Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66727

Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications
Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.
Green Construction in EGYPT
This paper introduces green building construction in Egypt with different concepts and practices. The following study includes green building applied definition, guidelines, regulations and Standards. Evaluation of cost/benefit of green construction methods and green construction rating systems are presented. Relevant case studies will be reviewed. Four sites will be included.
The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou
At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.
Agriroofs and Agriwalls: Applications of Food Production in Green Roofs and Green Walls
Green roofs and walls are a rising technology in the global sustainable architectural industry. The idea takes great steps towards the future of sustainable design due to its many benefits. However, there are many barriers and constraints. Economical, structural, and knowledge barriers prevent the spread of the usage of green roofs and living walls. Understanding the benefits and expanding them will spread the idea. Benefits provided by these green spots interrupt and maintain the current urban cover. Food production is one of the benefits of green roofs. It can save money and energy spent in food transportation. The goal of this paper is to put a better understanding of implementing green systems. The paper aims to identify gains versus challenges facing the technology. It surveys with case studies buildings with green roofs and walls used for food production.
Integrated Evaluation of Green Design and Green Manufacturing Processes Using a Mathematical Model
In this research, a mathematical model for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. To design a product, there can be alternative options to design the detailed components to fulfill the same product requirement. In the design alternative cases, the components of the product can be designed with different materials and detailed specifications. If several design alternative cases are proposed, the different materials and specifications can affect the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new concept for integrating green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. A green design can be determined based the manufacturing processes of the designed product by evaluating the green criteria including energy usage and environmental impact, in addition to the traditional criteria of manufacturing cost. With this concept, a mathematical model is developed to find the green design and the associated green manufacturing processes. In the mathematical model, the cost items include material cost, manufacturing cost, and green related cost. The green related cost items include energy cost and environmental cost. The objective is to find the decisions of green design and green manufacturing processes to achieve the minimized total cost. In practical applications, the decision-making can be made to select a good green design case and its green manufacturing processes. In this presentation, an example product is illustrated. It shows that the model is practical and useful for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes.
Using a GIS-Based Method for Green Infrastructure Accessibility of Different Socio-Economic Groups in Auckland, New Zealand
Green infrastructure, the most important aspect of improving the quality of life, has been a crucial element of the liveability measurement. With demanding of more liveable urban environment from increasing population in city area, access to green infrastructure in walking distance should be taken into consideration. This article exemplifies the study on accessibility measurement of green infrastructure in central Auckland (New Zealand), using network analysis tool on the basis of GIS, to verify the accessibility levels of green infrastructure. It analyses the overall situation of green infrastructure and draws some conclusions on the city’s different levels of accessibility according to the categories and facilities distribution, which provides valuable references and guidance for the future facility improvement in planning strategies.
A Framework for Green Use and Disposal of Information Communication Technology Devices
The notion of viewing ICT as merely support for the business process has shifted towards viewing ICT as a critical business enabler. As such, the need for ICT devices has increased, contributing to high electronic equipment acquisition and disposal. Hence, its use and disposal must be seen in light of environmental sustainability, i.e., in terms of green use and disposal. However, there are limited studies on green Use and Disposal framework to be used as guiding lens by organizations in developing countries. And this study endeavors to address that need taking one of the largest multinational ICT intensive company in the country. The design and development of this framework passed through several stages, initially factors affecting green use and disposal were identified after quantitative and qualitative data analysis then there were multiple brainstorming sessions for the design enhancement as participative modelling was employed. Given the difference in scope and magnitude of the challenges identified, the proposed framework approaches green use and disposal in four imperatives; strategically, tactically, operationally and through continuous improvement.
Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Supplier Selection Considering Green Logistics: Case Study of Aluminum Production Sector
The emergence of many environmental issues began with the Industrial Revolution. The depletion of natural resources and emerging environmental challenges over time requires enterprises and managers to take into consideration environmental factors while managing business. If we take notice of these causes; the design and implementation of environmentally friendly green purchasing, production and waste management systems become very important at green logistics systems. Companies can adopt green supply chain with the awareness of these facts. The concept of green supply chain constitutes from green purchasing, green production, green logistics, waste management and reverse logistics. In this study, we wanted to identify the concept of green supply chain and why green supply chain should be applied. In the practice part of the study an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) study is conducted on an aluminum production company to evaluate suppliers.
Building Green Infrastructure Networks Based on Cadastral Parcels Using Network Analysis
Seoul in South Korea established the 2030 Seoul City Master Plan that contains green-link projects to connect critical green areas within the city. However, the plan does not have detailed analyses for green infrastructure to incorporate land-cover information to many structural classes. This study maps green infrastructure networks of Seoul for complementing their green plans with identifying and raking green areas. Hubs and links of main elements of green infrastructure have been identified from incorporating cadastral data of 967,502 parcels to 135 of land use maps using geographic information system. Network analyses were used to rank hubs and links of a green infrastructure map with applying a force-directed algorithm, weighted values, and binary relationships that has metrics of density, distance, and centrality. The results indicate that network analyses using cadastral parcel data can be used as the framework to identify and rank hubs, links, and networks for the green infrastructure planning under a variable scenarios of green areas in cities.
Magnitude of Green Computing in Trending IT World
With the recent years many industries and companies have turned their attention in realizing how going 'green' can benefit public relations, lower cost, and reduce global emissions from industrial manufacturing. Green Computing has become an originative way on how technology and ecology converge together. It is a growing import subject that creates an urgent need to train next generation computer scientists or practitioners to think ‘green’. However, green computing has not yet been well taught in computer science or computer engineering courses as a subject. In this modern IT world it’s impossible for an organization or common man to work without hardware like servers, desktop, IT devices, smartphones etc. But it is also important to consider the harmful impact of those devices and steps to achieve energy saving and environmental protection. This paper presents the magnitude of green computing and steps to be followed to go green.
The Gap of Green Consumption Behavior: Driving from Attitude to Behavior
Green consumption is a key link to develop the ecological economy, and consumers are vital to carry out green consumption. With environmental awareness gradually being aroused, consumers often fail to turn their positive attitude into actual green consumption behavior. According to behavior reasoning theory, reasons for adoption have a direct (positive) influence on consumers’ attitude while reasons against adoption have a direct (negative) influence on consumers’ adoption intentions, the incongruous coexistence of which leads to the attitude-behavior gap of green consumption. Based on behavior reasoning theory, this research integrates reasons for adoption and reasons against adoption into a proposed model, in which reasons both for and against green consumption mediate the relationship between consumer’ values, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. It not only extends the conventional theory of reasoned action but also provides a reference for the government and enterprises to design the repairing strategy of green consumption attitude-behavior gap.
Removal of Brilliant Green in Environmental Samples by Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Granule
In this research, poly-ethylene terephthalate granule was prepared from Tak Corporation. The granule was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on brilliant green sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of brilliant green was 6. The sorption capacity of the granule for brilliant green was 4.6 mg g−1. The profile of brilliant green uptake on this sorbent reflects a good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly-ethylene terephthalate granule. The developed method was utilized for the determination of brilliant green in environmental water samples by UV/Vis spectrophotometry with satisfactory results.
A Review on the Development and Challenges of Green Roof Systems in Malaysia
Green roof system is considered a relatively new concept in Malaysia even though it has been implemented widely in the developed countries. Generally, green roofs provide many benefits such as enhancing aesthetical quality of the built environment, reduce urban heat island effect, reduce energy consumption, improve stormwater attenuation, and reduce noise pollution. A better understanding on the implementation of green roof system in Malaysia is crucial, as Malaysia’s climate is different if compared with the climate in temperate countries where most of the green roof studies have been conducted. This study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system which focuses on i) types of plants and method of planting; ii) engineering design for green roof system; iii) its hydrological performance on reducing stormwater runoff; and iv) benefits of green roofs with respect to energy. Literature review has been conducted to identify the development and obstacles associated with green roofs systems in Malaysia. The study had identified the challenges and potentials of green roofs development in Malaysia. This study also provided the recommendations on standard design and strategies on the implementation of green roofs in Malaysia in the near future.
The Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Green Innovation
Absorptive capacity generally facilitates the adoption of innovation. How does this relationship change when economic return is not the sole driver of innovation uptake? We investigate whether absorptive capacity facilitates the adoption of green innovation based on a survey of 79 construction companies in Scotland. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, we confirm that existing knowledge utilisation (EKU), knowledge building (KB) and external knowledge acquisition (EKA) are significant predictors of green process GP), green administrative (GA) and green technical innovation (GT), respectively. We discuss the implications for theories of innovation adoption and knowledge enhancement associated with environmentally-friendly practices.
Clients’ Priorities in Design and Delivery of Green Projects: South African Perspective
This study attempts to identify the client’s main priority when delivering green projects. The aim is to compare whether clients’ interests are similar when delivering conventional buildings as compared to green buildings. Private clients invest more in green buildings as compared to government and parastatal entities. Private clients prioritize on maximizing a return on investment and they mainly invest in energy-saving buildings that have low life cycle costs. Private clients are perceived to be more knowledgeable about the benefits of green building projects as compared to government and parastatal clients. A shortage of expertise and managerial skill leads to the low adaptation of green buildings in government and parastatal projects. Other factors that seem to prevent the adoption of green buildings are the preparedness of the supply chain within the industry and inappropriate procurement strategies adopted by clients.
Economic Value Added of Green Marketing for Urban Commerical Center
Recently, green marketing issues have emerged as the developing direction for local governments and social enterprises. At the same time, many social enterprises have considered how to effectively create a low-carbon and sustainable environment. Local government has a role to play in promoting low-carbon life styles and creating a green sustainable environment within this green marketing trend. Therefore, urban commercial centers have implemented relevant plans such as: Green Store, Green Action Shops, Green Restaurants and Green Hotels. The purpose of these plans to select the commercial center organizations have potential energy saving demonstration and environmental greenification. These organizations are willing to provide assistance counseling and become a green demonstration district, thereby promoting the major shopping district to take the initiative to enhance its green competitiveness. Finally, they create a new landscape for the commercial center. Studies on green marketing in commercial centers are seen as less attractive and only a few studies for commercial centers have focused on green marketing strategies. There is no empirical evidence for how commercial center managers evaluate a commercial center green marketing strategy. This research investigated the major commercial centers in Taichung City and found green marketing helps to enhance the connection between the urban commercial center value and society value, shape corporate image with social responsibility and create brand value, and therefore impact the increase of economic value.
The Use of Appeals in Green Printed Advertisements: A Case of Product Orientation and Organizational Image Orientation Ads
Despite the relatively large number of studies that have examined the use of appeals in advertisements, research on the use of appeals in green advertisements is still underdeveloped and needs to be investigated further, as it is definitely a tool for marketers to create illustrious ads. In this study, content analysis was employed to examine the nature of green advertising appeals and to match the appeals with the green advertisements. Two different types of green print advertisings, product orientation and organizational image orientation were used. Thirty highly educated participants with different backgrounds were asked individually to ascertain three appeals out of thirty-four given appeals found among forty real green advertisements. To analyze participant responses and to group them based on common appeals, two-step K-mean clustering is used. The clustering solution indicates that eye-catching graphics and imaginative appeals are highly notable in both types of green ads. Depressed, meaningful and sad appeals are found to be highly used in organizational image orientation ads, whereas, corporate image, informative and natural appeals are found to be essential for product orientation ads.
Green Logistics Management and Performance for Thailand’s Logistic Enterprises
Logistics is the integrated management of all of the activities required to move products through the supply chain. For a typical product, this supply chain extends from a raw material source through the production and distribution system to the point of consumption and the associated reverse logistics. The logistical activities are comprised of freight transport, storage, inventory management, materials handling and all related information processing. This paper analyzes the green management system of logistics enterprise for Thailand and advances the concept of Green Logistics, which should be held by the public. In addition, it proposes that the government should strengthen its supervision and support for green logistics, and companies should construct self-disciplined green logistics management systems and corresponding processes, a reverse logistics management system and a modern green logistics information collection and management system.
A Brief Review of Urban Green Vegetation (Green Wall) in Reduction of Air Pollution
Air pollution is becoming a major health problem affecting millions. In support of this observation, the world health organization estimates that many people feel unhealthy due to pollution. This is a coupled fact that one of the main global sources of air pollution in cities is greenhouse gas emissions due heavy traffic. Green walls are developed as a sustainable strategy to reduce pollution by increasing vegetation in developed areas without occupying space in the city. This concept an offer advantageous environmental benefits and they can also be proposed for aesthetic purposes, and today they are used to preserve the urban environment. Green walls can also create environments that can promote a healthy lifestyle. Findings of multiple studies also indicate that Green infrastructure in cities is a strategy for improving air quality and increasing the sustainability of cities. Since these green solutions (green walls) act as porous materials that affect the diffusion of air pollution they can also act as a removing air vents that clean the air. Therefore, implementation of this strategy can be considered as a prominent factor in achieving a cleaner environment.
Green Roofs and Xeriscape Planting that Contribute to Sustainable Urban Green Space
In the recent years, urban green areas decrease dramatically as a result of increasing industrialization and population growth. At the same time, green spaces provide many ecosystem services such as controls of air pollution, noise reduction, prevents flooding and reduces the stress in the urban areas. Therefore, the plants help to these areas to get more livable and active, and also plants are one of the most significant identity elements in these open spaces. Roof gardens comes significant design comprehension as a result of global warming and also they contribute to cities with regard to ecological, economic, visual and recreational aspects. This study is mainly based on evaluation potential of green roofs and xeriscape planting design approach of Artvin (Turkey) known that generally has a remarkable floristic richness. Artvin is located on a sloping terrain, and the amount of green spaces that can be used is very limited in this city. Therefore, green roofs approach should be evaluated to supply urban green space sustainability. This study shows that it is appropriate about 20 perennial plants for green roofs and xeriscape planting design in Artvin city center. Usage of native plant species would be support to sustainable urban green spaces.
Temperature Control and Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan
To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue facing the challenge of climate change. Through literature reviews, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect relatively. Because there are not enough open space and park, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary school is asked priority to build green roof and important educational place to promote green roof concept. Testo 175-H1 recording device was used to record the temperature and humidity difference between roof surface and interior space below roof with and without green roof for the long-term. We also use questionnaire to investigate the awareness of comfort level of green roof and sensation of teachers and students of the elementary school. The results indicated the temperature of roof without greening was higher than that with greening about 2°C. But sometimes during noontime, the temperature of green roof was higher than that of non-green roof related to the character of the accumulation and dissipation of heat of greening probably. The temperature of interior space below green roof was normally lower than that without green roof about 1°C showed that green roof could lower the temperature. The humidity of the green roof was higher than the one without greening also indicated that green roof retained water better. Teachers liked to combine green roof concept in the curriculum, students wished all classes can take turns to maintain the green roof. Teachers and students that school had integrated green roof concept in the curriculum were more willing to participate in the maintenance work of green roof. Teachers and students who may access and touch the green roof can be more aware of the green roof benefit. We suggest architect to increase the accessibility and visibility of green roof, such as a part of the activity space. This idea can be a reference of the green roof curriculum design.
Studying the Function of Green Belt around the Metropolises
Since ancient times, urbanization engineers have always thought of creating green spaces along with urbanization. Athens and Rome have attempted to construct public gardens around streets and palaces. Since then developing green space has become a part of urban civilization. In medieval ages, all Western cities had palaces and houses with internal gardens. In different sources green belt is defined as a green band of trees and bushes around the cities which has multiple functions. It is said that green belts are not only around the mountains, cities, and rivers but also around houses, subways, and highways. Constructing green belt around cities has different advantages such as: protecting cities against pollution, purifying air, screening dust, being a place for recreation, buffer zone of city internal lands, confronting the phenomenon of heat island, increasing agricultural products, helping to prevent illegal city development, confronting deforestation, preventing flood and increasing subterranean water resources.
A Review on the Necessities of Green Building in Bangladesh and Its Construction Process
Climate change, due to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has been recognized as one of the biggest threats to the present world. The condition of the earth is getting worse day by day due to climate change. Bangladesh is considered to be one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to large population, sharp urbanization, etc. Construction of green building is a very good solution to reduce the greenhouse effect. Green building technology refers to that kind of structures which are environmentally friendly and resource-efficient throughout a building’s service life. This technology can provide at least 50% energy saving opportunity to the nation. The necessity of the construction of structures in an environment-friendly way is increasing now. This study shows the scenario of rapid population growth, urbanization, necessity of green building in Bangladesh and also discusses the construction process of green building. As the present climate condition of Bangladesh is not friendly, construction of green building is very much needed. To battle climate change, it is mandatory to construct green building.
An Assessment of the Factors Affecting Green Building Technology (GBT) Adoption
A construction and post construction activity in buildings contributes to environmental degradation, because of the generation of solid waste during construction to the production of carbon dioxide by the occupants during utilization. These problems were caused as a result of lack of adopting green building technology during and after construction. However, this study aims at conceptualizing the factors that are affecting the adoption of green building technology with a view to suggest better ways for its successful adoption in the construction industry through developing a green building technology model. Thus, the research findings show that: Economic, social, cultural, and technological progresses are the factors affecting Green Building Technology Adoption. Therefore, identifying these factors and developing the model might help in the successful adoption of green building technology.
Thermal Behavior of Green Roof: Case Study at Seoul National University Retentive Green Roof
There has been major concern about urban heating as urban clusters emerge and population migration from rural to urban areas continues. Green roof has been one of the main practice for urban heat island mitigation for the past decades, thus, this study was conducted to predict the cooling potential of retentive green roof in mitigating urban heat island. Retentive green roof was developed by Han in 2010. It has 320 mm height of retention wall surrounding the vegetation and 65mm depth of retention board underneath the soil, while most conventional green roof doesn’t have any retention wall and only maximum of 25 mm depth of drainage board. Seoul National University retentive green roof significantly reduced sensible heat movement towards the air by 0.5 kWh/m2, and highly enhanced the evaporation process as much as 0.5 – 5.4 kg/m2 which equals to 0.3 – 3.6 kWh/m2 of latent heat flux. These results indicate that with design enhancement, serving as a viable alternate for conventional green roof, retentive green roof contributes to overcome the limitation of conventional green roof which is the main solution for mitigating urban heat island.
An Analysis of the Relationship between Consumer Perception and Purchase Behavior towards Green Fashion in India
The green fashion market is growing rapidly as eco-friendly consumers are willing to expand their organic lifestyle to include clothing. With an increasing share of fashion consumers globally, Indian consumers are observed to consider the social and environmental ethics while making purchasing decisions. While some research clearly identifies the efforts of responsible consumers towards green fashion, some argue that fashion-orientated consumers who are sensitive towards environment do not actively participate towards supporting green fashion. This study aims to analyze the current perception of green fashion among Indian consumers. A small-scale exploratory study is conducted where consumers’ perception of green fashion is examined followed by an analysis of translation of this perception into purchase decision making. This research paper gives insight into consumer awareness on green fashion and provides scope towards the expansion of ethical fashion consumption within the demography of India.
Green Fruit and Vegetables Have Favorable Effects on 3-Year Changes of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Cohort Study
Background and aim: We aimed to investigate the effects of green fruits and vegetables (green FV) consumption on the 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Dietary intake of green FV, including green cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, celery, green beans, green peas, cucumber, leafy vegetables, zucchini, green chili and bell pepper, and kiwi fruit, has been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline and second examination. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of cardiometabolic risk changes with mean intake of green FV were estimated. Results: The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean intake of green FV was 152±77 g/d. More intake from green FV was accompanied to more intake of vitamin A, α and β-carotene, lutein, β-criptoxanthine, potassium, magnesium and fiber. Consumption of green FV was inversely associated with 3-year change of waist circumference (β= -0.07, P=0.01), total cholesterol (β= -0.11, P=0.01) and triglycerides (β= -0.13, P=0.01). Each 25 g/d increase in consumption of green FV decreased the incidence of hyper-triglyceridemia by 12% (OR:0.88, 95%CI:0.71-0.99) in men. In women, no significant association was observed between consumption of green FV with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion: Higher consumption of green FV could have preventive effects against abdominal fat gain and lipid disorders.
Factors Affecting Green Supply Chain Management of Lampang Ceramics Industry
This research aims to study the factors that affect the performance of green supply chain management in the Lampang ceramics industry. The data investigation of this research was questionnaires which were gathered from 20 factories in the Lampang ceramics industry. The research factors are divided into five major groups which are green design, green purchasing, green manufacturing, green logistics and reverse logistics. The questionnaire has consisted of four parts that related to factors green supply chain management and general information of the Lampang ceramics industry. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and priority of each factor by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The understanding of factors affecting the green supply chain management of Lampang ceramics industry was indicated in the summary result along with each factor weight. The result of this research could be contributed to the development of indicators or performance evaluation in the future.
An Alternative Concept of Green Screen Keying
This study focuses on a green screen keying method developed especially for film visual effects. There are a series of ways of using existing tools for creating mattes from green or blue screen plates. However, it is still a time-consuming process, and the results vary especially when it comes to retaining tiny details, such as hair and fur. This paper introduces an alternative concept and method for retaining edge details of characters on a green screen plate, also, a number of connected mathematical equations are explored. At the end of this study, a simplified process of applying this method in real productions is also introduced.
Identification of Factors Influencing Costs in Green Projects
Cost has always been the leading concern in green building development. The perception that construction cost for green building is higher than conventional buildings has only made the discussion of green building cost more difficult. Understanding the factors that will influence the cost of green construction is expected to shed light into what makes green construction more or at par with conventional projects, or perhaps, where cost can be optimised. This paper identifies the elements of cost before shifting the attention to the influencing factors. Findings from past studies uncovered various factors related to cost which are grouped into five focal themes i.e. awareness, knowledge, financial, technical, and government support. A conceptual framework is produced in a form of a flower diagram indicating the cost influencing factors of green building development. These factors were found to be both physical and non-physical aspects of a project. The framework provides ground for the next stage of research that is to further explore how these factors influence the project cost and decision making.
Green Growth in Kazakhstan: Political Leadership, Business Strategies and Environmental Fiscal Reform for Competitive System Change
The objective of this research work is to discuss the concept of green growth in the Republic of Kazakhstan introduced by its government in the National Sustainable Development Strategy with the objective of transition to a resource-efficient, green economy. We believe that emerging economies like Kazakhstan can pursue a cleaner and more efficient development path by introducing an environmental tax system based on resource consumption rather than only income and labor. The key issues discussed in this article are the eco-efficiency, which refers to closing the gap between economic and ecological efficiencies, and the structural change of the economy toward green growth. We also strongly believe that studying the experience of East Asian countries on green reform including eco-innovation and green solutions in business is essential to the case of Kazakhstan. All of these will raise the status of Kazakhstan to the level of one of the thirty developed countries over the next decades.
Towards Green(er) Cities: The Role of Spatial Planning in Realising the Green Agenda
The green hype is becoming stronger within various disciplines, modern practices and academic thinking, enforced by concepts such as eco-health, eco-tourism, eco-cities, and eco-engineering. There is currently also an expanded scientific understanding regarding the value and benefits relating to green infrastructure, for both communities and their host cities, linked to broader sustainability and resilience thinking. The integration and implementation of green infrastructure as part of spatial planning approaches and municipal planning, are, however, more complex, especially in South Africa, inflated by limitations of budgets and human resources, development pressures, inequities in terms of green space availability and political legacies of the past. The prevailing approach to spatial planning is further contributing to complexity, linked to misguided perceptions of the function and value of green infrastructure. As such, green spaces are often considered a luxury, and green infrastructure a costly alternative, resulting in green networks being susceptible to land-use changes and under-prioritized in local authority decision-making. Spatial planning, in this sense, may well be a valuable tool to realise the green agenda, encapsulating various initiatives of sustainability as provided by a range of disciplines. This paper aims to clarify the importance and value of green infrastructure planning as a component of spatial planning approaches, in order to inform and encourage local authorities to embed sustainability thinking into city planning and decision-making approaches. It reflects on the decisive role of land-use management to guide the green agenda and refers to some recent planning initiatives. Lastly, it calls for trans-disciplinary planning approaches to build a case towards green(er) cities.
Green Marketing and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities
In the cutting edge period of globalization, it has turned into a test to keep the clients and also shoppers in overlay and even keep our regular habitat safe and that is the greatest need of the time. Purchasers are likewise mindful of the ecological issues like a dangerous atmospheric deviation and the effect of natural contamination. Green showcasing is a marvel which has created specific critical in the present day advertise and has risen as an imperative idea in India, as in different parts of the creating and created world and is viewed as an essential procedure of encouraging practical improvement. In this exploration paper, primary accentuation has been made of idea, need, and significance of green promoting. It investigates the principle issues in reception of green showcasing hones. The paper portrays the present situation of Indian market and investigates the difficulties and openings organizations have with green advertising, why organizations are receiving it and eventual fate of green promoting and presumes that green showcasing is something that will consistently develop in both practice and request.
Recommending Appropriate Type of Green Roof Considering Urban Typology and Climatic Zoning in Iran
Population growth in big cities of Iran has led to limitation of land resources, more consumption of non-renewable sources of energy and many environmental problems. Emerging of overbuilt urban areas and decreasing amount of green spaces cause the appearance of an undesirable landscape in the cities. Green roof technology is a solution to improve environmental concerns in urban areas which combines green spaces with buildings as the private or semi-private spaces. Successful implementation in different areas definitely depends on accommodation of green roof type with the environment and urban and building typology in Iran. This paper is aiming to provide some recommendation for selecting appropriate type of green roof and executive solutions considering to climatic zoning and urban situation in Iran. Two main aspects which have been considered are environmental and urban typology factors.
Functions and Effects of Green Facades in the Developing Countries: Case Study of Tehran
Many people lost their life caused by environmental pollution every year. The negative effects of environmental crises appear to be much higher in Asian countries. The most important environmental issue in the developing countries and especially in Tehran, to our best knowledge, is air pollution that has affected many aspects of life in society. Environmental topics related to technology’s development have been salient issues among the main concerns of designers. Green facades are the most considerable solutions which designers and architectures are focused on, all over the world. But there are lots of behavioral and psychological problems about this point. In this line, this excavation has tried to reveal the cultural and psychological influences of green façade in developing countries like Tehran. Green façades in developing countries are so useless, although they are so expensive. As a matter of fact, users consider green facade as a decorative item. This research is an attempt to recognize the reasons which show green façades as worthless element. Also, some solutions are presented to promote green façades in the developing countries as an intrinsic solution. There are so many environmental threats, especially about air pollution, for a city as Tehran, which might be solved by green facades.
Decision Support Tool for Green Roofs Selection: A Multicriteria Analysis
Diverse stakeholders show different concerns when choosing green roof systems. Also, green roof solutions vary in their cost and performance. Therefore, decision-makers continually face the difficult task of balancing benefits against green roofs costs. Decision analysis methods, as multicriteria analysis, can be used when the decision‑making process includes different perspectives, multiple objectives, and uncertainty. The present study adopts a multicriteria decision model to evaluate the installation of green roofs in buildings, determining the solution with the best trade-off between costs and benefits in agreement with the preferences of the users/investors. This methodology was applied to a real decision problem, assessing the preferences between different green roof systems in an existing building in Lisbon. This approach supports the decision-making process on green roofs and enables robust and informed decisions on urban planning while optimizing buildings retrofitting.
Valuation of Green Commercial Office Building: A Preliminary Study of Malaysian Valuers' Insight
Malaysia’s green building development is gaining momentum and green buildings have become a key focus area especially within the commercial sector with the encouragement of government legislation and policy. Due to the emerging awareness among the market players’ views of the benefits associated with the ownership of green buildings in Malaysia, there is a need for valuers to incorporate consideration of sustainability into their assessments of property market value to ensure the green buildings continue to increase in the market. This paper analyses the valuers’ current perception on the valuation practices with regard to the green issues in Malaysia. The study was based on a survey of registered real estate valuers and the experts whose work related to valuation in the Klang Valley area to rate their view regarding the perception on valuation of green building. The findings present evidence that even though Malaysian valuers have limited knowledge of green buildings, they recognize the importance of incorporating the green features in the valuation process. The inclusion of incorporating the green features in valuations in practice was hindered by the inadequacy of sufficient transactional data in the market. Furthermore, valuers experienced difficulty in identifying what are the various input parameters of green building and how to adjust it in order to reflect the benefit of sustainability features correctly in the valuation process. This paper focuses on the present challenges confronted by Malaysian valuers with regards to incorporating the green features in their valuation.
The Antecedents of Green Purchase Intention in Nigeria: Mediating Effect of Perceived Behavioral Control
In recent times awareness about the environment and green purchase has been on the increase across nations due to global warming. Previous researchers have attempted to determine what actually influences the purchase intention of consumers in this environmentally conscious epoch. The consumers too have become conscious of what to buy and who to buy from in their purchasing decisions as this action will reflect their concern about the environment and their personal well-being. This trend is a widespread phenomenon in most developed countries of the world. On the contrary evidence revealed that only 5% of the populations of Nigeria involve in green purchase activities thus making the country lag behind its counterparts in green practices. This is not a surprise as Nigeria is facing problems of inadequate green knowledge, non-enforcement of environmental regulations, sensitivity to the price of green products when compared with the conventional ones and distrust towards green products which has been deduced from prior studies of other regions. The main objectives of this study is to examine the direct antecedents of green purchase intention (green availability, government regulations, perceived green knowledge, perceived value and green price sensitivity) in Nigeria and secondly to establish the mediating role of perceived behavioral control on the relationship between these antecedents and green purchase intention. The study adopts quantitative method whereby 700 questionnaires were administered to lecturers in three Nigerian universities. 502 datasets were collected which represents 72 percent response rate. After screening the data only 440 were usable and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) and bootstrapping. From the findings, three antecedents have significant direct relationships with green purchase intention (perceived green knowledge, perceived behavioral control, and green availability) while two antecedents have positive and significant direct relationship with perceived behavioral control (perceived value and green price sensitivity). On the other hand, PBC does not mediate any of the paths from the predictors to criterion variable. This result is discussed in the Nigerian context.
Eco Scale: A Tool for Assessing the Greenness of Pharmaceuticals Analysis
Owing to scientific and public concern about health and environment and seeking for a better quality of life; “Green”, “Environmentally” and “Eco” friendly practices have been presented and implemented in different research areas. Subsequently, researchers’ attention is drawn in the direction of greening the analytical methodologies and taking the Green Analytical Chemistry principles (GAC) into consideration. It is of high importance to appraise the environmental impact of each of the implemented green approaches. Compared to the other traditional green metrics (E-factor, Atom economy and the process profile), the eco scale is the optimum choice to assess the environmental impact of the analytical procedures used for pharmaceuticals analysis. For analytical methodologies, Eco-Scale is calculated by allotting penalty points to any factor of the used analytical procedure which disagree and not match with the model green analysis, where the perfect green analysis has its Eco-Scale value of 100. In this work, calculation and comparison of the Eco-Scale for some of the reported green analytical methods was done, to accentuate their greening potentials. Where the different scores can reveal how green the method is, compared to the ideal value. The study emphasizes that greenness measurement is not only about the waste quantity determination but also dictates a holistic scheme, considering all factors.
Federal College of Education Kano
Green roofs and walls are one of the key elements of sustainable design in ecology design of cities. Lack of open space and urban green at different scales from one neighborhood to district is as subject that has become challenge for urban management Use change from green space to other use is familiar for Iranian citizens. The high price of land in this area, it seems only justified reason for municipalities that reduce the green space per capita. In this paper, examines the rooftops of Iranian city as a fifth facade, as well as the opportunity to offset some of the capital's urban spaces that has been removed. Today green roof isn't a matter of taste in the world. Be proportional to the quantity and quality of the architecture become the first concern of urban professionals and ecological approaches such as "sustainable" and "green architecture" is checked. In this paper we review and present examples of green roofs have been executed in Iran over the past decade. Survey some of the urban management policies in leading province in this article constitutes the second dimension. The purpose of this paper is study example of green roof performance in different parts of Iran, along with criteria for sustainable urban development and achieves the policies and components collection of implementation sustainable development , specific of Iranian green roof and monitor the develops ways to it.
Simulating Lean and Green Correlation in Supply Chain Context
Implementing green practices in supply chain management is a complex task mainly because ecological, economical and operational goals are usually in conflict. Green practices might thus face companies’ reluctance because managers can consider its implementation obviously as a performance lean degradation. To implement lean and green practices successfully, companies need relevant decision-making tools to highlight the correlation between them. To contribute to this issue, this work tries to answer the following research question: How to use simulation to assess correlation (antagonism or convergence) between lean and green goals? To answer this question, we propose in this paper a based simulation process that measures correlation generally between two variables. So as to prove its relevance, a logistics academic case study is used to illustrate all its stages. It shows, as for example, that Lean goal 'Stock' and Green goal 'CO₂ emission' are not conceptually correlated (linearly).
Green Hospitality Industry: An Experience Study with Game Theory in China
The green hotel provides the products/services consistent with the full utilization of resources, protecting the ecological environment conducive to customers’ requirements and health. In order to better develop the green hospitality industry, this paper applies the game theory to analyze the intrinsic relationship and balanced interests among the stakeholders including government, hotels, and tourists during green hospitality development. Based on the hypothesis in game theory, this paper tries to construct a linkage mechanism in stakeholders, by which a theoretical basis for the interests’ balance can be realized. By using game theory and constructing a game model including tourists, hotels and government, this paper analyzes the relationship of the various stakeholders involved in the green hospitality development, and subsequently proposes the development model of green hospitality industry. On the one hand, this paper applies game theory to construct a green hotel development model and provides a theoretical basis for the interest balance of stakeholders based on theoretical perspective. On the other hand, the current development of green hospitality industry is still in initial phase, and the outcome of this research tries to guide tourists to form a green awareness and to establish the concept of green consumption for hotel development, so that green hotel products/services are provided. In addition, this paper provides a basis for decision making in the relevant government departments so that the interests of all stakeholders are promoted and cooperative game between stakeholders is established, for which the sustainable development of green hotels is achieved. The findings indicate that the process of achieving green hospitality industry development is to maximize the whole interests of stakeholders.
Evaluation of the Impact of Green Infrastructure on Dispersion and Deposition of Particulate Matter in Near-Roadway Areas
Pollutant concentration is high in near-road environments, and vegetation is an effective measure to mitigate urban air quality problems. This paper presents the influence of roadside green infrastructure in dispersion and Deposition of Particulate matter (PM) by the ENVI-met Simulations. Six green infrastructure configurations were specified (i) hedges only, (ii) trees only, (iii) a mix of trees and shrubs (iv) green barrier (v) green wall, and (vi) no tree buffer were placed on both sides of the road. The changes in concentrations at all six scenarios were estimated to identify the best barrier to reduce the dispersion and deposition of PM10 and PM2.5 in an urban environment.
The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on the Mg and P Concentrations in Turkish Black and Green Tea
Tea is one of the most consumed beverages all over the world. Especially, black and green teas are preferred to consume. In Turkey, some local tea houses use sodium bicarbonate (SB) to obtain more infusion by using less amount of tea. Therefore, the addition of SB to black and green teas affects element concentrations of these teas. In this study, determination of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) contents in black and green teas is aimed for conscious consumption, after the addition of SB. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for these analysis. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of Mg and P decreased by adding SB from 11.020, 21.915 to 10.009, 17.520 in black tea and from 12.605, 14.550 to 8.118, 9.425 in green tea, respectively. The addition of SB on analyzed teas is not recommended as it reduces intake percentages of Mg and P from the essential elements.
Green Computing: Awareness and Practice in a University Information Technology Department
The fact that ICTs is pervasive in today’s society paradoxically also calls for the need for green computing. Green computing generally encompasses the study and practice of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources effectively and efficiently without negatively affecting the environment. Since the emergence of this innovation, manufacturers and governmental bodies such as Energy Star and the United State of America’s government have obviously invested many resources in ensuring the reality of green design, manufacture, and disposal of ICTs. However, the level of adherence to green use of ICTs among users have been less accounted for especially in developing ICT consuming nations. This paper, therefore, focuses on examining the awareness and practice of green computing among academics and students of the Information Technology Department of Durban University of Technology, Durban South Africa, in the context of green use of ICTs. This was achieved through a survey that involved the use of a questionnaire with four sections: (a) demography of respondents, (b) Awareness of green computing, (c) practices of green computing, and (d) attitude towards greener computing. One hundred and fifty (150) questionnaires were distributed, one hundred and twenty (125) were completed and collected for data analysis. Out of the one hundred and twenty-five (125) respondents, twenty-five percent (25%) were academics while the remaining seventy-five percent (75%) were students. The result showed a higher level of awareness of green computing among academics when compared to the students. Green computing practices are also shown to be highly adhered to among academics only. However, interestingly, the students were found to be more enthusiastic towards greener computing in the future. The study, therefore, suggests that the awareness of green computing should be further strengthened among students from the curriculum point of view in order to improve on the greener use of ICTs in universities especially in developing countries.
Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Instant Fruit Green Tea Powders
Green tea, mangosteen and pomegranate contain high levels of bioactive compounds which have antioxidant effects and great potential in food applications. The aim of this study was to produce and determine catechin contents, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of two instant fruit green tea powders which were green tea fortified with mangosteen juice and green tea fortified with pomegranate juice. Seventy percent of hot water extract of green tea was mixed with 30% of mangosteen juice or pomegranate juice, and then spray-dried using a spray dryer. The results showed that the drying conditions optimized for the highest total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of both powders were the inlet air temperature of 170°C, outlet air temperatures of 90°C and maltodextrin concentration of 30%. The instant green tea with mangosteen powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 19.18 (mg gallic acid/kg), 85.44 (mg/kg) and 4,334 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The instant green tea with pomegranate powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 32.72 (mg gallic acid/kg), 156.36 (mg/kg) and 6,283 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The phenolic compounds in instant green tea with mangosteen powder comprised of tannic acid (2,156.87 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (898.23 mg/kg) and rutin (13.74 mg/kg). Also, the phenolic compounds in instant green tea with pomegranate powder comprised of tannic acid (2,275.82 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (981.23 mg/kg), rutin (14.97 mg/kg) and i-quercetin (5.86 mg/kg).
A Strategy of Green Sukuk to Promote Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Indonesia
On the phase of shifting paradigm into sustainability, Indonesia is involved in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) project. That act is revealed by creating Medium and Long Term Roadmap for Sustainable Finance in Indonesia which collaborated design by Indonesia Financial Service Board (OJK) and Ministry of Environment and Forestry. One of alternative for that infrastructure financing is sharia-based financing, Green Sukuk (Sukuk specified on sustainable infrastructure project). Green Sukuk for infrastructure financing in Indonesia can be issued by the government in the form of Sukuk Project Financing. Moreover, banks in Indonesia can also participate for the issuance of Green Sukuk. So that the banks can create a financing for people who are concerned about environmental issues. By using qualitative methods and literature review, this paper aims to discuss potential, strategy and planning of Green Sukuk for financing sustainable infrastructure in the purpose of SDGs. This paper will benefit for government to give scientific discussion on the strategy of Green Sukuk in promoting sustainable goals infrastructure project in Indonesia.
Reverse Logistics, Green Supply Chain, and Carbon Trading
Reverse logistics and green supply chain form an interconnected and interwoven network of parameters that contribute to enhancement and incremental exchange in the triple bottom line in the consistently changing and fragmenting markets of the globalizing markets of today. Reverse logistics not only contributes to completing the supply chain in a comprehensive and synchronized manner but also contributes to a significant degree in optimizing green supply chains through procedures such as recycling, refurbishing etc. contributing to waste reduction. Carbon trading, owing to its limitations in the global context and being in a nascent stage seeks plethora of research to determine its full application in synergy with reverse logistics and green supply chain.
Comprehensive Approach to Enhance Green Buildings in Urban Areas
The main objective of any engineering activity is the development of a system that fulfills the specific economic, social or environmental needs. Green growth policies, as a system, targets to satisfy two main needs: economic and environmental growth. Cities are complex systems composed of varied characteristics such as differences in socio-environmental conditions and local affordability, among others. Thus, commissioned policies are required to address these differences and to ensure green development. A more maintainable and justifiable, resource-efficient green growth can be obtained in urban areas if multi-criteria framework of policies relevant to green buildings is designed. Reason is that, this approach fits to target the differences and unique conditions of urban areas. By following the principles of axiomatic design, this paper urges to derive a framework for the application of green buildings policies in urban areas with distinctive socio-economic and environmental characteristics. Functional requirements defined as principles to ensure green growth and design parameters are identified in each set of conditions. Design matrices are constructed for each group of urban areas. Thus, the understanding of the needs and differences for each group of urban areas and the methodology to ensure green buildings is achieved.
An Evaluative Approach for Successful Implementation of Lean and Green Manufacturing in Indian SMEs
Enterprises adopt methodologies to increase their business performance and to stay competent in the volatile global market. Lean manufacturing is one such manufacturing paradigm which focuses on reduction of cost by elimination of wastes or non-value added activities. With increased awareness about social responsibility and the necessary to meet the terms of the environmental policy, green manufacturing is becoming increasingly important for industries. Large plants have more resources, have started implementing lean and green practices and they are getting good results. Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) are facing problems in implementing lean and green concept. This paper aims to identify the key issues for implementation of lean and green concept in Indian SMEs. The key factors identified based on literature review and expert opinions are grouped into different levels by Modified Interpretive Structural Modeling (MISM) to explore the importance among the factors to implement lean and green manufacturing. Finally, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) method has been used to determine the extent to which the main principles of lean and green manufacturing have been carried out in the six Indian medium scale manufacturing industries.
Impact of Green Roofs on Hot and Humid Climate-Vijayawada
In India, Growth and spread of cities lead to the reduction of forests and green areas of the urban center with built structures. This is one of the reasons for increasing temperature about 2-5% in an urban environment and consequently also one of the key causes of urban heat island effects. Green roofs are one option that can reduce the negative impact of urban development providing numerous environmental benefits. In this paper, Vijayawada city is taken as case to study as it is experiencing rapid urbanization because of new capital Amaravati. That has resulted in remarkable urban heat island; which once recorded a highest temperature of 49°c. This paper focuses on the change in quality of the local environment with the introduction of green roofs. An in-depth study has to be carried out to understand the distribution of land surface temperature and land use of Vijayawada. Delineation of an area which has the highest temperature has been selected to adopt green roof retrofitting. Latest technologies of green roof retrofitting have to be implemented in the selected region. The results of the study indicate a significant temperature reduction in the local environment of that region, confirming the potential of green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategy.
Optimization of Strategies and Models Review for Optimal Technologies-Based on Fuzzy Schemes for Green Architecture
Recently, Green architecture becomes a significant way to a sustainable future. Green building designs involve finding the balance between comfortable homebuilding and sustainable environment. Moreover, the utilization of the new technologies such as artificial intelligence techniques are used to complement current practices in creating greener structures to keep the built environment more sustainable. The most common objectives are green buildings should be designed to minimize the overall impact of the built environment on ecosystems in general and particularly on human health and on the natural environment. This will lead to protecting occupant health, improving employee productivity, reducing pollution and sustaining the environmental. In green building design, multiple parameters which may be interrelated, contradicting, vague and of qualitative/quantitative nature are broaden to use. This paper presents a comprehensive critical state of art review of current practices based on fuzzy and its combination techniques. Also, presented how green architecture/building can be improved using the technologies that been used for analysis to seek optimal green solutions strategies and models to assist in making the best possible decision out of different alternatives.
Formulating Model of Green Supply Chain Impact on Chain Operational Performance, Case Study: Rahbaran Foolad Aria, Steel Industry
Industrial development in recent centuries has been replaced by a sustainable development. The industry executives, particularly in the development countries are looking for procedures to protect the environment, improve their organization's performance. One of these approaches is the green supply chain management. Green supply chain management approach as a comprehensive approach to environmental management that contains all flows from suppliers to producers and ultimately to consumers, in many industries, particularly in the Steel industry, which has a strategic role in the country's industrial and economic development, has been receiving significant attention. The purpose of this study is examining the impact of green supply chain on chain operational performance in the Steel industry and formulating model for it. In this way, first the components of green supply chain (in 5 dimensions, planning, sourcing, making, delivery and return) have been prioritized through TOPSIS decision technique and then impact of these components on operational performance has been modeled with model dynamic systems and Vensim software. This research shows that green supply chain has a positive impact on operational performance and improve it.
Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye on Graphene Oxide Nanosheets from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics and Thermodynamics Studies
In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have been synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic tools such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, BET specific surface area and Transmission Electronic Microscope (TEM). The prepared GO was investigated for the removal of malachite green, a cationic dye from aqueous solution. The removal methods of malachite green has been proceeded via adsorption process. GO nanosheets can be predicted as a good adsorbent material for the adsorption of cationic species. The adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption kinetics, concentration of adsorbate, pH, and temperature. The kinetics of the adsorption data were analyzed using four kinetic models such as the pseudo first-order model, pseudo second-order model, intraparticle diffusion, and the Boyd model to understand the adsorption behavior of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets and the mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm of adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated at 25, 35 and 45 °C. The equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) change were also evaluated. The interaction of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated by infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
The Social Impact of Green Buildings
Policy instruments have been developed worldwide to reduce the energy demand of buildings. Two types of such instruments have been green building rating systems and energy efficiency standards for buildings -such as Green Star (Australia), LEED (United States, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), Energy Star (United States), and BREEAM (United Kingdom, Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method). The popularity of the idea of sustainable development has allowed the actors to consider the potential value generated by the environmental performance of buildings, labeled “green value” in the literature. Sustainable performances of buildings are expected to improve their attractiveness, increasing their value. A growing number of empirical studies demonstrate that green buildings yield rental/sale premia, as well as higher occupancy rates and thus higher asset values. The results suggest that green buildings are not affordable to all and that their construction tends to have a gentrifying effect. An increasing number of countries are institutionalizing green strategies for affordable housing. In that sense, making green buildings affordable to all will depend on government policies. That research aims to investigate whether green building fosters inequality in Israel, under the banner of sustainability. The method is comparison (of the market value). This method involves comparing the green buildings sale prices with non-certified buildings of the same type that have undergone recent transactions. The “market value” is deduced from those sources by analogy. The results show that, in Israel, green building projects are usually addressed to the middle to upper classes. The green apartment’s sale premium is about 19% (comparing to non-certified dwelling). There is a link between energy and/or environmental performance and the financial value of the dwellings. Moreover, price differential is much higher than the value of energy savings. This perpetuates socio-spatial and socio-economic inequality as well as ecological vulnerability for the poor and other socially marginal groups. Moreover, there are no green affordable housings and the authorities do not subsidy green building or retrofitting.
Different Tillage Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming
In this study, determining of reduced tillage techniques in green bean farming as a second crop after harvesting wheat was targeted. To this aim, four different soil tillage methods namely, heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage (NT) (seeding by direct drill) were examined. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields were obtained in HD+ROT and NT as 5,862.1 and 5,829.3 Mg/ha, respectively. The lowest green bean yield was found in HD as 3,076.7 Mg/ha. The highest fuel consumption was measured 30.60 L ha-1 for HD+ROT whereas the lowest value was found 7.50 L ha-1 for NT. No tillage method gave the best results for fuel consumption and effective power requirement. It is concluded that no-tillage method can be used in second crop green bean in the Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.
Impact of Marketing Orientation on Environment and Firm’s Performance
‘Going green’ has been an emerging issue worldwide driving companies to continuously enhance their green capabilities and implement innovative green practices to protect the environment and improve business performance. Green has become a contemporary business environmental issue. The resource advantage theory is adopted in the present study to observe the impact of marketing orientation and green innovation practices on environmental and firm’s performance. The small and medium firms compared to large firms have different approach towards market orientation as a strategic tool. The present study proposes a conceptual framework regarding the impact of market orientation on environmental and firm’s performance through green innovation practices in the context of small and medium scale industries (SMEs). The propositions developed in the present paper would provide scope for future research study to validate the conceptual framework in the emerging economy like India.
The Feasibility of Using Green Architecture in the Desert Areas and Its Effectiveness
The green architecture represents the essence of the sustainability process and the fundamental rule in the desert areas' reconstruction seeking to maintain the environmental balance. This study is based on the analytical descriptive approach, to extract the objectives of green architecture in the desert areas, and reveal the most important principles that contribute to highlight its economic, social, and environmental importance, in addition to standing on the most important technical standards that can be relied upon to deal with its environmental problems. The green architecture aims: making use of the alternative energy, reducing the conventional energy consumption, addressing its negative effects, adapting to the climate, innovation in design, providing the individuals' welfare and rationalizing the use of the available resources to maintain its environmental sustainability.
Using Medicinal Herbs in Designing Green Roofs
Today, the use of medicinal herbs in architecture and green space has a significant effect on the process of calming human and increases the reliability coefficient of design and design flexibility. The current research was conducted with the aim to design green roof and investigate the effect of medicinal herbs such as cress, leek, fenugreek, beet, sweet fennel, green basil, purple basil, and purslane on reducing the number of environmental pollutants (copper, zinc, and cadmium). Finally, the weight of the dry plant and the concentration of elements zinc, lead, and cadmium in the herbs was measured. According to the results, the maximum dry weight (88.10 and 73.79 g) was obtained in beet and purslane respectively and the minimum dry weight (24.12 and 25.21) was obtained in purple basil, and green basil respectively. The maximum amount of element zinc (235 and 213 mg/kg) and the maximum amount of lead (143 mg/kg) were seen in sweet fennel and purple basil. In addition, the maximum amount of cadmium (13 mg/kg) was seen in sweet fennel and purple basil and the minimum amount of lead and cadmium (78 and 7 mg/kg) was seen in green basil, and the minimum amount of zinc (110 mg/kg) was seen in leek. On the other hand, the absorption amount of element lead in the herbs beet and purslane was the same and both absorbed 123 mg/kg lead. Environmentally, if green roofs are implemented extensively and in wide dimensions in urban spaces, they will purify and reduce pollution significantly by absorbing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen.
Green Chemical Processing in the Teaching Laboratory: A Convenient Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Natural Products
One of the principal aims of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry to both developed and developing nations. This paper describes one attempt to show that “north-south” collaborations yield innovative sustainable and green technologies which give major benefits for both nations. In this paper we present early results from a solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oils using fresh orange peel, a byproduct in the production of orange juice. SFME is performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. SFME increases essential oil yield and eliminate wastewater treatment. The procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, and allows the students to learn extraction, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis skills, and are expose to dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable and green extraction of essential oil, and are introduced to commercially successful sustainable and green chemical processing with microwave energy.
Ilorin Traditional Architecture as a Good Example of a Green Building Design
Tradition African practice of architecture can be said to be deeply rooted in Green Architecture in concept, design and execution. A study into the ancient building techniques in Ilorin Emirate depicts prominent (eco-centric approach of) Green Architecture principles. In the Pre-colonial era before the introduction of modern architecture and Western building materials, the Nigeria traditional communities built their houses to meet their cultural, religious and social needs using mainly indigenous building materials such as mud (Amo), cowdung (Boto), straws (koriko), palm fronts (Imo-Ope) to mention a few. This research attempts to identify the various techniques of applying the traditional African principles of Green Architecture to Ilorin traditional buildings. It will examine and assess some case studies to understand the extent to which Green architecture principles have been applied to traditional building designs that are still preserved today in Ilorin, Nigeria. Furthermore, this study intends to answer many questions, which can be summarized into two basic questions which are: (1) What aspects of what today are recognized as important green architecture principles have been applied to Ilorin traditional buildings? (2) To what extent have the principles of green architecture applied to Ilorin traditional buildings been ways of demonstrating a cultural attachment to the earth as an expression of the African sense of human being as one with nature?
Implementing Green IT Practices in Non-IT Industries in Sri Lanka: Contemplating the Feasibility and Methods to Ensure Sustainability
Green IT is a term that refers to the collective strategic and tactical practices that unswervingly condense the carbon footprint to a diminished proportion in an establishment’s computing procedures. This concept has been tightly knit with IT related organizations; hence it has been precluded to be applied within non-IT organizations in Sri Lanka. With the turn of the century, computing technologies have taken over commonplace activities in every nook and corner in Sri Lanka, which is still on the verge of moving forth in its march towards being a developed country. Hence, it needs to be recursively proven that non-IT industries are well-bound to adhere to ‘Green IT’ practices as well, in order to reduce their carbon footprint and move towards considering the practicality of implementing Green-IT practices within their work-arounds. There are several spheres that need to be taken into account in creating awareness of ‘Green IT’, such as the economic breach, technologies available, legislative bounds, community mind-set and many more. This paper tends to reconnoiter causes that currently restrain non-IT organizations from considering Green IT concepts. By doing so, it is expected to prove the beneficial providence gained by implementing this concept within the organization. The ultimate goal is to propose feasible ‘Green IT’ practices that could be implemented within the context of Sri Lankan non-IT sectors in order to ensure that organization’s sustainable growth towards a long term existence.
Overcoming the Obstacles to Green Campus Implementation in Indonesia
One way that has been aggressively implemented in creating a sustainable environment nowadays is through the implementation of green building concept. In order to ensure the success of its implementation, the support and initiation from educational institutions, especially higher education institutions are indispensable. This research was conducted to figure out the obstacles restraining the success of green campus implementation in Indonesia, as well as to propose strategies to overcome those obstacles. The data presented in this paper are mainly derived from interview and questionnaire distributed randomly to the staffs and students in 10 (ten) major institutions around Jakarta and West Java area. The data were further analyzed using ANOVA and SWOT analysis. According to 182 respondents, it is found that resistance to change, inadequate knowledge, information and understanding, no penalty for any environmental violation, lack of reward for green campus practices, lack of stringent regulations/laws, lack of management commitment, insufficient funds are the obstacles to the green campus movement in Indonesia. In addition, out of 6 criteria considered in UI GreenMetric World Ranking, education was the only criteria that had no significant difference between public and private universities in generating the green campus performance. The work concludes with recommendation of strategies to improve the implementation of green campus in the future.
A Case Study Approach to the Rate the Eco Sensitivity of Green Infrastructure Solutions
In the area of civil infrastructure, there is an urgent need to apply technologies that deliver infrastructure sustainably in a way that is cost-effective. Civil engineering projects can have a significant impact on ecological and social systems if not correctly planned, designed and implemented. It can impact climate change by addressing the issue of flooding and sustainability. Poor design choices now can result in future generations to live in a climate with depleted resources and without green spaces. The objectives of the research study were to rate the sensitivity of various greener infrastructure technologies that can be used in township infrastructure, at the various stages of the project. This paper discusses the Green Township Infrastructure Design Toolkit, that is used to rate the sustainability of infrastructure service projects. Various case studies were undertaken on a range of infrastructure projects to test the sensitivity of various design solution against sustainability criteria. The Green reporting tools ensure efficient, economical and sustainable provision of infrastructure services.
Simulation of 'Net' Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas
Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate 'net' nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus released as mussel feces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.
A Study of the Planning and Designing of the Built Environment under the Green Transit-Oriented Development
In recent years, the problems of global climate change and natural disasters have induced the concerns and attentions of environmental sustainability issues for the public. Aside from the environmental planning efforts done for human environment, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) has been widely used as one of the future solutions for the sustainable city development. In order to be more consistent with the urban sustainable development, the development of the built environment planning based on the concept of Green TOD which combines both TOD and Green Urbanism is adapted here. The connotation of the urban development under the green TOD including the design toward environment protect, the maximum enhancement resources and the efficiency of energy use, use technology to construct green buildings and protected areas, natural ecosystems and communities linked, etc. Green TOD is not only to provide the solution to urban traffic problems, but to direct more sustainable and greener consideration for future urban development planning and design. In this study, we use both the TOD and Green Urbanism concepts to proceed to the study of the built environment planning and design. Fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDT) is utilized to screen suitable criteria of the green TOD. Furthermore, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) were then developed to evaluate the criteria and prioritize the alternatives. The study results can be regarded as the future guidelines of the built environment planning and designing under green TOD development in Taiwan.
Enrichment of the Antioxidant Activity of Decaffeinated Assam Green Tea by Herbal Plant: A Synergistic Effect
Tea is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water; it is grown in about 30 countries with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Green tea is of growing importance with its antioxidant contents associated with its health benefits. The various extraction methods can influence the polyphenol concentrations of green tea. The purpose of the study was to quantify the polyphenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of both caffeinated and decaffeinated form of tea manufactured commercially in Assam, North Eastern part of India. The results display that phenolic/flavonoid content well correlated with antioxidant activity which was performed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay. After decaffeination there is a decrease in the polyphenols concentration which also affects the antioxidant activity of green tea. For the enrichment of antioxidant activity of decaffeinated tea a herbal plant extract is used which shows a synergistic effect between green tea and herbal plant phenolic compounds.
Utilizing GIS for Understanding Green Spaces Ability in Meeting the Social Values and Needs of Youth in Al-Mughair
Green spaces (defined here as open spaces and natural landscape features) in rural and urban areas are considered the backbone for the social and environmental development of communities. Green space planning mechanisms are commonly directed by political interest and strategies, often disregarding the importance of community participation and seldom supported by community experiences. There is a social value for green spaces; however, it is hardly served by the existing natural environments in rural contexts. This paper will focus on understanding the community perception of social values in green spaces. It will also investigate whether the location of residency has a significant impact on social values, in addition to the spatial affordability of social values. The tested population includes youth (15 to 17 years old) in the rural town of Al-Mughayyer. This research utilizes a mix-method of Youth Participation and Geographic Information System (YP-GIS), to address the affordability of green spaces and the conjured social values among the youth. The results reveal that the youth mostly appreciate the social opportunities that natural green spaces provide. In particular, youth are aware of the social affordability of green space (both passive and active uses of recreation). In general, the most important values from youth's perception are scenic values, peaceful environments, and places that represent the identity. Unexpectedly, social interaction seems to be an unperceived value among girls. There is no significant relationship between green spaces and physical activity for boys in particular. Both think that remote areas are fascinating but unsafe places. Most results show a clear discrepancy between genders. In conclusion, although the perception of social values is often intangible and sometimes excluded from green space policies, this study provides evidence that youth can enhance the green spaces' decisions based on their observations of their living environments. Planning for green spaces should balance both the environment and social needs.
Utilizing GIS for Understanding Green Spaces Ability in Meeting the Social Values and Needs of Youth in Al-Mughair
Green spaces (defined here as open spaces and natural landscape features) in rural and urban areas are considered the backbone for the social and environmental development of communities. Green space planning mechanisms are commonly directed by political interest and strategies, often disregarding the importance of community participation and seldom supported by community experiences. There is a social value for green spaces; however, it is hardly served by the existing natural environments in rural contexts. This paper will focus on understanding the community perception of social values in green spaces. It will also investigate whether the location of residency has a significant impact on social values, in addition to the spatial affordability of social values. The tested population includes youth (15 to 17 years old) in the rural town of Al-Mughayyer. This research utilizes a mix-method of Youth Participation and Geographic Information System (YP-GIS), to address the affordability of green spaces and the conjured social values among the youth. The results reveal that the youth mostly appreciate the social opportunities that natural green spaces provide. In particular, youth are aware of the social affordability of green space (both passive and active uses of recreation). In general, the most important values from youth's perception are scenic values, peaceful environments, and places that represent the identity. Unexpectedly, social interaction seems to be an unperceived value among girls. There is no significant relationship between green spaces and physical activity for boys in particular. Both think that remote areas are fascinating but unsafe places. Most results show a clear discrepancy between genders. In conclusion, although the perception of social values is often intangible and sometimes excluded from green space policies, this study provides evidence that youth can enhance the green spaces' decisions based on their observations of their living environments. Planning for green spaces should balance both the environment and social needs.
A Reference Framework Integrating Lean and Green Principles within Supply Chain Management
In the last decades, an increasing set of companies adopted lean philosophy to improve their productivity and efficiency promoting the so-called continuous improvement concept, reducing waste of time and cutting off no-value added activities. In parallel, increasing attention rises toward green practice and management through the spread of the green supply chain pattern, to minimise landfilled waste, drained wastewater and pollutant emissions. Starting from a review on contributions deepening lean and green principles applied to supply chain management, the most relevant drivers to measure the performance of industrial processes are pointed out. Specific attention is paid on the role of cost because it is of key importance and it crosses both lean and green principles. This analysis leads to figure out an original reference framework for integrating lean and green principles in designing and managing supply chains. The proposed framework supports the application, to the whole value chain or to parts of it, e.g. distribution network, assembly system, job-shop, storage system etc., of the lean-green integrated perspective. Evidences show that the combination of the lean and green practices lead to great results, higher than the sum of the performances from their separate application. Lean thinking has beneficial effects on green practices and, at the same time, methods allowing environmental savings generate positive effects on time reduction and process quality increase.
Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Absorption in DKI Jakarta Green Space
The issue of climate change become world attention where one of them increase in air temperature due to greenhouse gas emissions. This climate change is caused by gases in the atmosphere, one of which is CO2. DKI Jakarta as the capital has a dense population with a variety of existing land use. Land use that is dominated by settlements resulting in fewer green space, which functions to absorb atmospheric CO2. Image interpretation SPOT-7 is used to determine the greenness level of vegetation on a green space using the vegetation index NDVI, EVI, GNDVI and OSAVI. Measuring the diameter and height of trees were also performed to obtain the value of biomass that will be used as the CO2 absorption value. The CO2 absorption value that spread in Jakarta are classified into three classes: high, medium, and low. The distribution pattern of CO2 absorption value at green space in Jakarta dominance in the medium class with the distribution pattern is located in South Jakarta, East Jakarta, North Jakarta and West Jakarta. The distribution pattern of green space in Jakarta scattered randomly and more dominate in East Jakarta and South Jakarta
Study on the Effect of Different Media on Green Roof Water Retention
Taiwan annual rainfall is global average of 2.5 times, plus city excessive development, green constantly to reduced, instead of is big area of artificial base disc, makes Taiwan rainy season during occurred of storm cannot timely of emissions, led to flood constantly, and rain also cannot was retained again using, led to city hydrological balance suffered damage, and to Regulation city of by brings of negative effect, increased green covered rate became most effective of method, and city land limited, so roof green gradually became a alternative program. Green roofs have become one of the Central and local government policy initiatives for urban development, in foreign countries, such as the United States, and Japan, and Singapore etc. Development of roof greening as an important policy, has become a trend of the times. In recent years, many experts and scholars are also on the roof greening all aspects of research, mostly for green roof for the environmental impact of benefits, such as: carbon reduction, cooling, thermostat, but research on the benefits of green roofs under water cut but it is rare. Therefore, this research literature from green roof in to view and analyze what kind of medium suitable for roof greening and use of green base plate combination simulated green roof structure, via different proportions of the medium with water retention plate and drainage board, experiment with different planting base plate combination of water conservation performance. Research will want to test the effect of roof planting base mix, promotion of relevant departments and agencies in future implementation of green roofs, prompted the development of green roofs, which in the end Taiwan achieve sustainable development of the urban environment help.
Monitoring Energy Reduction through Applying Green Roofs to Residential Buildings in Dubai
Since buildings are a major consumer of energy, their potential impact on the environment is considerable. Therefore, expanding the application of low energy architecture is of the utmost importance. Designing with nature is also one of the most attractive methods of design for many architects and designers because it creates a pathway to sustainability. One feature of designing with nature is the use of green roofing which aims to cover the roof with vegetation either partially or completely. Appreciably, green roofing in a building has many advantages including absorbing rainwater, providing thermal insulation, enhancing the ecology, creating a peaceful retreat for people and animals, improving air quality and helping to offset the air temperature and heat island effect. The aim of this paper is to monitor energy saving in the residential buildings of Dubai after applying green roofing techniques. The paper also attempts to provide a thermal analysis after the application of green roofs. A villa in Dubai was chosen as a case study. With the aid of energy simulation software, namely Design Builder, as well as manual recording and calculations, the energy savings after applying the green roofing were detected. To that extent, the paper draws some recommendations with regard to the types of green roofing that should be used in these particular climatic conditions based on this real experiment that took place over a one year period.
Effects of Increased Green Surface on a Densely Built Urban Fabric: The Case of Budapest
Urban greenery has multiple positive effects both on the city and its residents. Apart from the visual advantages, it changes the micro-climate by cooling and shading, also increasing vapor and oxygen, reducing dust and carbon-dioxide content at the same time. The above are all critical factors of livability of an urban fabric. Unfortunately, in a dense, historical district there are restricted possibilities to build green surfaces. The present study collects and systemizes the applicable green solutions in the case of a historical downtown district of Budapest. The study contains a GIS-based measurement of the eligible surfaces for greenery, and also calculates the potential of oxygen production, carbon-dioxide reduction and cooling effect of an increased green surface.  It can be concluded that increasing the green surface has measurable effects on a densely built urban fabric, including air quality, micro-climate and other environmental factors.
Viability of Smart Grids for Green IT Sustainability: Contemplated within the Context of Sri Lanka
Information Technology (IT) is considered to be the prime contributor towards most of the energy releases and hence recursively impacting on the environmental Carbon Footprint on a major scale. The hostile effects brought about due to this massive carbon release such as global warming and ecosystem wipe-outs are currently being realized in Sri Lanka due to the rapid development and merging of computer based technologies. Sri Lanka, being a nature-rich island, has the undying need to preserve its natural environment hence resolving to better ‘Green IT’ practices in all possible spheres. Green IT implies the IT related practices for environmental sustainability. But the industrial divisions in Sri Lanka are still hesitant to fully realize the benefits of applying better "Green IT" principles due to considerations related to costs and other issues. In order to bring about a positive awareness of Green IT, the use of Smart Grids, which is yet a conceptualized principle within the Sri Lankan context, can be considered as a feasible proof in hand. This paper tends to analyze the feasibility of utilizing Smart Grids to ensure minimized cost and effects in preserving the environment hence ensuring Sustainable Green IT practices in an economically and technologically viable manner in Sri Lanka.
Modelling Asymmetric Magnetic Recording Heads with an Underlayer Using Superposition
This paper analyses and calculates the head fields of asymmetrical 2D magnetic recording heads when the soft-underlayer is present using the appropriate Green's function to derive the surface potential/field by utilising the surface potential for asymmetrical head without underlayer. The results follow closely the corners, while the gap region shows a linear behaviour for d/g < 0.5 compared with the calculated fields from finite-element.
Remarks on the Lattice Green's Function for the Anisotropic Face Cantered Cubic Lattice
An expression for the Green’s function (GF) of anisotropic face cantered cubic (IFCC) lattice is evaluated analytically and numerically for a single impurity problem. The density of states (DOS), phase shift and scattering cross section are expressed in terms of complete elliptic integrals of the first kind.
Thermal Behavior of the Extensive Green Roofs in Riyadh City
Green roof is one of sustainable practice for reducing the environmental impact of a building. Green roofs are vegetation roofs that are partially or completely covered building's roof. It can provide multiple environmental benefits such as mitigation of urban heat island effect and protecting buildings against solar radiation. In Riyadh city buildings consume about 70 % of the total energy used in the building for cooling and heating because of the Riyadh's harsh and tropical climate. So, the study aim was identifying the thermal performance of extensive green roof and comparing its performance with concrete roof performance during summer season. The experimental validations results indicated that the extensive green roofs system was better than concrete roof system for lowering the indoor air temperature. It could reduce the indoor air temperature from 2°C to 5.5°C compared to the concrete roof system. Also, the finding of this study demonstrated that extensive green roof system could reduce 12% to 33% of energy consumption of air conditioning in Riyadh city during summer seasons by using environmentally friendly insulation.
Restoring Urban South Africa through a Sustainable Green Infrastructure Approach
Referring to the entire green network within urban environments, at all spatial scales, green infrastructure is considered as an important constituent of sustainable development within urban areas through planning for a healthy environment and simultaneously improving quality of life for the people. Green infrastructure has made its appearance internationally in terms of the infrastructural urban environment focussing on ecological systems and sustaining society while building with nature. Within South Africa, the terminology of green infrastructure has, however, not continuously been entertained, mainly due to more pressing realities and challenges faced within urban areas of South Africa that include but are not limited to basic service provision, financial constraints and a lack of guiding policies and frameworks. But the notion of green infrastructure planning has changes, creating a newfound movement within urban areas of South Africa encouraging green infrastructure for urban resilience. Although green infrastructure is not an entirely new concept within the local context of South Africa, the benefits thereof constantly needs to be identified in order to measure the value of green infrastructure. Consequently challenges faces within urban areas of South Africa, in terms of human and nature, could be restored through focussing on a sustainable green infrastructure approach. This study does not focus on the pressing challenges and realities faced within urban areas of South Africa but rather aims solely on improving a green infrastructure approach within urban areas of South Africa. At the outset, the study will commence by introducing the concept of a green infrastructure approach by means of a local and international comparison. This will ensure an improved conceptual understanding of green infrastructure within a local South African context. The green infrastructure concept will be elaborated on through the inclusion of South African case study evaluations. The selected case studies will illustrate existing green infrastructure implementation within South Africa along with the benefits provided through the implementation thereof in terms of human (the people) and nature (the natural environment). As green infrastructure within South Africa continues to remain a fairly new concept with moderate levels of implementation thereof, room for improving on the approach in terms of implementation and maintenance exist. For this reason, the study will conclude with alternative green infrastructure suggestions and approaches to possibly be enforced within South Africa, led by international best practices.
Utilizing GIS for Understanding the Ability of Green Spaces in Meeting the Social Values and Needs of Youth: A Case Study of Al-Mughair, Jordan
Green spaces (defined here as open spaces and natural landscape features) in rural and urban areas are considered the backbone for the social and environmental development of communities. Green space planning mechanisms are commonly directed by political interest and strategies, often disregarding the importance of community participation and seldom supported by community experiences. There is a social value for green spaces; however, it is hardly served by the existing natural environments in rural contexts. This paper will focus on understanding the community perception of social values in green spaces. It will also investigate whether the location of residency has a significant impact on social values, in addition to the spatial affordability of social values. The tested population includes youth (15 to 17 years old) in the rural town of Al-Mughayyer. This research utilizes a mix-method of Youth Participation and Geographic Information System (YP-GIS), to address the affordability of green spaces and the conjured social values among the youth. The results reveal that the youth mostly appreciate the social opportunities that natural green spaces provide. In particular, youth are aware of the social affordability of green space (both passive and active uses of recreation). In general, the most important values from youth's perception are scenic values, peaceful environments, and places that represent the identity. Unexpectedly, social interaction seems to be an unperceived value among girls. There is no significant relationship between green spaces and physical activity for boys in particular. Both think that remote areas are fascinating but unsafe places. Most results show a clear discrepancy between genders. In conclusion, although the perception of social values is often intangible and sometimes excluded from green space policies, this study provides evidence that youth can enhance the green spaces' decisions based on their observations of their living environments. Planning for green spaces should balance both the environment and social needs.
Green Walls and Living Facades: The Portuguese Experience
The adoption of green infrastructure is nowadays encouraged as an essential measure of urban planning and territorial development whenever it offers a better alternative, or is complementary, to current solutions. Green walls and living facades often provide healthy alternatives to traditional grey infrastructures, offering many benefits for both citizens and cities. Beyond the ability to improve environmental conditions and quality of life, they can augment the energy efficiency of buildings, enhance biodiversity and deliver a range of ecosystem services such as water purification, reduction of the urban heat island effect, improvement of air quality and climate change adaptation. For this communication, a systematic survey of the existing green walls and living facades in Portugal was carried out. Different systems were analyzed and compared in terms of dimensions, constructive solutions, vegetative species, maintenance necessities and environmental aspects.
The Influences of Green Infrastructure Develop on Urban Renewals for Real Essence and Non-Real Essence Economic Value
Climate change and natural disasters take effect on urban development. It has been discussed urban renewals can prevent natural disasters. Integrating green infrastructure and urban renewals may have great effect on adapting the impact of climate change. To highlight the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals, some strategies need to be carry on to reduce environmental impact. A number of urban renewals studies has been conducted on right transfer, financial risk, urban renewal policy, and public participation. Little research has been devoted on the subject of the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the affecting factors on the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. This study will present the benefits of green infrastructure development and summarize the critical factors of green infrastructure develop on urban renewals for real essence and non-real essence on economic value from literature. Our results indicate that factors of housing price, land value, floor area incentive, and facilitation of the construction industry affect the outcome of real essence economic value. Factors of enhancement of urban disaster prevention, improvement of urban environment and landscape, crime reduction, climate control, pollution reduction, biological diversity, health impacts, and leisure space affects the outcome of non-real essence economic value.
The Study of Groundcover for Heat Reduction
This research investigated groundcover on the roof (green roof) which can reduce the temperature and carbon monoxide. This study is divided into 3 main aspects: 1) Types of groundcover affecting heat reduction, 2) The efficiency on heat reduction of 3 types of groundcover, i.e. lawn, arachis pintoi, and purslane, 3) Database for designing green roof. This study has been designed as an experimental research by simulating the 3 types of groundcover in 3 trays placed in the green house for recording the temperature change for 24 hours. The results showed that the groundcover with the highest heat reduction efficiency was lawn. The dense of the lawn can protect the heat transfer to the soil. For the further study, there should be a comparative study of the thickness and the types of soil to get more information for the suitable types of groundcover and the soil for designing the energy saving green roof.
Alignment of Information System Strategy and Green Information System Strategy: Comprehension and A Review of the Literature
The information system is one of the contributors to environmental degradation and pollution are known to be released, such as the increasing of use of IT equipment and energy consumption , life cycles of IT equipment are getting shorter, IT equipment waste disposal and so on, therefore the information system should have a role in related environmental issues. Organization need to develop the ability of green to minimize negative impacts on the environment. Although the green information system is an important topic, many organizations fail to manage the environment in a way that is adequate because they ignore aspect of strategy. Alignment strategy is very important to ensure that all people do the activities of the organization headed in the same direction. Alignment strategy helps organization, determine which is more important for organization, and then make road mad to achieve the organization goal. Therefore, this paper discusses the review of the alignment, information systems strategy, and IS green strategy. With this discussion is expected there is an understanding about the alignment of information systems strategy and strategy of green IS, and its relationship with the achievement of business goals that have commitment to reduce the negative impact of information systems on the environment.
Effect of Green Roofs to Prevent the Dissipation of Energy in Mountainous Areas
A green roof is formed by green plants alive and has many positive impacts in the regional climatic, as well as indoor. Green roof system to prevent solar radiation plays a role in the cooling space. The cooling is done by reducing thermal fluctuations on the exterior of the roof and by increasing the roof heat capacity which cause to keep the space under the roof cool in the summer and heating rate increases during the winter. A roof garden is one of the recommended ways to reduce energy consumption in large cities. Despite the scale of the city green roofs have effective functions, such as beautiful view of city and decontaminating the urban landscape and reduce mental stress, and in an exchange of energy and heat from outside to inside spaces. This article is based on a review of 20 articles and 10 books and valid survey results on the positive effects of green roofs to prevent energy waste in the building. According to these publications, three of the conventional roof, green roof typical and green roof with certain administrative details (layers of glass) and the use of resistant plants and shrubs have been analyzed and compared their heat transfer. The results of these studies showed that one of the best green roof systems for mountainous climate is tree and shrub system that in addition to being resistant to climate change in mountainous regions, will benefit from the other advantages of green roof. Due to the severity of climate change in mountainous areas it is essential to prevent the waste of buildings heating and cooling energy. Proper climate design can greatly help to reduce energy.
Approximate Solution of Some Mixed Boundary Value Problems of the Generalized Theory of Couple-Stress Thermo-Elasticity
We have considered the harmonic oscillations and general dynamic (pseudo oscillations) systems of theory generalized Green-Lindsay of couple-stress thermo-elasticity for isotropic, homogeneous elastic media. Approximate solution of some mixed boundary value problems for finite domain, bounded by the some closed surface are constructed.
Green Housing Projects in Egypt: A Futuristic Approach
Sustainable development has become an important concern worldwide, and climate change has become a global threat. Some of these affect how we approach environmental issues — and how we should approach them. Environmental aspects have an important impact on the built environment, that’s why knowledge about Green Building and Green Construction become a vital dimension of urban sustainable development to face the challenges of climate change. There are several levels of green buildings, from energy-efficient lighting to 100% eco-friendly construction; the concept of green buildings in Egypt is still a rare occurrence, with the concept being relatively new to the market. There are several projects on the ground that currently employing sustainable and green solutions to some extent, some of them achieve a limit of success and others fail to employ the new solutions. The market and the cost as well, are great factors. From the last century, green architecture and environmental sustainability become a famous trend that all the researchers like to follow. Nowadays, the trend towards green has shifted to housing and real estate projects. While the environmental aspects are the key to achieve green buildings, the economic benefits, and the market forces are considered as big challenges. The paper assumes that some appropriate environmental treatments could be added to the applied prototype of the governmental social housing projects in Egypt to achieve better environmental solutions. The aim of the research is to get housing projects in Egypt closer to the track of sustainable and green buildings, through making a local future proposal to be integrated into the current policies. The proposed model is based upon adding some appropriate, cheap environmental modifications to the prototype of the Ministry of Housing, Infrastructure, and New Urban Communities. The research is based on an analytical, comparative analytical, and inductive approach to study and analyze the housing projects in Egypt and the possibilities of integrating green techniques into it.
Fracture Toughness Properties and FTIR Analysis of Corn Fiber Green Composites
In this work, the fracture toughness of new green composite based on bio-PMMA resin reinforced with randomly short corn natural fiber of constant weight fraction by 10% wt was investigated. The corn fiber surface was modified by mercerization treatment with two different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (3, and 5% NaOH) for 1.5 and 3 hours respectively. The effect of mercerization treatment on the fracture behavior of the green composites was analyzed by FTIR spectra. NaOH concentration of 3% for 1.5 hrs. That was used for corn fiber green composite should the highest improvement in terms of plane strain fracture toughness KIC which increased by 62 % compared to untreated fiber composite material. On the other hand, increased both concentrations of alkali solution to 5% NaOH and time of soaking to 3 hrs. reduced the values of KIC lower than the value of the unfilled material.
Clients’ Priorities in Delivery of Green Projects: South African Perspective
Purpose: This study attempts to identify the clients’ main priorities when delivering green projects. The aim is to compare if the clients have the same interest that are similar in delivery of convectional buildings as compared to green buildings. The main purpose is to find why other clients are investing in green buildings while others are reluctant and adopting green building at a slow pace. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of construction professional accredited by the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) was sent a questionnaire to participate in the research. Since GBSCSA accredited professionals have knowledge and experience about the green buildings, they are chosen as the sample. The research is qualitative because it evaluates the perceptions and knowledge around the subject matter. Research limitations: The research focuses only on the South African construction clients. Findings: Findings reveal that private clients invest more on green buildings as compared to government and parastatal entities. Private clients prioritise on maximising returns on investments and they mainly invest on buildings that save energies and have low life cycle costs. Private clients are perceived to be more knowledgeable about the benefits of green building project as compared to government and Parastatals clients. Shortage of expertise and managerial skill leads to low adaptation of green buildings in the government and parastatal projects. Other factors, which seem to disintegrate the adoption of green buildings, are the readiness of supply chain within the industry and inappropriate procurements strategies adopted by clients. The evaluation of the clients’ priorities will enable the design team to come up with innovative ways to approach the design process so that clients’ priorities and needs are identified and met. Practical implications: The findings are indicating that clients’ needs and priorities have a huge impact on the delivery of the project in terms of time, quality and cost of the project.
Achievement of Livable and Healthy City through the Design of Green and Blue Infrastructure: A Case Study on City of Isfahan, Iran
due to towards the rapid urbanization, cities throughout the world faced to rapid growth through gray infrastructure. Therefore designing cities based on green and blue infrastructure can offer the best solution to support healthy urban environment. This conformation with a wide range of ecosystem service has a positive impact on the regulation of air temperature, noise reduction, air quality, and also create a pleasant environment for humans activities. Research mainly focuses on the concept and principles of green and blue infrastructure in the city of Esfahan at the center of Iran in order to create a livable and healthy environment. Design principles for green and blue infrastructure are classified into two different but interconnect evaluations. Healthy green infrastructure assessing based on; volume, shape, location, dispersion, and maintenance. For blue infrastructure there are three aspects of water and ecosystem which are; the contribution of water on medical health, the contribution of water on mental health, and creating possibilities to exercise.
Urban Green Space Analysis Incorporated at Bodakdev, Ahmedabad City Based on the RS and GIS Techniques
City is a multiplex ecological system made up of social, economic and natural sub systems. Green space system is the foundation of the natural system. It is also suitable part of natural productivity in the urban structure. It is dispensable for constructing a high quality human settlements and a high standard ecocity. Ahmedabad is the fastest growing city of India. Today urban green space is under strong pressure in Ahmedabad city. Due to increasing urbanization, combined with a spatial planning policy of densification, more people face the prospect of living in less green residential environments. In this research analyzes the importance of available Green Space at Bodakdev Park, Ahmedabad, using remote sensing and GIS technologies. High resolution IKONOS image and LISS IV data has been used in this project. This research answers the questions like: • Temporal changes in urban green space area. • Proximity to heavy traffic or roads or any recreational facilities. • Importance in terms of health. • Availability of quality infrastructure. • Available green space per area, per sq. km and per total population. This projects incorporates softwares like ArcGIS, Ecognition and ERDAS Imagine, GPS technologies etc. Methodology includes the field work and collection of other relevant data while preparation of land use maps using the IKONOS imagery which is corrected using GPS.
Assessment of Alternative Water Resources and Growing Media in Green Roofs
Grey infrastructure is an unavoidable part of urbanisation that is threatening the local microclimates. Sustainable urbanisation requires more green infrastructure in cities such as green roofs to minimise urbanisation impacts. The environmental, social and economic benefits of green roofs are widely deliberated. However, there is still a lack of assessment of the water management for green roofs. This paper aimed to assess the irrigation management of green roofs in a semi-arid region where blue water scarcity is one of the primary challenges in urban water management. To determine the appropriate water source and growing media for green roofs, an experiment was established at the University of South Australia, Australia. This study compared the performance of two growing media and three water sources on the drainage quality, medium weight and survival rate of potted Tussock grass (Poa labillardieral), an endemic plant to Australia and recommended for green roofs. Three irrigation sources were tap water, mixed of wastewater-stormwater, and rainwater. The growing media were natural sandy loam soil and Scoria - one of the most used commercial growing media for green roofs. The drainage quality of these media was tested by analysing leachate samples. Medium weight was measured before and after watering, and all pots were monitored for their survival rates. Results showed that although plant growing development was significantly higher in Scoria, the survival rate was lower. For all three water sources, EC and pH of the leachate were significantly lower from Scoria than the sandy loam soil. However, the mixed of wastewater-stormwater had the highest EC, and rainwater had the lowest EC. Results did not present a significant difference between pH of different water resources in the same media. Our experimental results found the scoria and rainwater as the best sources of medium and water for green roofs.
Sky Farming: The Alternative Concept of Green Building Using Vertical Landscape Model in Urban Area as an Effort to Achieve Sustainable Development
This paper is a literature review presented descriptively to review the concept of green building to face the challenge of sustainable development and food in urban areas. In this paper, researchers initiated the concept of green building with sky farming method. Sky farming use vertical landscape system in order to realizing food self-sufficient green city. Sky farming relying on plantings and irrigation system efficiency in the building which is adopted the principles of green building. Planting system is done by applying hydroponic plants with Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) using energy source of solar cell and grey water from the processing of waste treatment plant. The application of sky farming in urban areas can be a recommendation for the design of environmental-friendly construction. In order to keep the land and distance efficiency, this system is a futuristic idea that would be the connector of human civilization in the future.
The Survey Research and Evaluation of Green Residential Building Based on the Improved Group Analytical Hierarchy Process Method in Yinchuan
Due to the economic downturn and the deterioration of the living environment, the development of residential buildings as high energy consuming building is gradually changing from "extensive" to green building in China. So, the evaluation system of green building is continuously improved, but the current evaluation work has the following problems: (1) There are differences in the cost of the actual investment and the purchasing power of residents, also construction target of green residential building is single and lacks multi-objective performance development. (2) Green building evaluation lacks regional characteristics and cannot reflect the different regional residents demand. (3) In the process of determining the criteria weight, the experts&rsquo; judgment matrix is difficult to meet the requirement of consistency. Therefore, to solve those problems, questionnaires which are about the green residential building for Ningxia area are distributed, and the results of questionnaires can feedback the purchasing power of residents and the acceptance of the green building cost. Secondly, combined with the geographical features of Ningxia minority areas, the evaluation criteria system of green residential building is constructed. Finally, using the improved group AHP method and the grey clustering method, the criteria weight is determined, and a real case is evaluated, which is located in Xing Qing district, Ningxia. A conclusion can be obtained that the professional evaluation for this project and good social recognition is basically the same.
Health Benefit and Mechanism from Green Open Space: A Pathway to Connect Health to Design and Planning
In the highly urbanized district, green open space is playing an important role in human’s health and wellbeing as a physical, aesthetic and natural environment resources. The aim of this paper is to close this gap through providing a comprehensive, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies related to this issue. A systematic scoping of current quantitative research is conducted which mostly focused on cross-sectional survey and experimental studies. Health benefits from contact with green open space could be categorized into physical health, psychological health and social wellbeing. Mechanism for the health related to green open space could be clearly identified with the regard to natural restoration, physical activities and social capital. These results indicate a multiple pathways framework between the health benefits and mechanism. In order to support design and planning, the most evident relationship was picked up that people could psychologically benefit from green open space through outdoors physical activities. Additionally, three design and planning strategies are put forward. Various and multi-level contacts with green open space would be considered as an explanation of the pathway results and tie to bridge the health to design and planning. There is a need to carry out long-term research emphasizing on causal relationship between health and green open space through excluding cofounding factors such as self-selection.
The Effect of Environmental Consciousness on Firm Performance
This study aims to develop an original framework of Environmental Consciousness (EC) to explore the positive effect of environmental consciousness on financial performance through the partial mediator - green intellectual capital. A questionnaire survey on the environmental consciousness, intellectual capital, and financial performance of Iran’s manufacturing firms was conducted, and 324 samples were analyzed. This study utilizes structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect influences of EC on financial performance. Research results reveal that environmental consciousness had an indirect impact on financial performance through investment in green intellectual capital. It was thus known that green intellectual capital is a mediator of the relationship between environmental consciousness and financial performance. This paper may serve as a reference for firms mapping out future environmental policies and provide an input of various perspectives and arguments into the discipline of green management.
Green Building Delivery: Exploring Lessons and the State of Practice in Nigeria
The level of adoption of green building (GB) schemes in Nigeria is low. The prevailing focus on economic development has overshadowed sustainability concerns. Despite these, few project cases exist in Nigeria in which sustainability goals have been achieved. This study aims to draw lessons from these in order to understand the project attributes, certification status, and the delivery process. Through an exploratory case study approach, fifteen project cases across five cities in Nigeria were examined. These represent the first-generation of green buildings in Nigeria, a verifiable reference for future initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. From the result, three categories of green buildings were identified, namely certified projects, demonstration projects, and potential projects with varying delivery attributes. Then, it is concluded by setting research and practice agenda towards aligning Nigeria’s building industry with the global trends in sustainable building delivery.
Water-Bentonite Interaction of Green Pellets through Micro-Structural Analysis
The quality of pellets produced is affected by quality and type of green pellets, amount of addition of binders and fluxing agents along with the provided firing conditions. The green pellet quality depends upon chemistry, mineralogy and granulometry of fines used for pellet making, the feed size, its moisture content and porosity. During firing of green pellets, ingredients present within reacts to form different phases and microstructure. So in turn, physical and metallurgical properties of pellets are influenced by amount and type of binder and flux addition, induration time and temperature. During iron making process, the metallurgical properties of fired pellets are decided by the type and amount of these phases and their chemistry. Green pelletizing and induration studies have been already carried out with magnetite and hematite ore fines but for Indian iron ores of high alumina content showing different pelletizing characters, these studies cannot be directly interpreted. The main objective of proposed research work is to understand the green pelletizing process and determine the water bentonite interaction at different levels. Swelling behavior of bentonite and microstructure of the green pellet are investigated. Conversion of iron ore fines into pellets, the key raw material and process variables that influence the pellet quality needs to be identified and a correlation should be established between them.
Antioxidant Activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Fruits at Three Different Stages of Maturity in Food Systems
Morinda citrifolia L., commonly known as noni fruit, is rich in phytochemicals. This study investigated the phytophenolics content and antioxidant activity of green, mature green and ripe noni fruits. The vitamin C content ranged from 41.12 ± 0.083 to 143.63 ± 0.146 mg / 100 ml in fresh noni fruits. Ripe fruits contained the highest level of ascorbic acid followed by mature green and green fruits (p < 0.05). The total phenol content ranged from 0.909 (green) to 2.305 (ripe) mg / g of FW whilst the total flavonoid content ranged from 1.054 (green) to 2.116 (ripe) mg/g of FW. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the Morinda citrifolia L. extracts was also analysed using FRAP and TEAC assays. The reducing power of the fruit extracts as assessed by the FRAP assay decreased in the following order: ripe > mature green > green (p < 0.05). The TEAC values ranged from 0.2631 to 0.8921 µmol / g FW, with extracts of fruits at the mature green stage having highest values followed by fruits at the ripe and green stage respectively (p < 0.05). High correlation values were obtained between total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid contents and the TEAC and FRAP assays (r > 0.8). Noni fruit extracts (0.2 and 0.4 % m / m) were compared with BHT (0.02 % m / m) on their ability to protect canola oil and mayonnaise, prepared with canola oil, against lipid oxidation during storage at 40°C. Mature green and ripe extracts, at both concentrations, were more effective than BHT in retarding oxidation in both food systems as evidenced by peroxide value and conjugated diene value determinations. Noni extracts were also very effective in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in tuna fish homogenates, assessed using TBARS assay. Noni fruits at the mature green and ripe stages represent a potential source of natural antioxidants for use a food additive.
Nanoparticle Based Green Inhibitor for Corrosion Protection of Zinc in Acidic Medium
Nano scaled materials have attracted tremendous interest as corrosion inhibitor due to their high surface area on the metal surfaces. It is well known that the zinc oxide nanoparticles have higher reactivity towards aqueous acidic solution. This work presents a new method to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles with white sesame seeds extract (nano-green inhibitor) for corrosion protection of zinc in acidic medium. The morphology of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by TEM and DLS. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor was determined by Gravimetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Gravimetric measurements suggested that nano-green inhibitor is more effective than green inhibitor. Furthermore, with the increasing temperature, inhibition efficiency increases for both the inhibitors. In addition, it was established the Temkin adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data for both the inhibitors. The effect of temperature and Temkin adsorption isotherm revealed Chemisorption mechanism occurring in the system. The activation energy (Ea) and other thermodynamic parameters for inhibition process were calculated. The data of EIS showed that the charge transfer controls the corrosion process. The surface morphology of zinc metal (specimen) in absence and presence of green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The outcomes indicated a formation of a protective layer over zinc metal (specimen).
The Impact of Green Building Envelopes on the Urban Microclimate of the Urban Canopy-Case Study: Fawzy Moaz Street, Alexandria, Egypt
The issue of temperature increase in the urban microclimate has been at the center of attention recently, especially in dense urban areas, such as the City of Alexandria in Egypt, where building surfaces have become the dominant element (more than green areas and streets). Temperatures have been rising during daytime as well as nighttime, however, the research focused on the rise of air temperature at night, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island. This phenomenon has many effects on ecological life, as well as human health. This study provided evidence of the possibility of reducing the urban heat island by using a green building envelope (green wall and green roof) in Alexandria, Egypt. This City has witnessed a boom in growth in its urban fabric and population. A simulation analysis using the Envi-met software to find the ratio of air temperature reduction was performed. The simulation depended on the orientation of the green areas and their density, which was defined through a process of climatic analysis made by the Diva plugin using the Grasshopper software. Results showed that the reduction in air temperature varies from 0.8–2.0 °C, increasing with the increasing density of green areas. Many systems of green wall and green roof can be found in the local market. However, treating an existing building requires a careful choice of system to fit the building construction load and the surrounding nature. Among the systems of choice, there was the ‘geometric system’ of vertical greening that can be fixed on a light aluminum structure for walls and the extensive green system for roofs. Finally, native plants were the best choice in the long term because they fare well in the local climate.
Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios
Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.
Rating the Importance of Customer Requirements for Green Product Using Analytic Hierarchy Process Methodology
Identification of customer requirements and their preferences are the starting points in the process of product design. Most of design methodologies focus on traditional requirements. But in the previous decade, the green products and the environment requirements have increasingly attracted the attention with the constant increase in the level of consumer awareness towards environmental problems (such as green-house effect, global warming, pollution and energy crisis, and waste management). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements is an essential and crucial process. This paper used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach to evaluate and rate the customer requirements for green products. With respect to the ultimate goal of customer satisfaction, surveys are conducted using a five-point scale analysis. With the help of this scale, one can derive the weight vectors. This approach can improve the imprecise ranking of customer requirements inherited from studies based on the conventional AHP. Furthermore, the AHP with extent analysis is simple and easy to implement to prioritize customer requirements. The research is based on collected data through a questionnaire survey conducted over a sample of 160 people belonging to different age, marital status, education and income groups in order to identify the customer preferences for green product requirements.
Identification of Healthy and BSR-Infected Oil Palm Trees Using Color Indices
Most of the oil palm plantations have been threatened by Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease which causes serious economic impact. This study was conducted to identify the healthy and BSR-infected oil palm tree using thirteen color indices. Multispectral and thermal camera was used to capture 216 images of the leaves taken from frond number 1, 9 and 17. Indices of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), red (R), green (G), blue (B), near infrared (NIR), green – blue (GB), green/blue (G/B), green – red (GR), green/red (G/R), hue (H), saturation (S), intensity (I) and thermal index (T) were used. From this study, it can be concluded that G index taken from frond number 9 is the best index to differentiate between the healthy and BSR-infected oil palm trees. It not only gave high value of correlation coefficient (R=-0.962), but also high value of separation between healthy and BSR-infected oil palm tree. Furthermore, power and S model developed using G index gave the highest R2 value which is 0.985.
Inhibitions in Implementing Green Supply Chain Management at Hospitals
Hospitals play an ample role in securing the health of a country. Nevertheless, they also have an unhealthy side. Ecological issues strengthen ill-health throughout the domain which subsequently puts pressure on hospital supply chains. Medical waste indeed is hazardous for environment and subsequently for human. The hospital waste management is of immense prominence due to its infectious and hazardous nature that can source many effects on human health and the environment. Government regulations and public cognizance regarding hospital waste issues have imposed hospital units to admit these strategies. The innovative technologies and instruments have been developed to handle hospital wastes. Green supply chain management practices are common in the United States. In India, Green Supply Chain management (GSCM) has just started to be recognized and practiced. GSCM are green, integrated and ecologically optimized. In Green supply chain management environmental sustainability is found to be an important driver. Eleven barriers are identified in this work. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) technique is used for ranking the obstructions.
Evaluation of Green Logistics Performance: An Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Ranking Environmental Indicators
The search for minimizing harmful impacts on the environment has become the focus of global society, affecting mainly how to manage organizations. Thus, companies have sought to transform their activities into environmentally friendly initiatives by applying green practices throughout their supply chains. In the logistics domain, the implementation of environmentally sound practices is still in its infancy in emerging countries such as Brazil. Given the need to reduce these environmental damages, this study aims to evaluate the performance of green logistics (GL) in the plastics industry sector in order to help to improve environmental performance within organizations and reduce the impact caused by their activities. The performance tool was based on theoretical research and the use of experts in the field. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to prioritize green practices and assign weight to the indicators contained in the proposed tool. The tool also allows the co-production of a single indicator. The developed tool was applied in an industry of the plastic packaging sector. However, this tool may be applied in different industry sectors, and it is adaptable to different sizes of companies. Besides the contributions to the literature, this work also presents future paths of research in the field of green logistics.
Sustainable Mitigation of Urban Stormwater Runoff: The Applicability of Green Infrastructure Approach in Finnish Climate
The purpose of the research project in Geography is to evaluate the applicability of urban green infrastructure approach in Finnish climate. The key focus will be on the operation and efficiency of green infrastructure on urban stormwater management. Green infrastructure approach refers to the employment of sufficient green covers as a modern and smart environmental solution to improve the quality of urban environments. Green infrastructure provides a wide variety of micro-scale ecosystem services, such as stormwater runoff management, regulation of extreme air temperatures, reduction of energy consumption, plus a variety of social benefits and human health and wellbeing. However, the cold climate of Finland with seasonal ground frost, snow cover and relatively short growing season bring about questions of whether green infrastructure works as efficiently as expected. To tackle this question, green infrastructure solutions will be studied and analyzed with manifold methods: stakeholder perspectives regarding existing and planned GI solutions will be collected by web based questionnaires, semi structured interviews and group discussions, and analyzed in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Targeted empirical field campaigns will be conducted on selected sites. A systematic literature review with global perspective will support the analyses. The findings will be collected, compiled and analyzed using geographic information systems (GIS). The findings of the research will improve our understanding of the functioning of green infrastructure in the Finnish environment in urban stormwater management, as a landscape element for citizens’ wellbeing, and in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The acquired information will be shared with stakeholders in interactive co-design workshops. As green covers have great demand and potential globally, the conclusions will have relevance in other cool climate regions and may support Finnish business in green infrastructure sector.
A Research for Determining Consumers' Tendency to Prefer Eco-Friendly Products within the Scope of Green Marketing Activities
In the age of environmental concerns increasingly becoming more important, consumer attitudes towards environmentally sensitive products attract attention. Threats to the health and the environment are important factors for consumers to tend to eco-friendly practices and products. In this regard, it is seen positive increases in the tendency to consume organic food and recyclable products. Choosing products, selecting manufacturers and sellers have gained more importance because of increasing consumers' environmental concerns. In this case, it is very important for businesses to act eco-friendly approach in marketing. Green marketing has gained importance and became a concept that manufacturers' agenda by environmental understanding. Although the green marketing activities are common worldwide, studies on consumer perceptions and preferences are unsatisfactory in the literature. In this regard, this study aims to investigate the tendency of consumers to prefer eco-friendly products under the green marketing activities. In the frame of this information and the purpose of the study described above, the survey method has been used in the study. The obtained data have been analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software package, hypothesizes have been tested and suggestions have been made.
A Novel Multi-Attribute Green Decision Making Model for Environmental Supply Chain Sustainability
In current business market, the concept of integrating environmental sustainability into long-term as well as routine operations is becoming a prevailing trend. Therefore, several stimuli are helping organization to move toward environmental sustainability. The concept of green supply chain management can help provide a strategic framework to develop a customized sustainability roadmap for each organization. In this regard, this paper is mainly focused on presenting a strategic decision making framework that will assist top level decision-making issues. This decision-making tool is based on literature and practice in the area of environmentally conscious business practices. The goal of this paper will be on the components and parameters of green supply chain management and how they serve as a baseline for the decision framework. Later, the applicability of a multi-input multi-output decision model (MIMO), will be analyzed as the analytical network process, within the green supply chain.
Systems Integrated Approach to Improve the Design and Construction of Green Buildings
Efficiency, productivity and sustainability are important factors for structure and the application of processes in green building. Various previous studies have addressed efficiency, productivity and sustainability separately. This research study aims to investigate the implications of these three factors taking together. Frequency analysis and the ranking techniques are carried out to explore the connection between these factors. The interconnection matrix has been developed and functional grouping is made based upon data from expert opinion and field professionals. The existence of a relationship, the type of relationship and the scaled impact have been drawn. Additionally, a system diagram has been developed to show the variable correlation. The results of expert opinion show that efficiency, productivity and sustainability have a stronger impact on green buildings.
A Mixed Expert Evaluation System and Dynamic Interval-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Selection Approach
In the last decades, concerns about the environmental issues lead to professional and academic efforts on green supplier selection problems. In this sake, one of the main issues in evaluating the green supplier selection problems, which could increase the uncertainty, is the preferences of the experts&#39; judgments about the candidate green suppliers. Therefore, preparing an expert system to evaluate the problem based on the historical data and the experts&#39; knowledge can be sensible. This study provides an expert evaluation system to assess the candidate green suppliers under selected criteria in a multi-period approach. In addition, a ranking approach under interval-valued hesitant fuzzy set (IVHFS) environment is proposed to select the most appropriate green supplier in planning horizon. In the proposed ranking approach, the IVHFS and the last aggregation approach are considered to margin the errors and to prevent data loss, respectively. Hence, a comparative analysis is provided based on an illustrative example to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.
A New Paradigm to Make Cloud Computing Greener
Demand of computation, data storage in large amount are rapidly increases day by day. Cloud computing technology fulfill the demand of today’s computation but this will lead to high power consumption in cloud data centers. Initiative for Green IT try to reduce power consumption and its adverse environmental impacts. Paper also focus on various green computing techniques, proposed models and efficient way to make cloud greener.
Identifying the Influence of Vegetation Type on Multiple Green Roof Functions with a Field Experiment in Zurich
Due to their potential to provide numerous ecosystem services, green roofs have been proposed as a solution to mitigate a growing list of environmental challenges, like urban flooding and urban heat island effect. Because of their cooling effect, green roofs placed below rooftop photovoltaic (PV) panels also have the potential to increase PV panel efficiency. Sedums, a type of succulent plant, are commonly used on green roofs because they are drought and heat tolerant. However, other plant species, such as grasses or plants with reflective properties, have been shown to reduce more runoff and cool the rooftop more than succulent species due to high evapotranspiration (ET) and reflectivity, respectively. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether vegetation with high ET or reflectivity can influence multiple co-benefits of the green roof. Four small scale green roofs in Zurich are used as an experiment to evaluate differences in (1) the timing and amount of runoff discharged from the roof, (2) the air temperature above the green roof, and (3) the temperature and efficiency of solar panels placed above the green roof. One grass species, Silene vulgaris, and one silvery species, Stachys byzantia, are compared to a baseline of Sedum album and black roof. Initial results from August to November 2019 show that the grass species has retained more cumulative runoff and led to a lower canopy temperature than the other species. Although the results are not yet statistically significant, they may suggest that plants with higher ET will have a greater effect on canopy temperature than plants with high reflectivity. Future work will confirm this hypothesis and evaluate whether it holds true for solar panel temperature and efficiency.
Worth of Sick Building Syndrome and Enhance the Quality of Life in Green Building
A proper house is a suitable residential area which provides comfort, proper accessibility, security, stability and permanence of structure, enough lighting, Proper initial infrastructures and ventilation for its inhabitants and the most important of all, it should be proportional to the family’s financial power. Saving energy and making optimal usage of it and also taking advantage of stable energies are the bases of green buildings. Making green building will help the health of a person living in it and in its surrounding. It will support the people and provoke their satisfaction. Not only it will bring about the raise of level of the quality of life for building inhabitants, but also it will cause the promotion of quality level of life of the people living in the surrounding area and the society.
An Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources in Green Building Systems for the Residential Sector in the Metropolis, Kolkata, India
The environmental aspect had a major effect on industrial decisions after the deteriorating condition of our surroundings dsince the industrial activities became apparent. Green buildings have been seen as a possible solution to reduce the carbon emissions from construction projects and the housing industry in general. Though this has been established in several areas, with many commercial buildings being designed green, the scope for expansion is still significant and further information on the importance and advantages of green buildings is necessary. Several commercial green building projects have come up and the green buildings are mainly implemented in the residential sector when the residential projects are constructed to furnish amenities to a large population. But, residential buildings, even those of medium sizes, can be designed to incorporate elements of sustainable design. In this context, this paper attempts to give a theoretical appraisal of the use of renewable energy systems in residential buildings of different sizes considering the weather conditions (solar insolation and wind speed) of the metropolis, Kolkata, India. Three cases are taken; one with solar power, one with wind power and one with a combination of the two. All the cases are considered in conjunction with conventional energy, and the efficiency of each in fulfilling the total energy demand is verified. The optimum combination for reducing the carbon footprint of the residential building is thus established. In addition, an assessment of the amount of money saved due to green buildings in metered water supply and price of coal is also mentioned.
Soil Remediation Technologies towards Green Remediation Strategies
As a result of diverse industrial activities, pollution from numerous contaminant affects both groundwater and soils. Many contaminated sites have been discovered in industrialized countries and their remediation is a priority in environmental legislations. The aim of this paper is to provide the evolution of remediation from consolidated invasive technologies to environmental friendly green strategies. Many clean-up technologies have been used. Nowadays the technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on eliminating the source of pollution, but the aim of remediation includes also the recovery of soil quality. "Green remediation", a strategy based on "soft technologies", appears the key to tackle the issue of remediation of contaminated sites with the greatest attention to environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality.
A Green Analytical Curriculum for Renewable STEM Education
We have incorporated green components into existing analytical chemistry curriculum with the aims to present a more environment benign approach in both teaching laboratory and undergraduate research. These include the use of cheap, sustainable, and market-available material; minimized waste disposal, replacement of non-aqueous media; and scale-down in sample/reagent consumption. Model incorporations have covered topics in quantitative chemistry as well as instrumental analysis, lower division as well as upper level, and research in traditional titration, spectroscopy, electrochemical analysis, and chromatography. The green embedding has made chemistry more daily life relevance, and application focus. Our approach has the potential to expand into all STEM fields to make renewable, high-impact education experience for undergraduate students.
Simulation Model for Optimizing Energy in Supply Chain Management
In today&#39;s world, with increasing environmental awareness, firms are facing severe pressure from various stakeholders, including the government and customers, to reduce their harmful effects on the environment. Over the past few decades, the increasing effects of global warming, climate change, waste, and air pollution have increased the global attention of experts to the issue of the green supply chain and led them to the optimal solution for greenery. Green supply chain management (GSCM) plays an important role in motivating the sustainability of the organization. With increasing environmental concerns, the main objective of the research is to use system thinking methodology and Vensim software for designing a dynamic system model for green supply chain and observing behaviors. Using this methodology, we look for the effects of a green supply chain structure on the behavioral dynamics of output variables. We try to simulate the complexity of GSCM in a period of 30 months and observe the complexity of behaviors of variables including sustainability, providing green products, and reducing energy consumption, and consequently reducing sample pollution.
Residents’ Awareness of Green Infrastructure Types in the Neighbourhood: Panacea for Biodiversity Conservation
Rapid urban growth has led to the loss of contact with nature for most urban residents. While Green Infrastructure (GI) is promoted as a strategy to manage ecosystems’ functionality, the extent to which residents are aware of GI types which serve as alternatives to conventional landscapes to be conserved remains unclear. This paper examines the awareness level of GI types among residents of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria and the association of their demographic characteristics with the level of awareness. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 1560 residents who completed semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to explore data distributions while t-test assessed the differences in the awareness level of the male and female participants. From the 23 different types of GI facilities identified in the study area, residents reported a high level of awareness on just five of them. These include green gardens, green parks, grasses, street trees, and sports fields but a low level of awareness of the remaining 18 GI types. Awareness of GI types is presently low in the study area. Increased awareness will encourage care and protection of green infrastructure by residents which will consequently enhance availability and conservation of more biodiversity in Lagos, Nigeria, and other nations.
Date Pits Oil Used as Potential Source for Synthesizing Jet Fuel and Green Diesel Fractions
Date pits are major agricultural waste produced in Oman. Current work was conducted to produce jet fuel and green diesel from hydrodeoxygenation of Date pits oil in the presence of Pd/C catalyst. The hydrodeoxygenation of Date pits oil occurred to be highly efficient at following mild operating conditions such as conditions temperature 300°C pressure 10bar with continuous stirring at 500rpm. Detailed product characterization revealed that large fraction of paraffinic hydrocarbons was found which accounts up to 91.1 % which attributed due to efficient hydrodeoxygenation. Based on the type of components in product oil, it was calculated that the maximum fraction of hydrocarbons formed lies within the range of green diesel 72.0 % then jet fuel 30.4% by using Pd/C catalysts. The densities of product oil were 0.88 kg/m³, the viscosity of products calculated was 3.49 mm²/s. Calorific values for products obtained were 44.11 MJ/kg when Pd/C catalyst was used for hydrodeoxygenation. Based on products analysis it can conclude that Date pits oil could successfully utilize for synthesizing green diesel and jet fuel fraction.
Development of a Green Star Certification Tool for Existing Buildings in South Africa
The built environment is responsible for about 40% of the world’s energy consumption and generates one third of global carbon dioxide emissions. The Green Building Council of South Africa’s (GBCSA) current rating tools are all for new buildings. By far the largest portion of buildings exist stock and therefore the need to develop a certification tool for existing buildings. Direct energy measurement comprises 27% of the total available points in this tool. The aim of this paper is to describe the development process of a green star certification tool for existing buildings in South Africa with specific emphasis on the energy measurement criteria. Successful implementation of this tool within the property market will ensure a reduced carbon footprint of buildings.
Assessment of Green Fluorescent Protein Signal for Effective Monitoring of Recombinant Fermentation Processes
This research has focused on the application of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a new technique for direct monitoring of fermentation processes involving cultured bacteria. To use GFP as a sensor for pH and oxygen, percentage ratio of red fluorescence to green (% R/G) was evaluated. Assessing the magnitude of the % R/G ratio in relation to low or high pH and oxygen concentration, the bacterial strains were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. SCC1 strains of E. coli were grown in a 5 L laboratory fermenter, and during the fermentation, the pH and temperature were controlled at 7.0 and 370C respectively. Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was controlled between 15-100% by changing the agitation speed between 20-500 rpm respectively. Effect of reducing the DOT level from 100% to 15% was observed after 4.5 h fermentation. There was a growth arrest as indicated by the decrease in the OD650 at this time (4.5-5 h). The relative fluorescence (green) intensity was decreased from about 460 to 420 RFU. However, %R/G ratio was significantly increased from about 0.1% to about 0.25% when the DOT level was decreased to 15%. But when the DOT was changed to 100%, a little increase in the RF and decrease in the %R/G ratio were observed. Therefore, GFP can effectively detect and indicate any change in pH and oxygen level during fermentation processes.
BIM-Based Tool for Sustainability Assessment and Certification Documents Provision
The assessment of building sustainability to achieve a specific green benchmark and the preparation of the required documents in order to receive a green building certification, both are considered as major challenging tasks for green building design team. However, this labor and time-consuming process can take advantage of the available Building Information Modeling (BIM) features such as material take-off and scheduling. Furthermore, the workflow can be automated in order to track potentially achievable credit points and provide rating feedback for several design options by using integrated Visual Programing (VP) to handle the stored parameters within the BIM model. Hence, this study proposes a BIM-based tool that uses Green Building Index (GBI) rating system requirements as a unique input case to evaluate the building sustainability in the design stage of the building project life cycle. The tool covers two key models for data extraction, firstly, a model for data extraction, calculation and the classification of achievable credit points in a green template, secondly, a model for the generation of the required documents for green building certification. The tool was validated on a BIM model of residential building and it serves as proof of concept that building sustainability assessment of GBI certification can be automatically evaluated and documented through BIM.
Spatial Analysis of the Impact of City Developments Degradation of Green Space in Urban Fringe Eastern City of Yogyakarta Year 2005-2010
In the development of the city often use rural areas that can not be separated from the change in land use that lead to the degradation of urban green space in the city fringe. In the long run, the degradation of green open space this can impact on the decline of ecological, psychological and public health. Therefore, this research aims to (1) determine the relationship between the parameters of the degradation rate of urban development with green space, (2) develop a spatial model of the impact of urban development on the degradation of green open space with remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems in an integrated manner. This research is a descriptive research with data collection techniques of observation and secondary data . In the data analysis, to interpret the direction of urban development and degradation of green open space is required in 2005-2010 ASTER image with NDVI. Of interpretation will generate two maps, namely maps and map development built land degradation green open space. Secondary data related to the rate of population growth, the level of accessibility, and the main activities of each city map is processed into a population growth rate, the level of accessibility maps, and map the main activities of the town. Each map is used as a parameter to map the degradation of green space and analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis using Crosstab thus obtained value of C (coefficient contingency). C values were then compared with the Cmaximum to determine the relationship. From this research will be obtained in the form of modeling spatial map of the City Development Impact Degradation Green Space in Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010. In addition, this research also generate statistical analysis of the test results of each parameter to the degradation of green open space in the Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010.
Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract
In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria&rsquo;s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.
Suitable Indoor Plants for Green Office Development in Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand
Nowadays, green office principles are very broadly initiated in many offices, organizations, as well as in universities. The concepts of green office are composed of seven prominent issues. One of them, physical implementation, is to develop a pleasant atmosphere for staff in the faculty with selected optimum plant species for the office. 50 species from NASA research and other documents were studied for the selection criteria of plants which were appropriate for specific locations in order to reduce indoor air pollutants such as formaldehyde, benzene, and trichloroethylene. For the copy and examination preparation room in which particulate matter and volatile organic compounds can be found, some plants such as peace lily, gerbera daisy, and bamboo palm should be set, which are very effective in treating trichloroethylene. For common rooms and offices where formaldehyde can be found, which is generated from many building materials, bamboo palm, mother-in-law's tongue, peace lily, striped dracaena, cornstalk plant, golden pathos, and green spider plant should be set.
Green Open Space in Sustainable Housing and Islamic Values Perspectives – Case Study Kampung Kauman Malang
Sustainable Housing in Islamic perspective, can be defined as a multi-dimensional process that seeks to achieve a balance between economic and socio-cultural aspects on the side, and environmental aspect on the other. There are many quotes verses in the Quran and Hadith that leads to the belief that Islam as a Rahmatan lil Alamin, where men are encouraged to act wisely in treating nature and all living things in it. One aspect of the natural environment that closed to human is plants. In the settlement, the availability of plants or also called green open space is highly recommended. The availability of green open space in the neighborhood, both the public and private green open spaces is expected to reduce the effects of global warming that has engulfed various parts of the world. Green open space that can be viewed from the angle of eco-aestetic and eco-medical in sustainable architecture, is expected to increase the temperature and provide aesthetic impression to the surrounding environment. This paper attempts to discuss the principles of Islamic values related to the natural environment as a major resource for sustainability. This paper also aims to raise awareness of the importance of the theme of sustainability in settlements, especially in big cities. Analysis of the availability of green open space in kampung Kauman Malang is one example of the effort to apply the principles of sustainable housing.
Proposal of Blue and Green Infrastructure for the Jaguaré Stream Watershed, São Paulo, Brazil
The blue-green infrastructure in recent years has been pointed out as a possibility to increase the environmental quality of watersheds. The regulation ecosystem services brought by these areas are many, such as the improvement of the air quality of the air, water, soil, microclimate, besides helping to control the peak flows and to promote the quality of life of the population. This study proposes a blue-green infrastructure scenario for the Jaguar&eacute; watershed, located in the western zone of the S&atilde;o Paulo city in Brazil. Based on the proposed scenario, it was verified the impact of the adoption of the blue and green infrastructure in the control of the peak flow of the basin, the benefits for the avifauna that are also reflected in the flora and finally, the quantification of the regulation ecosystem services brought by the adoption of the scenario proposed. A survey of existing green areas and potential areas for expansion and connection of these areas to form a network in the watershed was carried out. Based on this proposed new network of green areas, the peak flow for the proposed scenario was calculated with the help of software, ABC6. Finally, a survey of the ecosystem services contemplated in the proposed scenario was made. It was possible to conclude that the blue and green infrastructure would provide several regulation ecosystem services for the watershed, such as the control of the peak flow, the connection frame between the forest fragments that promoted the environmental enrichment of these fragments, improvement of the microclimate and the provision of leisure areas for the population.
Developers’ Gains and Losses from the Economic Incentives of Green Building: Explanations from the Transitional Gains Trap and Transaction Cost Economics
Economic incentives of green building (GB) have been implemented to promote green building and address the market barriers. However, if developers could gain from the incentives, why not all the buildings are green? This paper aims to study this problem and provide a new perspective to look at the economic incentives. The theories of Transitional Gains Trap (TGP) and Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) are employed to explain the developers’ gains and losses from the economic incentives. This paper takes the GFA (gross floor area) concession incentive in Hong Kong, which is one of the most popular incentives, as the case to conduct in-depth case study and it did interview to validate the results. The results show that after implementing the GFA concession scheme, the benefit of the GFA concession is capitalized into land value. Therefore, developers have to bear the increased land cost, which supports the theory of the TGP. Even though, some developers are still not willing to participate in the incentive scheme because of high transaction costs (TCs).
Study on the Key Stakeholders' Perception and Establishment of Sustainability Goals in the Green Building Projects: The Case of Malaysia
Green building is an emerging concept with the ultimate target to achieve sustainable development by integrating sustainability goals and principles into project development. Basically, a green building is a building that is designed, constructed and operated to boost environmental, economic, health and productivity performance over conventional buildings. The buildings have been proven to be successful in contributing towards sustainability and project success. The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of sustainability application in building projects, looking towards project success from the perspective of Malaysian key project stakeholders. The study also aimed to explore the establishment of sustainability goals in the green building projects in Malaysia. The Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Concept of Sustainability was used as the foundation theoretical framework. Surveys, interviews and multiple case study methods were employed. A sample of 188 Malaysian building project stakeholders was selected for questionnaire surveys, and 15 stakeholders from three award-winning green building projects in Malaysia were involved in the interviews. The study found that the majority of the respondents were less aware that the sustainability integration in the building project can significantly affect cost reduction, schedule effectiveness and stakeholders’ satisfaction with the performance of buildings as at the same level as the quality performance. Of the four sustainability goals, the environmental aspect was given more priority than others in the development of the green building projects.
Sensitivity, Specificity and Efficiency Real-Time PCR Using SYBR Green Method to Determine Porcine and Bovine DNA Using Specific Primer Cytochrome B Gene
Real-time PCR is a molecular biology technique that is currently being widely used for halal services to differentiating between porcine and bovine DNA. The useful of technique become very important for student or workers (who works in the laboratory) to learn how the technique could be run smoothly without fail. Same concept with conventional PCR, real-time PCR also needed DNA template, primer, enzyme polymerase, dNTP, and buffer. The difference is in real-time PCR, have additional component namely fluorescent dye. The most common use of fluorescent dye in real-time PCR is SYBR green. The purpose of this study was to find out how sensitive, specific and efficient real-time PCR technique was combined with SYBR green method and specific primers of CYT b. The results showed that real-time PCR technique using SYBR Green, capable of detecting porcine and bovine DNA concentrations up to 0.0001 µl/ng. The level of efficiency for both types of DNA was 91% (90-110). Not only that in specific primer CYT b bovine primer could detect only bovine DNA, and porcine primer could detect only porcine primer. So, from the study could be concluded that real-time PCR technique that was combined with specific primer CYT b and SYBR green method, was sensitive, specific and efficient to detect porcine and bovine DNA.
Using Building Information Modeling in Green Building Design and Performance Optimization
Thinking in design energy-efficiency and high-performance green buildings require a different design mechanism and design approach than conventional buildings to achieve more sustainable result. By reasoning about specific issues at the correct time in the design process, the design team can minimize negative impacts, maximize building performance and keep both first and operation costs low. This paper attempts to investigate and exploit the sustainable dimension of building information modeling (BIM) in designing high-performance green buildings that require less energy for operation, emit less carbon dioxide and provide a conducive indoor environment for occupants through early phases of the design process. This objective was attained by a critical and extensive literature review that covers the following issues: the value of considering green strategies in the early design stage, green design workflow, and BIM-based performance analysis. Then the research proceeds with a case study that provides an in-depth comparative analysis of building performance evaluation between an office building in Alexandria, Egypt that was designed by the conventional design process with the same building if taking into account sustainability consideration and BIM-based sustainable analysis integration early through the design process. Results prove that using sustainable capabilities of building information modeling (BIM) in early stages of the design process side by side with green design workflow promote buildings performance and sustainability outcome.
Greening of Supply Chains: Benefits and Challenges Faced
Supply chains have been developing over time since the inception of commercial trade and barter. The Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is a powerful way to differentiate a company from its competitors and it can greatly influence the plan success. With increased awareness to corporate responsibility and the requirement to meet the terms with environmental policy, GSCM is becoming increasingly important for companies. This paper explains the concept of green supply chain management, the difference between conventional supply chain management and green supply management and how GSCM benefits organizations while at the same time supporting a sustainable environment system. An effort has also been made to analyse research already done in this field while exploring the challenges and barriers that organizations face in implementing GSCM practices in their existing systems.
Dynamic Modeling of the Green Building Movement in the U.S.: Strategies to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Residential Building Stock
The U.S. buildings consume significant amount of energy and natural resources and they are responsible for approximately 40 % of the greenhouse gases emitted in the United States. Awareness of these environmental impacts paved the way for the adoption of green building movement. The green building movement is a rapidly increasing trend. Green Construction market has generated $173 billion dollars in GDP, supported over 2.4 million jobs, and provided $123 billion dollars in labor earnings. The number of LEED certified buildings is projected to be almost half of the all new, nonresidential buildings by 2015. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) aims to increase number of net-zero energy buildings (NZB). The ultimate goal is to have all commercial NZB by 2050 in the US (NSTC 2008). Green Building Initiative (GBI) became the first green building organization that is accredited by American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which will also boost number of green buildings certified by Green Globes. However, there is much less focus on greening the residential buildings, although the environmental impacts of existing residential buildings are more than that of commercial buildings. In this regard, current research aims to model the residential green building movement with a dynamic model approach and assess the possible strategies to stabilize the carbon footprint of the U.S. residential building stock. Three aspects of sustainable development are considered in policy making, namely: high performance green building (HPGB) construction, NZB construction and building retrofitting. 19 different policy options are proposed and analyzed. Results of this study explored that increasing the construction rate of HPGBs or NZBs is not a sufficient policy to stabilize the carbon footprint of the residential buildings. Energy efficient building retrofitting options are found to be more effective strategies then increasing HPGBs and NZBs construction. Also, significance of shifting to renewable energy sources for electricity generation is stressed.
Regulating Green Roofs: A Review of the Relation between Current International Regulations and Economic, Environmental and Social Effects
Efficiency, productivity, and sustainability are important factors for structure and the application of processes in green building. Various previous studies have addressed efficiency, productivity, and sustainability separately. This research study aims to investigate the implications of these three factors taking together. Frequency analysis and the ranking techniques are carried out to explore the connection between these factors. The interconnection matrix has been developed and functional grouping is made based upon data from expert opinion and field professionals. The existence of a relationship, the type of relationship and the scaled impact have been drawn. Additionally, a system diagram has been developed to show the variable correlation. The results of expert opinion show that efficiency, productivity, and sustainability have a stronger impact on green buildings.
Adoption of Green Supply Chain Practices and Their Impact on a Firm's Economic and Environmental Performance
Green supply chain management has been an important organizational strategy to reduce environmental risks and improve financial performance. Firms have to adopt green supply chain practices to meet the official regulations and reduce peer pressure in China. This paper exhibits an empirical study of the drivers of green supply chain management practices and the environmental and economic performance of green supply chain management implementation in Chinese firms. While China is the fastest-growing emerging economy, it has paid a high ecological price. It is reported that China hosts 7 of the world’s 10 most polluted cities. The continued environmental deterioration and the resultant heightened regulatory control and public scrutiny have posed new operating challenges to firms conducting business in China. These challenges make the country an ideal setting to conduct the present study. A research questionnaire was developed to gather data in China. The questionnaire targeted managers and employees in Chinese companies. The data were collected in the last quarter of 2015, involving industries such as electronic & communicational equipment, textile & clothing, pharmaceutical & healthcare, and so on. This study confirms and validates that (1) both internal and external drivers play a significant role in the implementation of green supply chain management practices; (2) green purchase and investment recovery have a significant impact on firms’ environmental and economic performance; (3) with the improvement of the firms’ environmental performance, their economic performance will improve.
Rooibos Extract Antioxidants: In vitro Models to Assess Their Bioavailability
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases and consequently antioxidant therapy has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic strategy. Regardless of the quantities ingested, antioxidants need to reach the diseased tissues at concentrations sufficient to combat oxidative stress. Bioavailability is thus a defining criterion for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants. In addition, therapeutic antioxidants must possess biologically relevant characteristics which can target the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for disease related oxidative stress. While many chemical antioxidant assays are available to quantify antioxidant capacity, they relate poorly to the biological environment and provide no information as to the bioavailability. The present comparative study thus aims to characterise green and fermented rooibos extracts, well recognized for their exceptional antioxidant capacity, in terms of antioxidant bioavailability and efficacy in a disease relevant cellular setting. Chinese green tea antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Chemical antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH and ORAC) confirmed the potent antioxidant capacity of both green and fermented rooibos, with green rooibos possessing antioxidant activity superior to that of fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea. Bioavailability was assessed using the PAMPA assay and the results indicate that green and fermented rooibos have a permeation coefficient of 5.7 x 10-6 and 6.9 x 10-6 cm/s, respectively. Chinese green tea permeability coefficient was 8.5 x 10-6 cm/s. These values were comparable to those of rifampicin, which is known to have a high permeability across intestinal epithelium with a permeability coefficient of 5 x 10 -6 cm/s. To assess the antioxidant efficacy in a cellular context, U937 and red blood cells were pre-treated with rooibos and Chinese green tea extracts in the presence of a dye DCFH-DA and then exposed to oxidative stress. Green rooibos exhibited highest activity with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml and 70 μg/ml, when U937 and red blood cells were exposed oxidative stress, respectively. Fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea had IC50 values of 61 μg/ml and 57 μg/ml for U937, respectively, and 221 μg/ml and 405 μg/ml for red blood cells, respectively. These results indicate that fermented and green rooibos extracts were able to permeate the U937 cells and red blood cell membrane and inhibited oxidation of DCFH-DA to a fluorescent DCF within the cells.
Green Building Practices: Harmonizing Non-Governmental Organizations Roles and Energy Efficiency
Green buildings provide serious challenges for governments all over the world with regard to achieving energy efficiency in buildings. Energy efficient buildings are needed to keep up with minimal impacts on the environment throughout their cycle and to enhance sustainable development. The lack of awareness and benefits of energy efficient buildings have given rise to NGO’s playing important role in filling data gaps, publicizing information, and undertaking awareness raising and policy engagement activities. However, these roles are countered by concerns about subsidies for evaluations, incentives to facilitate data-sharing, and incentives to finance independent research. On the basis of literature review on experiences with NGO’s involvement in energy efficient buildings, this article identifies governance strategies that stimulate the harmonization of NGO’s roles in green buildings with the objective to increase energy efficiency in buildings.
Green Approach towards Synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles for in vitro Release of Quercetin
Chitosan, a carbohydrate polymer at nanoscale level has gained considerable momentum in drug delivery applications due to its inherent biocompatibility and non-toxicity. However, conventional synthetic strategies for chitosan nanoparticles mainly rely upon physicochemical techniques, which often yield chitosan microparticles. Hence, there is an emergent need for development of controlled synthetic protocols for chitosan nanoparticles within the nanometer range. In this context, we report the green synthesis of size controlled chitosan nanoparticles by using Pongamia pinnata (L.) leaf extract. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed formation of nanoparticles with mean particle size of 85 nm. The stability of chitosan nanoparticles was investigated by zetasizer analysis, which revealed positive surface charged nanoparticles with zeta potential 20.1 mV. The green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles were further explored for encapsulation and controlled release of antioxidant biomolecule, quercetin. The resulting drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed drug entrapment efficiency of 93.50% with drug-loading capacity of 42.44%. The cumulative in vitro drug release up to 15 hrs was achieved suggesting towards efficacy of green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.
Performance of an Improved Fluidized System for Processing Green Tea
Green tea is made from the top two leaves and buds of a shrub, Camellia sinensis, of the family Theaceae and the order Theales. The green tea leaves are picked and immediately sent to be dried or steamed to prevent fermentation. Fluid bed drying technique is a common drying method used in drying green tea because of its ease in design and construction and fluidization of fine tea particles. Major problems in this method are significant loss of chemical content of the leaf and green appearance of tea, retention of high moisture content in the leaves and bed channeling and defluidization. The energy associated with the drying technology has been shown to be a vital factor in determining the quality of green tea. As part of the implementation, prototype dryer was built that facilitated sequence of operations involving steaming, cooling, pre-drying and final drying. The major findings of the project were in terms of quality characteristics of tea leaves and energy consumption during processing. The optimal design achieved a moisture content of 4.2 &plusmn; 0.84%. With the optimum drying temperature of 100 &ordm;C, the specific energy consumption was 1697.8 kj.Kg-1 and evaporation rate of 4.272 x 10-4 Kg.m-2.s-1. The energy consumption in a fluidized system can be further reduced by focusing on energy saving designs.
Green Tea Extract: Its Potential Protective Effect on Bleomycin Induced Lung Injuries in Rats
Lung fibrosis is a common side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent, bleomycin. Current evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species may play a key role in the development of lung fibrosis. The present work studied the effect of green tea extract on bleomycin–induced lung fibrosis in rats. Animals were divided into three groups: (1) Saline control group; (2) bleomycin group in which rats were injected with bleomycin (15mg/kg,i.p.) three times a week for four weeks; (3) bleomycin and green tea group in which green tea extract was given to rats (100mg/kg/day, p.o) a week prior to bleomycin and daily during bleomycin injections for 4 weeks until the end of the experiment. Bleomycin–induced pulmonary injury and lung fibrosis that was indicated by increased lung hydroxyproline content, elevated nitric oxide synthase, myeoloperoxidase (MPO), platelet activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF_α), transforming growth factor 1β (TGF1β) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in lung tissues. On the other hand, bleomycin induced a reduction in reduced glutathione concentration (GSH). Moreover, bleomycin resulted in a severe histological changes in lung tissues revealed as lymphocytes and neutrophils infiltration, increased collagen deposition and fibrosis. Co-administration of bleomycin and green tea extract reduced bleomycin–induced lung injury as evaluated by the significant reduction in hydroxyproline content, nitric oxide synthase activity, levels of MPO, PAF, TNF-α, and ACE in lung tissues. Furthermore, green tea extract ameliorated bleomycin– induced reduction in GSH concentration. Finally, histological evidence supported the ability of green tea extract to attenuate bleomycin–induced lung fibrosis and consolidation. Thus, the finding of the present study provides that green tea may serve as a novel target for potential therapeutic treatment of lung fibrosis.
Oxidantantioxidant Status in Calves Supplemented with Green Tea Extract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract on serum oxidant and antioxidant profile, liver and kidney function. 40 Friesian calves are included in this study and allocated into two groups: Group I (n=20) clinically healthy calves showing no clinical abnormalities, not receiving any treatment and served as control; group II (n=20) received green tea extract (GTE) for 30 days. Non-significant changes in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected between groups, on contrary, serum creatinine and activities of liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly different between two groups. There were significant increases in the mean values of serum antioxidative parameters (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) in group II. Whereas, the activity of lipid peroxidase significantly decreased in GTE treated calves when compared to control.
Parallel Evaluation of Sommerfeld Integrals for Multilayer Dyadic Green's Function
Sommerfeld-integrals (SIs) are commonly encountered in electromagnetics problems involving analysis of antennas and scatterers embedded in planar multilayered media. Generally speaking, the analytical solution of SIs is unavailable, and it is well known that numerical evaluation of SIs is very time consuming and computationally expensive due to the highly oscillating and slowly decaying nature of the integrands. Therefore, fast computation of SIs has a paramount importance. In this paper, a parallel code has been developed to speed up the computation of SI in the framework of calculation of dyadic Green’s function in multilayered media. OpenMP shared memory approach is used to parallelize the SI algorithm and resulted in significant time savings. Moreover accelerating the computation of dyadic Green’s function is discussed based on the parallel SI algorithm developed.
Compilation of Tall Building with Green Architecture Case Study: Babolsar City (North of Iran) at 2014-2015
Quick development of urban population need for housing on the one hand and prevention of irregular urban extension for optimum usage of urban land, resolving problems of urban physiognomy, land using, and environmental issues and urban transport, on the other hand, proposed tall building as urban area extension requirement in developing and advanced countries. Beside the tall building, protection, and creation of green architecture is one the most important issues of today's architecture world. This research is about attending tall building with green architecture in Babolsar city 2015. For this, the issues that can make favorite conditions for green architecture has been discussed. The purpose of this discussion is skeleton extension and accessing interactions between architecture and related technologies. This discussion with using of qualitative research methods (Analytical Description) tried to studying designed performance models and also studying and analyzing the inside and foreign articles and books. Hope this research is useful in solving the existing problems in this issue.
Facile, Cost Effective and Green Synthesis of Graphene in Alkaline Aqueous Solution
We report a simple, green and cost effective synthesis of graphene via chemical reduction of graphene oxide in alkaline aqueous solution. Extensive characterizations have been studied to confirm the formation of graphene in sodium carbonate solution. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical properties of the prepared graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode using potassium ferricyanide as a redox probe. Based on the result, with the addition of graphene to the glassy carbon electrode the current flow increases and the peak also broadens as compared to graphite and graphene oxide. This method is fast, cost effective, and green as nontoxic solvents are used which will not result in contamination of the products. Thus, this method can serve for the preparation of graphene which can be effectively used in sensors, electronic devices and supercapacitors.
Preparation of MgO Nanoparticles by Green Methods
Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research activities in the chemical community has been directed towards green synthesis. This area of chemistry has received extensive attention because of environmentally benign processes as well as economically viable. In this article, the MgO nanoparticles were prepared by different methods in the present of ionic liquids. A wide range of Magnesium oxide particle sizes within the nanometer scale is obtained by these methods. The structure of these MgO particles was studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the formation of nanoparticle could involve the role of performed 'nucleus' and used template to control the growth rate of nucleuses. The crystallite size of the MgO products was in a range from 31 to 77 nm.
Evaluation of Japanese Kyoto Park in Terms of User Satisfaction
The need for open space, which is an important problem especially since the 19th century, has become more important in today&#39;s conditions. The most important factor in increasing the livability of cities is the open and green areas. Parks are the most important of the urban open and green space elements that provide the most benefit to users. In this context, the user satisfaction of the Japanese Kyoto Park, which is the subject of the research, was evaluated in the light of the questionnaires. With this analysis, the satisfaction level of the user using the park was determined. Suggestions have been developed for the park to be handled and regulated according to the user requests and requirements changing over time.
A Study on Marble-Slag Based Geopolymer Green Concrete
The greenhouse effect is an important issue since it has been responsible for global warming. Carbon dioxide plays an important part of role in the greenhouse effect. Therefore, human has the responsibility for reducing CO₂ emissions in their daily operations. Except iron making and power plants, another major CO₂ production industry is cement industry. According to the statistics by EPA of Taiwan, production 1 ton of Portland cement will produce 520.29 kg of CO₂. There are over 7.8 million tons of CO₂ produced annually. Thus, trying to development low CO₂ emission green concrete is an important issue, and it can reduce CO₂ emission problems in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes and slag as the raw materials to fabricate geopolymer green concrete. The result shows the marble based geopolymer green concrete have good workability and the compressive strength after curing for 28 days and 365 days can be reached 44MPa and 53MPa in indoor environment, 28MPa and 40.43MPa in outdoor environment. The acid resistance test shows the geopolymer green concrete have good resistance for chemical attack. The coefficient of permeability of geopolymer green concrete is better than Portland concrete. By comparing with Portland cement products, the marble based geopolymer not only reduce CO₂ emission problems but also provides great performance in practices. According to the experiment results shown that geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development in the future, the new material could be expected to replace the Portland cement products in the future days.
An Approach to Improve Pre University Students' Responsible Environmental Behaviour through Science Writing Heuristic in Malaysia
This study investigated the effectiveness of green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) in enhancing matriculation students’ responsible environmental behaviour. For this purpose 207 matriculation students were randomly assigned into experimental (N=118) and control (N=89) group. For the experimental group the chemistry concepts were taught using the instructional approach of green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) while for the control group the same content was taught using green chemistry. The data was analysed using ANCOVA and findings obtained from the quantitative analysis reveals that there is significant changes in responsible environmental behaviour (F 1,204) = 32.13 (ηp² = 0.14) which favours the experimental group. The responses of the qualitative data obtained from an interview with the experimental group also further strengthen and indicated a significant improvement in responsible environmental behaviour. The outcome of the study suggests that using green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) could be an alternative approach to improve students’ responsible environmental behaviour towards the environment.
The Relationship between Environmental Factors and Purchasing Decisions in the Residential Market in Sweden
The Swedish Green Building Council (SGBC) was established in 2009. Since then, over 1000 buildings have been certified, of which approximately 600 are newly produced and 340 are residential buildings. During that time, approximately 2000 apartment buildings have been built in Sweden. This means that over a five- year period 17% of residential buildings have been certified according to the environmental building scheme. The certification of the building is not a guarantee of environmental progress but it gives us an indication of the extent of the progress. The overarching aim of this study is to investigate the factors behind the relatively slow evolution of the green residential housing market in Sweden. The intention is to examine stated willingness to pay (WTP) for green and low energy apartments, and to explore which factors have a significant effect on stated WTP among apartment owners. A green building was defined as a building certified according to the environmental scheme and a low energy building as a building designed and constructed with high energy efficiency goals. Data for this study were collected through a survey conducted among occupants of comparable apartment buildings: two green and one conventional. The total number of received responses was 429: green A (N=160), response rate 42%; green B (N=138) response rate 35%, and conventional (N=131) response rate 43%. The study applied a quasi-experimental method. Survey responses regarding factors affecting purchase of apartment, stated WTP and environmental literacy have been analysed using descriptive statistics, the Mann–Whitney (rank sum) test and logistic models. Comments received from respondents have been used for further interpretation of results. Results indicate that environmental education has a significant effect on stated WTP. Occupants who declared higher WTP showed a higher level of environmental literacy and indicated that energy efficiency was one of the important factors that affected their decision to buy an apartment. Generally, the respondents were more likely to pay more for low energy buildings than for green buildings. This is to a great extent a consequence of rational customer behaviour and difficulty in apprehending the meaning of green building certification. The analysis shows that people living in green buildings indicate higher WTP for both green and low energy buildings, the difference being statistically significant. It is concluded that growth in the green housing market in Sweden might be achieved if policymakers and developers engage in active education in the environmental labelling system. The demand for green buildings is more likely to increase when the difference between green and conventional buildings is easily understood and information is not only delivered by the estate agent, but is part of an environmental education programme.
Implementing Building Information Modelling to Attain Lean and Green Benefits
Globally the built environment sector is striving to be highly efficient, quality-centred and socially-responsible. Built environment sector is an integral part of the economy and plays an important role in urbanization, industrialization and improved quality of living. The inherent challenges such as excessive material and process waste, over reliance on resources, energy usage, and carbon footprint need to be addressed in order to meet the needs of the economy. It is envisioned that these challenges can be resolved by integration of Lean-Green-Building Information Modelling (BIM) paradigms. Ipso facto, with BIM as a catalyst, this research identifies the operational and tactical connections of lean and green philosophies by providing a conceptual integration framework and underpinning theories. The research has developed a framework for BIM-based organizational capabilities for enhanced adoption and effective use of BIM within architectural organizations. The study was conducted through a sequential mixed method approach focusing on collecting and analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data. The framework developed as part of this study will enable architectural organizations to successfully embrace BIM on projects and gain lean and green benefits.
Interpretive Structural Modeling Technique for Hierarchal Ranking of Barriers in Implementation ofGreen Supply Chain Management-Case of Indian Petroleum Industry
Consumer awareness and pending legislation have pushed environmental issues into the spotlight, making it imperative for organizations to have a plan of action for “going green.” This is the reason why Green Supply Chain Management has become the integral part of many organization with a goal to reduce cost, increase efficiency and be environmental friendly. Implementation of GSCM involves many factors which act as barriers, making it a tedious task. These barriers have different relationship among themselves creating different impact on implementation Green Supply Chain Management. This work focuses on determining those barriers which have essentially to be removed in the initial stages of GSCM adoption. In this work, the author has taken the case of a petroleum industry in order to come up with a solution. A DEMATEL approach is used to reach the solution.
Developing a Green Strategic Management Model with regarding HSE-MS
Purpose: The aim of this research is developing a model for green management based on Health, Safety and Environmental Management System. An HSE-MS can be a powerful tool for organizations to both improve their environmental, health and safety performance, and enhance their business efficiency to green management. Model: The model is developed in this study can be used for industries as guidelines for implementing green management issue by considering Health, Safety and Environmental Management System. Case Study: The Pars Special Economic / Energy Zone Organization on behalf of Iran’s Petroleum Ministry and National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) manages and develops the South and North oil and gas fields in the region. Methodology: This research according to objective is applied and based on implementing is descriptive and also prescription. We used technique MCDM (Multiple Criteria Decision-Making) for determining the priorities of the factors. Based on process approach the model consists of the following steps and components: first factors involved in green issues are determined. Based on them a framework is considered. Then with using MCDM (Multiple Criteria Decision-Making) algorithms (TOPSIS) the priority of basic variables are determined. The authors believe that the proposed model and results of this research can aid industries managers to implement green subjects according to Health, Safety and Environmental Management System in a more efficient and effective manner. Finding and conclusion: Basic factors involved in green issues and their weights can be the main finding. Model and relation between factors are the other finding of this research. The case is considered Petrochemical Company for promoting the system of ecological industry thinking.
Analyzing Investors and Building Users Perception of Green Real Estate Development Projects: The Case of Bahrain
Responding to some governmentally enforced building sustainability criteria is today becoming an unavoidable challenge to the real estate development industry and is no longer an extra that allows developers to gain competitive advantages. Previous studies suggested that using green technologies, if done under the right circumstances, could lead to positive incentives, tax breaks, higher rents, cost savings and higher property values in the long run. This is all in addition to the marketing benefits of the green label. There are, however, still countries, mostly in the developing world, that lack the implementation of such sustainability guidelines and assessment tools. This research aspires to investigate the market’s readiness to implement such criteria, its perception of sustainable architecture and building users motivation to use and/or invest in sustainable buildings. The study showed via a survey administered to 385 inhabitants and investors in commercial real estate in Bahrain that the respondents have a limited understanding of the benefits of green buildings and are unlikely to want to occupy or invest in a green building under the current social, economic and industrial conditions. Reliability of green technology, effectiveness, price and the questionable long-term financial benefits were among the major concerns. The study suggests that the promotion of sustainable architecture should respond to the current market concerns in a more direct way to trigger an interest in investors and users of commercial real estate project. This stimulated attention should consequently encourage developers to consider incorporating sustainability measures, apply for green building assessment programs and invest in green technologies, all of which need higher capitals that are nonetheless financially justifiable on the long run.
Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Potential by Deploying the Green Cars in Korean Road Transport Sector
South Korea, as the 7th largest greenhouse gas emitting country in 2011, announced that the national reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions was 30% based on BAU (Business As Usual) by 2020. And the reduction rate of the transport sector is 34.3% which is the highest figure among all sectors. This paper attempts to analyze the environmental effect on deploying the green cars in Korean road transport sector. In order to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions, the LEAP model is applied in this study.
Seeking Compatibility between Green Infrastructure and Recentralization: The Case of Greater Toronto Area
There are two distinct planning approaches attempting to transform the North American suburb so as to reduce its adverse environmental impacts. The first one, the recentralization approach, proposes intensification, multi-functionality and more reliance on public transit and walking. It thus offers an alternative to the prevailing low-density, spatial specialization and automobile dependence of the North American suburb. The second approach concentrates instead on the provision of green infrastructure, which rely on natural systems rather than on highly engineered solutions to deal with the infrastructure needs of suburban areas. There are tensions between these two approaches as recentralization generally overlooks green infrastructure, which can be space consuming (as in the case of water retention systems), and thus conflicts with the intensification goals of recentralization. The research investigates three Canadian planned suburban centres in the Greater Toronto Area, where recentralization is the current planning practice, despite rising awareness of the benefits of green infrastructure. Methods include reviewing the literature on green infrastructure planning, a critical analysis of the Ontario provincial plans for recentralization, surveying residents’ preferences regarding alternative suburban development models, and interviewing officials who deal with the local planning of the three centres. The case studies expose the difficulties in creating planned suburban centres that accommodate green infrastructure while adhering to recentralization principles. Until now, planners have been mostly focussed on recentralization at the expense of green infrastructure. In this context, the frequent lack of compatibility between recentralization and the space requirements of green infrastructure explains the limited presence of such infrastructures in planned suburban centres. Finally, while much attention has been given in the planning discourse to the economic and lifestyle benefits of recentralization, much less has been made of the wide range of advantages of green infrastructure, which explains limited public mobilization over the development of green infrastructure networks. The paper will concentrate on ways of combining recentralization with green infrastructure strategies and identify the aspects of the two approaches that are most compatible with each other. The outcome of such blending will marry high density, public-transit oriented developments, which generate walkability and street-level animation, with the presence of green space, naturalized settings and reliance on renewable energy. The paper will advance a planning framework that will fuse green infrastructure with recentralization, thus ensuring the achievement of higher density and reduced reliance on the car along with the provision of critical ecosystem services throughout cities. This will support and enhance the objectives of both green infrastructure and recentralization.
[Keynote Talk]: Green Supply Chain Management Concepts Applied on Brazilian Animal Nutrition Industries
One of the biggest challenges that the industries find nowadays is to incorporate sustainability practices into its operations. The Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) concept assists industries in such incorporation. For the full application of this concept is important that enterprises of a same supply chain have the GSCM practices coordinated among themselves. Note that this type of analyses occurs on the context of developed countries and sectors considered big impactors (as automotive, mineral, among others). The propose of this paper is to analyze as the GSCM concepts are applied on the Brazilian animal nutrition industries. The method used was the Case Study. For this, it was selected a supply chain relationship composed by animal nutrition products manufacturer (Enterprise A) and its supplier of animal waste, such as blood, viscera, among others (Enterprise B). First, a literature review was carried out to identify the main GSCM practices. Second, it was done an individual analysis of each one selected enterprise of the application of GSCM concept. For the observed practices, the coordination of each practice in this supply chain was studied. And, it was developed propose of GSCM applications for the practices no observed. The findings of this research were: a) the systematization of main GSCM practices, as: Internal Environment Management, Green Consumption, Green Design, Green Manufacturing, Green Marketing, Green Packaging, Green Procurement, Green Recycling, Life Cycle Analysis, Consultation Selection Method, Environmental Risk Sharing, Investment Recovery, and Reduced Transportation Time; b) the identification of GSCM practices on Enterprise A (7 full application, 3 partial application and 3 no application); c) the identification of GSCM practices on Enterprise B (2 full application, 2 partial application and 9 no application); d) the identification of how is the incentive and the coordination of the GSCM practices on this relationship by Enterprise A; e) proposals of application and coordination of the others GSCM practices on this supply chain relationship. Based on the study, it can be concluded that its possible apply GSCM on animal nutrition industries, and when occurs the motivation on the application of GSCM concepts by a supply chain echelon, these concepts are deployed for the others supply chain echelons by the coordination (orchestration) of the first echelon.
Empirical Green’s Function Technique for Accelerogram Synthesis: The Problem of the Use for Marine Seismic Hazard Assessment
Instrumental seismological researches in water areas are complicated and expensive, that leads to the lack of strong motion records in most offshore regions. In the same time the number of offshore industrial infrastructure objects, such as oil rigs, subsea pipelines, is constantly increasing. The empirical Green’s function technique proved to be very effective for accelerograms synthesis under the conditions of poorly described seismic wave propagation medium. But the selection of suitable small earthquake record in offshore regions as an empirical Green’s function is a problem because of short seafloor instrumental seismological investigation results usually with weak micro-earthquakes recordings. An approach based on moving average smoothing in the frequency domain is presented for preliminary processing of weak micro-earthquake records before using it as empirical Green’s function. The method results in significant waveform correction for modeled event. The case study for 2009 L’Aquila earthquake was used to demonstrate the suitability of the method. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (project № 18-35-00474 mol_a).
Using Urban Conversion to Green Public Space as a Tool to Generate Urban Change: Case of Seoul
The world’s population is increasing with unprecedented speed, leading to fast growing urbanization pace. Cities since the Industrial revolution had evolved to fit the growing demand on infrastructure, roads, transportation, and housing. Through this evolution, cities had grown into grey, polluted, and vehicle-oriented urban areas with a significant lack of green spaces. Consequently, we ended up with low quality of life for citizens. Therefore, many cities, nowadays, are revising the way we think urbanism and try to grow into more livable and citizen-friendly, by creating change from the inside out. Thus, cities are trying to bring back nature in its crowded grey centers and regenerate many urban areas as green public spaces not only as a way to give new breath to the city, but also as a way to create change either in the environmental, social and economic levels. The city of Seoul is one of the fast growing global cities. Its population is over 12 million and it is expected to continue to grow to a point where the quality of life may seriously deteriorate. As most green areas in Seoul are located in the suburbs in form of mountains, the city’s urban areas suffer from lack of accessible green spaces in a walking distance. Understanding the gravity and consequences of this issue, Seoul city is undergoing major changes. Many of its projects are oriented to be green public spaces where citizens can enjoy the public life in healthy outdoors. The aim of this paper is to explore the results of urban conversions into green public spaces. Starting with different locations, nature, size, and scale, these conversions can lead to significant change in the surrounding areas, thus can be used as an efficient tool of regeneration for urban areas. Through a comparative analysis of three different types of urban conversions projects in the city of Seoul, we try to show the positive urban influence of the outcomes, in order to encourage cities to use green spaces as a strategic tool for urban regeneration and redevelopment.
Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case
Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin&#39;s 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green&#39;s function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green&#39;s function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.
Sustainability of High-Rise Affordable Housing: Critical Issues in Applying Green Building Rating Tools
Nowadays, going green has become a trend, and being emphasized in the construction industry. In Malaysia, there are several green rating tools available in the industry and among these, GBI and GreenRE are considered as the most common tools adopted for residential buildings. However, being green is not equal to or making something sustainable. Being sustainable is to take economic, environmental and social aspects into consideration. This is particularly essential in the affordable housing sector as the end-users belong to lower-income and places importance on many socio-economic needs beyond the environmental criteria. This paper discusses the arguments in proposing a sustainability framework that is tailor-made for high-rise affordable housing. In-depth interviews and observation mapping methods were used in gathering inputs from the end-users, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as well as the professionals. ‘Bottom-up’ approach was applied in this research to show the significance of participation from the local community in the decision-making process. The proposed sustainability framework illustrates the discrepancies between user priorities and what the industry is providing. The outcome of this research suggests that integrating sustainability into high-rise affordable housing is achievable and beneficial to the industry, society, and the environment.
CertifHy: Developing a European Framework for the Generation of Guarantees of Origin for Green Hydrogen
Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in the transition towards a low-carbon economy, especially within the transport sector, the energy sector and the (petro)chemical industry sector. However, the production and use of hydrogen only make sense if the production and transportation are carried out with minimal impact on natural resources, and if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced in comparison to conventional hydrogen or conventional fuels. The CertifHy project, supported by a wide range of key European industry leaders (gas companies, chemical industry, energy utilities, green hydrogen technology developers and automobile manufacturers, as well as other leading industrial players) therefore aims to: 1. Define a widely acceptable definition of green hydrogen. 2. Determine how a robust Guarantee of Origin (GoO) scheme for green hydrogen should be designed and implemented throughout the EU. It is divided into the following work packages (WPs). 1. Generic market outlook for green hydrogen: Evidence of existing industrial markets and the potential development of new energy related markets for green hydrogen in the EU, overview of the segments and their future trends, drivers and market outlook (WP1). 2. Definition of “green” hydrogen: step-by-step consultation approach leading to a consensus on the definition of green hydrogen within the EU (WP2). 3. Review of existing platforms and interactions between existing GoO and green hydrogen: Lessons learnt and mapping of interactions (WP3). 4. Definition of a framework of guarantees of origin for “green” hydrogen: Technical specifications, rules and obligations for the GoO, impact analysis (WP4). 5. Roadmap for the implementation of an EU-wide GoO scheme for green hydrogen: the project implementation plan will be presented to the FCH JU and the European Commission as the key outcome of the project and shared with stakeholders before finalisation (WP5 and 6). Definition of Green Hydrogen: CertifHy Green hydrogen is hydrogen from renewable sources that is also CertifHy Low-GHG-emissions hydrogen. Hydrogen from renewable sources is hydrogen belonging to the share of production equal to the share of renewable energy sources (as defined in the EU RES directive) in energy consumption for hydrogen production, excluding ancillary functions. CertifHy Low-GHG hydrogen is hydrogen with emissions lower than the defined CertifHy Low-GHG-emissions threshold, i.e. 36.4 gCO2eq/MJ, produced in a plant where the average emissions intensity of the non-CertifHy Low-GHG hydrogen production (based on an LCA approach), since sign-up or in the past 12 months, does not exceed the emissions intensity of the benchmark process (SMR of natural gas), i.e. 91.0 gCO2eq/MJ.
Using Construction Wastes and Recyclable Materials in Sustainable Concrete Manufacture
Sustainable construction materials using solid construction wastes are of great environmental and economic significance. Construction wastes, demolishing wastes, and wastes coming out from the preparation of traditional materials could be used in sustainable concrete manufacture, which is the main scope of this paper. Ceramics, clay bricks, marble, recycled concrete, and many other materials should be tested and validated for use in the manufacture of green concrete. Introducing waste materials in concrete helps in reducing the required landfills, leaving more space for land investments, and decrease the environmental impact of the concrete buildings industry in both stages -construction and demolition-. In this paper, marble aggregate is used as a replacement for the natural aggregate in sustainable green concrete production. The results showed that marble aggregates can be used as a full replacement for the natural aggregates in eco-friendly green concrete.
Semigroups of Linear Transformations with Fixed Subspaces: Green’s Relations and Ideals
Let V be a vector space over a field and W a subspace of V. Let Fix(V,W) denote the set of all linear transformations on V with fix all elements in W. In this paper, we show that Fix(V,W) is a semigroup under the composition of maps and describe Green’s relations on this semigroup in terms of images, kernels and the dimensions of subspaces of the quotient space V/W where V/W = {v+W : v is an element in V} with v+W = {v+w : w is an element in W}. Let dim(U) denote the dimension of a vector space U and Vα = {vα : v is an element in V} where vα is an image of v under a linear transformation α. For any cardinal number a let a'= min{b : b > a}. We also show that the ideals of Fix(V,W) are precisely the sets. Fix(r) ={α ∊ Fix(V,W) : dim(Vα/W) < r} where 1 ≤ r ≤ a' and a = dim(V/W). Moreover, we prove that if V is a finite-dimensional vector space, then every ideal of Fix(V,W) is principle.
Measurement and Research of Green Office Building Operational Performance in China: A Case Study of a Green Office Building in Zhejiang Province
In recent years, green buildings in China have been developing rapidly and have developed into a wide variety of types, of which office building is a very important part. In many green office buildings, the energy consumption of building operation is high; the indoor environment quality needs to be improved, and the level of occupants’ satisfaction is low. This paper conducted a one-year measurement of operational performance of a green office building in Zhejiang Province. The measurement includes energy consumption of the building's one-year operation, the quality of the indoor environment and occupants’ satisfaction in different seasons. The energy consumption is collected from the power bureau. The quality of the indoor environment have been measured at different measuring points including offices, meeting rooms and reception for the whole year. The satisfaction of occupants are obtained from questionnaires. The results are compared with given standards and goals and the reasons why occupants are dissatisfied with the indoor environment are analyzed. Regarding energy consumption, the energy consumption of the building operational performance is much higher than the standard. Regarding the indoor environment, the temperature and humidity meet the standard for most of the time, but fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is pretty high. Regarding occupants satisfaction, occupants have a higher expectation for indoor air quality even when the indoor air quality is well and occupants prefer a relatively humid environment. However the overall satisfaction is more than 80%, which indicates that occupants have a higher tolerability.
Opportunities and Challenges for Decarbonizing Steel Production by Creating Markets for ‘Green Steel’ Products
The creation of a market for lower-carbon steel products, here called ‘green steel’, has been identified as an important means to support the introduction of breakthrough emission reduction technologies into the steel sector. However, the definition of what ‘green’ entails in the context of steel production, the implications on the competitiveness of green steel products in local and international markets, and the necessary market mechanisms to support their successful market penetration remain poorly explored. This paper addresses this gap by holding semi-structured interviews with international sustainability experts and commercial managers from leading steel trade associations, research institutes and steelmakers. Our findings show that there is an urgent need to establish a set of standards to define what ‘greenness’ means in the steelmaking context; standards that avoid market disruptions, unintended consequences, and opportunities for greenwashing. We also highlight that the introduction of green steel products will have implications on product competitiveness on three different levels: 1) between primary and secondary steelmaking routes, 2) with traditional, lesser green steel, and 3) with other substitutable materials (e.g. cement and plastics). This paper emphasises the need for steelmakers to adopt a transitional approach in deploying different low-carbon technologies, based on their stage of technological maturity, applicability in certain country contexts, capacity to reduce emissions over time, and the ability of the investment community to support their deployment. We further identify market mechanisms to support green steel production, including carbon border adjustments and public procurement, highlighting a need for implementing a combination of complementary policies to ensure the products’ roll-out. The study further shows that the auto industry is a likely candidate for green steel consumption, where a market would be supported by price premiums paid by willing consumers, such as those of high-end luxury vehicles.
Building a Parametric Link between Mapping and Planning: A Sunlight-Adaptive Urban Green System Plan Formation Process
Quantitative mapping is playing a growing role in guiding urban planning, such as using a heat map created by CFX, CFD2000, or Envi-met, to adjust the master plan. However, there is no effective quantitative link between the mappings and planning formation. So, in many cases, the decision-making is still based on the planner's subjective interpretation and understanding of these mappings, which limits the improvement of scientific and accuracy brought by the quantitative mapping. Therefore, in this paper, an effort has been made to give a methodology of building a parametric link between the mapping and planning formation. A parametric planning process based on radiant mapping has been proposed for creating an urban green system. In the first step, a script is written in Grasshopper to build a road network and form the block, while the Ladybug Plug-in is used to conduct a radiant analysis in the form of mapping. Then, the research creatively transforms the radiant mapping from a polygon into a data point matrix, because polygon is hard to engage in the design formation. Next, another script is created to select the main green spaces from the road network based on the criteria of radiant intensity and connect the green spaces' central points to generate a green corridor. After that, a control parameter is introduced to adjust the corridor's form based on the radiant intensity. Finally, a green system containing greenspace and green corridor is generated under the quantitative control of the data matrix. The designer only needs to modify the control parameter according to the relevant research results and actual conditions to realize the optimization of the green system. This method can also be applied to much other mapping-based analysis, such as wind environment analysis, thermal environment analysis, and even environmental sensitivity analysis. The parameterized link between the mapping and planning will bring about a more accurate, objective, and scientific planning.
Field Study on Thermal Performance of a Green Office in Bangkok, Thailand: A Possibility of Increasing Temperature Set-Points
In the tropics, indoor thermal environment is usually provided by a cooling mode to maintain comfort all year. Indoor thermal environment performance is sometimes different from the standard or from the first design process because of operation, maintenance, and utilization. The field study of thermal environment in the green building is still limited in this region, while the green building continues to increase. This study aims to clarify thermal performance and subjective perception in the green building by testing the temperature set-points. A Thai green office was investigated twice in October 2018 and in May 2019. Indoor environment variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity) were collected continuously. The temperature set-point was normally set as 23 &deg;C, and it was changed into 24 &deg;C and 25 &deg;C. The study found that this gap of temperature set-point produced average room temperature from 22.7 to 24.6 &deg;C and average relative humidity from 55% to 62%. Thermal environments slight shifted out of the ASHRAE comfort zone when the set-point was increased. Based on the thermal sensation vote, the feeling-colder vote decreased by 30% and 18% when changing +1 &deg;C and +2 &deg;C, respectively. Predicted mean vote (PMV) shows that most of the calculated median values were negative. The values went close to the optimal neutral value (0) when the set-point was set at 25 &deg;C. The neutral temperature was slightly decreased when changing warmer temperature set-points. Building-related symptom reports were found in this study that the number of votes reduced continuously when the temperature was warmer. The symptoms that occurred by a cooler condition had the number of votes more than ones that occurred by a warmer condition. In sum, for this green office, there is a possibility to adjust a higher temperature set-point to +1 &deg;C (24 &deg;C) in terms of reducing cold sensitivity, discomfort, and symptoms. All results could support the policy of changing a warmer temperature of this office to become "a better green building".
Determination of Cadmium , Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets
Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.
Exploring Community Benefits Frameworks as a Tool for Addressing Intersections of Equity and the Green Economy in Toronto's Urban Development
Toronto is in the midst of an urban development and infrastructure boom. Population growth and concerns about urban sprawl and carbon emissions have led to pressure on the municipal and the provincial governments to re-think urban development. Toronto’s approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation has positioning of the emerging green economy as part of the solution. However, the emerging green economy many not benefit all Torontonians in terms of jobs, improved infrastructure, and enhanced quality of life. Community benefits agreements (CBAs) are comprehensive, negotiated commitments, in which founders and builders of major infrastructure projects formally agree to work with community interest groups based in the community where the development is taking place, toward mutually beneficial environmental and labor market outcomes. When community groups are equitably represented in the process, they stand not only to benefit from the jobs created from the project itself, but also from the longer-term community benefits related to the quality of the completed work, including advocating for communities’ environmental needs. It is believed that green employment initiatives in Toronto should give greater consideration to best practices learned from community benefits agreements. Drawing on the findings of a funded qualitative study in Toronto (Canada), “The Green Gap: Toward Inclusivity in Toronto’s Green Economy” (2013-2016), this paper examines the emergent CBA in Toronto in relation to the development of a light rail transit project. Theoretical and empirical consideration will be given to the research gaps around CBAs, the role of various stakeholders, and discuss the potential for CBAs to gain traction in the Toronto’s urban development context. The narratives of various stakeholders across Toronto’s green economy will be interwoven with a discussion of the CBA model in Toronto and other jurisdictions.
Efficient HVAC System in Green Building Design
Buildings designed and built as high performance, sustainable or green are the vanguard in a movement to make buildings more energy efficient and less environmentally harmful. Although Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems offer many opportunities for recovery and re-use of thermal energy; however, the amount of energy used annually by these systems typically ranges from 40 to 60 percent of the overall energy consumption in a building, depending on the building design, function, condition, climate, and the use of renewable energy strategies. HVAC systems may also damage the environment by unnecessary use of non-renewable energy sources, which contribute to environmental pollution, and by creating noise and discharge of contaminated water and air containing chemicals, lubricating oils, refrigerants, heat transfer fluids, and particulate (gases matter). In fact, HVAC systems will significantly impact how “green” a building is, where an efficient HVAC system design can result in considerable energy, emissions and cost savings as well as providing increased user thermal comfort. This paper presents the basic concepts of green building design and discusses the role of efficient HVAC system and practical strategies for ensuring high performance sustainable buildings in design and operation.
Online Monitoring of Airborne Bioaerosols Released from a Composting, Green Waste Site
This study is the first to employ the online WIBS (Waveband Integrated Biosensor Sensor) technique for the monitoring of bioaerosol emissions and non-fluorescing “dust” released from a composting/green waste site. The purpose of the research was to provide a “proof of principle” for using WIBS to monitor such a location continually over days and nights in order to construct comparative “bioaerosol site profiles”. Current impaction/culturing methods take many days to achieve results available by the WIBS technique in seconds.The real-time data obtained was then used to assess variations of the bioaerosol counts as a function of size, “shape”, site location, working activity levels, time of day, relative humidity, wind speeds and wind directions. Three short campaigns were undertaken, one classified as a “light” workload period, another as a “heavy” workload period and finally a weekend when the site was closed. One main bioaerosol size regime was found to predominate: 0.5 micron to 3 micron with morphologies ranging from elongated to elipsoidal/spherical. The real-time number-concentration data were consistent with an Andersen sampling protocol that was employed at the site. The number-concentrations of fluorescent particles as a proportion of total particles counted amounted, on average, to ~1% for the “light” workday period, ~7% for the “heavy” workday period and ~18% for the weekend. The bioaerosol release profiles at the weekend were considerably different from those monitored during the working weekdays.
Chronological Skin System Aging: Improvements in Reversing Markers with Different Routes of Green Tea Extract Administration
Green tea may provide an alternative treatment for many skin system disorders. Intrinsic or chronological aging represents the structural, functional, and metabolic changes in the skin, which depend on the passage of time per se. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of green tea extract administration, in drinking water or topically, on the chronological changes of the old Swiss albino mice skin. A total number of forty Swiss albino female mice (Mus musculus) were used; thirty were old females, 50-52 weeks old and the remaining ten young females were about 10 weeks old. The skin of the back of all the studied mice was dehaired with a topical depilatory cream. Treatment with green tea extract was applied in two different ways: in the drinking water (0.5mg/ml/day) or topically, applied to the skin of the dorsal side (6mg/ml water). They were divided into four main groups each of 10 animals: Group I: young untreated, Group II: old untreated groups, Group III: tea-drinking (TD) group, and Group IV: topical tea (TT) group. The animals were euthanized after 3 and 6 weeks from the beginning of green tea extract treatment. The skin was subject to morphometric (epidermal, dermal, and stratum corneum thicknesses; collagen and elastin content) studies. The skin ultrastructure of the groups treated for 6 weeks with the green tea extract was also examined. The old mouse skin was compared to the young one to investigate the chronological changes of the tissue. The results revealed that the skin of mice treated with green tea extract, either topically or to less extent in drinking water, showed a reduction in the aging features manifested by a numerical but statistically insignificant improvement in the morphometric measurements. A remarkable amelioration in the ultrastructure of the old skin was also observed. Generally, green tea extract in the drinking water revealed inconsistent results. The topical application of green tea extract to the skin revealed that the epidermal, dermal and stratum corneum thicknesses and the elastin content, that were statistically significant, approach those of the young group. The ultrastructural study revealed the same observations. The disjunction of the lower epidermal keratinocytes was reduced. It could be concluded that the topical application of green tea extract to the skin of old mice showed improvement in reversing markers of skin system aging more than using the extract in the drinking water.
Understanding Public Opinion about Environment Issue in Kedah (Malaysia)
The public opinion on environmental issue was analyzed by means of a survey implemented in Kedah located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia). This work explores public opinions regarding environmental issue such as climate change, green technology and renewable energy in Kedah. Probability sampling and a stratified technique were used to conduct a survey with subjects aged 20 years and over with higher education qualifications. The results shows that the level of concern regarding climate change in Kedah is high and majority of Kedah citizens are concerned about climate change and have heard about green technology. However, only 40% people in this city have used green products. The findings of this study also show that percent use of green products is highest among those who are familiar with such products. It is apparent from study finding that economic barriers and non-economic barriers both play a role in impeding the development of renewable energy policies in Kedah. This finding can be explained by the high price of renewable energy products, lack of knowledge about government policies, and ineffective programs and initiatives.
Green Supply Chain Network Optimization with Internet of Things
Green Supply Chain Management is gaining growing interest among researchers and supply chain management. The concept of Green Supply Chain Management is to integrate environmental thinking into the Supply Chain Management. It is the systematic concept emphasis on environmental problems such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency, recycling end of life products, generation of solid and hazardous waste. This study is to present a green supply chain network model integrated Internet of Things applications. Internet of Things provides to get precise and accurate information of end-of-life product with sensors and systems devices. The forward direction consists of suppliers, plants, distributions centres and sales and collect centres while, the reverse flow includes the sales and collects centres, disassembled centre, recycling and disposal centre. The sales and collection centre sells the new products are transhipped from factory via distribution centre and also receive the end-of life product according their value level. We describe green logistics activities by presenting specific examples including “recycling of the returned products and “reduction of CO2 gas emissions”. The different transportation choices are illustrated between echelons according to their CO2 gas emissions. This problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming model to solve the green supply chain problems which are emerged from the environmental awareness and responsibilities. This model is solved by using Gams package program. Numerical examples are suggested to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed model.
Establishment and Aging Process Analysis in Dermal Fibroblast Cell Culture of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is one of well known long-lived turtle. Its age can reach 100 years old. Senescence in green turtle is an interesting process to study because until now no clear explanation has been established about senescence at cellular or molecular level in this species. Since 1999, green turtle announced as an endangered species. Hence, establishment of fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtle may be material for future study of senescence. One common marker used for detecting senescence is telomere shortening. Reduced telomerase activity, the reverse transcriptase enzyme which adds TTAGGG DNA sequence to telomere end, may also cause senescence. The purpose of this research are establish and identify green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture and also compare telomere length and telomerase activity from passage 5 and 14. Primary cell culture made with primary explant method then cultured in Leibovitz-15 (Sigma) supplemented by 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (Sigma) and 100 U/mL Penicillin/Streptomycin (Sigma) at 30 ± 1oC. Cells identified with Rabbit Anti-Vimentin Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) and Goat Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) using confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 170). Telomere length obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay (Roche) while telomerase activity obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomerase PCR ElisaPlus (Roche). Primary cell culture from green turtle skin had fibroblastic morphology and immunocytochemistry test with vimentin antibody proved the culture was fibroblast cell. Measurement of telomere length and telomerase activity showed that telomere length and telomerase activity of passage 14 was greater than passage 5. However, based on morphology, green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture showed senescent morphology. Based on the analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity, suspected fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtles is not undergo aging through telomere shortening.
Biogas Separation, Alcohol Amine Solutions
Biogas, which is a valuable renewable energy source, can be produced by anaerobic fermentation of agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste, or food waste. It is composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) but also contains significant quantities of undesirable compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and siloxanes. Since typical raw biogas contains 25–45% CO2, The requirements for biogas quality depend on its further application. Before biogas is being used more efficiently, CO2 should be removed. One of the existing options for biogas separation technologies is based on chemical absorbents, in particular, mono-, di- and tri-alcohol amine solutions. Such amine solutions have been applied as highly efficient CO2 capturing agents. The benchmark in this experiment is N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) with piperazine (PZ) as an activator, from CO2 absorption Isotherm curve, optimization conditions are collected, such as activator percentage, temperature etc. This experiment makes new alcohol amines, which could have the same CO2 absorbing ability as activated MDEA, using glycidol as one of reactant, the result is quite satisfying.
Comparison Methyl Orange and Malachite Green Dyes Removal by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH as Adsorbents
Graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWCNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized carboxyl (MWCNT-COOH), and multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized thiol (MWCNT-SH) were used as efficient adsorbents for the rapid removal two dyes methyl orange (MO) and malachite green (MG) from the aqueous phase. The impact of several influential parameters such as initial dye concentrations, contact time, temperature, and initial solution pH was well studied and optimized. The optimize time for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 25, and 60 min, respectively and The optimize time for adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 15, and 60 min, respectively. The maximum removal efficiency for methyl orange dye by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 2, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively and for malachite green dye were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 9, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively. The effect of temperature showed that adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic and for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic but while adsorption of methyl orange and malachite green dyes on MWCNT-COOH surface were exothermic.On increasing the initial concentration of methyl orange dye adsorption capacity on GO surface was decreased and on rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased and with increasing the initial concentration of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased.
Determination of Lead , Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets
Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.
Interaction of Water Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Green Bean under Different P Levels
In a greenhouse experiment, green bean were inoculated with three levels of phosphorus (P1, P2, P3, respectively 0, 50, 100 kgP/h) and four levels of water stress(Fc1, Fc2, Fc3 ,Fc4, respectively 0.8Fc, 0.7Fc, 0.6Fc, 0.5Fc) and one species of VA mycorrhiza (Glomus versiform) or left uninocolated as control plants in the steril soil. AM colonization significantly stimulated plant growth, leaf area, shoot, and pod dry weight but water stress significantly decreased colonization, pod and shoot dry weight, and shoot P. The use P levels significantly increased leaf area, shoot, and pod dry weight, pods length, and colonization.
Qualitative Analysis of Occupant’s Satisfaction in Green Buildings
The green building movement in India commenced in 2003. Since then, more than 4,300 projects have adopted green building concepts. For last 15 years, the green building movement has grown strong across the country and has resulted in immense tangible and intangible benefits to the stakeholders. Several success stories have demonstrated the tangible benefit experienced in green buildings. However, extensive data interpretation and qualitative analysis are required to report the intangible benefits in green buildings. The emphasis is now shifting to the concept of people-centric design and productivity, health and wellbeing of occupants are gaining importance. This research was part of World Green Building Council’s initiative on 'Better Places for People' which aims to create a world where buildings support healthier and happier lives. The overarching objective of this study was to understand the perception of users living and working in green buildings. The study was conducted in twenty-five IGBC certified green buildings across India, and a comprehensive questionnaire was designed to capture occupant’s perception and experience in the built environment. The entire research focussed on the eight attributes of healthy buildings. The factors considered for the study include thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustic comfort, ergonomics, greenery, fitness, green transit and sanitation and hygiene. The occupant’s perception and experience were analysed to understand their satisfaction level. The macro level findings of the study indicate that green buildings have addressed attributes of healthy buildings to a larger extent. Few important findings of the study focussed on the parameters such as visual comfort, fitness, greenery, etc. The study indicated that occupants give tremendous importance to the attributes such as visual comfort, daylight, fitness, greenery, etc. 89% occupants were comfortable with the visual environment, on account of various lighting element incorporated as part of the design. Tremendous importance to fitness related activities is highlighted by the study. 84% occupants had actively utilised sports and meditation facilities provided in their facility. Further, 88% occupants had access to the ample greenery and felt connected to the natural biodiversity. This study aims to focus on the immense advantages gained by users occupying green buildings. This will empower green building movement to achieve new avenues to design and construct healthy buildings. The study will also support towards implementing human-centric measures and in turn, will go a long way in addressing people welfare and wellbeing in the built environment.
Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Using Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Extract and Its Application for Solar Cell
With an increasing awareness of green and clean energy, zinc oxide based solar cells were found to be suitable candidates for cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. In this work, we have reported the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) by thermal method and under microwave irradiation using the aqueous extract of tomatoes as non-toxic and ecofriendly reducing material. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), particle size analyser (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X- ray diffraction study (XRD). A series of ZnO nanocomposites with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared for photovoltaic application. Structural and morphological studies of these nanocomposites were carried out using UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and AFM. The current-voltage measurements of the nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.18% in case of ZnO/GO/TiO2 nanocomposite.
Designing a Pre-Assessment Tool to Support the Achievement of Green Building Certifications
The impact of common buildings on climate and environment has prompted people to get involved in the green building standards aimed at implementing rating tools or certifications. Thus, green building rating systems were introduced to the construction industry, and the demand for certified green buildings has increased gradually and succeeded considerably in enhancing people’s environmental awareness. However, the existing certification process has been unsatisfactory in attracting stakeholders and/or professionals who are actively engaged in adopting a rating system. It is because they have faced recurring barriers regarding limited information in understanding the rating process, time-consuming procedures and higher costs, which have a direct influence on pursuing green building rating systems. To promote the achievement of green building certifications within the building industry more successfully, this paper aims at designing a Pre-Assessment Tool (PAT) framework that can help stakeholders and/or professionals engaged in the construction industry to clarify their basic knowledge, timeframe and extra costs needed to activate a green building certification. First, taking the first steps towards the rating tool seems to be complicated because of upfront commitment to understanding the overall rating procedure is required. This conceptual PAT framework can increase basic knowledge of the rating tool and the certification process, mainly in terms of all resources or information of each credit requirements. Second, the assessment process of rating tools is generally known as a “lengthy and time-consuming system”, contributing to unenthusiastic reactions concerning green building projects. The proposed framework can predict the timeframe needed to identify how long it will take for a green project to process each credit requirement and the documentation required from the beginning of the certification process to final approval. Finally, most people often have the initial perception that pursuing green building certification costs more than constructing a non-green building, which makes it more difficult to execute rating tools. To overcome this issue, this PAT will help users to estimate the extra expenses such as certification fees and third-party contributions based on the track of the amount of time it takes to implement the rating tool throughout all the related stages. Also, it can prevent unexpected or hidden costs occurring in the process of assessment. Therefore, this proposed PAT framework can be recommended as an effective method to support the decision-making of inexperienced users and play an important role in promoting green building certification.
CFD Simulations to Study the Cooling Effects of Different Greening Modifications
The objective of this study is to conduct computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for evaluating the cooling efficacy from vegetation implanted in a public park in the Taipei, Taiwan. To probe the impacts of park renewal by means of adding three pavilions and supplementary green areas on urban microclimates, the simulated results have revealed that the park having a higher percentage of green coverage ratio (GCR) tended to experience a better cooling effect. These findings can be used to explore the effects of different greening modifications on urban environments for achieving an effective thermal comfort in urban public spaces.
Synthesis of Green Silver Nanoparticles with Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Its Characterization
Glycyrrhiza glabra grows in the sub- tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, in Mediterranean countries and China, America, Europe, Asia and Australia. It grows in areas with sunny, dry and hot climates. It has numerous medicinal properties like it is used to cure Peptic Ulcers, Canker sores, Eczema, Indigestion and Upper Respiratory Infections. Biosynthetic methods such as plant extract have emerged as a simple and viable alternative to more complex chemical synthetic procedures to obtain nanomaterials. Extract from plant may act both as reducing and capping agents in silver nanoparticles synthesis. In the present work, Green Silver nanoparticles were successfully formulated from bioreduction of silver nitrate solutions using Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. These Green Silver nanoparticles have been appropriately characterized using Visible spectroscopy, colour change. The Antimicrobial activity was done by Agar disc diffusion assay. AgNPs were developed by using aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The green synthetic method is a fast, low cost and eco-friendly process in the field of nanotechnology. The study revealed that the green-synthesized silver nanoparticle provides a promising approach for antimicrobial activity.
Comparison of Traditional and Green Building Designs in Egypt: Energy Saving
This paper describes in details a commercial green building that has been designed and constructed in Marsa Matrouh, Egypt. The balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment has been taken into consideration in the design and construction of this building. The building consists of one floor with 3 m height and 2810 m2 area while the envelope area is 1400 m2. The building construction fulfills the natural ventilation requirements. The glass curtain walls are about 50% of the building and the windows area is 300 m2. 6 mm greenish gray tinted temper glass as outer board lite, 6 mm safety glass as inner board lite and 16 mm thick dehydrated air spaces are used in the building. Visible light with 50% transmission, 0.26 solar factor, 0.67 shading coefficient and 1.3 W/m2.K thermal insulation U-value are implemented to realize the performance requirements. Optimum electrical distribution for lighting system, air conditions and other electrical loads has been carried out. Power and quantity of each type of the lighting system lamps and the energy consumption of the lighting system are investigated. The design of the air conditions system is based on summer and winter outdoor conditions. Ventilated, air conditioned spaces and fresh air rates are determined. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) is the air conditioning system used in this building. The VRF outdoor units are located on the roof of the building and connected to indoor units through refrigerant piping. Indoor units are distributed in all building zones through ducts and air outlets to ensure efficient air distribution. The green building energy consumption is evaluated monthly all over one year and compared with the consumed energy in the non-green conditions using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) model. The comparison results show that the total energy consumed per year in the green building is about 1,103,221 kWh while the non-green energy consumption is about 1,692,057 kWh. In other words, the green building total annual energy cost is reduced from 136,581 $ to 89,051 $. This means that, the energy saving and consequently the money-saving of this green construction is about 35%. In addition, 13 points are awarded by applying one of the most popular worldwide green energy certification programs (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design "LEED") as a rating system for the green construction. It is concluded that this green building ensures sustainability, saves energy and offers an optimum energy performance with minimum cost.
Fabrication of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)/Chitosan/Indocyanine Green Nanoprobe by Co-Axial Electrospinning Method for Early Detection
Early detection of cancer could save human life and quality in insidious cases by advanced biomedical imaging techniques. Designing targeted detection system is necessary in order to protect of healthy cells. Electrospun nanofibers are efficient and targetable nanocarriers which have important properties such as nanometric diameter, mechanical properties, elasticity, porosity and surface area to volume ratio. In the present study, indocyanine green (ICG) organic dye was stabilized and encapsulated in polymer matrix which polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan (CHI) multilayer nanofibers via co-axial electrospinning method at one step. The co-axial electrospun nanofibers were characterized as morphological (SEM), molecular (FT-IR), and entrapment efficiency of Indocyanine Green (ICG) (confocal imaging). Controlled release profile of PEO/CHI/ICG nanofiber was also evaluated up to 40 hours.
Accessibility Analysis of Urban Green Space in Zadar Settlement, Croatia
The accessibility of urban green spaces (UGS) is an integral element in the quality of life. Due to rapid urbanization, UGS studies have become a key element in urban planning. The potential benefits of space for its inhabitants are frequently analysed. A functional transport network system and the optimal spatial distribution of urban green surfaces are the prerequisites for maintaining the environmental equilibrium of the urban landscape. An accessibility analysis was conducted as part of the Urban Green Belts Project (UGB). The development of a GIS database for Zadar was the first step in generating the UGS accessibility indicator. Data were collected using the supervised classification method of multispectral LANDSAT images and manual vectorization of digital orthophoto images (DOF). An analysis of UGS accessibility according to the ANGst standard was conducted in the first phase of research. The accessibility indicator was generated on the basis of seven objective measurements, which included average UGS surface per capita and accessibility according to six functional levels of green surfaces. The generated indicator was compared with subjective measurements obtained by conducting a survey (718 respondents) within statistical units. The collected data reflected individual assessments and subjective evaluations of UGS accessibility. This study highlighted the importance of using objective and subjective measures in the process of understanding the accessibility of urban green surfaces. It may be concluded that when evaluating UGS accessibility, residents emphasize the immediate residential environment, ignoring higher UGS functional levels. It was also concluded that large areas of UGS within a city do not necessarily generate similar satisfaction with accessibility. The heterogeneity of output results may serve as guidelines for the further development of a functional UGS city network.
The Planning and Development of Green Public Places in Urban South Africa: A Child-Friendly Approach
The impact that urban green spaces have on sustainability and quality of life is phenomenal. This is also true for the local South African environment. However, in reality green spaces in urban environments are decreasing due to growing populations, increasing urbanization and development pressure. This further impacts on the provision of child-friendly spaces, a concept that is already limited in local context. Child-friendly spaces are described as environments in which people (children) feel intimately connected to, influencing the physical, social, emotional, and ecological health of individuals and communities. The benefits of providing such spaces for the youth are well documented in literature. This research therefore aimed to investigate the concept of child-friendly spaces and its applicability to the South African planning context, in order to guide the planning of such spaces for future communities and use. Child-friendly spaces in the urban environment of the city of Durban, was used as local case study, along with two international case studies namely Mullerpier public playground in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and Kadidjiny Park in Melville, Australia. The aim was to determine how these spaces were planned and developed and to identify tools that were used to accomplish the goal of providing successful child-friendly green spaces within urban areas. The need and significance of planning for such spaces was portrayed within the international case studies. It is confirmed that minimal provision is made for green space planning within the South African context, when there is reflected on the international examples. As a result international examples and disciples of providing child-friendly green spaces should direct planning guidelines within local context. The research concluded that child-friendly green spaces have a positive impact on the urban environment and assist in a child&rsquo;s development and interaction with the natural environment. Regrettably, the planning of these child-friendly spaces is not given priority within current spatial plans, despite the proven benefits of such.
Research on University Campus Green Renovation Design Method
Universities play important role for develop and distribute sustainable development ideas. This research based on the current situation of large and widely distributed university campuses in China. In view of the deterioration of campus performance, the aging of function and facilities, the large consumption of energy and resources, a logic of "problem-oriented-goal-oriented- At the level, taking the problem orientation as the focus,this paper analyzes the main influencing factors of the existing characteristics of the university campuses, establishes the digital assessment methods and clarifies the key points of the rennovation. Based on the goal orientation, this paper puts forward the existing university campus design principles, builds the green transformation-carding model and sets up the post-use evaluation model. In the end, with dual guidance as the constraint, we will formulate green design standards for campus greening, construct a greening enhancement measure for campus environment, and develop and promote a green campus after-use assessment platform. It provides useful research methods and research ideas for the reconstruction of the existing campus in China, especially the urban universities.
Green Synthesis and Photo Catalytic Activity of Monoclinic α-Bi2O3 Nanocrystals
Visible light driven monoclinic α-Bi2O3 photocatalyst was synthesized employing green synthesis method using rambutan peel wastes. 10 ml rambutan extract was added to 50 ml of 0.1M Bi(NO3)3 under stirring at about 80°C for 2 hours. The centrifuged and dried product was calcinated in a muffle furnace at 450°C to get pure α-Bi2O3. The characterized product photocatalytic activity was evaluated employing methyl orange (MeO) as model pollutant with 10 mg l-1 concentration at pH 7. The obtained product optical absorption edges located at 484 nm clearly revealed the photocatalyst excitation by visible light irradiation. The obtained yellow color photocatalyst accord with its strong absorption spectrum revealed the visible light absorption due to the band gap transition. The band gap energy of α-Bi2O3 was estimated to be 2.81 eV indicating the absorption of α-Bi2O3 in visible light region. The photocatalytic results of MeO degradation revealed that green synthesized Bi2O3 can effectively degrade 92% MeO within 240 min under visible light (>400 nm), which is slightly increased to that of chemically synthesized Bi2O3 (90%).
Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Industrial Waste Materials: Full Factorial Design
Dyes are widely used in industries such as textiles, paper, paints, leather, rubber, plastics, cosmetics, food, and drug etc, to color their products. Due to their chemical structures, dyes are resistant to fading on exposure to light, water and many chemicals and, therefore, are difficult to be decolorized once released into the aquatic environment. Many of the organic dyes are hazardous and may affect aquatic life and even the food chain. This study deals with the adsorption of malachite green dye onto fly ash and red mud. The effects of experimental factors (adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature) on the adsorption process were examined by using 24 full factorial design. The results were statistically analyzed by using the student’s t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an F-test to define important experimental factors and their levels. A regression model that considers the significant main and interaction effects was suggested. The results showed that initial dye concentration an pH is the most significant factor that affects the removal of malachite green.
Desert Houses of the Past: Green Buildings of Today
The weather in deserts is hot and dry in summers, and cold and dry in winters, and difference of temperature of nights and days sometimes reaches to 28°C. People of deserts have reached some solutions to cope with this climatic condition and to decrease its annoying features. Among these solutions are: constructing houses adjacent to each other, making tall walls, using mud brick and thatch cover, constructing domical arches, cellar, and wind catcher, which are together the devices to control the adversity of hot weather in summers and cold weather in winters. Using these solutions, the people of deserts have succeeded to make the best use with the least energy consumption, and to minimize the damage on the nature and environment, and in short, they are friends of the nature, which is a step toward the objectives of green buildings.
Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach
This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.
Mediating Role of Social Responsibility on the Relationship between Consumer Awareness of Green Marketing and Purchase Intentions
This research aims to examine the influence of mediating effect of corporate social responsibility on the relationship between consumer awareness of green marketing and purchase intentions in the retail setting. Data from 200 valid questionnaires was analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) approach for the analysis of structural equation models with SmartPLS computer program version 2.0 as research data does not necessarily have a multivariate normal distribution and is less sensitive to sample size than other covariance approaches. PLS results revealed that corporate social responsibility partially mediated the link between consumer awareness of green marketing and purchase intentions of the product in the retail setting. Marketing managers should allocate a sufficient portion of their budget to appropriate corporate social responsibility activities by engaging in voluntary programs for positive return on investment leading to increased business profitability and long run business sustainability. The outcomes of the mediating effects of corporate social responsibility add a new impetus to the growing literature and preceding discoveries on consumer green marketing awareness, which is inadequately researched in the Malaysian setting. Direction for future research is also presented.
Assessment of Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Water Management
Green infrastructure (GI) offers a contemporary approach for reducing the risk of flooding, improve water quality, and harvesting stormwater for sustainable use. GI promotes landscape planning to enhance sustainable development and urban resilience. However, the existing literature is lacking in ensuring the comprehensive assessment of GI performance in terms of ecosystem function and services for social, ecological, and economical system resilience. We propose a robust indicator set and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) for quantitative and qualitative analysis for sustainable water management to assess the capacity of urban resilience. Green infrastructure in urban resilience water management system (GIUR-WMS) supports decision-making for GI planning through scenario comparisons with urban resilience capacity index. To demonstrate the GIUR-WMS, we develop five scenarios for five sectors of Chandigarh (12, 26, 14, 17, and 34) to test common type of GI (rain barrel, rain gardens, detention basins, porous pavements, and open spaces). The result shows the open spaces achieve the highest green infrastructure urban resilience index of 4.22/5. To implement the open space scenario in urban sites, suitable vacant can be converted to green spaces (example: forest, low impact recreation areas, and detention basins) GIUR-WMS is easy to replicate, customize and apply to cities of different sizes to assess environmental, social and ecological dimensions.
India’s Energy System Transition, Survival of the Greenest
The transition to a clean and green energy system is an economic and social transformation that is exciting as well as challenging. The world today faces a formidable challenge in transforming its economy from being driven primarily by fossil fuels, which are non-renewable and a major source of global pollution, to becoming an economy that can function effectively using renewable energy sources and by achieving high energy efficiency levels. In the present study, a green economy scenario is developed for India using a bottom-up approach. The results show that the penetration rate of renewable energy resources will reduce the total primary energy demand by 23% under GE. Improvements in energy efficiency (e.g. households, industrial and commercial sectors) will result in reduced demand to the tune of 318 MTOE. The volume of energy-related CO2 emissions decline to 2,218 Mt in 2030 from 3,440 under the BAU scenario and the per capita emissions will reduce by about 35% (from 2.22 to 1.45) under the GE scenario. The reduction in fossil fuel demand and focus on clean energy will reduce the energy intensity to 0.21 (TOE/US$ of GDP) and carbon intensity to 0.42 (ton/US$ of GDP) under the GE scenario. total import bill (coal and oil) will amount to US$ 334 billion by 2030 (at 2010/11 prices), but as per the GE scenario, it would be US$ 194.2 billion, a saving of about US$ 140 billion. The building of a green energy economy can also serve another purpose: to develop new ‘pathways out of poverty’ by creating more than 10 million jobs and thus raise the standard of living of low-income people. The differences between the baseline and green energy scenarios are not so much the consequence of the diffusion of various technologies. It is the result of the active roles of different actors and the drivers that become dominant.
Quest for an Efficient Green Multifunctional Agent for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles with Highly Specified Structural Properties
The development of energy efficient, economic and eco-friendly synthetic protocols for metal nanoparticles (NPs) with tailor-made structural properties and biocompatibility is a highly cherished goal for researchers working in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this context, green chemistry is highly relevant and the 12 principles of Green Chemistry can be explored to develop such synthetic protocols which are practically implementable. One of the most promising green chemical synthetic methods which can serve the purpose is biogenic synthetic protocol, which utilizes non-toxic multifunctional reactants derived from natural, biological sources ranging from unicellular organisms to higher plants that are often characterized as “medicinal plants”. Over the past few years, a plethora of medicinal plants have been explored as the source of this kind of multifunctional green chemical agents. In this presentation, we focus on the syntheses of stable monometallic Au and Ag NPs and also bimetallic Au/Ag alloy NPs with highly efficient catalytic property using aqueous extract of leaves of Indian Curry leaf plat (Murraya koenigii Spreng.; Fam. Rutaceae) as green multifunctional agents which is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine and cuisine. We have also studied the interaction between the synthesized metal NPs and surface-adsorbed fluorescent moieties, quercetin and quercetin glycoside which are its chemical constituents. This helped us to understand the surface property of the metal NPs synthesized by this plant based biogenic route and to predict a plausible mechanistic pathway which may help in fine-tuning green chemical methods for the controlled synthesis of various metal NPs in future. We observed that simple experimental parameters e.g. pH and temperature of the reaction medium, concentration of multifunctional agent and precursor metal ions play important role in the biogenic synthesis of Au NPs with finely tuned structures.
Steady State Charge Transport in Quantum Dots: Nonequilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) vs. Single Electron Analysis
In this paper, we present a quantum transport study of a quantum dot in steady state in the presence of static gate potential. We consider a quantum dot coupled to the two metallic leads. The quantum dot under study is modeled through Anderson Impurity Model (AIM) with hopping parameter modulated through voltage drop between leads and the central dot region. Based on the Landauer's formula derived from Nonequilibrium Green's Function and Single Electron Theory, the essential ingredients of transport properties are revealed. We show that the results out of two approaches closely agree with each other. We demonstrate that Landauer current response derived from single electron approach converges with non-zero interaction through gate potential whereas Landauer current response derived from Nonequilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) hits a pole.
Millennials' Viewpoints about Sustainable Hotels' Practices in Egypt: Promoting Responsible Consumerism
Millennials are a distinctive and dominant consumer group whose behavior, preferences and purchase decisions are broadly explored but not fully understood yet. Making up the largest market segment in the world, and in Egypt, they have the power to reinvent the hospitality industry and contribute to forming prospective demand for green hotels by showing willingness to adopting their environmental-friendly practices. The current study aims to enhance better understanding of Millennials&#39; perception about sustainable initiatives and to increase the prediction power of their intentions regarding green hotel practices in Egypt. In doing so, the study is exploring the relation among different factors; Millennials&#39; environmental awareness, their acceptance of green practices and their willingness to pay more for them. Millennials&#39; profile, their preferences and environmental decision-making process are brought under light to stimulate actions of hospitality decision-makers and hoteliers. Bearing in mind that responsible consumerism is depending on understanding the different influences on consumption. The study questionnaire was composed of four sections and it was distributed to random Egyptian travelers&#39; blogs and Facebook groups, with approximately 8000 members. Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to examine the study variables. The findings indicated that Millennials&#39; environmental awareness will not be a significant factor in their acceptance of hotel green practices, as well as, their willingness to pay more for them. However, Millennials&#39; acceptance of the level of hotel green practices will have an impact on their willingness to pay more. Millennials were found to have a noticeable level of environmental awareness but lack commitment to tolerating hotel green practices and their associated high prices.