining structures supporting the truck park area were designed using a hybrid structure made up of the Terramesh® Wall System and MacGrid™ high strength geogrids. The total wall surface area is nearly 2740 sq.m , reaching a maximum height of 13.00 meters. The area is located in the first degree seismic zone of Turkey and the design seismic acceleration is high. The design of walls has been carried out using pseudo-static method (limit equilibrium) taking into consideration different loading conditions using Eurocode 7. For each standard approach stability analysis in seismic condition were performed. The paper presents the detailed design of the reinforced soil structure, basal reinforcement and the construction methods; advantages of using such system for the project are discussed.
51
52512
Monitoring of Key Indicators of Sustainable Tourism in the Jalapão State Park/Tocantins: A Case Study of Environmental Indicators
Abstract:
Since the 1980s, global tourism activity has consolidated worldwide to become an important economic contributor, and consequently, the sociocultural and environmental impacts are starting to become evidenced. This raises the need of discussing about actions for sustainable tourism that should be linked not only to the economy, but also to the environment and social aspects. The work that is going to be presented is part of a doctoral research project in Sciences undertaken at the Sao Paulo University, Brazil. It aims to analyze whether the monitoring of the tourism sector with a focus on sustainability is applicable or not, through those indicators, put in a case study in the Jalap&atilde;o State Park (JSP) conservation unit, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. This is a study of an interdisciplinary nature that had the deductive method as its guide. We concluded that the key points of the sustainable tourism, when analyzed with the focal point in environmental indicators, are an important evaluation and quantification tool of that activity in the study locus. It displayed itself as an adequate tool for monitoring, thus decoding, the main environmental impacts that occur in tourism regions and their intensity, which is made possible through analysis, and has the objective to trace ways to prevent and correct the presented impacts.
50
73166
Geotechnical Characterization of Landslide in Dounia Park, Algiers, Algeria
Abstract:
Most landslides in Algiers take place in Piacenzian marls of the Sahel (port in Arabic) and cause severe damage to properties and infrastructures. The aim of this paper is to describe the results of experimental as well as theoretical analysis of landslides. In order to understand the process which caused this slope instabilities, the results of geotechnical investigation carried out by the laboratory of construction (LNHC) laboratory in the area of Dounia park were analyzed, including particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, shear strength, odometer and pressuremeter tests. The study shows that the soils exhibited a high capacity to swelling according to index plasticity and clay content. Highs limit liquidity (LL) (53.45%) means that the soils are susceptible to landslides. The stability analysis carried out using finite element method, shows that the slope is stable (Fs > 1) in dry condition and in static state. Despite this results, the stable site could be described as only conditionally stable because slope failure can occur under combined effect of different factors. In fact the safety factor obtained by applying load when the phreatic surface is at ground, less than 1.5.
49
46092
Bond Strength between Concrete and AR-Glass Roving with Variables of Development Length
Abstract:
Recently, the climate change is the one of the main problems. This abnormal phenomenon is consisted of the scorching heat, heavy rain and snowfall, and cold wave that will be enlarged abnormal climate change repeatedly. Accordingly, the width of temperature change is increased more and more by abnormal climate, and it is the main factor of cracking in the reinforced concrete. The crack of the reinforced concrete will affect corrosion of steel re-bar which can decrease durability of the structure easily. Hence, the elimination of the durability weakening factor (steel re-bar) is needed. Textile which weaves the carbon, AR-glass and aramid fiber has been studied actively for exchanging the steel re-bar in the Europe for about 15 years because of its good durability. To apply textile as the concrete reinforcement, the bond strength between concrete and textile will be investigated closely. Therefore, in this paper, pull-out test was performed with change of development length of textile. Significant load and stress was increasing at D80. But, bond stress decreased by increasing development length.
48
110969
Oral Biofilm and Stomatitis Denture: Local Implications and Cardiovascular Risks
Abstract:
Denture-related stomatitis (DRS) has recently been associated with deleterious cardiovascular effects, including hypertension. This study evaluated salivary parameters, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV), before and after DRS treatment in edentulous patients (n=14). Collection of unstimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as blood pressure (BP) measurements and electrocardiogram recordings were performed before and after 10 days of DRS treatment. The salivary flow (mL/min) was found similar at both times while pH was smaller (more neutral) after treatment (7.3 ± 2.2 vs. 7.1 ± 0.24). Systolic BP (mmHg) showed a trend, but not a significant reduction after DRS treatment (158 ± 25.68 vs. 148 ± 16,72, p=0,062) while diastolic BP was found similar in both times (86 ± 13.93 and 84 ± 9.38). Overall HRV, measured by standard deviation of RR intervals was not affected by DRS treatment (24 ± 4 vs 18 ± 2 ms), but differences of successive RR intervals (an index of parasympathetic cardiac modulation) increased after the treatment (26 ± 4 vs 19 ± 2 ms). Moreover, another index of vagal modulation of the heart, the power of RR interval spectra at high-frequency, was also markedly higher after DRS treatment (236 ± 63 vs 135 ± 32 ms²). Such findings strongly suggest that DRS is linked to an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is markedly deleterious, increasing cardiovascular risk and the incidence of diseases such as hypertension. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by FAPESP, CNPq.
47
77805
Chemical Stability of Ceramic Crucibles to Molten Titanium
Abstract:
Titanium is widely used due to its high specific strength, good biocompatibility, and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to produce titanium powders, it is necessary to melt titanium, and generally it is conducted by an induction heating method using Al₂O₃ ceramic crucible. However, since titanium reacts chemically with Al₂O₃, it is difficult to melt titanium by the induction heating method using Al₂O₃ crucible. To avoid this problem, we studied the chemical stability of the various crucibles such as Al₂O₃, MgO, ZrO₂, and Y₂O₃ crucibles to molten titanium. After titanium lumps (Grade 2, O(oxygen)< 0.25wt%) were placed in each crucible, they were heated to 1800℃ with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min, held at 1800℃ for 30 min, and finally cooled to room temperature with a cooling rate of 5 ℃/min. All heat treatments were carried out in high purity Ar atmosphere. To evaluate the chemical stability, thermodynamic data such as Ellingham diagram were utilized, and also Vickers hardness test, microstructure analysis, and EPMA quantitative analysis were performed. As a result, Al₂O₃, MgO and ZrO₂ crucibles chemically reacted with molten titanium, but Y₂O₃ crucible rarely reacted with it.
46
25426
Optimal Sensing Technique for Estimating Stress Distribution of 2-D Steel Frame Structure Using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
For the structural safety, the maximum stress calculated from the stress distribution of a structure is widely used. The stress distribution can be estimated by deformed shape of the structure obtained from measurement. Although the estimation of stress is strongly affected by the location and number of sensing points, most studies have conducted the stress estimation without reasonable basis on sensing plan such as the location and number of sensors. In this paper, an optimal sensing technique for estimating the stress distribution is proposed. This technique proposes the optimal location and number of sensing points for a 2-D frame structure while minimizing the error of stress distribution between analytical model and estimation by cubic smoothing splines using genetic algorithm. To verify the proposed method, the optimal sensor measurement technique is applied to simulation tests on 2-D steel frame structure. The simulation tests are performed under various loading scenarios. Through those tests, the optimal sensing plan for the structure is suggested and verified.
45
42927
Optimal Retrofit Design of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Infill Wall Using Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials
Abstract:
Various retrofit techniques for reinforced concrete frame with infill wall have been steadily developed. Among those techniques, strengthening methodology based on diagonal FRP strips (FRP bracings) has numerous advantages such as feasibility of implementing without interrupting the building under operation, reduction of cost and time, and easy application. Considering the safety of structure and retrofit cost, the most appropriate retrofit solution is needed. Thus, the objective of this study is to suggest pareto-optimal solution for existing building using FRP bracings. To find pareto-optimal solution analysis, NSGA-II is applied. Moreover, the seismic performance of retrofit building is evaluated. The example building is 5-storey, 3-bay RC frames with infill wall. Nonlinear static pushover analyses are performed with FEMA 356. The criterion of performance evaluation is inter-story drift ratio at the performance level IO, LS, CP. Optimal retrofit solutions is obtained for 32 individuals and 200 generations. Through the proposed optimal solutions, we confirm the improvement of seismic performance of the example building.
44
54024
A Study on Relationships between Authenticity of Transactions, Quality of Relationships, and Transaction Performances
Abstract:
This study is a research on the authenticity of transactions between corporations and quality of their relationships and transaction performances. As the factors of authenticity of transactions, honesty, transparency, customer orientation and consistency were selected; as the factors of quality of relationships, trust and commitment were selected, and as the factors of transactions performances, intention of repeat transactions and switching intention were selected, and on these relationships a hypothesis was established, and verification was conducted. First, the factors of the authenticity of transactions positively influenced the factors of quality of relationships. Thus, a higher level of authenticity of transactions can lead to higher level of trust and commitment. Second, the factors of quality of relationships made a positive influence on the intention of repeat transactions, while a negative influence in the switching intention. Third, it showed that trust and commitment as the factors of quality of relationships functioned partly as the parameter between the authenticity of transactions and transaction performances. Finally, it proved that the factors of the authenticity of transactions improved trust and commitment in transactions between corporations and further improved the intention of repeat transactions while they decreased the switching intention.
43
105338
Basic Aspects and Ecology of a Group of Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus spp.) (Primates: Cebidae) and Frequency of Contact with Visitor of the State Park Alberto Lofgren, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Abstract:
The main objective of this research was to study the basics aspects of the ecology of a group of capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.), evaluating the risks that habit and food that is given by the visitors may cause to the people's health and animals welfare, also how to make proposals for mitigation and management guidelines. In order to do that, some aspects of the animal's ecology (such as diet, habitat range and habitat use) and activity patterns were studied. It was also measured the frequency of contact with visitors at the park using protocols for data collection. The behavioral categories of displacement and resting represent more than 80% of total activities, followed by feeding (13%) and others (6%). When compared to the studies in natural environment, the Cebus group studied has a small living area (1.7ha) occupying mostly the PEAL public area. The diversity of items offered by the visitors and the high frequency of contact closer than one meter suggests that using information and education campaigns must be a priority in the public program in PEAL in order to avoid future accidents and diseases transmissions.
42
27304
Community Opinions on Cable Car System Construction at Upper Esaan Wild Animal Adventure Park (Khon Kaen – Udon Thani) in Khao Suan Kwang District, Khon Kaen Province (Khon Kaen Zoo), Thailand
Abstract:
This applied research has adopted descriptive social science research methodology to interpret, analyze and assess the data and used descriptive analysis to present the research results. The objective of this research is to investigate the behaviors and opinions on the service and construction of cable car system at the Upper Esaan Wild Animal Adventure Park (Khon Kaen – Udon Thani) in Khao Suan Kwang District, Khon Kaen Province (Khon Kaen Zoo) of people in the local and distant communities as well as the service users. The research results have revealed that the main target group is the residents in the upper northeastern region of Thailand, especially those who have resided in the immediate vicinity of the cable car project and in nearby districts for more than 10 years. They are men and women at the age of 20-60 with high school diploma and higher levels of education, working as traders/entrepreneurs, government officers/state enterprise employees, and freelancers/self-employed, with the average monthly income of no more than 30,000 baht. Khon Kaen Zoo should improve its 4 organizational images as a tourist attraction, an animal display enclosure, an educational institution and as a provincial symbol; however, the zoo should mainly be presented as an important tourist attraction. The service should focus on maintaining the service standards in both the animal display area and the ocean park. The attention should also be directed at the types and numbers of animals, service quality, service fee, convenient access and transportation, promotions and the standards of other services. Regarding the community involvement in the cable car system construction project, it is strongly agreed that there should be a cable car service between the animal display area and the ocean park and a round-trip ticket should cost 20 baht, 50 baht or 100 baht, respectively. Khon Kaen Zoo or responsible entity must provide related groups of people, such as people in the local and distant communities as well as the service users, with accurate information about the community management guidelines. This is because the community opinions have showed the uncertainty about the cable car system construction at Khon Kaen Zoo and the 4 principles of management, including planning, organizing, leading and controlling, are indicated as uncertain as there is no statistically significant difference at 0.05. In addition, the social, economic, and environmental impacts of the cable car system construction at Khon Kaen Zoo on the communities must be considered carefully.
41
106312
Body, Sex and Culture: Gender Dissidences through Cinema
Abstract:
This article provides a critical analysis on the conception of disorders of sexual development (DSDs) within the bioethics framework. By means of analytical thought, the objective is to approach topics such as the rediscovery of the body, the reinvention of sexuality and link them to the liability that health personnel have to inform people about the options they have to decide over their health and body. The medicalization of sexed bodies in both psychosocial and anatomo-morpho-physiological dimensions from a legal standpoint were analyzed. Its also explored the gender stereotypes established by society and the role of laws in guaranteeing the right of autonomy that takes on greater relevance in DSD. Through this analysis, it was concluded that despite intersexuality having been analyzed by Colombia’s Constitutional Court, that it is stated as a fair entity, the stigmatization by society has not allowed these individuals to belong to an egalitarian context in which everyone has the same opportunities of access to the goods and services that they need. This leads individuals to hide their identity and expression of genre in order to be accepted in a set of contexts. Thus creating a vulnerability that the health system must be able to identify and in which it is necessary to intervene at a biopsychosocial level, in order to guarantee the protection of the individual within an unquestionable frame of equality and solidarity.
40
65650
Analysis of Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuits with Electrical Characteristics for the 5V Power Clamp
Abstract:
This paper analyzed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuits with the turn-on time characteristics. The structures are the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Triggered SCR), the ZTSCR (Zener Triggered SCR) and the PTSCR (P-Substrate Triggered SCR). The three structures are for the 5V power clamp. In general, the structures with the low trigger voltage structure can have the fast turn-on characteristics than other structures. All the ESD protection circuits have the low trigger voltage by using the N+ bridge region of LVTSCR, by using the zener diode structure of ZTSCR, by increasing the trigger current of PTSCR. The simulation for the comparison with the turn-on time was conducted by the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As the simulation results, the LVTSCR has the turn-on time of 2.8 ns, ZTSCR of 2.1 ns and the PTSCR of 2.4 ns. The HBM simulation results, however, show that the PTSCR is the more robust structure of 430K in HBM 8kV standard than 450K of LVTSCR and 495K of ZTSCR. Therefore the PTSCR is the most effective ESD protection circuit for the 5V power clamp.
39
31488
Study of the Microflora of Cedar Forests with Different Degrees of Decline in the National Park Belezma (Batna, Algeria)
Abstract:
The Atlas cedar, Cedrus atlantica, is endemic to the mountains of North Africa. This is one of the most valuable softwood, both economically, ecologically, aesthetically and culturally. In Algeria, the cedar forests currently have worrying symptoms of decline which therefore require special monitoring. Fungal endophytes are involved in various diseases of the Atlas cedar. They attack all organs on which they cause many symptoms. These microflora live in complex interaction with plants. In this study, we identified a total of 09 mycotaxons collected needles Cedarwood at three stations with different degrees of decline (Talmet, Boumerzoug and Tuggurt) in the National Park Belezma (Batna, Algeria). The study conducted on a total of 12 trees were identified 08 mycoendophytes in Talmet station, 04 species in the Boumerzoug station and 03 in Tuggurt station. The total species richness mycoendophytes depending on the types of cedar forests showed that the largest diversity was recorded at the cedar forest healthy, Alternaria is the most common type in all stations. This work should be completed by further detailed studies to identify other endophyte species and better know its interactions with the Atlas cedar.
38
94170
A Study on the Relationship between Nonverbal Communication, Perceived Expertise, Service Quality, and Trust: Focusing on Cosmetic Stores in Korea
Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the relationship between nonverbal communication, perceived expertise, service quality, and trust. The study was conducted with clients using cosmetic stores in the Daegu area of Korea. Based on the prior study, the measurement questions are correctly amended and organized in this study. The exploration factor analysis was performed using SPSS 22 for the configured measurement questions. And PLS 2.0 was used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. As a result of the analysis, nonverbal communication has been categorized as physical appearance, kinesics, vocal behavior and proxemics. It has been shown that all of the factors in nonverbal communication have a (+) significant effect on perceived expertise. The degree of impact has been analyzed to influence the perceived expertise in the order in which physical appearance, vocal behavior, kinesics and proxemics. The perceived expertise was analyzed to have a (+) significant effect on the service quality. It has been shown that the service quality has a (+) significant effect on trust.
37
73688
Greenland Monitoring Using Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Lal Suhanra National Park
Abstract:
The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover using remotely sensed data is of critical importance to agricultural sciences. Pakistan, being an agricultural country depends on this resource as it makes 70% of the GDP. The case study is of Lal Suhanra National Park, which is not only the biggest forest reserve of Pakistan but also of Asia. The study is performed using different temporal images of Landsat. Also, the results of Landsat are cross-checked by using Sentinel-2 imagery as it has both higher spectral and spatial resolution. Vegetation can easily be detected using NDVI which is a common and widely used index. It is an important vegetation index, widely applied in research on global environmental and climatic change. The images are then classified to observe the change occurred over 15 years. Vegetation cover maps of 2000 and 2016 are used to generate the map of vegetation change detection for the respective years and to find out the changing pattern of vegetation cover. Also, the NDVI values aided in the detection of percentage decrease in vegetation cover. The study reveals that vegetation cover of the area has decreased significantly during the year 2000 and 2016.
36
74486
A Study on the Relationship between Transaction Fairness, Social Capital, Supply Chain Integration and Sustainability: Focusing on Manufacturing Companies of South Korea
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability. Based on the previous studies, measurement items were determined by using SPSS 22 and exploratory factor analysis was performed, and again, using AMOS 21 for confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis was performed by using study items that satisfy reliability, validity, and appropriateness of measurement model. It has shown that transaction fairness has a (+) significant effect on social capital, social capital on supply chain integration, supply chain integration on economic sustainability and social sustainability, and has a (+), but not significant effect on environmental sustainability. It has shown that supply chain integration has been proven to play a role as a parameter between social capital and economic and social sustainability, but not as a parameter between environmental sustainability. Through this study, it is suggested that clearly examining the relationship between fairness of trade, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability, maintaining fairness of the transaction make formation of social capital, and further integration of supply chain, and achieve sustainability of entire supply chain.
35
67679
Eco-Design of Construction Industrial Park in China with Selection of Candidate Tenants
Abstract:
Offsite construction is an innovative alternative to conventional site-based construction, with wide-ranging benefits. It requires building components, elements or modules were prefabricated and pre-assembly before installed into their final locations. To improve efficiency and achieve synergies, in recent years, construction companies were clustered into construction industrial parks (CIPs) in China. A CIP is a community of construction manufacturing and service businesses located together on a common property. Companies involved in industrial clusters can obtain environment and economic benefits by sharing resources and information in a given region. Therefore, the concept of industrial symbiosis (IS) can be applied to the traditional CIP to achieve sustainable industrial development or redevelopment through the implementation of eco-industrial parks (EIP). However, before designing a symbiosis network between companies in a CIP, candidate support tenants need to be selected to complement the existing construction companies. In this study, an access indicator system and a linear programming model are established to select candidate tenants in a CIP while satisfying the degree of connectivity among the enterprises in the CIP, minimizing the environmental impact, and maximizing the annualized profit of the CIP. The access indicator system comprises three primary indicators and fifteen secondary indicators, is proposed from the perspective of park-based level. The fifteen indicators are classified as three primary indicators including industrial symbiosis, environment performance and economic benefit, according to the three dimensions of sustainability (environment, economic and social dimensions) and the three R's of the environment (reduce, reuse and recycle). The linear programming model is a method to assess the satisfactoriness of all the indicators and to make an optimal multi-objective selection among candidate tenants. This method provides a practical tool for planners of a CIP in evaluating which among the candidate tenants would best complement existing anchor construction tenants. The reasonability and validity of the indicator system and the method is worth further study in the future.
34
93919
Prediction of Physical Properties and Sound Absorption Performance of Automotive Interior Materials
Abstract:
Sound absorption coefficient is considered important when designing because noise affects emotion quality of car. It is designed with lots of experiment tunings in the field because it is unreliable to predict it for multi-layer material. In this paper, we present the design of sound absorption for automotive interior material with multiple layers using estimation software of sound absorption coefficient for reverberation chamber. Additionally, we introduce the method for estimation of physical properties required to predict sound absorption coefficient of car interior materials with multiple layers too. It is calculated by inverse algorithm. It is very economical to get information about physical properties without expensive equipment. Correlation test is carried out to ensure reliability for accuracy. The data to be used for the correlation is sound absorption coefficient measured in the reverberation chamber. In this way, it is considered economical and efficient to design automotive interior materials. And design optimization for sound absorption coefficient is also easy to implement when it is designed.
33
57237
Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor
Abstract:
The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.
32
16867
The Combined Influences of Salinity, Light and Nitrogen Limitation on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., Isolated from Penang National Park Coastal Waters, Malaysia
Abstract:
In the present study, two microalgae species “Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp.” isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia; were cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions “salinity, light, nitrogen limitation and starvation”. Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipid and protein contents, were estimated at mid exponential growth phase. Both Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. showed remarkable decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and protein content companied with increase in lipid content under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions. Maintaining Nannochloropsis sp. under salinity 15‰ caused only significant decrease in total protein content; while Tetraselmis sp. grown at the same salinity caused decrease in the growth rate, chlorophyll a, dry weight and total protein content only when nitrogen was available.
31
96692
Preparation of Nb Silicide-Based Alloy Powder by Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation (HDH) Reaction
Abstract:
The Nb silicide-based alloy has the excellent high-temperature strength and relatively lower density than the Ni-based superalloy; therefore, it has been receiving a lot of attention for the next generation high-temperature material. To enhance the high temperature creep property and oxidation resistance, Si was added to the Nb-based alloy, resulting in a multi-phase microstructure with metal solid solution and silicide phase. Since the silicide phase has a low machinability due to its brittle nature, it is necessary to fabricate components using the powder metallurgy. However, powder manufacturing techniques for the alloys have not yet been developed. In this study, we tried to fabricate Nb-based alloy powder by the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reaction. The Nb-based alloy ingot was prepared by vacuum arc melting and it was annealed in the hydrogen atmosphere for the hydrogenation. After annealing, the hydrogen concentration was increased from 0.004wt% to 1.22wt% and Nb metal phase was transformed to Nb hydride phase. The alloy after hydrogenation could be easily pulverized into powder by ball milling due to its brittleness. For dehydrogenation, the alloy powders were annealed in the vacuum atmosphere. After vacuum annealing, the hydrogen concentration was decreased to 0.003wt% and Nb hydride phase was transformed back to Nb metal phase.
30
85807
Survey of Related Field for Artificial Intelligence Window Development
Abstract:
To develop an artificial intelligence based automatic ventilation system, recent research trends were analyzed and analyzed. This research method is as follows. In the field of architecture and window technology, the use of artificial intelligence, the existing study of machine learning model and the theoretical review of the literature were carried out. This paper collected journals such as Journal of Energy and Buildings, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, and articles published on Web-sites. The following keywords were searched for articles from 2000 to 2016. We searched for the above keywords mainly in the title, keyword, and abstract. As a result, the global artificial intelligence market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 14.0% from USD127bn in 2015 to USD165bn in 2017. Start-up investments in artificial intelligence increased from the US $ 45 million in 2010 to the US $ 310 million in 2015, and the number of investments increased from 6 to 54. Although AI is making efforts to advance to advanced countries, the level of technology is still in its infant stage. Especially in the field of architecture, artificial intelligence (AI) is very rare. Based on the data of this study, it is expected that the application of artificial intelligence and the application of architectural field will be revitalized through the activation of artificial intelligence in the field of architecture and window.
29
97801
Comparison of Visual Field Tests in Glaucoma Patients with a Central Visual Field Defect
Abstract:
We compared the 24-2 and 10-2 visual fields (VFs) and investigate the degree of discrepancy between the two tests in glaucomatous eyes with central VF defects. In all, 99 eyes of 99 glaucoma patients who underwent both the 24-2 VF and 10-2 VF tests within 6 months were enrolled retrospectively. Glaucomatous eyes involving a central VF defect were divided into three groups based on the average total deviation (TD) of 12 central points in the 24-2 VF test (N = 33, in each group): group 1 (tercile with the highest TD), group 2 (intermediate TD), and group 3 (lowest TD). The TD difference was calculated by subtracting the average TD of the 10-2 VF test from the average TD of 12 central points in the 24-2 VF test. The absolute central TD difference in each quadrant was defined as the absolute value of the TD value obtained by subtracting the average TD of four central points in the 10-2 VF test from the innermost TD in the 24-2 VF test in each quadrant. The TD differences differed significantly between group 3 and groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). In the superonasal quadrant, the absolute central TD difference was significantly greater in group 2 than in group 1 (P < 0.05). In the superotemporal quadrant, the absolute central TD difference was significantly greater in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that the results of VF tests for different VFs can be inconsistent, depending on the degree of central defects and the VF quadrant.
28
25460
The Estimation Method of Stress Distribution for Beam Structures Using the Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Abstract:
This study suggests the estimation method of stress distribution for the beam structures based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning). The main components of method are the creation of the lattices of raw data from TLS to satisfy the suitable condition and application of CSSI (Cubic Smoothing Spline Interpolation) for estimating stress distribution. Estimation of stress distribution for the structural member or the whole structure is one of the important factors for safety evaluation of the structure. Existing sensors which include ESG (Electric strain gauge) and LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be categorized as contact type sensor which should be installed on the structural members and also there are various limitations such as the need of separate space where the network cables are installed and the difficulty of access for sensor installation in real buildings. To overcome these problems inherent in the contact type sensors, TLS system of LiDAR (light detection and ranging), which can measure the displacement of a target in a long range without the influence of surrounding environment and also get the whole shape of the structure, has been applied to the field of structural health monitoring. The important characteristic of TLS measuring is a formation of point clouds which has many points including the local coordinate. Point clouds is not linear distribution but dispersed shape. Thus, to analyze point clouds, the interpolation is needed vitally. Through formation of averaged lattices and CSSI for the raw data, the method which can estimate the displacement of simple beam was developed. Also, the developed method can be extended to calculate the strain and finally applicable to estimate a stress distribution of a structural member. To verify the validity of the method, the loading test on a simple beam was conducted and TLS measured it. Through a comparison of the estimated stress and reference stress, the validity of the method is confirmed.
27
117685
Insufficiency Fracture of Femoral Head in Patients Treated With Intramedullary Nailing for Proximal Femur Fracture
Abstract:
Introduction: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIF) is a rare complication; however, it has been recognized to cause femoral head collapse. Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is caused by normal or physiological stress without any trauma. It has been reported in osteoporotic patients after the fixation of the proximal femur with an Intramedullary nail. Case presentation: We reported 5 cases with SIF of the femoral head after proximal femur fracture fixation with Intra-medullary nail. All patients had osteoporosis as an underlying disease. Good reduction was achieved in all 5 patients. SIF was found from about 3 months to 4 years after the initial operation, and all the fractures were solidly united at the final diagnosis. We investigated retrospectively the feature of those cases and several factors that affected the occurrence of SIF. Discussion: There are a few discussions regarding the SIF of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, how to diagnose the SIF in osteoporotic patients, and the peri-operative factors to prevent SIF. Conclusion: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head is a considerable complication after the internal fixation of the proximal femur. There are several factors that can be modified. If they could be controlled in the peri-operative period, SIF could be prevented or handled in advance. Other options related to arthroplasty can be considered in old osteoporotic patients.
26
123650
Design of an Eddy Current Brake System for the Use of Roller Coasters Based on a Human Factors Engineering Approach
Abstract:
The goal of this paper is to converge upon a design of a brake system that could be used for a roller coaster found at an amusement park. It was necessary to find what could be deemed as a "comfortable" deceleration so that passengers do not feel as if they are suddenly jerked and pressed against the restraining harnesses. A human factors engineering approach was taken in order to determine this deceleration. Using a previous study that tested the deceleration of transit vehicles, it was found that a -0.45 G deceleration would be used as a design requirement to build this system around. An adjustable linear eddy current brake using permanent magnets would be the ideal system to use in order to meet this design requirement. Anthropometric data were then used to determine a realistic weight and length of the roller coaster that the brake was being designed for. The weight and length data were then factored into magnetic brake force equations. These equations were used to determine how the brake system and the brake run layout would be designed. A final design for the brake was determined and it was found that a total of 12 brakes would be needed with a maximum braking distance of 53.6 m in order to stop a roller coaster travelling at its top speed and loaded to maximum capacity. This design is derived from theoretical calculations, but is within the realm of feasibility.
25
26919
A Framework for the Evaluation of Infrastructures’ Serviceability
Abstract:
In 1994, Korea experienced a national tragedy of Seongsu Bridge collapse. The accident was severe enough to alert governmental officers to the problem of existing management policy for national infrastructures. As a result, government legislated the ‘Guidelines for the safety inspection and test of infrastructure’ which have been utilized as the primary tool to make decision for the maintenance and rehabilitation of infrastructure for last twenty years. Although it is clear that the guideline established a basics how to evaluate and manage the condition of infrastructures in systematic manner, it is equally clear that the guideline needs improvements in order to obtain reasonable investment decisions for budget allocation. Because its inspection and evaluation procedures mainly focused on the structural condition of infrastructures, it was hard to make decision when the infrastructures were in same level of structural condition. In addition, it did not properly reflect various aspects of infrastructures such as performance, public demand, capacity, etc., which were more valuable to public. Regardless of the importance, these factors were commonly neglected in governmental decision-making process, because there factors were somewhat subjective and difficult to quantify in rational manner. Thus, this study proposes a framework to properly evaluate the serviceability indicators using AHP and Fuzzy approach. The framework is expected to assist governmental agency in establishing effective investment strategies for budget planning.
24
52542
A Literature Review of Ergonomics Sitting Studies to Characterize Safe and Unsafe Sitting Behaviors
Abstract:
As undesirable sitting posture is known to be a major cause of musculoskeletal disorder of office workers, sitting has attracted attention on occupational health. However, there seems to be no consensus on what are safe and unsafe sitting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safe and unsafe behaviors based on scientific findings of sitting behavior. Three objectives were as follows; to identify different sitting behaviors measure used in ergonomics studies on safe sitting, for each measure identified, to find available findings or recommendations on safe and unsafe sitting behaviors along with relevant empirical grounds, and to synthesize the findings or recommendations to provide characterizations of safe and unsafe behaviors. A systematic review of electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science) was conducted for extensive search of sitting behavior. Key terms included awkward sitting position, sedentary sitting, dynamic sitting, sitting posture, sitting posture, and sitting biomechanics, etc. Each article was systemically abstracted to extract a list of studied sitting behaviors, measures used to study the sitting behavior, and presence of empirical evidence of safety of the sitting behaviors. Finally, characterization of safe and unsafe sitting behavior was conducted based on knowledge with empirical evidence. This characterization is expected to provide useful knowledge for evaluation of sitting behavior and about postures to be measured in development of sensing chair.
23
34688
Sustainable Perspectives and Local Development Potential through Tourism
Abstract:
Sustainability is a very important and heavily discussed subject, expanding through tourism as well. The study proposition was to collect data and present it to the competent bodies so they can mold their public politics to improve the conditions of the site. It was hypothesized that the lack of data is currently affecting the quality of life and the sustainable development of the site and the tourism. The research was held in Mateiros, a city in the state of Tocantins (TO)/Brasil, 275km far from the capital city Palmas, being one of the 8 cities that comprises the Jalapão region, an ecotourism and adventure tourism site as well as an environmental protection area (Jalapão State Park). Because of the concentration of tourists during the high season and several tourist attractions being around, the research took place in Mateiros. The methodological procedure had a script of theoretical construction and investigation of the deductive scientific method parameters through a case study in the Jalapão/TO/Brazil region, using it as a tool for a questionnaire given to the competent bodies in an interview system with the UN sustainability indexes as a base. In the three sustainable development scope: environmental, social and economic, the results indicated that the data presented by the interviewed were scarce or nonexistent. It shows that more research is necessary, providing the tools for the ones responsible to propose action plans to improve the site, strengthening the tourism and making it even more sustainable.
22
17425
Investigation of Fire Damaged Concrete Using Nonlinear Resonance Vibration Method
Abstract:
This paper attempts to evaluate the effect of fire damage on concrete by using nonlinear resonance vibration method, one of the nonlinear nondestructive method. Concrete exhibits not only nonlinear stress-strain relation but also hysteresis and discrete memory effect which are contained in consolidated materials. Hysteretic materials typically show the linear resonance frequency shift. Also, the shift of resonance frequency is changed according to the degree of micro damage. The degree of the shift can be obtained through nonlinear resonance vibration method. Five exposure scenarios were considered in order to make different internal micro damage. Also, the effect of post-fire-curing on fire-damaged concrete was taken into account to conform the change in internal damage. Hysteretic non linearity parameter was obtained by amplitude-dependent resonance frequency shift after specific curing periods. In addition, splitting tensile strength was measured on each sample to characterize the variation of residual strength. Then, a correlation between the hysteretic non linearity parameter and residual strength was proposed from each test result.
21
34201
Relevant Stakeholders in Environmental Management Organization: The Case of Industries Três Rios/RJ
Abstract:
The intense process of economic acceleration, expansion of industrial activities and capitalism, combined with population growth, while promoting the development, bring environmental consequences and dynamics of locations. It can be seen that society is seeking to break with old paradigms of capitalist society, seeking to reconcile growth with sustainable development, with a change of mentality of the stakeholders of the production process (shareholders, employees, suppliers, customers, governments, and neighbors, groups citizens and the public in general). In this context, this research aims to map the stakeholders interested in environmental management in industries located in the city of Tr&ecirc;s Rios/RJ. The city of Tr&ecirc;s Rios is located in South-Central region of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. Methodological resources used refer to descriptive and field research, whose nature is qualitative and quantitative. It is also of multicases studies in the study area, and the data collection occurred by means of semi-structured questionnaires and interviews with employees related to the environmental area of the industries located in Tr&ecirc;s Rios and registered at the Federation of Industries the State of Rio de Janeiro - FIRJAN in the version of 2013 and active in federal revenue. Through this research it observed, among other things, the stakeholders involved in the environmental management process of "Tr&ecirc;s Rios" industry respondents, and those responding to the demands of environmental management.
20
82871
The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure
Abstract:
Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.
19
102180
Disaster Adaptation Mechanism and Disaster Prevention Adaptation Planning Strategies for Industrial Parks in Response to Climate Change and Different Socio-Economic Disasters
Abstract:
The impact of climate change has intensified in recent years, causing Taiwan to face higher frequency and serious natural disasters. Therefore, it is imperative for industrial parks manufacturers to promote adaptation policies in response to climate change. On the other hand, with the rise of the international anti-terrorism situation, once a terrorist attack occurs, it will attract domestic and international media attention, especially the strategic and economic status of the science park. Thus, it is necessary to formulate adaptation and mitigation strategies under climate change and social economic disasters. After reviewed the literature about climate change, urban disaster prevention, vulnerability assessment, and risk communication, the study selected 62 industrial parks compiled by the Industrial Bureau of the Ministry of Economic Affairs of Taiwan as the research object. This study explored the vulnerability and disaster prevention and disaster relief functional assessment of these industrial parks facing of natural and socio-economic disasters. Furthermore, this study explored planned adaptation of industrial parks management section and autonomous adaptation of corporate institutions in the park. The conclusion of this study is that Taiwan industrial parks with a higher vulnerability to natural and socio-economic disasters should employ positive adaptive behaviours.
18
90214
Temporal Change in Bonding Strength and Antimicrobial Effect of a Zirconia after Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment
Abstract:
Purpose: Plasma treatment under various conditions has been studied to increase the bonding strength and surface sterilization of dental ceramic materials. We assessed the evolution of the shear bond strength (SBS) and antimicrobial effect of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) treatment over time. Methods: Presintered zirconia specimens were manufactured as discs (diameter: 15 mm, height: 2 mm) after final sintering. The specimens then received a 30-min treatment with argon gas (Ar², 99.999%; 10 L/min) using an NTAPP device. Five post-treatment intervals were evaluated: control (no treatment), P0 (within 1 h), P1 (24 h), P2 (48 h), and P3 (72 h). This study investigated the surface characteristics, SBS of two different resin cement (RelyXTM U200 self-adhesive resin cement, Panavia F2.0 methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based resin cement), and Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Results: The SBS of RelyXTM U200 increased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days following plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2). For Panavia F 2.0, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) was detected only in the group that had undergone cementation immediately after plasma treatment (P0). S. mutans adhesion decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days of plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2) compared to the control group. The P0 group displayed a lower biofilm thickness than the P1 and P2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: After NTAPP treatment of zirconia, the effects on bonding strength and antimicrobial growth persist for a limited duration. The effect of NTAPP treatment on bonding strength depends on the resin cement.
17
98164
Direct and Indirect Impacts of Predator Conflict in Kanha National Park, India
Abstract:
Habitat for predators is on the decline worldwide, which often brings humans and predators into conflict over remaining shared space and common resources. While the direct impacts of human predator conflict on humans (i.e., attacks on livestock or humans resulting in injury or death) are well documented, the indirect impacts of conflict on humans (i.e., downstream effects such as fear, stress, opportunity costs, PTSD) have not been addressed. We interviewed 437 people living in 54 villages on the periphery of Kanha National Park, India, to assess the amount and severity of direct and indirect impacts of predator conflict. ​While 58% of livestock owners believed that predator attacks on livestock guards occurred frequently and 62% of those who collect forest products believed that predator attacks on those collecting occurred frequently, less than 20% of all participants knew of someone who had experienced an attack. Data related to indirect impacts suggest that such impacts are common; 76% of participants indicated they were afraid a predator will physically injure them. Livestock owners reported that livestock guarding took time away from their primary job (61%) and getting enough sleep (73%), and believed that it increased their vulnerability to illnesses (80%). These results suggest that the perceptions of risk of predator attack are likely inflated, yet the costs of human predator impacts may be substantially higher than previously estimated, particularly related to human well-being, making the implementation of appropriate and effective conservation and conflict mitigation strategies and policies increasingly urgent.
16
40770
Soil-Vegetation Relationship in the Watersheds of the Tonga and OubeïRa Lakes, Algeria
Authors:
Abstract:
Located at the north eastern of Algeria, the National Park of El-Kala (PNEK) is a set of landscapes whose bioclimatic stages of vegetation extend from sub-humid to humid. In order to know the soil occupation in this complex, an initiated ecological soil cartography using a stratified sampling plan of vegetation had made, the study area occupies two-thirds of the northern National Park of El Kala, it has been divided into 380 plots of 1km2 of which, 76 were the subject of a detailed floristic inventory and sampling of soils. The inventory of vegetation carried out on different sites has allowed identifying several plant groups that share the soil cover with the following distribution: The group of cork oak, this formation occupies the biggest part of the area, it develops mainly on Incepttisols, Alfisols and Mollisols; The group of kermes oak, occupies a large area, it grows on Mollisols and Alfisols; The group of maritime pine, it occupies the same soils as the Kermes Oak; The group of Mirbeck oak, installed on Regosols, it is located in the Eastern part, on the Algerian-Tunisian border; The group of eucalyptus, it grows mainly on Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols; The group of wetland, it grows along the banks of lakes and rivers, which primarily develops on Histosols soil Mollisols and Vertisols; The cultures, distributed mainly around the lakes occupy several soil types on Histosols, the Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols. This great diversity of vegetation is linked not only to the soil variability but also to climate, hydrological and geological variability.
15
94524
Sustainable Environmental Management through the Comparative Study of Two Recreational Parks in Nigeria
Abstract:
The role of a recreational park in human and environmental development has attracted much interest in the recent time. Recreation parks' development could act as an effective planning strategy to enhance environmental sustainability, social cohesiveness, and users' quality of life. Similarly, parks enhance neighbourhood's aesthetics, refresh the air and enhance humans' contact with nature. In this connection, recreation parks create natural surroundings of rural areas for leisure, relaxation, recreation, psychological and physical comfort of the people. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the two recreational parks' development as a strategy for neighbourhood's environmental improvement, sustainability and the recreationists' cohesiveness. A total number of 158 survey questionnaires were distributed to the tourists at Ikogosi cold and warm spring in Ekiti state as well as Olumirin waterfalls, Erin-Ijesa, Osun State, in South-West, Nigeria. The quantitative results of the analyzed data with Relative Importance Index (RII) revealed that recreation parks provide optimum opportunities for users' social cohesiveness and well-being while parks' sustainable environment could be enhanced base on the provision of essential facilities, services, and future developmental plans. It is recommended that for recreation parks to realize their full potential in environmental sustainability, adequate maintenance and provision of essential facilities becomes imperative.
14
72278
Language Shapes Thought: An Experimental Study on English and Mandarin Native Speakers' Sequencing of Size
Authors:
Abstract:
Does the language we speak affect the way we think? This question has been discussed for a long time from different aspects. In this article, the issue is examined with an experiment on how speakers of different languages tend to do different sequencing when it comes to the size of general objects. An essential difference between the usage of English and Mandarin is the way we sequence the size of places or objects. In English, when describing the location of something we may say, for example, ‘The pen is inside the trashcan next to the tree at the park.’ In Mandarin, however, we would say, ‘The pen is at the park next to the tree inside the trashcan.’ It’s clear that generally English use the sequence of small to big while Mandarin the opposite. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to test if the difference of the languages affects the speakers’ ability to do the different sequencing. There were two groups of subjects; one consisted of English native speakers, another of Mandarin native speakers. Within the experiment, three nouns were showed as a group to the subjects as their native languages. Before they saw the nouns, they would first get an instruction of ‘big to small’, ‘small to big’, or ‘repeat’. Therefore, the subjects had to sequence the following group of nouns as the instruction they get or simply repeat the nouns. After completing every sequencing and repetition in their minds, they pushed a button as reaction. The repetition design was to gather the mere reading time of the person. As the result of the experiment showed, English native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequencing of ‘small to big’; on the other hand, Mandarin native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequence ‘big to small’. To conclude, this study may be of importance as a support for linguistic relativism that the language we speak do shape the way we think.
13
15501
Identification of Spam Keywords Using Hierarchical Category in C2C E-Commerce
Abstract:
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) E-commerce has been growing at a very high speed in recent years. Since identical or nearly-same kinds of products compete one another by relying on keyword search in C2C E-commerce, some sellers describe their products with spam keywords that are popular but are not related to their products. Though such products get more chances to be retrieved and selected by consumers than those without spam keywords, the spam keywords mislead the consumers and waste their time. This problem has been reported in many commercial services like e-bay and taobao, but there have been little research to solve this problem. As a solution to this problem, this paper proposes a method to classify whether keywords of a product are spam or not. The proposed method assumes that a keyword for a given product is more reliable if the keyword is observed commonly in specifications of products which are the same or the same kind as the given product. This is because that a hierarchical category of a product in general determined precisely by a seller of the product and so is the specification of the product. Since higher layers of the hierarchical category represent more general kinds of products, a reliable degree is differently determined according to the layers. Hence, reliable degrees from different layers of a hierarchical category become features for keywords and they are used together with features only from specifications for classification of the keywords. Support Vector Machines are adopted as a basic classifier using the features, since it is powerful, and widely used in many classification tasks. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated with a golden standard dataset from Yi-han-wang, a Chinese C2C e-commerce, and is compared with a baseline method that does not consider the hierarchical category. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the baseline in F1-measure, which proves that spam keywords are effectively identified by a hierarchical category in C2C e-commerce.
12
67858
Mechanical Properties Analysis of Masonry Residue Mortar as Cement Replacement
Abstract:
The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residues in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. Previous researches demonstrate the feasibility of using brick and rust residues, separately, as a cement replacement. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of mortars by incorporating masonry residue composed of clay bricks and cement mortar. In order to improve the mechanical properties of masonry residue, this was subjected to a heat treatment of 650 ° C for four hours and its effect is analyzed in this study. Masonry residue was obtained from a demolition of masonry perimetral walls. The residues were crushed and sieved and the maximum size of particles used was 75 microns. The percentages of cement replaced by masonry residue were 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of masonry residue addition and its heat treatment in the mechanical properties of mortars is evaluated through compressive and flexural strength tests after 7, 14 and 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of masonry residue used increases the losses in compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the use of up to a 20% of masonry residue, when a heat treatment is applied, allows obtaining mortars with similar compressive strength to the control mortar. Masonry residues mortars without a heat treatment show losses in compressive strengths between 15% and 27% with respect to masonry residues with heat treatment, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the heat treatment. From this analysis it can be conclude that it is possible to use up to 20% of masonry residue with heat treatment as cement replacement without significant losses in mortars mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.
11
27113
Parametric Study for Optimal Design of Hybrid Bridge Joint
Abstract:
Mixed structure, which is a kind of hybrid system, is incorporating steel beam and prestressed concrete beam. Hybrid bridge adopting mixed structure have some merits. Main span length can be made longer by using steel as main span material. In case of cable-stayed bridge having asymmetric span length, negative reaction at side span can be restrained without extra restraining devices by using weight difference between main span material and side span material. However angle of refraction might happen because of rigidity difference between materials and stress concentration also might happen because of abnormal loading transmission at joint in the hybrid bridge. Therefore the joint might be a weak point of the structural system and it needs to pay attention to design of the joint. However, design codes and standards about the joint in the hybrid-bridge have not been established so the joint designs in most of construction cases have been very conservative or followed previous design without extra verification. In this study parametric study using finite element analysis for optimal design of hybrid bridge joint is conducted. Before parametric study, finite element analysis was conducted based on previous experimental data and it is verified that analysis result approximated experimental data. Based on the finite element analysis results, parametric study was conducted. The parameters were selected as those have influences on joint behavior. Based on the parametric study results, optimal design of hybrid bridge joint has been determined.
10
67755
Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Urban Parks Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Techniques
Abstract:
Urban parks and open spaces play a significant role in improving physical and mental health of the citizens, strengthen the societies and make the cities more attractive places to live and work. As the world’s cities continue to grow, continuing to value green space in cities is vital but is also a challenge, particularly in developing countries where there is pressure for space, resources, and development. Offering equal opportunity of accessibility to parks is one of the important issues of park distribution. The distribution of parks should allow all inhabitants to have close proximity to their residence. Remote sensing and Geographic information systems (GIS) can provide decision makers with enormous opportunities to improve the planning and management of Park facilities. This study exhibits the capability of GIS and RS techniques to provide baseline knowledge about the distribution of parks, level of accessibility and to help in identification of potential areas for such facilities. For this purpose Landsat OLI imagery for year 2016 was acquired from USGS Earth Explorer. Preprocessing models were applied using Erdas Imagine 2014v for the atmospheric correction and NDVI model was developed and applied to quantify the land use/land cover classes including built up, barren land, water, and vegetation. The parks amongst total public green spaces were selected based on their signature in remote sensing image and distribution. Percentages of total green and parks green were calculated for each town of Lahore City and results were then synchronized with the recommended standards. ANGSt model was applied to calculate the accessibility from parks. Service area analysis was performed using Network Analyst tool. Serviceability of these parks has been evaluated by employing statistical indices like service area, service population and park area per capita. Findings of the study may contribute in helping the town planners for understanding the distribution of parks, demands for new parks and potential areas which are deprived of parks. The purpose of present study is to provide necessary information to planners, policy makers and scientific researchers in the process of decision making for the management and improvement of urban parks.
9
135985
Eco-Parcel As a Semi-Qualitative Approach to Support Environmental Impacts Assessments in Nature-Based Tourism Destinations
Abstract:
Climate and land-cover change affect nature-based tourism (NBT) due to its attractions' close connection to natural environments and climate. Thus, knowledge of how each attraction reacts to the changing environments and devising simple yet science based approaches to respond to these changes from a tourism perspective in space and time is timely. Nevertheless, no specific approaches exist to address the knowledge gap. The eco-parcel approach is devised to address the gap and operationalized in Serengeti and Kilimanjaro National Parks: the most climate-sensitive NBT destinations in Africa. The approach is partly descriptive and has three simple steps: (1) to identify and define tourist attractions (i.e. biotic and abiotic attractions). This creates an important database of the most poorly kept information on attractions' types in NBT destinations. (2) To create a spatial and temporal link of each attraction and describe its characteristic environments (e.g. vegetation, soil, water and rock outcrops). This is the most limited attractions' information yet important as a proxy of changes in attractions. (3) To assess the importance of individual attractions for tourism based on tourists' preferences. This information enables an accurate assessment of the value of individual attractions for tourism. The importance of the eco-parcel approach is that it describes how each attraction emerges from and is connected to specific environments, which define its attractiveness in space and time. This information allows accurate assessment of the likely losses or gains of individual attractions when climate or environment changes in specific destinations and equips tourism stakeholders with informed responses.
8
1441
Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System
Abstract:
CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.
7
42389
Identifying the Conservation Gaps in Poorly Studied Protected Area in the Philippines: A Study Case of Sibuyan Island
Abstract:
Most protected area management plans in the Philippines, particularly the smaller and more remote islands suffer from insufficient baseline data, which should provide the bases for formulating measureable conservation targets and appropriate management interventions for these protected areas. Attempts to synthesize available data particularly on cultural and socio-economic characteristic of local peoples within and outside protected areas also suffer from the lack of comprehensive and detailed inventories, which should be considered in designing adaptive management interventions to be used for those protected areas. Mt Guiting-guiting Natural Park (MGGNP) located in Sibuyan Island is one of the poorly studied protected areas in the Philippines. In this study, we determined the highly biologically important areas of the protected area using Maximum Entropy approach (MaxEnt) from environmental predictors (i.e., topographic, bioclimatic,land cover, and soil image layers) derived from global remotely sensed data and point occurrence data of species of birds and trees recorded during field surveys on the island. A total of 23 trigger species of birds and trees was modeled and stacked to generate species richness maps for biological high conservation value areas (HCVAs). Forest habitat change was delineated using dual-polarised L-band ALOS-PALSAR mosaic data at 25 meter spatial resolution, taken at two acquisition years 2007 and 2009 to provide information on forest cover ad habitat change in the island between year 2007 and 2009. Determining the livelihood guilds were also conducted using the data gathered from171 household interviews, from which demographic and livelihood variables were extracted (i.e., age, gender, number of household members, educational attainment, years of residency, distance from forest edge, main occupation, alternative sources of food and resources during scarcity months, and sources of these alternative resources).Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Kruskal-Wallis test, the diversity and patterns of forest resource use by people in the island were determined with particular focus on the economic activities that directly and indirectly affect the population of key species as well as to identify levels of forest resource use by people in different areas of the park.Results showed that there are gaps in the area occupied by the natural park, as evidenced by the mismatch of the proposed HCVAs and the existing perimeters of the park. We found out that subsistence forest gathering was the possible main driver for forest degradation out of the eight livelihood guilds that were identified in the park. Determining the high conservation areas and identifyingthe anthropogenic factors that influence the species richness and abundance of key species in the different management zone of MGGNP would provide guidance for the design of a protected area management plan and future monitoring programs. However, through intensive communication and consultation with government stakeholders and local communities our results led to setting conservation targets in local development plans and serve as a basis for the reposition of the boundaries and reconfiguration of the management zones of MGGNP.
6
40802
Bridge Members Segmentation Algorithm of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds Using Fuzzy Clustering Method
Abstract:
3D shape models of the existing structure are required for many purposes such as safety and operation management. The traditional 3D modeling methods are based on manual or semi-automatic reconstruction from close-range images. It occasions great expense and time consuming. The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is a common survey technique to measure quickly and accurately a 3D shape model. This TLS is used to a construction site and cultural heritage management. However there are many limits to process a TLS point cloud, because the raw point cloud is massive volume data. So the capability of carrying out useful analyses is also limited with unstructured 3-D point. Thus, segmentation becomes an essential step whenever grouping of points with common attributes is required. In this paper, members segmentation algorithm was presented to separate a raw point cloud which includes only 3D coordinates. This paper presents a clustering approach based on a fuzzy method for this objective. The Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) is reviewed and used in combination with a similarity-driven cluster merging method. It is applied to the point cloud acquired with Lecia Scan Station C10/C5 at the test bed. The test-bed was a bridge which connects between 1st and 2nd engineering building in Sungkyunkwan University in Korea. It is about 32m long and 2m wide. This bridge was used as pedestrian between two buildings. The 3D point cloud of the test-bed was constructed by a measurement of the TLS. This data was divided by segmentation algorithm for each member. Experimental analyses of the results from the proposed unsupervised segmentation process are shown to be promising. It can be processed to manage configuration each member, because of the segmentation process of point cloud.
5
108615
The TarMed Reform of 2014: A Causal Analysis of the Effects on the Behavior of Swiss Physicians
Abstract:
In October 2014, the TARMED reform was implemented in Switzerland. In an effort to even out the financial standing of general practitioners (including pediatricians) relative to that of specialists in the outpatient sector, the reform tackled two aspects: on the one hand, GPs would be able to bill an additional 9 CHF per patient, once per consult per day. This is referred to as the surcharge position. As a second measure, it reduced the fees for certain technical services targeted to specialists (e.g., imaging, surgical technical procedures, etc.). Given the fee-for-service reimbursement system in Switzerland, we predict that physicians reacted to the economic incentives of the reform by increasing the consults per patient and decreasing the average amount of time per consult. Within this framework, our treatment group is formed by GPs and our control group by those specialists who were not affected by the reform. Using monthly insurance claims panel data aggregated at the physician praxis level (provided by SASIS AG), for the period of January 2013-December 2015, we run difference in difference panel data models with physician and time fixed effects in order to test for the causal effects of the reform. We account for seasonality, and control for physician characteristics such as age, gender, specialty, and physician experience. Furthermore, we run the models on subgroups of physicians within our sample so as to account for heterogeneity and treatment intensities. Preliminary results support our hypothesis. We find evidence of an increase in consults per patients and a decrease in time per consult. Robustness checks do not significantly alter the results for our outcome variable of consults per patient. However, we do find a smaller effect of the reform for time per consult. Thus, the results of this paper could provide policymakers a better understanding of physician behavior and their sensitivity to financial incentives of reforms (both past and future) under the current reimbursement system.
4
89361
Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Laser Cladding in Various Tilting Pad Bearing Materials
Abstract:
The tilting pad bearing is a kind of the fluid film bearing and it can contribute to the high speed and the high load performance compared to other bearings including the rolling element bearing. Furthermore, the tilting bearing has many advantages such as high stability at high-speed performance, long life, high damping, high impact resistance and low noise. Therefore, it mostly used in mid to large size turbomachines, despite the high price disadvantage. Recently, manufacture and process employing laser techniques advancing at a fast-growing rate in mechanical industry, the dissimilar metal weld process employing laser techniques is actively studied. Moreover, also, Industry fields try to apply for welding the white metal and the back metal using laser cladding method for high durability. Furthermore, it has followed that laser cladding method has a lot better bond strength, toughness, anti-abrasion and environment-friendly than centrifugal casting method through preceding research. Therefore, the laser cladding method has a lot better quality, cost reduction, eco-friendliness and permanence of technology than the centrifugal casting method or the gravity casting method. In this study, we compare the mechanical properties of different bearing materials by evaluating the behavior of laser cladding layer with various materials (i.e. SS400, SCM440, S20C) under the same parameters. Furthermore, we analyze the porosity of various tilting pad bearing materials which white metal treated on samples. SEM, EDS analysis and hardness tests of three materials are shown to understand the mechanical properties and tribological behavior. W/D ratio, surface roughness results with various materials are performed in this study.
3
93974
Beak Size and Asynchronous Hatch in Broiler Chicks
Abstract:
Beak plays a fundamental role in the hatching process of the chicks, since it is used for internal and external pipping. The present study examined whether the size of the beak influences the birth period of the broiler chicks in the hatching window. It was analyzed the beak size (length, height and width) of one-hundred twenty nine newly hatched chicks from light eggs (56.22-61.05g) and one-hundred twenty six chicks from heavy eggs (64.95-70.90g), produced by 38 and 45 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®), respectively. Egg incubation occurred at 37.5°C and 60% RH, with egg turning every hour. Length, height and width of the beaks were measured using a digital caliper (Zaas precision - digital caliper 6", 0.01mm) and the data expressed in millimeters. The beak length corresponded to distance between the tip of the beak and the rictus. The height of the beak was measured in the region of the culmen and its width in the region of the nostrils. Data were analyzed following a 3x2 factorial experimental design, being three birth periods within the hatching window (early: 471.78 to 485.42h, intermediate: 485.43 to 512.27h, and late: 512.28 to 528.72h) and two egg weights (light and heavy). There was a significant interaction between birth period and egg weight for beak height (P < 0.05), which was higher in the intermediate chicks from heavy eggs than in the other chicks from the same egg weight and chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05), that did not differ (P > 0.05). The beak length was influenced only for a birth period, and decreased through the hatch window (early < intermediate < late) (P < 0.05). The width of the beaks was influenced by both main factors, birth period and egg weight (P < 0.05). Early and intermediate chicks had similar beak width, but greater than late chicks, and chicks from heavy eggs presented greater beak width than chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05). In sum, the results show that chicks with longer beak hatch first and that beak length is an important variable for hatch period determination mainly for light eggs.
2
43884
Orchids of Coastal Karnataka, India: Diversity, Trends in Population, Threats and Conservation Strategies
Abstract:
Costal Karnataka is sandwiched between Arabian Sea and the biodiversity hotspot of Western Ghats. This has provided a rich vegetation, canopy and humidity for the sustainable growth and evolution of many orchid populations. Similar to many other biodiversity hostpot regions of India and the world, this region also faces threat from anthropogenic activities and climate change. Hence, there is a need to study the current orchid diversity and trends in population as well as an effective conservation strategy. Costal belt of Karnataka state of India extends over 325 kilometers and an area of 18,000 km2. The region encompasses two national parks such as the Anshi National Park and the Kudremukh National Park. The study regions also include two Wild Life Sanctuaries such as the Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary and Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary. The estimated number of orchids in the region includes 30 genera and 45 species. Both terrestrial and epiphytic orchids are found in this region. The region contains many red listed orchids such as Trias stocksii (Critically endangered), Eriad alzellii (Lower risk vulnerable) and Dendrobnium ovatum (Vulnerable). The important terrestrial orchids of the region are Geodorum, Habenaria, Lipparis, Malaxis, Nervilia, Pachystoma, Pectelis, Peristylus, Tropidia and Zeuxine. The epiphytic forms includes Acampe, Aerides, Bulbophyllum, Cleisostoma, Conchidum, Cottonia, Cymbidium, Dendronium, Eria, Flickingeria, Gastrochilus, Kingidium, Luisia, Oberonia, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Porpax, Rhynchostylis, Sirhookera and Trias. The current paper discusses the population strength and changes in the population structure of these orchids along with proposed conservation strategies.
1
49413
Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Heart Rate Variability and Improve Baroreflex Sensitivity in Septic Rats
Abstract:
Sepsis induces alterations in hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ASN). The autonomic activity can be calculated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) that represents the complex interplay between ASN and cardiac pacemaker cells. Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are known to express genes and secreted factors involved in neuroprotective and immunological effects, also to improve the survival in experimental septic animals. We hypothesized, that WJ-MSCs present an important role in the autonomic activity and in the hemodynamic effects in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Methods: We used flow cytometry to evaluate WJ-MSCs phenotypes. We divided Wistar rats into groups: sham (shamoperated); CLP; and CLP+MSC (106 WJ-MSCs, i.p., 6 h after CLP). At 24 h post-CLP, we recorded the systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) over 20 min. The spectral analysis of HR and SAP; also the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (measure by bradycardic and tachycardic responses) were evaluated after recording. The one-way ANOVA and the post hoc Student– Newman– Keuls tests (P< 0.05) were used to data comparison Results: WJ-MSCs were negative for CD3, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, whereas they were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105. The CLP group showed a reduction in variance of overall variability and in high-frequency power of HR (heart parasympathetic activity); furthermore, there is a low-frequency reduction of SAP (blood vessels sympathetic activity). The treatment with WJ-MSCs improved the autonomic activity by increasing the high and lowfrequency power; and restore the baroreflex sensitive. Conclusions: WJ-MSCs attenuate the impairment of autonomic control of the heart and vessels and might therefore play a protective role in sepsis. (Supported by FAPESP).