Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62548

131
92297
The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches
Abstract:
There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.
130
17569
A Numerical Study of Force-Based Boundary Conditions in Multiparticle Collision Dynamics
Abstract:
We propose a new alternative method for imposing fluid-solid boundary conditions in simulations of Multiparticle Collision Dynamics. Our method is based on the introduction of an explicit potential force acting between the fluid particles and a surface representing a solid boundary. We show that our method can be used in simulations of plane Poiseuille flows. Important quantities characterizing the flow and the fluid-solid interaction like the slip coefficient at the solid boundary and the effective viscosity of the fluid, are measured in terms of the set of independent parameters defining the numerical implementation. We find that our method can be used to simulate the correct hydrodynamic flow within a wide range of values of these parameters.
129
1658
Genetic Parameters as Indicators of Sustainability and Diversity of Schinus terebinthifolius Populations in the Riparian Area of the São Francisco River
Abstract:
There is growing interest in defining indicators of sustainability, which are important for monitoring the conservation of native forests, particularly in areas of permanent protection. These indicators are references for assessing the state of the forest and the status of the depredated area and its ability to maintain species populations. The aim of the present study was to select genetic parameters as indicators of sustainability for Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Fragments located in riparian areas between the Sergipe and Alagoas States in Brazil. This species has been exploited for traditional communities, which represent 20% of the incoming. This study was carried out using the indicators suggested by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which were identified as Driving-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) factors. The genetic parameters were obtained in five populations located on the shores and islands of the São Francisco River, one of the most important rivers in Brazil. The framework for Schinus conservation suggests seventeen indicators of sustainability. In accordance with genetic parameters, the populations are isolated, and these genetic parameters can be used to monitor the sustainability of those populations in riparian area with the aim of defining strategies for forest restoration.
128
44849
Neuromarketing: Discovering the Somathyc Marker in the Consumer´s Brain
Abstract:
The present study explains the somatic marker theory of Antonio Damasio, which indicates that when making a decision, the stored or possible future scenarios (future memory) images allow people to feel for a moment what would happen when they make a choice, and how this is emotionally marked. This process can be conscious or unconscious. The development of new Neuromarketing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), carries a greater understanding of how the brain functions and consumer behavior. In the results observed in different studies using fMRI, the evidence suggests that the somatic marker and future memories influence the decision-making process, adding a positive or negative emotional component to the options. This would mean that all decisions would involve a present emotional component, with a rational cost-benefit analysis that can be performed later.
127
24806
The Coexistence of Quality Practices and Frozen Concept in R and D Projects
Abstract:
In R&D projects, there is no doubt about the need to change a current concept to an alternative one over time (i.e., concept leaping). Concept leaping is required since with most R&D projects uncertainty is present as they take place in dynamic environments. Despite the importance of concept leaping when needed, R&D teams may fail to do so (i.e., frozen concept). This research suggests a possible reason why frozen concept happens in the framework of quality engineering and control engineering. We suggest that frozen concept occurs since concept determines the derived plan and its implementation may be considered as equivalent to a closed-loop process, and is subject to the problem of not recognizing gaps as failures. We suggest that although implementing quality practices into an R&D project’s routine has many advantages, it intensifies the frozen concept problem since working according to quality practices relates to exploitation of learning behavior, while leaping to a new concept relates to exploring learning behavior.
126
7919
Material Failure Process Simulation by Improved Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities
Abstract:
This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface. To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.
125
35518
Early Modern Controversies of Mobility within the Spanish Empire: Francisco De Vitoria and the Peaceful Right to Travel
Abstract:
In his public lecture ‘On the American Indians’ given at the University of Salamanca in 1538-39, Francisco de Vitoria presented an unsettling defense of freedom of movement, arguing that the Spanish had the right to travel and dwell in the New World, since it was considered part of the law of nations [ius gentium] that men enjoyed free mutual intercourse anywhere they went. The principle of freedom of movement brought hopeful expectations, promising to bring mankind together and strengthen the ties of fraternity. However, it led to polemical situations when those whose mobility was in question represented a harmful threat or was for some reason undesired. In this context, Vitoria’s argument has been seen on multiple occasions as a justification of the expansion of the Spanish empire. In order to examine the meaning of Vitoria’s defense of free mobility, a more detailed look at Vitoria’s text is required, together with the study of some of his earliest works, among them, his commentaries on Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae, where he presented relevant insights on the idea of the law of nations. In addition, it is necessary to place Vitoria’s work in the context of the intellectual tradition he belonged to and the responses he obtained from some of his contemporaries who were concerned with similar issues. The claim of this research is that the Spanish right to travel advocated by Vitoria was not intended to be interpreted in absolute terms, for it had to serve the purpose of bringing peace and unity among men, and could not contradict natural law. In addition, Vitoria explicitly observed that the right to travel was only valid if the Spaniards caused no harm, a condition that has been underestimated by his critics. Therefore, Vitoria’s legacy is of enormous value as it initiated a long lasting discussion regarding the question of the grounds under which human mobility could be restricted. Again, under Vitoria’s argument it was clear that this freedom was not absolute, but the controversial nature of his defense of Spanish mobility demonstrates how difficult it was and still is to address the issue of the circulation of peoples across frontiers, and shows the significance of this discussion in today’s globalized world, where the rights and wrongs of notions like immigration, international trade or foreign intervention still lack sufficient consensus. This inquiry about Vitoria’s defense of the principle of freedom of movement is being placed here against the background of the history of political thought, political theory, international law, and international relations, following the methodological framework of contextual history of the ‘Cambridge School’.
124
51159
Degradation of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride, Methyl Salicylate and 2-Phenoxyethanol in Water Systems by the Combination UV/Cl2
Abstract:
Three emerging contaminants (amitriptyline hydrochloride, methyl salicylate and 2-phenoxyethanol) frequently found in waste-waters were selected to be individually degraded in ultra-pure water by the combined advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation and chlorine. The influence of pH, initial chlorine concentration and nature of the contaminants was firstly explored. The trend for the reactivity of the selected compounds was deduced: amitriptyline hydrochloride > methyl salicylate > 2-phenoxyethanol. A later kinetic study was carried out and focused on the specific evaluation of the first-order rate constants and the determination of the partial contribution to the global reaction of the direct photochemical pathway and the radical pathway. A comparison between the rate constant values among photochemical experiments without and with the presence of Cl2 reveals a clear increase in the oxidation efficiency of the combined process with respect to the photochemical reaction alone. In a second stage, the simultaneous oxidation of mixtures of the selected contaminants in several types of water (ultrapure water, surface water from a reservoir, and two secondary effluents) was also performed by the same combination UV/Cl2 under more realistic operating conditions. The efficiency of this combined system UV/Cl2 was compared to other oxidants such as the UV/S2O82- and UV/H2O2 AOPs. Results confirmed that the UV/Cl2 system provides higher elimination efficiencies among the AOPs tested.
123
11667
Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer
Abstract:
Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.
122
17548
San Francisco Public Utilities Commission Headquarters "The Greenest Urban Building in the United States"
Authors:
Abstract:
San Francisco Public Utilities Commission’s Headquarters was listed in the 2013-American Institute of Architects Committee of the Environment (AIA COTE) Top Ten Green Projects. This 13-story, 277,000-square-foot building, housing more than 900 of the agency’s employees was completed in June 2012. It was designed to achieve LEED Platinum Certification and boasts a plethora of green features to significantly reduce the use of energy and water consumption, and provide a healthy office work environment with high interior air quality and natural daylight. Key sustainability features include on-site clean energy generation through renewable photovoltaic and wind sources providing $118 million in energy cost savings over 75 years; 45 percent daylight harvesting; and the consumption of 55 percent less energy and a 32 percent less electricity demand from the main power grid. It uses 60 percent less water usage than an average 13-story office building as most of that water will be recycled for non-potable uses at the site, running through a system of underground tanks and artificial wetlands that cleans and clarifies whatever is flushed down toilets or washed down drains. This is one of the first buildings in the nation with treatment of gray and black water. The building utilizes an innovative structural system with post tensioned cores that will provide the highest asset preservation for the building. In addition, the building uses a “green” concrete mixture that releases less carbon gases. As a public utility commission this building has set a good example for resource conservation-the building is expected to be cheaper to operate and maintain as time goes on and will have saved rate-payers $500 million in energy and water savings. Within the anticipated 100-year lifespan of the building, our ratepayers will save approximately $3.7 billion through the combination of rental savings, energy efficiencies, and asset ownership.
121
70814
A Model for Operating Rooms Scheduling
Abstract:
This paper presents a mathematical model in binary variables 0/1 to make the assignment of surgical procedures to the operating rooms in a hospital. The proposed mathematical model is based on the generalized assignment problem, which maximizes the sum of preferences for the use of the operating rooms by doctors, respecting the time available in each room. The corresponding program was written in Visual Basic of Microsoft Excel, and tested to schedule surgeries at St. Lydia Hospital in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.
120
38247
PWM Harmonic Injection and Frequency-Modulated Triangular Carrier to Improve the Lives of the Transformers
Abstract:
More and more applications power inverters connected to transformers, for example, the connection facilities to the power grid renewable generation. It is well known that the quality of signal power inverters it is not a pure sine. The harmonic content produced negative effects, one of which is the heating of electrical machines and therefore, affects the life of the machines. The decrease of life of transformers can be calculated by Arrhenius or Montsinger equation. Analyzing this expression any (long-term) decrease of a transformer temperature for 6º C - 7º C means doubles its life-expectancy. Methodologies: This work presents the technique of pulse width modulation (PWM) with an injection of harmonic and triangular frequency carrier modulated in frequency. This technique is used to improve the quality of the output voltage signal of the power inverters controlled PWM. The proposed technique increases in the fundamental term and a significant reduction in low order harmonics with the same commutations per time that control sine PWM. To achieve this, the modulating wave is compared to a triangular carrier with variable frequency over the period of the modulator. Therefore, it is, advantageous for the modulating signal to have a large amount of sinusoidal “information” in the areas of greater sampling. A triangular signal with a frequency that varies over the modulator’s period is used as a carrier, for obtaining more samples in the area with the greatest slope. A power inverter controlled by PWM proposed technique is connected to a transformer. Results: In order to verify the derived thermal parameters under different operation conditions, another ambient and loading scenario is involved for a further verification, which was sampled from the same power transformer. Temperatures of different parts of the transformer will be exposed for each PWM control technique analyzed. An assessment of the temperature be done with different techniques PWM control and hence the life of the transformer is calculated for each technique. Conclusion: This paper analyzes such as transformer heating produced by this technique and compared with other forms of PWM control. In it can be seen as a reduction the harmonic content produces less heat transformer and therefore, an increase in the life of the transformer.
119
46888
Design of a New Vegetable Snack
Abstract:
Nowadays, food intake is becoming more irregular due to changes in family organization and lifestyle. Snacking is part of the day-to-day lives of people, however, most of the snacks have a high saturated fat, salt and refined sugar content; these dietary factors are believed to have negative health consequences. For this reason, there has been an increase in consumer demand for healthy, natural and convenient foods, so the development of a significant portion of new products focuses on improving the nutritional value of food snacks through modification its nutritional composition. In this paper, a new product made from vegetables has been designed. This new product would be an ideal food format to include ingredients with positive health benefits.
118
40718
Use of a Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) to Correlate with Parasitemia Levels in T. cruzi/HIV Co-Infected Patients
Abstract:
Early diagnosis of reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV patients could be lifesaving; however, in Latin American the diagnosis is performed by detection of parasitemia by microscopy which lacks sensitivity. To evaluate if levels of T. cruzi antigens in urine determined by Chunap (Chagas urine nanoparticle test) are correlated with parasitemia levels in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients. T. cruzi antigens in urine of HIV patients (N=55: 31 T. cruzi infected and 24 T. cruzi serology negative) were concentrated using hydrogel particles and quantified by Western Blot and a calibration curve. The percentage of Chagas positive patients determined by Chunap compared to blood microscopy, qPCR, and ELISA was 100% (6/6), 95% (18/19) and 74% (23/31), respectively. Chunap specificity was 91.7%. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a direct relationship between parasitemia levels (determined by qPCR) and urine T. cruzi antigen concentrations (p< 0.001). A cut-off of > 105 pg was chosen to determine patients with reactivation of Chagas disease (6/6). Urine antigen concentration was significantly higher among patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 200/mL (p=0.045). Chunap shows potential for early detection of reactivation and with appropriate adaptation can be used for monitoring Chagas disease status in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients.
117
17544
The Effect of Outliers on the Economic and Social Survey on Income and Living Conditions
Abstract:
The European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is a popular survey which provides information on income, poverty, social exclusion and living conditions of households and individuals in the European Union. The EUSILC contains variables which may contain outliers. The presence of outliers can have an impact on the measures and indicators used by the EU-SILC. In this paper, we used data sets from various countries to analyze the presence of outliers. In addition, we obtain some indicators after removing these outliers, and a comparison between both situations can be observed. Finally, some conclusions are obtained.
116
14168
Port Governance in Santos, Brazil: A Qualitative Approach
Abstract:
Given the importance of ports as links in the global supply chains and because they are key elements to induce competitiveness in their hinterlands, the number of studies devoted to port governance, management and operations has increased in the last decades. Some of these studies address the port governance model as an element to improve coordination among the actors of the port logistics chain and to generate a better port performance. In this context, the present study analyzes the governance of Port of Santos through individual interviews with port managers, based on a conceptual model that considers the key dimensions associated with port governance. The results reinforce the usefulness of the applied model and highlight some existing improvement opportunities in the port studied.
115
43751
A Proposal for Systematic Mapping Study of Software Security Testing, Verification and Validation
Abstract:
Software vulnerabilities are increasing and not only impact services and processes availability as well as information confidentiality, integrity and privacy, but also cause changes that interfere in the development process. Security test could be a solution to reduce vulnerabilities. However, the variety of test techniques with the lack of real case studies of applying tests focusing on software development life cycle compromise its effective use. This paper offers an overview of how a Systematic Mapping Study (MS) about security verification, validation and test (VVT) was performed, besides presenting general results about this study.
114
58742
The Validity of a Literature Review Rubric in the Ecuadorian Context
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of a literature review rubric in the Ecuadorian context at the graduate level. The sample was composed of 73 students of the online and on-site study format in the years 2015-2016. The instrument has 20 items (α=0.974) ranked in a 5-point Likert scale with six dimensions. The validity analysis was made by experts´ criterion. Findings evidenced that there is no significance difference between grades based on the study formats and that women write better than men. Furthermore, the students lacked to describe the limitation of their research and are good in writing: the research topic of the abstract, the conclusion in terms of the research objective and the citation norms (APA).
113
7876
On Estimating the Headcount Index by Using the Logistic Regression Estimator
Abstract:
The problem of estimating a proportion has important applications in the field of economics, and in general, in many areas such as social sciences. A common application in economics is the estimation of the headcount index. In this paper, we define the general headcount index as a proportion. Furthermore, we introduce a new quantitative method for estimating the headcount index. In particular, we suggest to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the headcount index. Assuming a real data set, results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the traditional estimator of the headcount index.
112
41312
Educational Robotics with Easy Implementation and Low Cost
Abstract:
This article deals with the influence of technology in education showing educational robotics as pedagogical method of solution for knowledge building. We are proposing the development and implementation of four robot models that can be used for teaching purposes involving the areas of mechatronics, mechanics, electronics and computing, making it efficient for learning other sciences and theories. One of the main reasons for application of the developed educational kits is its low cost, allowing its applicability to a greater number of educational institutions. The technology will add to education dissemination of knowledge by means of experiments in such a way that the pedagogical robotics promotes understanding, practice, solution and criticism about classroom challenges. We also present the relationship between education, science, technology and society through educational robotics, treated as an incentive to technological careers.
111
14125
Effect of the Accelerated Carbonation in Fibercement Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Pulp and Nanofibrillated Cellulose
Abstract:
The main purpose of this work was verify the influence of the accelerated carbonation in the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites, reinforced with micro and nanofibers and composites with microfibers. The composites were produced by the slurry vacuum dewatering method, followed by pressing. It was produced using two formulations: 8% of eucalyptus pulp + 1% of the nanofibrillated cellulose and 9% of eucalyptus pulp, both were subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results showed that the accelerated carbonation contributed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites and of the composites reinforced with microfibers (eucalyptus pulp).
110
13519
An Analysis of Motorcycle Accidents in Spain (2006-2011)
Abstract:
Motorcycles constitute about 9% of all motorized vehicles in Spain and are generally overrepresented in traffic accidents, accounting for 21% of total accidents. Six years of motorcycle accident data were obtained through the national accident database of Spain (Dirección General de Tráfico). Some of the studied factors are age, gender, helmet wearing, alcohol consumption, speeding, subject’s driving license and for how long it has been held, the trip purpose, and the presence of a passenger on the vehicle. Key findings show helmet use, unsafe speed, the trip purpose, weather, distraction, collision type and other variables play significant roles in crash-injury outcomes. Finally, we examine evolution of mortality and severity from 2006 to 2011.
109
53076
Augmented Reality and Storytelling in Cities: An Application to Lisbon Street Art
Abstract:
Cities are spaces of memory with several zones (parts of cities) with their own history and cultural events. Today, cities are also marked by a form of intangible cultural heritage like street art, which creates a visual culture based on the process of reflection about the city and the world. To link these realities and create a personal user interaction with this cultural heritage it is important to capture the story and aesthetics, and find alternatives to immerse the user in these spaces of memory. To that end, this article presents a project which combines Augmented Reality technologies and concepts of Transmedia Storytelling applied to Lisbon City, using Street Art artifacts as markers in a framework of digital media-art.
108
18989
Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test
Abstract:
The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use since it could be considered a potential risk in a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for research aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant products produced by a Brazilian industry. Tests were performed on plywood panels of Pinus spp previously immersed, varying the products concentrations and compared with untreated samples. The test used to evaluate the flame spread in a panel was the modified Schlyter test. The product in question was proved efficient, before and after shutting off the burner. Comparing panels with the panels without treatment, there was a decrease of 400% of the height of the flame spread on the treated ones.
107
19429
A Comparison between Empirical and Theoretical OC Curves Related to Acceptance Sampling for Attributes
Abstract:
Many companies use the technique named as acceptance sampling which consists on the inspection and decision making regarding products. According to the results derived from this method, the company takes the decision of acceptance or rejection of a product. The acceptance sampling can be applied to the technology management, since the acceptance sampling can be seen as a tool to improve the design planning, operation and control of technological products. The theoretical operating characteristic (OC) curves are widely used when dealing with acceptance sampling. In this paper, we carry out Monte Carlo simulation studies to compare numerically the empirical OC curves derived from the empirical results to the customary theoretical OC curves. We analyze various possible scenarios in such a way that the differences between the empirical and theoretical curves can be observed under different situations.
106
71531
Comparison of Equivalent Linear and Non-Linear Site Response Model Performance in Kathmandu Valley
Abstract:
Evaluation of ground response under earthquake shaking is crucial in geotechnical earthquake engineering. Damage due to seismic excitation is mainly correlated to local geological and geotechnical conditions. It is evident from the past earthquakes (e.g. 1906 San Francisco, USA, 1923 Kanto, Japan) that the local geology has strong influence on amplitude and duration of ground motions. Since then significant studies has been conducted on ground motion amplification revealing the importance of influence of local geology on ground. Observations from the damaging earthquakes (e.g. Nigata and San Francisco, 1964; Irpinia, 1980; Mexico, 1985; Kobe, 1995; L’Aquila, 2009) divulged that non-uniform damage pattern, particularly in soft fluvio-lacustrine deposit is due to the local amplification of seismic ground motion. Non-uniform damage patterns are also observed in Kathmandu Valley during 1934 Bihar Nepal earthquake and recent 2015 Gorkha earthquake seemingly due to the modification of earthquake ground motion parameters. In this study, site effects resulting from amplification of soft soil in Kathmandu are presented. A large amount of subsoil data was collected and used for defining the appropriate subsoil model for the Kathamandu valley. A comparative study of one-dimensional total-stress equivalent linear and non-linear site response is performed using four strong ground motions for six sites of Kathmandu valley. In general, one-dimensional (1D) site-response analysis involves the excitation of a soil profile using the horizontal component and calculating the response at individual soil layers. In the present study, both equivalent linear and non-linear site response analyses were conducted using the computer program DEEPSOIL. The results show that there is no significant deviation between equivalent linear and non-linear site response models until the maximum strain reaches to 0.06-0.1%. Overall, it is clearly observed from the results that non-linear site response model perform better as compared to equivalent linear model. However, the significant deviation between two models is resulted from other influencing factors such as assumptions made in 1D site response, lack of accurate values of shear wave velocity and nonlinear properties of the soil deposit. The results are also presented in terms of amplification factors which are predicted to be around four times more in case of non-linear analysis as compared to equivalent linear analysis. Hence, the nonlinear behavior of soil prevails the urgent need of study of dynamic characteristics of the soft soil deposit that can specifically represent the site-specific design spectra for the Kathmandu valley for building resilient structures from future damaging earthquakes.
105
25484
Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam
Abstract:
In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.
104
81816
The Role of the Returned Migration in the Regional Economic Growth
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between return migration in Ecuador and economic growth. The improvement of macroeconomic conditions in Latin America, starting in 2012, makes the region a new migratory destination, in both senses in north-south and south-south flows. Current studies highlight only the role of the entrepreneurial migrant in generating employment and economic growth in the region. Nevertheless, it has not been considered that not all migrants are entrepreneurs and that not all entrepreneurs contribute to economic growth. This research compares the socioeconomic and labor characteristics of migrant returnees working as freelancers in Ecuador. The principal aim is to demystify the role of migrant entrepreneurs in regional growth and to identify socioeconomic characteristics that can enhance growth. A panel econometric model was used, which is part of the information from labor and macroeconomic surveys.
103
61200
An Electromechanical Device to Use in Road Pavements to Convert Vehicles Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy
Abstract:
With the growing need for alternative energy sources, research into energy harvesting technologies has increased considerably in recent years. The particular case of energy harvesting on road pavements is a very recent area of research, with different technologies having been developed in recent years. However, none of them have presented high conversion efficiencies nor technical or economic viability. This paper deals with the development of a mechanical system to implement on a road pavement energy harvesting electromechanical device, to transmit energy from the device surface to an electrical generator. The main goal is to quantify the energy harvesting, transmission and conversion efficiency of the proposed system and compare it with existing systems. Conclusions about the system’s efficiency are presented.
102
62462
Topological Quantum Diffeomorphisms in Field Theory and the Spectrum of the Space-Time
Abstract:
Through the Fukaya conjecture and the wrapped Floer cohomology, the correspondences between paths in a loop space and states of a wrapping space of states in a Hamiltonian space (the ramification of field in this case is the connection to the operator that goes from TM to T*M) are demonstrated where these last states are corresponding to bosonic extensions of a spectrum of the space-time or direct image of the functor Spec, on space-time. This establishes a distinguished diffeomorphism defined by the mapping from the corresponding loops space to wrapping category of the Floer cohomology complex which furthermore relates in certain proportion D-branes (certain D-modules) with strings. This also gives to place to certain conjecture that establishes equivalences between moduli spaces that can be consigned in a moduli identity taking as space-time the Hitchin moduli space on G, whose dual can be expressed by a factor of a bosonic moduli spaces.
101
86915
Reliving Historical Events Using Augmented Reality Techniques
Abstract:
The arrival of the age of information and new technologies allowed humanity to see what the future has in store, but occasionally it also brings the opportunity to look through a window to the past, an opportunity to relive history. This paper introduces a prototype of a digital system that lets us peek into our past making use of augmented reality technologies. A 3D scene will be modeled and animated based on an old image, depicting an event of historical significance. From this scene, a video will be rendered, recreating the events that were taking place at the time. Also, a smartphone app will be created. This app will detect the original image with the smartphone’s camera, overlay the rendered video so that it fully covers it and track the detected image, so that the overlaying video can keep covering the image. The recreation of Alicante’s Central Market bombing during the Spanish Civil War is presented as a case study.
100
63793
Effects of Array Electrode Placement on Identifying Localised Muscle Fatigue
Abstract:
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is utilised in numerous studies on muscle activity. In the beginning, single electrodes were utilised; however, the newest approach is to use an array of electrodes or a grid of electrodes to improve the accuracy of the recorded reading. This research focuses on electrode placement on the biceps brachii, using an array of electrodes placed longitudinal and diagonally on the muscle belly. Trials were conducted on four healthy males, with sEMG signal acquisition from fatiguing isometric contractions. The signal was analysed using the power spectrum density. The separation between the two classes of fatigue (non-fatigue and fatigue) was calculated using the Davies-Bouldin Index (DBI). Results show that higher separability between the fatigue content of the sEMG signal when placed longitudinally, in the same direction as the muscle fibers.
99
42442
Economic Design of a Quality Control Chart for the Proportion of Defective Items
Abstract:
Many companies use the statistical tool named as statistical quality control, and which can have a high cost for the companies interested on these statistical tools. The evaluation of the quality of products and services is an important topic, but the reduction of the cost of the implantation of the statistical quality control also has important benefits for the companies. For this reason, it is important to implement a economic design for the various steps included into the statistical quality control. In this paper, we describe some relevant aspects related to the economic design of a quality control chart for the proportion of defective items. They are very important because the suggested issues can reduce the cost of implementing a quality control chart for the proportion of defective items. Note that the main purpose of this chart is to evaluate and control the proportion of defective items of a production process.
98
14167
Port Governance Model by International Freight Forwarders’ Point of View: A Study at Port of Santos - Brazil
Abstract:
Due to the importance of ports to trade and economic development of the regions in which they are inserted, in recent decades the number of studies devoted to this subject has increased. Part of these studies consider the ports as business agglomerations and focuses on port governance. This is an important approach since the port performance is the result of activities performed by actors belonging to the port-logistics chain, which need to be properly coordinated. This coordination takes place through a port governance model. Given this context, this study aims to analyze the governance model of the port of Santos from the perspective of port customers. To do this, a closed-ended questionnaire based on a conceptual model that considers the key dimensions associated with port governance was applied to the international freight forwarders that operate in the port. The results show the applicability of the considered model and highlight improvement opportunities to be implemented at the port of Santos.
97
51372
Rumen Epithelium Development of Bovine Fetuses and Newborn Calves
Abstract:
The ruminant stomach is a complex and multi-chambered organ. Although the true stomach (abomasum) is fully differentiated and functional at birth, the same does not occur with the rumen chamber. At this moment, rumen papillae are small or nonexistent. The papillae only fully develop after weaning and during calf growth. Papillae development and ruminal epithelium specialization during the fetus growth and at birth must be two interdependent processes that will prepare the rumen to adapt to ruminant adult feeding. The microscopic study of rumen epithelium at these early phases of life is important to understand how this structure prepares the rumen to deal with the following weaning processes and its functional activation. Samples of ruminal mucosa of bovine fetuses (110- and 150 day-old) and newborn calves were collected (dorsal and ventral portions) and processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The basal cell layer of the stratified pavimentous epithelium present in different ruminal portions of the fetuses was thicker than the same portions of newborn calves. The superficial and intermediate epithelial layers of 150 day-old fetuses were thicker than those found in the other 2 studied ages. At this age (150 days), dermal papillae begin to invade the intermediate epithelial layer which gradually disappears in newborn calves. At birth, the ruminal papillae project from the epithelial surface, probably by regression of the epithelial cells (transitory cells) surrounding the dermal papillae. The PCNA cell proliferation index (%) was calculated for all epithelial samples. Fetuses 150 day-old showed increased cell proliferation in basal cell layer (Dorsal Portion: 84.2%; Ventral Portion: 89.8%) compared to other ages studied. Newborn calves showed an intermediate index (Dorsal Portion: 65.1%; Ventral Portion: 48.9%), whereas 110 day-old fetuses had the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.2%; Ventral Portion: 20.6%). Regarding the transitory epithelium, 110 day-old fetuses showed the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 44.6%; Ventral Portion: 20.1%), 150 day-old fetuses showed an intermediate proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.5%; Ventral Portion: 71.1%) and newborn calves presented a higher proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 75.1%; Ventral Portion: 19.6%). Under TEM, the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses presented thicker and poorly organized basal cell layer, with large nuclei and dense cytoplasm. In newborn calves, the basal cell layer was more organized and with fewer layers, but typically similar in both regions of the rumen. For the transitory epithelium, fetuses displayed larger cells than those found in newborn calves with less electrondense cytoplasm than that found in the basal cells. The ruminal dorsal portion has an overall higher cell proliferation rate than the ventral portion. Thus we can infer that the dorsal portion may have a higher cell activity than the ventral portion during ruminal development. Moreover, the basal cell layer is thicker in the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses than in the newborn calves. The transitory epithelium, which is much reduced, at birth may have a structural support function of the developing dermal papillae. When it regresses or is sheared off, the papillae are “carved out” from the surrounding epithelial layer.
96
126691
A Geometrical Method for the Smoluchowski Equation on the Sphere
Abstract:
We devise a numerical algorithm to simulate the diffusion of a Brownian particle restricted to the surface of a three-dimensional sphere when the particle is under the effects of an external potential that is coupled linearly. It is obtained using elementary geometry, yet, it converges, in the weak sense, to the solutions to the Smoluchowski equation. Rotations on the sphere, which are the analogs of linear displacements in euclidean spaces, are calculated using algebraic operations and then by a proper scaling, which makes the algorithm efficient and quite simple, especially to what may be the short-time propagator approach. Our findings prove that the global effects of curvature are taken into account in both dynamic and stationary processes, and it is not restricted to work in configuration space, neither restricted to the overdamped limit. We have generalized it successfully to simulate the Kramers or the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, where it is necessary to work directly in phase space, and it may be adapted to other two dimensional surfaces with non-constant curvature.
95
59954
Number Sense Proficiency and Problem Solving Performance of Grade Seven Students
Abstract:
This study aims to determine and describe the existing relationship between number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance of grade seven students from Victorino Mapa High School, Manila. A paper pencil exam containing of 50-item number sense test and 5-item problem-solving test which measures their number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance adapted from McIntosh, Reys, and Bana were used as the research instruments. The data obtained from this study were interpreted and analyzed using the Pearson – Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation to determine the relationship between the two variables. It was found out that students who were low in number sense proficiency tend to be the students with poor problem-solving performance and students with medium number sense proficiency are most likely to have an average problem-solving performance. Likewise, students with high number sense proficiency are those who do excellently in problem-solving performance.
94
73918
A Neural Network Classifier for Identifying Duplicate Image Entries in Real-Estate Databases
Abstract:
A Deep Convolution Neural Network with Triplet Loss is used to identify duplicate images in real-estate advertisements in the presence of image artifacts such as watermarking, cropping, hue/brightness adjustment, and others. The effects of batch normalization, spatial dropout, and various convergence methodologies on the resulting detection accuracy are discussed. For comparative Return-on-Investment study (per industry request), end-2-end performance is benchmarked on both Nvidia Titan GPUs and Intel’s Xeon CPUs. A new real-estate dataset from San Francisco Bay Area is used for this work. Sufficient duplicate detection accuracy is achieved to supplement other database-grounded methods of duplicate removal. The implemented method is used in a Proof-of-Concept project in the real-estate industry.
93
106011
Tribological Characterization of Composites Based on Epoxy Resin Filled with Tailings of Scheelite
Abstract:
The use of mineral fillers in the preparation of organic matrix composites can be an efficient alternative in minimizing the environmental damage generated in passive mineral beneficiation processes. In addition, it may represent a new material option for wind, construction, and aeronautical industries, for example. In this sense, epoxy resin composites with Tailings of Scheelite (TS) were developed. The composites were manufactured with 5%, 10% and 20% of TS in volume percentage, homogenized by mechanical mixing and molded in a silicon mold. In order to make the tribological evaluation, pin on disk tests were performed to analyze coefficient of friction and wear. The wear mechanisms were identified by SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. The coefficient of friction had a tendency to decrease with increasing amount of filler. The wear tends to increase with increasing amount of filler, although it exhibits a similar wear behavior. The results suggest characteristics that are potential used in many tribological applications.
92
36535
Breeding Performance and Egg Quality of Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus Gallus L.) Mated with Native Hens (Gallus galus domesticus) in Selected Areas of Leyte under Confinement System
Abstract:
This study was conducted to assess the breeding performance and egg quality traits of Red Jungle Fowls in selected areas of Leyte mated to Native hens under confinement system. A total of six Red Jungle Fowl roosters, two native roosters and 16 native hens were randomly assigned to four treatments with eight replications; each composed of one rooster and two hens randomly laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design set up. Result on egg weight showed highly significant difference at p< 0.01 and revealed heaviest weight (39.0 g) and lightest weight (35.75 g) on Native x Native and Baybay RJF x Native, respectively. While comparable number of eggs per clutch, fertility and hatchability rates, yolk and albumen weights, shell weight, egg length and width, egg shape index and yolk color score were obtained.
91
61681
Architectural Design Studio (ADS) as an Operational Synthesis in Architectural Education
Abstract:
Who is responsible for teaching architecture; consider various ways to participate in learning, manipulating various pedagogical tools to streamline the creative process. The Architectural Design Studio (ADS) should become a holistic, systemic process responding to the complexity of our world. This essay corresponds to a deep reflection developed by the author on the teaching of architecture. The outcomes achieved are the corollary of experimentation; discussion and application of pedagogical methods that allowed consolidate the creativity applied by students. The purpose is to show the conjectures that have been considered effective in creating an intellectual environment that nurtures the subject of Architectural Design Studio (ADS), as an operational synthesis in the final stage of the degree. These assumptions, which are part of the proposed model, displaying theories and teaching methodologies that try to respect the learning process based on student learning styles Kolb, ensuring their latent specificities and formulating the structure of the ASD discipline. In addition, the assessing methods are proposed, which consider the architectural Design Studio as an operational synthesis in the teaching of architecture.
90
70130
Iridium-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Glycerol Aqueous-Phase Reforming
Abstract:
Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production that can be used for aqueous-phase reforming to obtain hydrogen. Iridium is a material that has high activity and hydrogen selectivity for steam phase reforming. Nevertheless, a drawback for the use of iridium in aqueous-phase reforming is the low activity in water-gas shift reaction. Therefore, in this work, it is proposed the use of nickel and copper as a second metal in the catalyst to reach a synergetic effect. Iridium, iridium-nickel and iridium-copper catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and evaluated in the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol using CeO₂ or La₂O₃ as support. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, and EDX. The reactions were carried out in a fixed bed reactor feeding a solution of glycerol 10 wt% in water at 270°C, and reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that IrNi/CeO₂ reached highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen production, slightly above 70% and 43 vol% respectively. In terms of conversion, iridium is a promising metal, and its activity for hydrogen production can be enhanced when adding a second metal.
89
45360
Wind Comfort and Safety of People in the Vicinity of Tall Buildings
Abstract:
Tall buildings block and divert strong upper level winds to the ground. These high velocity winds many a time create adverse wind effects at ground level which can be uncomfortable and even compromise the safety of pedestrians and people who frequent the spaces in the vicinity of tall buildings. Discomfort can be experienced around the entrances and corners of tall buildings. Activities such as strolling or sitting in a park, waiting for a bus near a tall building can become highly unpleasant. For the elderly unpleasant conditions can also become dangerous leading to accidents and injuries. Today there is a growing concern among architects, planners and urban designers about the wind environment in the vicinity of tall building. Regulating authorities insist on wind tunnel testing of tall buildings in cities such as Wellington, Auckland, Boston, San Francisco, etc. prior to granting permission for their construction The present paper examines the different ways that tall buildings can induce strong winds at pedestrian level and their impact on people who frequent the spaces around tall buildings.
88
31152
Exposing The Invisible
Abstract:
According to the Council on Tall Buildings, there has been a rapid increase in the construction of tall or “megatall” buildings over the past two decades. Simultaneously, the New England Journal of Medicine has reported that there has been a steady increase in climate related natural disasters since the 1970s; the eastern expansion of the USA's infamous Tornado Alley being just one of many current issues. In the future, this could mean that tall buildings, which already guide high speed winds down to pedestrian levels would have to withstand stronger forces and protect pedestrians in more extreme ways. Although many projects are required to be verified within wind tunnels and a handful of cities such as San Francisco have included wind testing within building code standards, there are still many examples where wind is only considered for basic loading. This typically results in and an increase of structural expense and unwanted mitigation strategies that are proposed late within a project. When building cities, architects rarely consider how each building alters the invisible patterns of wind and how these alterations effect other areas in different ways later on. It is not until these forces move, overpower and even destroy cities that people take notice. For example, towers have caused winds to blow objects into people (Walkie-Talkie Tower, Leeds, England), cause building parts to vibrate and produce loud humming noises (Beetham Tower, Manchester), caused wind tunnels in streets as well as many other issues. Alternatively, there exist towers which have used their form to naturally draw in air and ventilate entire facilities in order to eliminate the needs for costly HVAC systems (The Met, Thailand) and used their form to increase wind speeds to generate electricity (Bahrain Tower, Dubai). Wind and weather exist and effect all parts of the world in ways such as: Science, health, war, infrastructure, catastrophes, tourism, shopping, media and materials. Working in partnership with a leading wind engineering company RWDI, a series of tests, images and animations documenting discovered interactions of different building forms with wind will be collected to emphasize the possibilities for wind use to architects. A site within San Francisco (due to its increasing tower development, consistently wind conditions and existing strict wind comfort criteria) will host a final design. Iterations of this design will be tested within the wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamic systems which will expose, utilize and manipulate wind flows to create new forms, technologies and experiences. Ultimately, this thesis aims to question the amount which the environment is allowed to permeate building enclosures, uncover new programmatic possibilities for wind in buildings, and push the boundaries of working with the wind to ensure the development and safety of future cities. This investigation will improve and expand upon the traditional understanding of wind in order to give architects, wind engineers as well as the general public the ability to broaden their scope in order to productively utilize this living phenomenon that everyone constantly feels but cannot see.
87
22579
Street Art Lenses: A Glimpse into the Street Artists’ Identity and Socio-Political Perspective in Brussels
Abstract:
This paper is meant to re-examine the role of street art in the contemporary world. By studying this form of art in Brussels, it can be explained how murals show the socio-political reality of a given community and influence on its interaction. Through the definitions of street art, murals and street artists, and analysing their role in Brussels, it is possible to understand how this counter culture movement serves as an engine of social development, as it interacts with its surroundings sending a clear message to a wider audience. Street art impacts on its environment because it interacts with the people who occupies the day-to-day public space. This has proven to be effective in the arouse of social consciousness, up to the point of being adopted by the government of Brussels to promote social movements such as the AIDS-HIV campaign along with the Plate-Forme Prévention Sida. It can be concluded that street art has evolved since its vandalic beginnings, to become a form of art that has not lost it counter official status, but now has a critical vision that can promote social awakening. Street art is now a global trend that uses visual inputs to create a positive impact.
86
50848
Overall Student Satisfaction at Tabor School of Education: An Examination of Key Factors Based on the AUSSE SEQ
Abstract:
This paper focuses particularly on the educational aspects that contribute to the overall educational satisfaction rated by Tabor School of Education students who participated in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE) conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in 2010, 2012 and 2013. In all three years of participation, Tabor ranked first especially in the area of overall student satisfaction. By using a single level path analysis in relation to the AUSSE datasets collected using the Student Engagement Questionnaire (SEQ) for Tabor School of Education, seven aspects that contribute to overall student satisfaction have been identified. There appears to be a direct causal link between aspects of the Supportive Learning Environment, Work Integrated Learning, Career Readiness, Academic Challenge, and overall educational satisfaction levels. A further three aspects, being Student and Staff Interactions, Active Learning, and Enriching Educational Experiences, indirectly influence overall educational satisfaction levels.
85
18173
Batch Biodrying of Pulp and Paper Secondary Sludge: Influence of Initial Moisture Content on the Process
Abstract:
Biodrying aims at removing water from biowastes and has been mostly studied for municipal solid wastes (MSW), while few studies have dealt with secondary sludge from the paper and pulp industry. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of initial moisture content (MC) on the batch biodrying of pulp and paper secondary sludge, using rice husks as bulking agents. Three initial MCs were studied (54, 65, and 74% w.b.) in closed batch laboratory-scale reactors under adiabatic conditions and with a constant air-flow rate (0.65 l min-1 kg-1 wet solid). The initial MC of the mixture of secondary sludge and rice husks showed a significant effect on the biodrying process. Using initial moisture content between 54-65% w.b., the solid moisture content was reduce up to 37 % w.b. in ten days, getting calorific values between 8000-9000 kJ kg-1. It was concluded that a decreasing of initial MC improves the drying rate and decreases the solid volatile consumption, therefore, the optimization of biodrying should consider this parameter.
84
98121
Kant’s Conception of Human Dignity and the Importance of Singularity within Commonality
Abstract:
Kant&rsquo;s household theory of human dignity as a common feature of all rational beings is the starting point of any intellectual endeavor to unravel the implications of this normative notion. Yet, it is incomplete, as it neglects considering the importance of the singularity or uniqueness of the individual. In a first, deconstructive stage, this paper describes the Kantian account of human dignity as one among many conceptions of human dignity. It reads carefully into the original wording used by Kant in German and its English translations, as well as the works of modern commentators, to identify its shortcomings. In a second, constructive stage, it then draws on the theories of Aristotle, Alexis de Tocqueville, John Stuart Mill, and Hannah Arendt to try and enhance the Kantian conception, in the sense that these authors give major importance to the singularity of the individual. The Kantian theory can be perfected by including elements from the works of these authors, while at the same time being mindful of the dangers entailed in focusing too much on singularity. The conclusion of this paper is that the Kantian conception of human dignity can be enhanced if it acknowledges that not only morality has dignity, but also the irreplaceable human individual to the extent that she is a narrative, original creature with the potential to act morally.
83
99907
School Autonomy in the United Kingdom: A Correlational Study Applied to English Principals
Abstract:
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in school autonomy in the United Kingdom and its impact on students' outcomes. English principals have a pivotal role in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to explore the correlation between the type of school (public or private) and the considerable responsibilities of English principals which participated in PISA 2015. The final sample consisted of 419 principals. Descriptive data (percentages and means) were generated for the variables related to professional autonomy. Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine if there is an association between the type of school and principals' responsibilities for relevant tasks. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 22. Findings suggest a significant correlation between the type of school and principals' responsibility for firing teachers and formulating the school budget. This study confirms that the type of school is not associated with principals' responsibility for choosing which textbooks are used at school. The present study establishes a quantitative framework for defining four models of professional autonomy and some proposals to improve school autonomy in the United Kingdom.
82
32274
Influence of Cure Degree in GO and CNT-Epoxy Nanocomposites
Abstract:
In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene oxide (GO), especially the functionalized ones, have been added to epoxy resin in order to increase the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites. However, it's still unknown how the presence of these nanoparticles influences the curing process and the final mechanical properties as well. In this work, kinetic and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed, where the kinetic process was followed by DSC and the mechanical properties by DMA. Initially, CNT was annealed at high temperature (1800 °C) under vacuum atmosphere, followed by a chemical treatment using acids and ethylenediamine. GO was synthesized through chemical route, washed clean, dried and ground to #200. The presence of functional groups on CNT and GO surface was confirmed by XPS spectra and FT-IR. Then, epoxy resin, nanoparticles and acetone were mixed by sonication in order to obtain the composites. DSC analyses were performed on samples with different curing cycles (1h 80°C + 2h 120°C; 3h 80°C + 2h 120°C; 5h 80°C) and samples with different times at constant temperature (120°C). Results showed that the kinetic process and the mechanical strength are very dependent on the presence of graphene and functionalized-CNT in the nanocomposites.
81
37912
D6tions: A Serious Game to Learn Software Engineering Process and Design
Abstract:
The software engineering teaching process has been the subject of many studies. To improve this process, researchers have proposed merely illustrative techniques in the classroom, such as topic presentations and dynamics between students on one side or attempts to involve students in real projects with companies and institutions to bring them to a real software development problem on the other hand. Simulators and serious games have been used as auxiliary tools to introduce students to topics that are too abstract when these are presented in the traditional way. Most of these tools cover a limited area of the huge software engineering scope. To address this problem, we have developed D6tions, an educational serious game that simulates the software engineering process and is designed to experiment the different stages a software engineer (playing roles as project leader or as a developer or designer) goes through, while participating in a software project. We describe previous approaches to this problem, how D6tions was designed, its rules, directions, and the results we obtained of the use of this game involving undergraduate students playing the game.
80
96468
Methodology for Developing an Intelligent Tutoring System Based on Marzano’s Taxonomy
Abstract:
The Mexican educational system faces diverse challenges related with the quality and coverage of education. The development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) may help to solve some of them by helping teachers to customize their classes according to the performance of the students in online courses. In this work, we propose the adaptation of a functional ITS based on Bloom&rsquo;s taxonomy called Sistema de Apoyo Generalizado para la Ense&ntilde;anza Individualizada (SAGE), to measure student&rsquo;s metacognition and their emotional response based on Marzano&rsquo;s taxonomy. The students and the system will share the control over the advance in the course, so they can improve their metacognitive skills. The system will not allow students to get access to subjects not mastered yet. The interaction between the system and the student will be implemented through Natural Language Processing techniques, thus avoiding the use of sensors to evaluate student&rsquo;s response. The teacher will evaluate student&rsquo;s knowledge utilization, which is equivalent to the last cognitive level in Marzano&rsquo;s taxonomy.
79
38035
Understanding Evolutionary Algorithms through Interactive Graphical Applications
Abstract:
It is very common to observe, especially in Computer Science studies that students have difficulties to correctly understand how some mechanisms based on Artificial Intelligence work. In addition, the scope and limitations of most of these mechanisms are usually presented by professors only in a theoretical way, which does not help students to understand them adequately. In this work, we focus on the problems found when teaching Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), which imitate the principles of natural evolution, as a method to solve parameter optimization problems. Although this kind of algorithms can be very powerful to solve relatively complex problems, students often have difficulties to understand how they work, and how to apply them to solve problems in real cases. In this paper, we present two interactive graphical applications which have been specially designed with the aim of making Evolutionary Algorithms easy to be understood by students. Specifically, we present: (i) TSPS, an application able to solve the "Traveling Salesman Problem", and (ii) FotEvol, an application able to reconstruct a given image by using Evolution Strategies. The main objective is that students learn how these techniques can be implemented, and the great possibilities they offer.
78
61936
Self-Efficacy and Self-Worth of Elderly in Geriatric Institutions
Abstract:
Old age is a record of one’s own life; this is the crucial phase for most. However, there are individuals who believe that old people retain self-efficacy and self-worth throughout their existence. Geriatric institutions focus on the health of elderly, in which they have been supported with medicines and therapies by clinician thus, indicating that these may suffice physical, emotional, and mental health of the elderly. This study focuses on (1) Describing the level or degree of self-efficacy; (2) Recognizing the extent of self-worth; (3) Determining the significant relationship between self-efficacy and self-worth. It is a mixed method design. A combination of correlational research and in-depth interview. Purposive sampling technique was used to select participants, considering that this assay focused on elderly in geriatric institutions, it follows that respondents and participants are at least sixty years of age and must be living inside the institution. 121 senior citizens took part in this study. Scores from both General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) showed varying levels of self-efficacy and self-worth. SE had μ=28.099, σ=6.6262, σ²=43.9067 while; SW had μ=14.9669, σ=5.3789, σ²28.9322 which denotes that rₒbₜ (121)=0.3164 is higher than rcᵢₜ which is 0.150. Although this exhibits the positive moderate correlation between SE and SW, the relationship between variables is weak. Likewise, the pᵥₐₗᵤₑ (pᵥₐₗᵤₑ=0.000406) is lower than the significance level alpha=0.01, thus, rejecting the null hypothesis, and accepting the alternative hypothesis.
77
109816
A Statistical Approach to Air Pollution in Mexico City and It's Impacts on Well-Being
Abstract:
In recent years, Mexico City has presented high levels of atmospheric pollution; the city is also an example of inequality and poverty that impact metropolitan areas around the world. This combination of social and economic exclusion, coupled with high levels of pollution evidence the loss of well-being among the population. The effect of air pollution on quality of life is an area of study that has been overlooked. The purpose of this study is to find relations between air quality and quality of life in Mexico City through statistical analysis of a regression model and principal component analysis of several atmospheric contaminants (CO, NO₂, ozone, particulate matter, SO₂) and well-being indexes (HDI, poverty, inequality, life expectancy and health care index). The data correspond to official information (INEGI, SEDEMA, and CEPAL) for 2000-2018. Preliminary results show that the Human Development Index (HDI) is affected by the impacts of pollution, and its indicators are reduced in the presence of contaminants. It is necessary to promote a strong interest in this issue in Mexico City. Otherwise, the problem will not only remain but will worsen affecting those who have less and the population well-being in a generalized way.
76
28284
Deproteination and Demineralization of Shrimp Waste Using Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Crude Chitin and Chitosan
Abstract:
Deproteination and demineralization efficiencies of shrimp waste using two Lactobacillus species treated with different carbohydrate sources for chitin production, its chemical conversion to chitosan and the quality of chitin and chitosan produced were determined. Using 5% glucose and 5% cassava starch as carbohydrate sources, pH slightly increased from the initial pH of 6.0 to 6.8 and 7.2, respectively after 24 h and maintained their pH at 6.7 to 7.3 throughout the treatment period. Demineralization (%) in 5 % glucose and 5 % cassava was highest during the first day of treatment which was 82% and 83%, respectively. Deproteination (%) was highest in 5% cassava starch on the 3rd day of treatment at 84.4%. The obtained chitin from 5% cassava and 5% glucose had a residual ash and protein below 1% and solubility of 59% and 44.3%, respectively. Chitosan produced from 5% cassava and 5% glucose had protein content below 0.05%; residual ash was 1.1% and 0.8%, respectively. Chitosan solubility and degree of deacetylation were 56% and 33% in 5% glucose and 48% and 29% in 5% cassava, respectively. The advantage this alternative technology offers over that of chemical extraction is large reduction in chemicals needed thus less effluent production and generation of a protein-rich liquor, although the demineralization process should be improved to achieve greater degree of deacetylation.
75
14475
Molecular Detection of mRNA bcr-abl and Circulating Leukemic Stem Cells CD34+ in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Its Association with Clinical Parameters
Abstract:
Leukemia arises by molecular alterations of the normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transforming it into a leukemic stem cell (LSC) with high cell proliferation, self-renewal, and cell differentiation. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) originates from an LSC-leading to elevated proliferation of myeloid cells and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) originates from an LSC development leading to elevated proliferation of lymphoid cells. In both cases, LSC can be identified by multicolor flow cytometry using several antibodies. However, to date, LSC levels in peripheral blood (PB) are not established well enough in ALL and CML patients. On the other hand, the detection of the minimal residue disease (MRD) in leukemia is mainly based on the identification of the mRNA bcr-abl gene in CML patients and some other genes in ALL patients. There is no a properly biomarker to detect MDR in both types of leukemia. The objective of this study was to determine mRNA bcr-abl and the percentage of LSC in peripheral blood of patients with CML and ALL and identify a possible association between the amount of LSC in PB and clinical data. We included in this study 19 patients with Leukemia. A PB sample was collected per patient and leukocytes were obtained by Ficoll gradient. The immunophenotype for LSC CD34+ was done by flow cytometry analysis with CD33, CD2, CD14, CD16, CD64, HLA-DR, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD10, CD20, CD34, CD38, CD71, CD90, CD117, CD123 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, to identify the presence of the mRNA bcr-abl by RT-PCR, the RNA was isolated using TRIZOL reagent. Molecular (presence of mRNA bcr-abl and LSC CD34+) and clinical results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis was performed to determine statistically significant association. In total, 19 patients (8 patients with ALL and 11 patients with CML) were analyzed, 9 patients with de novo leukemia (ALL = 6 and CML = 3) and 10 under treatment (ALL = 5 and CML = 5). The overall frequency of mRNA bcr-abl was 31% (6/19), and it was negative in ALL patients and positive in 80% in CML patients. On the other hand, LSC was determined in 16/19 leukemia patients (%LSC= 0.02-17.3). The Novo patients had higher percentage of LSC (0.26 to 17.3%) than patients under treatment (0 to 5.93%). The amount of LSC was significantly associated with the amount of LSC were: absence of treatment, the absence of splenomegaly, and a lower number of leukocytes, negative association for the clinical variables age, sex, blasts, and mRNA bcr-abl. In conclusion, patients with de novo leukemia had a higher percentage of circulating LSC than patients under treatment, and it was associated with clinical parameters as lack of treatment, absence of splenomegaly and a lower number of leukocytes. The mRNA bcr-abl detection was only possible in the series of patients with CML, and molecular detection of LSC could be identified in the peripheral blood of all leukemia patients, we believe the identification of circulating LSC may be used as biomarker for the detection of the MRD in leukemia patients.
74
38753
Microstructural Characterization of Bitumen/Montmorillonite/Isocyanate Composites by Atomic Force Microscopy
Abstract:
Asphaltic bitumen has been largely used in both industrial and civil engineering, mostly in pavement construction and roofing membrane manufacture. However, bitumen as such is greatly susceptible to temperature variations, and dramatically changes its in-service behavior from a viscoelastic liquid, at medium-high temperatures, to a brittle solid at low temperatures. Bitumen modification prevents these problems and imparts improved performance. Isocyanates like polymeric MDI (mixture of 4,4′-diphenylmethane di-isocyanate, 2,4’ and 2,2’ isomers, and higher homologues) have shown to remarkably enhance bitumen properties at the highest in-service temperatures expected. This comes from the reaction between the –NCO pendant groups of the oligomer and the most polar groups of asphaltenes and resins in bitumen. In addition, oxygen diffusion and/or UV radiation may provoke bitumen hardening and ageing. With the purpose of minimizing these effects, nano-layered-silicates (nanoclays) are increasingly being added to bitumen formulations. Montmorillonites, a type of naturally occurring mineral, may produce a nanometer scale dispersion which improves bitumen thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. In order to increase their lipophilicity, these nanoclays are normally treated so that organic cations substitute the inorganic cations located in their intergallery spacing. In the present work, the combined effect of polymeric MDI and the commercial montmorillonite Cloisite® 20A was evaluated. A selected bitumen with penetration within the range 160/220 was modified with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and 2 wt.% polymeric MDI, and the resulting ternary composites were characterized by linear rheology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The rheological tests evidenced a notable solid-like behavior at the highest temperatures studied when bitumen was just loaded with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and high-shear blended for 20 minutes. However, if polymeric MDI was involved, the sequence of addition exerted a decisive control on the linear rheology of the final ternary composites. Hence, in bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the previous solid-like behavior disappeared. By contrast, an inversion in the order of addition (bitumen/polymeric MDI/ Cloisite® 20A) enhanced further the solid-like behavior imparted by the nanoclay. In order to gain a better understanding of the factors that govern the linear rheology of these ternary composites, a morphological and microstructural characterization based on XRD and AFM was conducted. XRD demonstrated the existence of clay stacks intercalated by bitumen molecules to some degree. However, the XRD technique cannot provide detailed information on the extent of nanoclay delamination, unless the entire fraction has effectively been fully delaminated (situation in which no peak is observed). Furthermore, XRD was unable to provide precise knowledge neither about the spatial distribution of the intercalated/exfoliated platelets nor about the presence of other structures at larger length scales. In contrast, AFM proved its power at providing conclusive information on the morphology of the composites at the nanometer scale and at revealing the structural modification that yielded the rheological properties observed. It was concluded that high-shear blending brought about a nanoclay-reinforced network. As for the bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the solid-like behavior was destroyed as a result of the agglomeration of the nanoclay platelets promoted by chemical reactions.
73
95344
Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing Classification Using the Bag of Visual Words Model to Land Cover Studies
Abstract:
Classification of high resolution polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images plays an important role in land cover and land use management. Recently, classification algorithms based on Bag of Visual Words (BOVW) model have attracted significant interest among scholars and researchers in and out of the field of remote sensing. In this paper, BOVW model with pixel based low-level features has been implemented to classify a subset of San Francisco bay PolSAR image, acquired by RADARSAR 2 in C-band. We have used segment-based decision-making strategy and compared the result with the result of traditional Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. 90.95% overall accuracy of the classification with the proposed algorithm has shown that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the state-of-the-art methods. In addition to increase in the classification accuracy, the proposed method has decreased undesirable speckle effect of SAR images.
72
71329
Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran
Abstract:
The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.
71
42890
Optimizing Resource Allocation and Indoor Location Using Bluetooth Low Energy
Abstract:
The recent tendency of "Internet of Things" (IoT) has developed in the last years, causing the emergence of innovative communication methods among multiple devices. The appearance of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has allowed a push to IoT in relation to smartphones. In this moment, a set of new applications related to several topics like entertainment and advertisement has begun to be developed but not much has been done till now to take advantage of the potential that these technologies can offer on many business areas and in everyday tasks. In the present work, the application of BLE technology and smartphones is proposed on some business areas related to the optimization of resource allocation in huge facilities like airports. An indoor location system has been developed through triangulation methods with the use of BLE beacons. The described system can be used to locate all employees inside the building in such a way that any task can be automatically assigned to a group of employees. It should be noted that this system cannot only be used to link needs with employees according to distances, but it also takes into account other factors like occupation level or category. In addition, it has been endowed with a security system to manage business and personnel sensitive data. The efficiency of communications is another essential characteristic that has been taken into account in this work.
70
11772
Development of Biotechnological Emulsion Based on Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil: A Preliminary Study
Abstract:
This study aimed to obtain emulsion systems based on bullfrog oil (BO). The BO was extracted at 80ºC and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The critical Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLBc) Assay of the BO was performed through BO, Tween® 20, Span® 80 and deionized water mixtures using an Ultra-Turrax® and determined using dynamic light scattering, pH, electrical conductivity and creaming rate. Then, a pseudoternary phase diagram (PPD) was constructed by water titration. The GC/MS analysis of BO suggested Methyl Oleate (9.26%) as major compound. The HLBc was 12.1, wherein the correspondent emulsion showed a pH of 4.83±1.29, electrical conductivity of 103.65 µS, creaming rate of 2.51±0.54%, droplet size of 207.07±8.31 nm and polydispersity index of 0.212±0.005. The PPD showed different formulations characterized as O/W emulsions. Thus, the PPD proved to be a useful tool to produce BO emulsions, in which their constituents may vary within the range of the desired system.
69
97666
Rural Tourism as a Development Strategy in Communities of the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro
Abstract:
The article shows the pressing conditions of marginalization prevailing in the Sierra Gorda, in the northern state of Queretaro, so it is essential to identify business options that generate a complementary source of income in a sustainable manner, in accordance with the fact that the area is a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. In this sense, the study identifies the enormous scenic richness of the area, the growing demand for leisure activities of the urban centers and the multifunctionality that adds, in a complementary way, the traditional activities that up to now have achieved the quality of life levels. From the application of the 43 interviews and 183 surveys, confirms the fact that the post-visit perception exceeds the expectations of the visitors emerges and affirms that the image that has been projected is attractive and timely. In order to understand how the current model of tourism promoted in the region is working, there is a need to evaluate it in a theoretical-methodological framework considering sustainable development assumptions. In order to determine the degree of contribution to business development, strengthening of social capital, and enjoyment and appreciation of cultural and natural heritage in the region.
68
108009
Estimating PM2.5 Concentrations Based on Landsat 8 Imagery and Historical Field Data over the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City
Abstract:
High concentrations of particulate matter in the atmosphere pose a threat to human health, especially over areas with high concentrations of population; however, field air pollution monitoring is expensive and time-consuming. In order to achieve reduced costs and global coverage of the whole urban area, remote sensing can be used. This study evaluates PM2.5 concentrations, over the Mexico City´s metropolitan area, are estimated using atmospheric reflectance from LANDSAT 8, satellite imagery and historical PM2.5 measurements of the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network of Mexico City (RAMA). Through the processing of the available satellite images, a preliminary model was generated to evaluate the optimal bands for the generation of the final model for Mexico City. Work on the final model continues with the results of the preliminary model. It was found that infrared bands have helped to model in other cities, but the effectiveness that these bands could provide for the geographic and climatic conditions of Mexico City is still being evaluated.
67
29498
Multi-Criteria Inventory Classification Process Based on Logical Analysis of Data
Abstract:
Although inventories are considered as stocks of money sitting on shelve, they are needed in order to secure a constant and continuous production. Therefore, companies need to have control over the amount of inventory in order to find the balance between excessive and shortage of inventory. The classification of items according to certain criteria such as the price, the usage rate and the lead time before arrival allows any company to concentrate its investment in inventory according to certain ranking or priority of items. This makes the decision making process for inventory management easier and more justifiable. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the classification of new items based on the already existing criteria. This approach is called the Logical Analysis of Data (LAD). It is used in this paper to assist the process of ABC items classification based on multiple criteria. LAD is a data mining technique based on Boolean theory that is used for pattern recognition. This technique has been tested in medicine, industry, credit risk analysis, and engineering with remarkable results. An application on ABC inventory classification is presented for the first time, and the results are compared with those obtained when using the well-known AHP technique and the ANN technique. The results show that LAD presented very good classification accuracy.
66
85685
Induced Thermo-Osmotic Convection for Heat and Mass Transfer
Abstract:
Consideration is given to a mechanism of heat and mass transport in solutions similar than that of natural convection but with one important difference. Here the mechanism is not promoted by density differences in the fluid occurring due to temperature gradients (coefficient of thermal expansion) but rather by solubility differences due to the thermal dependence of the solubility (coefficient of thermal solubility). Utilizing a simplified physical model, it is shown that by the proper choice of the concentration of a given solution, convection might be induced by the alternating precipitation of the solute -when the solution becomes supersaturated, and its posterior recombination when changes in temperature occurs. The spontaneous change in the Gibbs free energy during the mixing is the driven force for the mechanism. The maximum extractable energy from this new type of thermal convection was derived. Experimental data from a closed-loop circuit was obtained demonstrating the feasibility for continuous separation and recombination of the solution. This type of heat and mass transport -which doesn’t depend on gravity, might potentially be interesting for heat and mass transport downwards (as in solar-roof collectors to inside homes), horizontal (e.g., microelectronic applications), and in microgravity (space technology). Also, because the coefficient of thermal solubility could be positive or negative, the investigated thermo-osmosis convection can be used either for heating or cooling.
65
81793
The Other Dreamers: A Study of the Relationship between Returned Migration and Entrepreneurship
Abstract:
The links between migration and development have been widely written and analyzed from different perspectives. However, the nexus between entrepreneurship and migration is of recent interest. The different studies related to this have focused on the ventures of ethnic enclaves, or on transnational businesses, which link the community of origin and destination. Beyond this perspective, this work analyzes the return migration, (a few studies until now, but forming part of a theoretical body of migration). As a result of the European crisis started between 2007-2008. Many Ecuadorians who lived in Europe, decided to return to their place of origin. The rise of the price of the oil and commodities presented a better panorama in Ecuador than in Europe. Faced with the magnitude of returnees, the opportunities for entrepreneurship in Ecuador increased (Accumulation of human capital, social capital, learned skills and capital). Thus there is an interest in the possibility of returned migrants in the country to start a business in their place of origin. The following study is the result of this. A survey of 110 returned migrants was carried out in the south of Ecuador and, using a Probit econometric model, we determined that the variables specified as geographic area, sex, education level are not significant, so they are not determinant when undertaking. However, time abroad and skills learned, if they were significant at the time of the decision to start a business.
64
2712
Design of Seismically Resistant Tree-Branching Steel Frames Using Theory and Design Guides for Eccentrically Braced Frames
Abstract:
The International Building Code (IBC) and the California Building Code (CBC) both recognize four basic types of steel seismic resistant frames; moment frames, concentrically braced frames, shear walls and eccentrically braced frames. Based on specified geometries and detailing, the seismic performance of these steel frames is well understood. In 2011, the authors designed an innovative steel braced frame system with tapering members in the general shape of a branching tree as a seismic retrofit solution to an existing four story “lift-slab” building. Located in the seismically active San Francisco Bay Area of California, a frame of this configuration, not covered by the governing codes, would typically require model or full scale testing to obtain jurisdiction approval. This paper describes how the theories, protocols, and code requirements of eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) were employed to satisfy the 2009 International Building Code (IBC) and the 2010 California Building Code (CBC) for seismically resistant steel frames and permit construction of these nonconforming geometries.
63
26958
Study on the DC Linear Stepper Motor to Industrial Applications
Abstract:
Many industrial processes require a precise linear motion. Usually, this movement is achieved with the use of rotary motors combined with electrical control systems and mechanical systems such as gears, pulleys and bearings. Other types of devices are based on linear motors, where the linear motion is obtained directly. The Linear Stepper Motor (MLP) is an excellent solution for industrial applications that require precise positioning and high speed. This study presents an MLP formed by a linear structure and static ferromagnetic material, and a mover structure in which three coils are mounted. Mechanical suspension systems allow a linear movement between static and mover parts, maintaining a constant air gap. The operating principle is based on the tendency of alignment of magnetic flux through the path of least reluctance. The force proportional to the intensity of the electric current and the speed proportional to the frequency of the excitation coils. The study of this device is still based on the use of a numerical and experimental analysis to verify the relationship among electric current applied and planar force developed. In addition, the magnetic field in the air gap region is also monitored.
62
93988
Sulfate Radicals Applied to the Elimination of Selected Pollutants in Water Matrices
Abstract:
Five selected pollutants which are frequently present in waters and wastewaters have been degraded by the advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation activated with the additional presence of persulfate (UV/PS). These pollutants were 1H-benzotriazole (BZ), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET (DT), chlorophene (CP), 3-methylindole (ML), and nortriptyline hydrochloride (NH).While UV radiation alone almost not degraded these substances, the addition of PS generated the very reactive and oxidizing sulfate radical SO₄⁻. The kinetic study provided the second order rate constants for the reaction between this radical and each pollutant. An increasing dose of PS led to an increase in the degradation rate, being the highest results obtained at near neutral pH. Several water matrices were tested, and the presence of bicarbonate showed different effects: a decrease in the elimination of DT, BZ, and NH; and an increase in the oxidation of CP and ML. The additional presence of humic acids (AH) decreased this degradation, because of several effects: light screening and radical scavenging. The presence of several natural substances in waters (both types, inorganic and organic matter) usually diminishes the oxidation rates of organic pollutants, but this combination UV/PS process seems to be an efficient solution for the removal of the selected contaminants when are present in contaminated waters.
61
85259
Extending BDI Multiagent Systems with Agent Norms
Abstract:
Open Multiagent Systems (MASs) are societies in which heterogeneous and independently designed entities (agents) work towards similar, or different ends. Software agents are autonomous and the diversity of interests among different members living in the same society is a fact. In order to deal with this autonomy, these open systems use mechanisms of social control (norms) to ensure a desirable social order. This paper considers the following types of norms: (i) obligation &mdash; agents must accomplish a specific outcome; (ii) permission &mdash; agents may act in a particular way, and (iii) prohibition &mdash; agents must not act in a specific way. All of these characteristics mean to encourage the fulfillment of norms through rewards and to discourage norm violation by pointing out the punishments. Once the software agent decides that its priority is the satisfaction of its own desires and goals, each agent must evaluate the effects associated to the fulfillment of one or more norms before choosing which one should be fulfilled. The same applies when agents decide to violate a norm. This paper also introduces a framework for the development of MASs that provide support mechanisms to the agent&rsquo;s decision-making, using norm-based reasoning. The applicability and validation of this approach is demonstrated applying a traffic intersection scenario.
60
92428
Evaluation of Lead II Adsorption in Porous Structures Manufactured from Chitosan, Hydroxiapatite and Moringa
Abstract:
Heavy metals present in wastewater constitute a danger for living beings in general. In Ecuador, one of the sources of contamination is artisanal mining whose liquid effluents, in many of the cases without prior treatment, are discharged to the surrounding rivers. Lead is a pollutant that accumulated in the body causes severe health effects. Nowadays, there are several treatment methods to reduce this pollutant. The aim of this study is to reduce the concentration of lead II through the use of a porous material formed by a matrix of chitosan, in which hydroxyapatite and moringa particles smaller than 53 um are suspended. These materials are not toxic to the environment, and each one adsorbs metals independently, so the synergic effect between them will be evaluated. The synthesized material has a cylindrical design that allows increasing the surface area, which is expected to have greater capacity of adsorption. It has been determined that the best conditions for its preparation are to dissolve the chitosan in 1% v/v acetic acid with a pH = 5, then the hydroxyapatite and moringa are added to the mixture with magnetic stirring. This suspension is frozen, lyophilized and finally dried. In order to evaluate the performance of the synthesized material, synthetic solutions of lead are prepared at different concentrations, and the percentage of removal is evaluated. It is expected to have an effluent whose lead content is less than 0.2 mg/L which is the limit maximum allowable according to established environmental standards.
59
52696
Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Recycled Aggregates and its Use in Masonry Mortar Fabrication
Abstract:
Construction sector incessant activity of the last years preceding the crisis has originated a high waste generation and an increased use of raw materials. The main aim of this research is to compare three types of recycled aggregates and the feasibility to incorporate them into masonry mortar fabrication. The tests were developed using two types of binders: CEM II/B-L 32.5 N and CEM IV/B (V) 32.5 N. 50%, 75% and 100% of natural sand were replaced with three types of recycled aggregates. Cement-to-aggregate by dry weight proportions were 1:3 and 1:4. Physical and chemical characterization of recycled aggregates showed continues particle size distribution curve, lower density and higher absorption, which was the reason to use additive to obtain required mortar consistency. Main crystalline phases determined in the X-Ray diffraction test were calcite, quartz, and gypsum. Performed tests show that cement-based mortars fabricated with CEM IV/B (V) 32. 5 N can incorporate recycled aggregates coming from ceramic, concrete and mixed recycling processes, using 1:3 and 1:4 cement-to-aggregate proportions, complying with the limits established by the Spanish standards. It was concluded that recycled mortar coming from concrete recycling process is the one which presents better characteristics.
58
18395
Evaluation of Polyurethane-Bonded Particleboard Manufactured with Eucalyptus Sp. and Bi-Oriented Polypropylene Wastes
Abstract:
The growth of the furniture manufacturing industry is one of the fundamental factors contributing to the growth of the particleboard industry. The use of recycled products into particleboards can contribute to the forest conservation, in addition to achieve a high quality sustainable product with low-cost production. This work investigates the effect of bi-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) waste particles and sealing product on the physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus sp. particleboards fabricated with a castor oil based polyurethane resin. Among the factors, only the seal coating was statistically significant. The wood panels of Treatment 2 were classified as H1, based on the internal bond strength and elastic modulus results data required by ANSI A208.1:1999. The bending strength data did not reach the minimum values recommended by NBR 14810:2006 and ANSI A208.1:1999. The thickness swelling data for 2h immersed in water achieved the standard requirement levels. High-density panels were achieved revealing their potential use in variety of particleboard applications.
57
83323
Child of the Dark by Carolina Maria De Jesus in a Fundamental Rights Perspective
Abstract:
Child of the dark is the work of the Brazilian author Carolina Maria de Jesus published at the first time by Ática & Francisco Alves in 1960. It is, mostly, a story of lack of rights. It lacks to men who live in the slums what is essential in order to take advantage of the privilege of rationality to develop themselves as civilized humans. It is, therefore, in the withholding of the basic rights that inequality finds space to build itself to be the main misery on Earth. Antonio Candido, a Brazilian sociologist, claims that it is the right to literature has the ability to humanize men, once the aptitude to create fiction and fable is essential to the social balance. Hence, for the forming role that literature holds, it must be thought as the number of rights that assure human dignity, such as housing, education, health, freedom, etc. When talking about her routine, Carolina puts in evidence something that has great influence over the formation of human beings, contributing to the way they live: the slum. Even though it happens in a distinct way and using her linguistics variation, Carolina writes about something that will only be discussed later on Brazil’s Cities Statute and Ermia Maricato: the right to the city, and how the slums are, although inserted in the city, an attachment, an illegal city, a dismissing room. It interests ourselves, for that matter, in this work, to analyse how the deprivation of the rights to the city and literature, detailed in Carolina’s journal, conditions human beings to a life where the instincts overcome the social values.
56
77328
Carolina Maria De Jesus' Narrative in a Fundamental Rights Perspective
Abstract:
Child of the Dark is the work of the Brazilian author Carolina Maria de Jesus, published at the first time by Ática and Francisco Alves in 1960. It is, mostly, a story of lack of rights. It lacks to men who live in the slums what is essential in order to take advantage of the privilege of rationality to develop themselves as civilized humans. It is, therefore, in the withholding of the basic rights that inequality finds space to build itself to be the main misery on Earth. Antonio Candido, a Brazilian sociologist claims that it is the right to literature has the ability to humanize men, once the aptitude to create fiction and fable is essential to the social balance. Hence, for the forming role that literature holds, it must be thought as the number of rights that assure human dignity, such as housing, education, health, freedom, etc. When talking about her routine, Carolina puts in evidence something that has great influence over the formation of human beings, contributing to the way they live: the slum. Even though it happens in a distinct way and using her own linguistics variation, Carolina writes about something that will only be discussed later on Brazil’s Cities Statute and Erminia Maricato: the right to the city, and how the slums are, although inserted in the city, an attachment, an illegal city, a dismissing room. It interests ourselves, for that matter, in this work, to analyse how the deprivation of the rights to the city and literature, detailed in Carolina’s journal, conditions human beings to a life where the instincts overcome the social values.
55
43193
Quantification of Enzymatic Activities of Proteins, Peroxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, in Growing Phaseolus vulgaris L, with Application Bacterial Consortium to Control Fusarium and Rhizoctonia
Abstract:
The common bean or Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume for direct consumption in the world. Fusarium dry rot in the major fungus disease affects Phaseolus vulgaris L, after planting. In another hand, Rhizoctonia can be found on all underground parts of the plant and various times during the growing season. In recent years, the world has conducted studies about the use of natural products as substitutes for herbicides and pesticides, because of possible ecological and economic benefits. Plants respond to fungal invasion by activating defense responses associated with accumulation of several enzymes and inhibitors, which prevent pathogen infection. This study focused on the role of proteins, peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), in imparting resistance to soft rot pathogens by applied different bacterial consortium, formulated and provided by Biofertilizantes de Méxicanos industries, analyzing the enzyme activity at different times of application (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The resistance of these treatments was correlated with high POD and PAL enzyme activity as well as increased concentrations of proteins. These findings show that PAL, POD and synthesis of proteins play a role in imparting resistance to Phaseolus vulgaris L. soft rot infection by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia.
54
58508
Study and Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritages with the Use of Laser Scanner and Processing System for 3D Modeling Spatial Data
Abstract:
It is fundamental to conserve sites of natural and cultural heritage with any available technique or existing methodology of preservation in order to sustain them for the following generations. We propose a further skill to protect the actual view of such sites, in which with high technology instrumentation we are able to digitally preserve natural and cultural heritages applied in Ecuador. In this project the use of laser technology is presented for three-dimensional models, with high accuracy in a relatively short period of time. In Ecuador so far, there are not any records on the use and processing of data obtained by this new technological trend. The importance of the project is the description of the methodology of the laser scanner system using the Faro Laser Scanner Focus 3D 120, the method for 3D modeling of geospatial data and the development of virtual environments in the areas of Cultural and Natural Heritage. In order to inform users this trend in technology in which three-dimensional models are generated, the use of such tools has been developed to be able to be displayed in all kinds of digitally formats. The results of the obtained 3D models allows to demonstrate that this technology is extremely useful in these areas, but also indicating that each data campaign needs an individual slightly different proceeding starting with the data capture and processing to obtain finally the chosen virtual environments.
53
79247
Projections of Climate Change in the Rain Regime of the Ibicui River Basin
Abstract:
The global concern about climate change has been increasing, since the emission of gases from human activities contributes to the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere, indicating significant impacts to the planet in the coming years. The study of precipitation regime is fundamental for the development of research in several areas. Among them are hydrology, agriculture, and electric sector. Using the climatic projections of the models belonging to the CMIP5, the main objective of the paper was to present an analysis of the impacts of climate change without rainfall in the Uruguay River basin. After an analysis of the results, it can be observed that for the future climate, there is a tendency, in relation to the present climate, for larger numbers of dry events, mainly in the winter months, changing the pluviometric regime for wet summers and drier winters. Given this projected framework, it is important to note the importance of adequate management of the existing water sources in the river basin, since the value of rainfall is reduced for the next years, it may compromise the dynamics of the ecosystems in the region. Facing climate change is fundamental issue for regions and cities all around the world. Society must improve its resilience to phenomenon impacts, and spreading the knowledge among decision makers and citizens is also essential. So, these research results can be subsidies for the decision-making in planning and management of mitigation measures and/or adaptation in south Brazil.
52
81820
Mining Riding Patterns in Bike-Sharing System Connecting with Public Transportation
Abstract:
With the fast growing road traffic and increasingly severe traffic congestion, more and more citizens choose to use the public transportation for daily travelling. Meanwhile, the shared bike provides a convenient option for the first and last mile to the public transit. As of 2016, over one thousand cities around the world have deployed the bike-sharing system. The combination of these two transportations have stimulated the development of each other and made significant contribution to the reduction of carbon footprint. A lot of work has been done on mining the riding behaviors in various bike-sharing systems. Most of them, however, treated the bike-sharing system as an isolated system and thus their results provide little reference for the public transit construction and optimization. In this work, we treat the bike-sharing and public transit as a whole and investigate the customers’ bike-and-ride behaviors. Specifically, we develop a spatio-temporal traffic delivery model to study the riding patterns between the two transportation systems and explore the traffic characteristics (e.g., distributions of customer arrival/departure and traffic peak hours) from the time and space dimensions. During the model construction and evaluation, we make use of large open datasets from real-world bike-sharing systems (the CitiBike in New York, GoBike in San Francisco and BIXI in Montreal) along with corresponding public transit information. The developed two-dimension traffic model, as well as the mined bike-and-ride behaviors, can provide great help to the deployment of next-generation intelligent transportation systems.
51
79238
Mapping of Solar Radiation Anomalies Based on Climate Change
Abstract:
The use of alternative energy sources to meet energy demand reduces environmental damage. To diversify an energy matrix and to minimize global warming, a solar energy is gaining space, being an important source of renewable energy, and its potential depends on the climatic conditions of the region. Brazil presents a great solar potential for a generation of electric energy, so the knowledge of solar radiation and its characteristics are fundamental for the study of energy use. Due to the above reasons, this article aims to verify the climatic variability corresponding to the variations in solar radiation anomalies, in the face of climate change scenarios. The data used in this research are part of the Intercomparison of Interconnected Models, Phase 5 (CMIP5), which contributed to the preparation of the fifth IPCC-AR5 report. The solar radiation data were extracted from The Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) model using the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios that represent an intermediate structure and a pessimistic framework, the latter being the most worrisome in all cases. In order to allow the use of solar radiation as a source of energy in a given location and/or region, it is important, first, to determine its availability, thus justifying the importance of the study. The results pointed out, for the 75-year period (2026-2100), based on a pessimistic scenario, indicate a drop in solar radiation of the approximately 12% in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul. Factors that influence the pessimistic prospects of this scenario should be better observed by the responsible authorities, since they can affect the possibility to produce electricity from solar radiation.
50
74954
In-Farm Wood Gasification Energy Micro-Generation System in Brazil: A Monte Carlo Viability Simulation
Abstract:
The penetration of renewable energy into the electricity supply in Brazil is high, one of the highest in the World. Centralized hydroelectric generation is the main source of energy, followed by biomass and wind. Surprisingly, mini and micro-generation are negligible, with less than 2,000 connections to the national grid. In 2015, a new regulatory framework was put in place to change this situation. In the agricultural sector, the framework was complemented by the offer of low interest rate loans to in-farm renewable generation. Brazil proposed to more than double its area of planted forests as part of its INDC- Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to the UNFCCC-U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This is an ambitious target which will be achieved only if forests are attractive to farmers. Therefore, this paper analyses whether planting forests for in-farm energy generation with a with a woodchip gasifier is economically viable for microgeneration under the new framework and at if they could be an economic driver for forest plantation. At first, a static case was analyzed with data from Eucalyptus plantations in five farms. Then, a broader analysis developed with the use of Monte Carlo technique. Planting short rotation forests to generate energy could be a viable alternative and the low interest loans contribute to that. There are some barriers to such systems such as the inexistence of a mature market for small scale equipment and of a reference network of good practices and examples.
49
32255
An Investigation into Why Liquefaction Charts Work: A Necessary Step toward Integrating the States of Art and Practice
Abstract:
This paper is a systematic effort to clarify why field liquefaction charts based on Seed and Idriss’ Simplified Procedure work so well. This is a necessary step toward integrating the states of the art (SOA) and practice (SOP) for evaluating liquefaction and its effects. The SOA relies mostly on laboratory measurements and correlations with void ratio and relative density of the sand. The SOP is based on field measurements of penetration resistance and shear wave velocity coupled with empirical or semi-empirical correlations. This gap slows down further progress in both SOP and SOA. The paper accomplishes its objective through: a literature review of relevant aspects of the SOA including factors influencing threshold shear strain and pore pressure buildup during cyclic strain-controlled tests; a discussion of factors influencing field penetration resistance and shear wave velocity; and a discussion of the meaning of the curves in the liquefaction charts separating liquefaction from no liquefaction, helped by recent full-scale and centrifuge results. It is concluded that the charts are curves of constant cyclic strain at the lower end (Vs1 < 160 m/s), with this strain being about 0.03 to 0.05% for earthquake magnitude, Mw ≈ 7. It is also concluded, in a more speculative way, that the curves at the upper end probably correspond to a variable increasing cyclic strain and Ko, with this upper end controlled by over consolidated and preshaken sands, and with cyclic strains needed to cause liquefaction being as high as 0.1 to 0.3%. These conclusions are validated by application to case histories corresponding to Mw ≈ 7, mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area of California during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.
48
52602
Expansion of Cord Blood Cells Using a Mix of Neurotrophic Factors
Abstract:
Haematopoiesis is a developmental process that generates all blood cell lineages in health and disease. This relies on quiescent haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are able to differentiate, self renew and expand upon physiological demand. HSCs have great interest in regenerative medicine, including haematological malignancies, immunodeficiencies and metabolic disorders. However, the limited yield from existing HSC sources drives the global need for reliable techniques to expand harvested HSCs at high quality and sufficient quantities. With the extensive use of cord blood progenitors for clinical applications, there is a demand for a safe and efficient expansion protocol that is able to overcome the limitations of the cord blood as a source of HSC. StemCell2MAXTM developed a technology that enhances the survival, proliferation and transplantation efficiency of HSC, leading the way to a more widespread use of HSC for research and clinical purposes. StemCell2MAXTM MIX is a solution that improves HSC expansion up to 20x, while preserving stemness, when compared to state-of-the-art. In a recent study by a leading cord blood bank, StemCell2MAX MIX was shown to support a selective 100-fold expansion of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells (when compared to a 10-fold expansion of Total Nucleated Cells), while maintaining their multipotent differentiative potential as assessed by CFU assays. The technology developed by StemCell2MAXTM opens new horizons for the usage of expanded hematopoietic progenitors for both research purposes (including quality and functional assays in Cord Blood Banks) and clinical applications.
47
29441
Chemical Study of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS) from Xylopia aromatica (LAM.) Mart (Annonaceae)
Abstract:
The scientific interest in analyzing VOCs represents a significant modern research field as a result of importance in most branches of the present life and industry. Therefore it is extremely important to investigate, identify and isolate volatile substances, since they can be used in different areas, such as food, medicine, cosmetics, perfumery, aromatherapy, pesticides, repellents and other household products through methods for extracting volatile constituents, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (SE), Soxhlet extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), stream distillation (SD) and vacuum distillation (VD). The Chemometrics is an area of chemistry that uses statistical and mathematical tools for the planning and optimization of the experimental conditions, and to extract relevant chemical information multivariate chemical data. In this context, the focus of this work was the study of the chemical VOCs by SPME of the specie X. aromatica, in search of constituents that can be used in the industrial sector as well as in food, cosmetics and perfumery, since these areas industrial has a considerable role. In addition, by chemometric analysis, we sought to maximize the answers of this research, in order to search for the largest number of compounds. The investigation of flowers from X. aromatica in vitro and in alive mode proved consistent, but certain factors supposed influence the composition of metabolites, and the chemometric analysis strengthened the analysis. Thus, the study of the chemical composition of X. aromatica contributed to the VOCs knowledge of the species and a possible application.
46
59765
Innovative Waste Management Practices in Remote Areas
Abstract:
Municipal waste consist of a variety of items that are everyday discarded by the population. They are usually collected by municipalities and include waste generated by households, commercial activities (local shops) and public buildings. The composition of municipal waste varies greatly from place to place, being mostly related to levels and patterns of consumption, rates of urbanization, lifestyles, and local or national waste management practices. Each year, a huge amount of resources is consumed in the EU, and according to that, also a huge amount of waste is produced. The environmental problems derived from the management and processing of these waste streams are well known, and include impacts on land, water and air. The situation in remote areas is even worst. Difficult access when climatic conditions are adverse, remoteness of centralized municipal treatment systems or dispersion of the population, are all factors that make remote areas a real municipal waste treatment challenge. Furthermore, the scope of the problem increases significantly because the total lack of awareness of the existing risks in this area together with the poor implementation of advanced culture on waste minimization and recycling responsibly. The aim of this work is to analyze the existing situation in remote areas in reference to the production of municipal waste and evaluate the efficiency of different management alternatives. Ideas for improving waste management in remote areas include, for example: the implementation of self-management systems for the organic fraction; establish door-to-door collection models; promote small-scale treatment facilities or adjust the rates of waste generation thereof.
45
57375
A Cross-Sectional Study on the Correlation between Body Mass Index and Self-Esteem among Children Ages 9-12 Years Old in a Public Elementary School in Makati, Philippines
Abstract:
Malnutrition is one of the rapidly growing health problems affecting the world at present. Children affected are not only at risk for significant health problems, but are also faced with psychological and social consequences, including low self-esteem. School-age children are specifically vulnerable to develop poor self-esteem especially when their peers find them physically unattractive. Thus, malnutrition, whether obesity or undernourishment, contributes a significant role to a developing child’s health and behavior. This research aims to determine if there is a significant difference on the level of self-esteem among Filipino children ages 9-12 years old with abnormal body mass index (BMI) and those children with desirable BMI. Using a cross-sectional study design, the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and self-esteem was observed among children ages 9-12 years old. Participants took the Hare self esteem questionnaire, which is specifically designed to measure self-esteem in school age children. The lowest possible score is 15 and the highest possible score is 45. A total of 1140 students with ages 9-12 years old from Cembo Elementary School (public school) participated in the study. Among the participants, 239 out of the 1140 have desirable body mass index, 878 are underweight, and 23 are overweight. Using the test questionnaire, the computed mean scores were 36.599, 36.045 and 36.583 for normal, underweight and overweight categories respectively. Using Pearson’s Correlation Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient Test, the study showed positive correlation (p value of 0.047 and 0.004 respectively) between BMI and Self-esteem scores which indicates that the higher the BMI, the higher the self-esteem of the participants.
44
57417
Toxicological Interactions of Silver Nanoparticles and Non-Essential Metals in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line
Abstract:
Synergetic and antagonistic effects of drugs are well-known concerns in pharmacological assessments of dose and toxicity. Similar approach should be used in assessing cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Since nanoparticles are released into the aquatic environment they may interact with existing xenobiotics. Here we used biochemical assays and quantitative proteomics to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) when human hepatoma HepG2 cells were co-exposed to 2 nm AgNP together with either Cd2+ or Hg2+ ions. Time-course experiments (2h, 4h, and 24h) were conducted to assess the first response to the exposure studies. The general trend was that a synergetic toxicological response was observed in cells exposed to both AgNP and Cd2+ or Hg2+, with AgNP and Cd2+ being more toxic. This was observed by a significant increase in the ROS and superoxide level of >35% in the case of AgNP+Cd2+ compared to the sum of responses of AgNP and Cd2+, individually. Metabolic activity and viability also dropped more for AgNP+Cd2+ (>10%) than for AgNP and Cd2+ combined. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate if AgNP facilitates larger influx of toxic metal ions into HepG2 cells. Only Hg2+ ions was found to be more efficiently engulfed as the concentration of Hg2+ was found 2.8 times larger compared to exposure experiments with only Hg2+. This effect was not observed for Cd2+. We now continue with deep proteomics studies to obtain wider details on the mechanism of the toxicity related to AgNP, Cd2+, and AgNP+Cd2+, respectively.
43
32666
Fuzzy Climate Control System for Hydroponic Green Forage Production
Abstract:
In recent decades, population growth has exerted great pressure on natural resources. Two of the most scarce and difficult to obtain resources, arable land, and water, are closely interrelated, to the satisfaction of the demand for food production. In Mexico, the agricultural sector uses more than 70% of water consumption. Therefore, maximize the efficiency of current production systems is inescapable. It is essential to utilize techniques and tools that will enable us to the significant savings of water, labor and fertilizer. In this study, we present a production module of hydroponic green forage (HGF), which is a viable alternative in the production of livestock feed in the semi-arid and arid zones. The equipment in addition to having a forage production module, has a climate and irrigation control system that operated with photovoltaics. The climate control, irrigation and power management is based on fuzzy control techniques. The fuzzy control provides an accurate method in the design of controllers for nonlinear dynamic physical phenomena such as temperature and humidity, besides other as lighting level, aeration and irrigation control using heuristic information. In this working, firstly refers to the production of the hydroponic green forage, suitable weather conditions and fertigation subsequently presents the design of the production module and the design of the controller. A simulation of the behavior of the production module and the end results of actual operation of the equipment are presented, demonstrating its easy design, flexibility, robustness and low cost that represents this equipment in the primary sector.
42
107665
Neuroprotective Effects of Gly-Pro-Glu-Thr-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg, a Peptide Isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. Protein Hydrolysate
Abstract:
GPETAFLR (Glycine-Proline-Glutamine-Threonine-Alanine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Arginine) is a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH). Herein, the effect of this peptide was investigated in two different models of neuroinflammation: in the immortalized murine microglia cell line BV-2 and in a high-fat-diet-induced obesity mouse model. Methods and Results: Effects of GPETAFLR on neuroinflammation were evaluated by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, and ELISA techniques. In BV-2 microglial cells, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) whereas GPETAFLR decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in BV2 microglial cells. M1 (CCR7 and iNOS) and M2 (Arg-1 and Ym-1) polarization markers results showed how the GPETAFLR octapeptide was able to decrease M1 polarization marker expression and increase the M2 polarization marker expression compared to LPS. Animal model results indicate that GPETAFLR has an immunomodulatory capacity, both decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in brain tissue. Polarization markers in the brain tissue were also modulated by GPETAFLR that decreased the pro-inflammatory expression (M1) and increased the anti-inflammatory expression (M2). Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPETAFLR isolated from LPH has significant potential for management of neuroinflammatory conditions and offer benefits derived from the consumption of Lupinus angustifolius L. in the prevention of neuroinflammatory-related diseases.
41
37563
Effect of Probiotic Feeding on Weight Gain, Blood Biochemical and Hematological Indices of Crossbred Dairy Goat Kids
Abstract:
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feeding on weight gain, blood biochemical and hematological indices of crossbred dairy goat kids. Sixteen (16) crossbred Anglo-Nubian x Saanen dairy goat kids, 3 to 4 months old, ranging from 19 to 23kg were randomly assigned into four treatments fed with 5x109 cfu/ml probiotic supplements; Treatment 1 – control; Treatment 2 – lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum BS and P. acidilactici 3G3); treatment 3 – S. cerevisiae 2030; Treatment 4 – multi-strain probiotics (L. plantarum BS, P. acidilactici 3G3, and S.cerevisiae 2030). Feed ration provided daily for each of the experimental animals were composed of 1kg mixed concentrate feed ((Leucaena leucocephala dried leaves and pollard), and 4 kg fresh Pennisetum purpureum and Gliciridia sepium leaves (50:50). The experimental feeding trial lasted for 9 weeks. Result revealed that treatments fed with probiotics had significantly (P≤0.05) higher weight gain compared to the control. Significant effect on plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and triglyceride were noted during 30th and 60th day of probiotic feeding. White blood cell counts were significantly affected by probiotic feeding during the 60th day. Concentrations of glucose and cholesterol remained unchanged throughout the experimental period. The findings suggests, under the condition of the experiment, that live probiotic feeding could have a significant role in improving weight gain and metabolism of crossbred dairy goat kids.
40
62671
Plural Perspectives in Conservation Conflicts: The Role of Iconic Species
Abstract:
Addressing conservation conflicts requires the consideration of multiple stakeholders' perspectives and knowledge claims, in order to inform complex and possibly contentious decision-making dilemmas. Hence, a better understanding of why people in particular contexts act in a particular way in a conservation conflict is needed. First, this contribution aims at providing and applying an approach to map and interpret the diversity of subjective viewpoints with regard to iconic species in conservation conflicts. Secondly, this contribution aims to feed the reflection on the possible consequences of the diversity of perspectives for the future management of wildlife (in particular iconic species), based on case studies in Galapagos and Malaysia. The use of the semi-quantitative Q methodology allowed us to identify various perspectives on conservation in different social-ecological contexts. While the presence of iconic species may lead to a more passionate and emotional debate, it may also provide more opportunities for finding common ground and for jointly developing acceptable management solutions that will depolarize emergent, long-lasting or latent conservation conflicts. Based on the research team’s experience in the field, and on the integration of ecological and social knowledge, methodological and management recommendations are made with regard to conservation conflicts involving iconic wildlife. The mere presence of iconic wildlife does not guarantee its centrality in conservation conflicts, and comparisons will be drawn between the cases of the giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spec.) in Galapagos, Ecuador and the Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea) in western peninsular Malaysia. Acknowledging the diversity of viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders see, act and talk about wildlife management, highlights the need to develop pro-active and resilient strategies to deal with these issues.
39
107988
Quality Assurance for the Climate Data Store
Abstract:
The Climate Data Store (CDS), developed by the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) implemented by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) on behalf of the European Union, is intended to become a key instrument for exploring climate data. The CDS contains both raw and processed data to provide information to the users about the past, present and future climate of the earth. It allows for easy and free access to climate data and indicators, presenting an important asset for scientists and stakeholders on the path for achieving a more sustainable future. The C3S Evaluation and Quality Control (EQC) is assessing the quality of the CDS by undertaking a comprehensive user requirement assessment to measure the users’ satisfaction. Recommendations will be developed for the improvement and expansion of the CDS datasets and products. User requirements will be identified on the fitness of the datasets, the toolbox, and the overall CDS service. The EQC function of the CDS will help C3S to make the service more robust: integrated by validated data that follows high-quality standards while being user-friendly. This function will be closely developed with the users of the service. Through their feedback, suggestions, and contributions, the CDS can become more accessible and meet the requirements for a diverse range of users. Stakeholders and their active engagement are thus an important aspect of CDS development. This will be achieved with direct interactions with users such as meetings, interviews or workshops as well as different feedback mechanisms like surveys or helpdesk services at the CDS. The results provided by the users will be categorized as a function of CDS products so that their specific interests will be monitored and linked to the right product. Through this procedure, we will identify the requirements and criteria for data and products in order to build the correspondent recommendations for the improvement and expansion of the CDS datasets and products.
38
48219
Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Rabies Incidence in Herbivores of Economic Interest in Brazil
Abstract:
In Brazil, there is a high incidence of rabies in herbivores of economic interest (HEI) transmitted by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, the presence of human rabies cases and the huge economic losses in the world's largest cattle industry, it is important to assist the National Program for Control of Rabies in herbivores in Brazil, that aims to reduce the incidence of rabies in HEI populations, mainly through epidemiological surveillance, vaccination of herbivores and control of vampire-bat roosts. Material and Methods: A spatiotemporal retrospective Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model and Monte Carlo simulation and an Anselin's Local Moran's I statistic were used to uncover spatial clustering of HEI rabies from 2000 – 2014. Results: Were identify three important clusters with significant year-to-year variation (Figure 1). In 2000, was identified one area of clustering in the North region, specifically in the State of Tocantins. Between the year 2000 and 2004, a cluster centered in the Midwest and Southeast region including the States of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo and São Paulo was prominent. And finally between 2000 and 2005 was found an important cluster in the North, Midwest and South region. Conclusions: The HEI rabies is endemic in the country, in addition, appears to be significant differences among the States according to their surveillance services, that may be difficulting the control of the disease, also other factors could be influencing in the maintenance of this problem like the lack of information of vampire-bat roosts identification, and limited human resources for realization of field monitoring. A review of the program control by the authorities it’s necessary.
37
67066
Globally Convergent Sequential Linear Programming for Multi-Material Topology Optimization Using Ordered Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization Interpolation
Abstract:
The aim of the multi-material topology optimization (MTO) is to obtain the optimal topology of structures composed by many materials, according to a given set of constraints and cost criteria. In this work, we seek the optimal distribution of materials in a domain, such that the flexibility of the structure is minimized, under certain boundary conditions and the intervention of external forces. In the case we have only one material, each point of the discretized domain is represented by two values from a function, where the value of the function is 1 if the element belongs to the structure or 0 if the element is empty. A common way to avoid the high computational cost of solving integer variable optimization problems is to adopt the Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method. This method relies on the continuous interpolation function, power function, where the base variable represents a pseudo density at each point of domain. For proper exponent values, the SIMP method reduces intermediate densities, since values other than 0 or 1 usually does not have a physical meaning for the problem. Several extension of the SIMP method were proposed for the multi-material case. The one that we explore here is the ordered SIMP method, that has the advantage of not being based on the addition of variables to represent material selection, so the computational cost is independent of the number of materials considered. Although the number of variables is not increased by this algorithm, the optimization subproblems that are generated at each iteration cannot be solved by methods that rely on second derivatives, due to the cost of calculating the second derivatives. To overcome this, we apply a globally convergent version of the sequential linear programming method, which solves a linear approximation sequence of optimization problems.
36
122717
Increasing Power Transfer Capacity of Distribution Networks Using Direct Current Feeders
Abstract:
Economic and population growth in densely-populated urban areas introduce major challenges to distribution system operators, planers, and designers. To supply added loads, utilities are frequently forced to invest in new distribution feeders. However, this is becoming increasingly more challenging due to space limitations and rising installation costs in urban settings. This paper proposes the conversion of critical alternating current (ac) distribution feeders into direct current (dc) feeders to increase the power transfer capacity by a factor as high as four. Current trends suggest that the return of dc transmission, distribution, and utilization are inevitable. Since a total system-level transformation to dc operation is not possible in a short period of time due to the needed huge investments and utility unreadiness, this paper recommends that feeders that are expected to exceed their limits in near future are converted to dc. The increase in power transfer capacity is achieved through several key differences between ac and dc power transmission systems. First, it is shown that underground cables can be operated at higher dc voltage than the ac voltage for the same dielectric stress in the insulation. Second, cable sheath losses, due to induced voltages yielding circulation currents, that can be as high as phase conductor losses under ac operation, are not present under dc. Finally, skin and proximity effects in conductors and sheaths do not exist in dc cables. The paper demonstrates that in addition to the increased power transfer capacity utilities substituting ac feeders by dc feeders could benefit from significant lower costs and reduced losses. Installing dc feeders is less expensive than installing new ac feeders even when new trenches are not needed. Case studies using the IEEE 342-Node Low Voltage Networked Test System quantify the technical and economic benefits of dc feeders.
35
33526
Use of an Insecticidal-Iridovirus Kinase towards the Development of Aphid-Resistant Plants
Abstract:
Insect pests are a serious threat to agricultural productivity. Use of chemical pesticides, the predominant control method thus far, has resulted in environmental damage, pest resurgence, and negative effects on non-target species. Genetically modified (GM) crops offer a promising alternative, and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin genes have played a major role in this respect. However, to overcome insect tolerance issues and to broaden the target range, it is critical to identify alternative-insecticidal toxins working through novel mechanisms. Our research group has identified a kinase from Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; Family Iridoviridae) that has insecticidal activity and designated it as ISTK (Iridovirus Serine/Threonine Kinase). A 35 kDa truncated form of ISTK, designated iridoptin, was obtained during expression and purification of ISTK in the yeast system. This yeast-expressed CIV toxin induced 50% mortality in cotton aphids and 100% mortality in green peach aphids (GPA). Optimized viral genes (o-ISTK and o-IRI) were stably transformed into the model plant, Arabidopsis. PCR analysis of genomic DNA confirmed the presence of the gene insert (oISTK/oIRI) in selected transgenic lines. The further screening was performed to identify the PCR positive lines that showed expression of respective toxins at the polypeptide level using Western blot analysis. The stable lines expressing either of these two toxins induced moderate to very high mortality in GPAs and significantly affected GPA development and fecundity. The aphicidal potential of these transgenic Arabidopsis lines will be presented.
34
79233
A Bicycle Based Model of Prehospital Care Implanted in Northeast of the Brazil: Initial Experience
Abstract:
In populous cities, prehospital care services that use vehicles alternative to ambulances are needed in order to reduce costs and improve response time to occurrences in areas with large concentration of people, such as leisure and tourism spaces. In this context, it was implanted a program called BIKE VIDA, that is innovative quick access and assistance program. The aim of this study is to describe the implantation and initial profile of occurrences performed by an urgency/emergency pre-hospital care service through paramedics on bicycles. It is a cross-sectional, descriptive study carried out in the city of Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil. The data included service records from July to August 2017. Ethical aspects were respected. The service covers a perimeter of 4.5 km, divided into three areas with perimeter of 1.5 km for each paramedic, attending from 5 am to 9 pm. Materials transported by bicycles include External Automated Defibrillator - DEA, portable oxygen, oximeter, cervical collar, stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, dressing and immobilization materials and personal protective equipment. Occurrences are requested directly by calling the emergency number 192 or through direct approach to the professional. In the first month of the program, there were 93 emergencies/urgencies, mainly in the daytime period (71,0%), in males (59,7%), in the age range of 26 to 45 years (46,2%). The main nature was traumatic incidents (53.3%). Most of the cases (88,2%) did not require ambulance transport to the hospital, and there were two deaths. Pre-hospital service through bicycles is an innovative strategy in Brazil and has shown to be promising in terms of reducing costs and improving the quality of the services offered.
33
86731
Spaces in the City to Practice Physical Activities: Case Study of Conchal, São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract:
The urban planning of a city should contemplate the construction of healthy spaces to provide quality of life for people. In a Brazilian municipality located 180 km from the capital of São Paulo with around 27,000 thousand inhabitants, the federal government made possible a program that allows the improvement of the quality of life of the inhabitants through the practice of physical activity. To describe health promotion strategies in the city that collaborate in the reduction of chronic non-communicable diseases (CDNT) and the improvement the quality of its residents. Considering the CDNT as a fundamental public health concern in different countries, the methodology of this work considered the different actions of health promotion that occurred in the city for the implementation of the Polo Health Academy with the objective of increasing the population's access to places that could develop targeted physical activities. As an instrument, it used records of participants of this academy such as: assessment sheets, evolution, photos, filming and daily reports of physical activities. Results: The implantation and implementation process of the Polo Health Academy in the city of Conchal / SP / Brazil was in accordance with the principles and values of the National Health Promotion Policy (PNaPS) in Brazil and with the city statute, that provides improvement in the quality of life of the Brazilian population. An increase was observed in the number of participants in different hours practicing physical activities in the territory linked to one of the five Health Units, showing the program provides that happiness and well-being to the students. The Brazilian health promotion policy, combined with the city’s development policy, provides the population with access to programs that stimulate the reduction of CDNTs, confirming the urban planning of a healthy city.
32
95797
Spaces in the City to Practice Physical Activities: Case Study of Conchal, São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract:
The urban planning of a city should contemplate the construction of healthy spaces to provide quality of life for people. In a Brazilian municipality located 180 km from the capital of São Paulo with around 27,000 thousand inhabitants, the federal government made possible a program that allows the improvement of the quality of life of the inhabitants through the practice of physical activity. To describe health promotion strategies in the city that collaborate in the reduction of chronic non-communicable diseases (CDNT) and the improvement the quality of its residents. Considering the CDNT as a fundamental public health concern in different countries, the methodology of this work considered the different actions of health promotion that occurred in the city for the implementation of the Polo Health Academy with the objective of increasing the population's access to places that could develop targeted physical activities. As an instrument, it used records of participants of this academy such as: assessment sheets, evolution, photos, filming and daily reports of physical activities. Results: The implantation and implementation process of the Polo Health Academy in the city of Conchal / SP / Brazil was in accordance with the principles and values of the National Health Promotion Policy (PNaPS) in Brazil and with the city statute, that provides improvement in the quality of life of the Brazilian population. An increase was observed in the number of participants in different hours practicing physical activities in the territory linked to one of the five Health Units, showing the program provides that happiness and well-being to the students. The Brazilian health promotion policy, combined with the city’s development policy, provides the population with access to programs that stimulate the reduction of CDNTs, confirming the urban planning of a healthy city.
31
66072
Processing and Economic Analysis of Rain Tree (Samanea saman) Pods for Village Level Hydrous Bioethanol Production
Abstract:
Biofuel is one of the renewable energy sources adapted by the Philippine government in order to lessen the dependency on foreign fuel and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Rain tree pods were seen to be a promising source of bioethanol since it contains significant amount of fermentable sugars. The study was conducted to establish the complete procedure in processing rain tree pods for village level hydrous bioethanol production. Production processes were done for village level hydrous bioethanol production from collection, drying, storage, shredding, dilution, extraction, fermentation, and distillation. The feedstock was sundried, and moisture content was determined at a range of 20% to 26% prior to storage. Dilution ratio was 1:1.25 (1 kg of pods = 1.25 L of water) and after extraction process yielded a sugar concentration of 22 0Bx to 24 0Bx. The dilution period was three hours. After three hours of diluting the samples, the juice was extracted using extractor with a capacity of 64.10 L/hour. 150 L of rain tree pods juice was extracted and subjected to fermentation process using a village level anaerobic bioreactor. Fermentation with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can fasten up the process, thus producing more ethanol at a shorter period of time; however, without yeast fermentation, it also produces ethanol at lower volume with slower fermentation process. Distillation of 150 L of fermented broth was done for six hours at 85 &deg;C to 95 &deg;C temperature (feedstock) and 74 &deg;C to 95 &deg;C temperature of the column head (vapor state of ethanol). The highest volume of ethanol recovered was established at with yeast fermentation at five-day duration with a value of 14.89 L and lowest actual ethanol content was found at without yeast fermentation at three-day duration having a value of 11.63 L. In general, the results suggested that rain tree pods had a very good potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. Fermentation of rain tree pods juice can be done with yeast and without yeast.
30
20106
Women Mayors and Management of Spanish Councils: An Empirical Analysis
Abstract:
This paper analyses the influence of gender of the mayors of Spanish local governments on different budget items using a sample of 8,243 town councils between 2002 and 2010 period and 64,361 observations. The system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) technique was employed to examine this panel data. This powerful methodology allows controlling for the endogenity of the variables and the heterogeneity of the sample. Unlike previous works focused on the study of gender influence on firm decisions, the present work analyzes the influence of the gender of the major in the council’s decisions. Specifically, we examine the differences in financial liabilities, security, protection and social promotion expenses and income items relating to public management. In addition, the study focuses on the Spanish context, which is characterized by the presence of decentralization of public responsibility to a greater extent than in neighboring countries, feeding the debate on the operational efficiency of local government increased with an open debate on the importance of gender in public management. The results show that female mayors tend to have lower expenses in general without significant differences in incomes obtained for men and women majors. We also find that female majors incur fewer financial liabilities, one of the most important problems in the Spanish public sector. However, despite of cutting in the public sector, these councils have higher expenditure on security, protection and social promotion. According to these evidences, the presence of women in politics may serve to improve the councils’ economic situation and it is not only necessary for social justice but for economics efficiency. Besides, in councils with more inhabitants, women mayors are more common, but women who served for a very long time are less common.
29
111309
Promising Anti-Displacement Practices for High Cost Cities
Abstract:
In the face of dramatically shifting demographic trends and macroeconomic pressures on affordable housing in high-cost cities, municipalities and developers have been forced to develop new models of sustainable development that integrates elements of substantial rehabilitation and new construction while controlling for relocation and mass displacement. Community development partners in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California are starting to prioritize anti-displacement strategies when rehabilitating severely neglected public housing developments. This study explored the community-driven efforts to transform four dilapidated public housing sites (N=2,600 households) into thriving mixed-income housing communities. Eight interviews were conducted with frontline workers (property managers and service providers), who directly worked with residents throughout critical stages of the relocation and leasing process. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by a systematic procedure for qualitative analysis to identify key themes on the topics of interest. Also, an extensive literature analysis was conducted to determine promising practices throughout the industry. This study highlighted that resident’s emotional attachment to their homes (regardless of the deteriorating conditions of their unit) could both a) impede the relocation process and substantially impact the budget and timeline, while b) simultaneously providing a basis for an enhanced sense of belonging and community cohesion. This phenomenon often includes the welcoming of new residents and cultures. Resident centered workshops, healing centered rituals, and extensive 'hands-on' guidance was highlighted as promising practices that resulted in residential retention rates that were two to three times the national average and positively impacted the overall project’s budget and timeline.
28
47857
Diagnosis of the Hydrological and Hydrogeological Potential in the Mancomojan Basin for Estimations of Offer and Demand
Abstract:
This work presents the final results of the ‘Diagnosis of the hydrological and hydrogeological potential in the Mancomojan basin for estimations of offer and demand’ with the purpose of obtaining solutions of domestic supply for the communities of the zone of study. There was realized the projection of population of the paths by three different scenes. The highest water total demand appears with the considerations of the scene 3, with a total demand for the year 2050 of 59.275 m3/year (1,88 l/s), being the path San Francisco the one that exercises a major pressure on the resource with a demand for the same year of the order of 31.189 m3/year (0,99 l/s). As for the hydrogeological potential of the zone and as alternative of supply of the studied communities, the stratigraphic columns obtained of the geophysical polls do not show strata saturated with water that could be considered to be a potential source of supply for the communities. The water registered in the geophysics tests presents very low resistances what indicates that he presents ions, this water meets in the rock interstices very thin granulometries which indicates that it is a water of constitution, and the flow of this one towards more permeable granulometries is void or limited. The underground resource that is registered so much in electrical vertical polls (SEV) as in tomography and that is saturating rocks of thin granulometry (clays and slimes), was demonstrated by content of ions, which is consistent with the abundant presence of plaster and the genesis marinades with transition to continental of the geological units in the zone. Predominant rocks are sedimentary, sandy rocks of grain I die principally, in minor proportion were observed also sandstones of thick grain to conglomerate with clastic rock of quartz, chert and siltstone of the Formation Mess and sandstones (of thin, average and thick grain) alternating with caps conglomerate whose thickness is, in general, between 5 and 15 cm, the nodules of sandstones are frequent with the same composition of the sandstones that contain them, in some cases with calcareous and crossed stratification of the formation Sincelejo Miembro Morroa.
27
69457
Effect of Dynamic Loading by Cyclic Triaxial Tests on Sand Stabilized with Cement
Abstract:
Liquefaction of saturated soils due to dynamic loading is an important and interesting area in the field of geotechnical earthquake engineering. When the soil liquefies, the structures built on it develops uneven settlements thereby producing cracks in the structure and weakening the foundation. The 1964 Alaskan Good Friday earthquake, the 1989 San Francisco earthquake and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake are some of the examples of liquefaction occurred due to an earthquake. To mitigate the effect of liquefaction, several methods such use of stone columns, increasing the vertical stress, compaction and removal of liquefiable soil are practiced. Grouting is one of those methods used to increase the strength of the foundation and develop resistance to liquefaction of soil without affecting the superstructure. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the undrained cyclic behavior of locally available soil, stabilized by cement to mitigate the seismically induced soil liquefaction. The specimens of 75mm diameter and 150mm height were reconstituted in the laboratory using water sedimentation technique. A series of strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests were performed on saturated soil samples followed by consolidation. The effects of amplitude, confining pressure and relative density on the dynamic behavior of sand was studied for soil samples with varying cement content. The results obtained from the present study on loose specimens and medium dense specimens indicate that (i) the higher the relative density, the more will be the liquefaction resistance, (ii) with increase of effective confining pressure, a decrease in developing of excess pore water pressure during cyclic loading was observed and (iii) sand specimens treated with cement showed reduced excess pore pressures and increased liquefaction resistance suggesting it as one of the mitigation methods.
26
124091
A Decrease in the Anxiety Levels of Participants with Autoimmune Disease: Efficacy of a Community-Based Educational Program
Abstract:
People who have autoimmune disease are often at an increased risk for psychological disorders such as anxiety. Untreated psychological conditions can affect the development of disease and can affect one’s general quality of life. In this study, it was hypothesized that an educational community-based intervention would be useful in decreasing the anxiety levels of participants with autoimmune disease. Programs, 2-hours long each, were held weekly over a period of eight weeks. During every meeting, a 45-minute DVD presentation by a skilled physician was shown, a small group discussion was guided by trained facilitators, and weekly practical assignments were given to each participant. The focus of the program was to educate participants about healthy lifestyle behaviors such as exercise, nutrition, sleep hygiene, helpful thought patterns etc., and to provide a group environment in which each participant was supported. Participants were assessed pre-post program for anxiety using the Depression and Anxiety Assessment Test (registration TX 7-398-022), a validated mental health test based on DSM-5 criteria and demographics. Anxiety scores were classified according to the DSM-5 criteria into 4 categories: none (0-6), mild (7-10), moderate (11-19) or severe (20 or more). Out of the participants who participated in programs conducted in the manner explained above (n=431), the average age was 54.9 (SD 16.6) and 81.9% were female. At baseline, the mean group anxiety level was 9.4 (SD 5.4). Within the baseline group, anxiety levels were as follows: none (21.1%), mild (22.0%), moderate (27.1%) and severe (29.7%). After the program, mean group anxiety decreased to 4.7 (SD 4.0). Post-program anxiety levels were as follows: none (54.8%), mild (27.1%), moderate (12.5%), severe (5.6%). The decrease in overall anxiety levels was significant t(431)=19.3 p
25
92468
Beyond Information Failure and Misleading Beliefs in Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: A Qualitative Account of Structural Barriers Explaining Why the Poor Do Not Invest in Human Capital in Northern Mexico
Abstract:
The Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) model gives monetary transfers to beneficiary families on the condition that they take specific education and health actions. According to the economic rationale of CCTs the poor need incentives to invest in their human capital because they are trapped by a lack of information and misleading beliefs. If left to their own decision, the poor will not be able to choose what is in their best interests. The basic assumption of the CCT model is that the poor need incentives to take care of their own education and health-nutrition. Due to the incentives (income cash transfers and conditionalities), beneficiary families are supposed to attend doctor visits and health talks. Children would stay in the school. These incentivized behaviors would produce outcomes such as better health and higher level of education, which in turn will reduce poverty. Based on a grounded theory approach to conduct a two-year period of qualitative data collection in northern Mexico, this study shows that this explanation is incomplete. In addition to the information failure and inadequate beliefs, there are structural barriers in everyday life of households that make health-nutrition and education investments difficult. In-depth interviews and observation work showed that the program takes for granted local conditions in which beneficiary families should fulfill their co-responsibilities. Data challenged the program’s assumptions and unveiled local obstacles not contemplated in the program’s design. These findings have policy and research implications for the CCT agenda. They bring elements for late programming due to the gap between the CCT strategy as envisioned by policy designers, and the program that beneficiary families experience on the ground. As for research consequences, these findings suggest new avenues for scholarly work regarding the causal mechanisms and social processes explaining CCT outcomes.
24
88581
Safety Climate Assessment and Its impact on the productivity of Construction Enterprises
Abstract:
Research Background: Problems related to the occupational health and decreasing level of safety occur commonly in the construction industry. Important factor in the occupational safety in construction industry is scaffold use. All scaffolds used in construction, renovation, and demolition shall be erected, dismantled and maintained in accordance with safety procedure. However, key of dealing with scaffolds safety and risk assessment in construction industry is important. Thus, way on doing assessment and liability of assessment seems to be crucial for professionals. However, it is found that those professionals prone to heavily rely on their own experiences and knowledge on decision making on risk assessment, which lack of a systematic approach and lack of ways to check the reliability of the decisions. Purpose of the Article: Purpose of the paper was to indicate crucial parameters that could be modeling with RAM use for improving both building enterprise productivity and/or developing potential and Safety Climate. The developed RAM could be a benefit for predicting high-risk construction activities and thus preventing accidents occurred based on a set of historical accident data. Methodology/Methods: A Risk Assessment Model (RAM) has been developed for assessing risk levels as various construction process stages with various work trades impacting different spheres of enterprise activity. The RAM is the result of research project realized at the above 60 construction sites, both in Poland and Portugal, where 450 observations have been completed including also harmful physical and chemical factors, stress level, also worker habits, as well as a hundred ex-post reconstruction of construction accidents scenarios. genetic modeling tool has been used for developing the RAM. Findings and Value Added: Common types of trades, accidents, and accident causes have been explored, in addition to suitable risk assessment methods and criteria. We have found the initial worker stress level is more direct predictor for developing of the unsafe chain leading to the accident than the workload, and concentration of harmful factors at the workplace or even training frequency and management involvement.
23
88627
Safety Climate Assessment and Its impact on the productivity of Construction Enterprises
Abstract:
Research Background: Problems related to the occupational health and decreasing level of safety occur commonly in the construction industry. Important factor in the occupational safety in construction industry is scaffold use. All scaffolds used in construction, renovation, and demolition shall be erected, dismantled and maintained in accordance with safety procedure. However, key of dealing with scaffolds safety and risk assessment in construction industry is important. Thus, way on doing assessment and liability of assessment seems to be crucial for professionals. However, it is found that those professionals prone to heavily rely on their own experiences and knowledge on decision making on risk assessment, which lack of a systematic approach and lack of ways to check the reliability of the decisions. Purpose of the Article: Purpose of the paper was to indicate crucial parameters that could be modeling with RAM use for improving both building enterprise productivity and/or developing potential and Safety Climate. The developed RAM could be a benefit for predicting high-risk construction activities and thus preventing accidents occurred based on a set of historical accident data. Methodology/Methods: A Risk Assessment Model (RAM) has been developed for assessing risk levels as various construction process stages with various work trades impacting different spheres of enterprise activity. The RAM is the result of research project realized at the above 60 construction sites, both in Poland and Portugal, where 450 observations have been completed including also harmful physical and chemical factors, stress level, also worker habits, as well as a hundred ex-post reconstruction of construction accidents scenarios. genetic modeling tool has been used for developing the RAM. Findings and Value Added: Common types of trades, accidents, and accident causes have been explored, in addition to suitable risk assessment methods and criteria. We have found the initial worker stress level is more direct predictor for developing of the unsafe chain leading to the accident than the workload, and concentration of harmful factors at the workplace or even training frequency and management involvement.
22
88625
Safety Climate Assessment and Its impact on the productivity of Construction Enterprises
Abstract:
Research Background: Problems related to the occupational health and decreasing level of safety occur commonly in the construction industry. Important factor in the occupational safety in construction industry is scaffold use. All scaffolds used in construction, renovation, and demolition shall be erected, dismantled and maintained in accordance with safety procedure. However, key of dealing with scaffolds safety and risk assessment in construction industry is important. Thus, way on doing assessment and liability of assessment seems to be crucial for professionals. However, it is found that those professionals prone to heavily rely on their own experiences and knowledge on decision making on risk assessment, which lack of a systematic approach and lack of ways to check the reliability of the decisions. Purpose of the Article: Purpose of the paper was to indicate crucial parameters that could be modeling with RAM use for improving both building enterprise productivity and/or developing potential and Safety Climate. The developed RAM could be a benefit for predicting high-risk construction activities and thus preventing accidents occurred based on a set of historical accident data. Methodology/Methods: A Risk Assessment Model (RAM) has been developed for assessing risk levels as various construction process stages with various work trades impacting different spheres of enterprise activity. The RAM is the result of research project realized at the above 60 construction sites, both in Poland and Portugal, where 450 observations have been completed including also harmful physical and chemical factors, stress level, also worker habits, as well as a hundred ex-post reconstruction of construction accidents scenarios. genetic modeling tool has been used for developing the RAM. Findings and Value Added: Common types of trades, accidents, and accident causes have been explored, in addition to suitable risk assessment methods and criteria. We have found the initial worker stress level is more direct predictor for developing of the unsafe chain leading to the accident than the workload, and concentration of harmful factors at the workplace or even training frequency and management involvement.
21
88626
Safety Climate Assessment and Its impact on the productivity of Construction Enterprises
Abstract:
Research Background: Problems related to the occupational health and decreasing level of safety occur commonly in the construction industry. Important factor in the occupational safety in construction industry is scaffold use. All scaffolds used in construction, renovation, and demolition shall be erected, dismantled and maintained in accordance with safety procedure. However, key of dealing with scaffolds safety and risk assessment in construction industry is important. Thus, way on doing assessment and liability of assessment seems to be crucial for professionals. However, it is found that those professionals prone to heavily rely on their own experiences and knowledge on decision making on risk assessment, which lack of a systematic approach and lack of ways to check the reliability of the decisions. Purpose of the Article: Purpose of the paper was to indicate crucial parameters that could be modeling with RAM use for improving both building enterprise productivity and/or developing potential and Safety Climate. The developed RAM could be a benefit for predicting high-risk construction activities and thus preventing accidents occurred based on a set of historical accident data. Methodology/Methods: A Risk Assessment Model (RAM) has been developed for assessing risk levels as various construction process stages with various work trades impacting different spheres of enterprise activity. The RAM is the result of research project realized at the above 60 construction sites, both in Poland and Portugal, where 450 observations have been completed including also harmful physical and chemical factors, stress level, also worker habits, as well as a hundred ex-post reconstruction of construction accidents scenarios. genetic modeling tool has been used for developing the RAM. Findings and Value Added: Common types of trades, accidents, and accident causes have been explored, in addition to suitable risk assessment methods and criteria. We have found the initial worker stress level is more direct predictor for developing of the unsafe chain leading to the accident than the workload, and concentration of harmful factors at the workplace or even training frequency and management involvement.
20
88582
Safety Climate Assessment and Its impact on the productivity of Construction Enterprises
Abstract:
Research Background: Problems related to the occupational health and decreasing level of safety occur commonly in the construction industry. Important factor in the occupational safety in construction industry is scaffold use. All scaffolds used in construction, renovation, and demolition shall be erected, dismantled and maintained in accordance with safety procedure. However, key of dealing with scaffolds safety and risk assessment in construction industry is important. Thus, way on doing assessment and liability of assessment seems to be crucial for professionals. However, it is found that those professionals prone to heavily rely on their own experiences and knowledge on decision making on risk assessment, which lack of a systematic approach and lack of ways to check the reliability of the decisions. Purpose of the Article: Purpose of the paper was to indicate crucial parameters that could be modeling with RAM use for improving both building enterprise productivity and/or developing potential and Safety Climate. The developed RAM could be a benefit for predicting high-risk construction activities and thus preventing accidents occurred based on a set of historical accident data. Methodology/Methods: A Risk Assessment Model (RAM) has been developed for assessing risk levels as various construction process stages with various work trades impacting different spheres of enterprise activity. The RAM is the result of research project realized at the above 60 construction sites, both in Poland and Portugal, where 450 observations have been completed including also harmful physical and chemical factors, stress level, also worker habits, as well as a hundred ex-post reconstruction of construction accidents scenarios. genetic modeling tool has been used for developing the RAM. Findings and Value Added: Common types of trades, accidents, and accident causes have been explored, in addition to suitable risk assessment methods and criteria. We have found the initial worker stress level is more direct predictor for developing of the unsafe chain leading to the accident than the workload, and concentration of harmful factors at the workplace or even training frequency and management involvement.
19
13517
safeRoute: Information Safety System for Professional Road Driving
Abstract:
The communication presented is about tasks that are been developed in the research project “safeRoute”, “Information safety system for professional road driving” (IPT-2012-110-370000). This R&D project was proposed by the consortium formed by Fagor Electronica la SEU 3 and the University of Valencia to the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, which approved it inside the INNPACTO subprogramme grants. Through this type of calls, the Ministry promote the innovative capacity of the Spanish companies and turn on the mechanism for competing internationally. With this kind of calls, private investments for technological and industrial development join their R & D resources with public entities to implement innovative project that could have an international exposure. Thus INNPACTO subprogramme promotes the creation of research projects with public-private partnerships that create exploitable final products. The “safeRoute” Project pretends develop a tool to help to make more safety the travels of commercial transport vehicles of goods and passengers. To achieve its objectives, the project is focused in three main lines of research: vehicle safety, the safety of the roads that they are using, and the safety which drivers do their job, their behaviour while they are driving. To improve safety, the project gives information about these three factors to all people that are involved in the safety of the professional transport. These three factors have influence to the occurrence of traffic accidents, thanks to the information provided and treated about these factors, we can achieve a significant reduction in occupational accidents in the transport sector. SafeRoute provide information about routes, vehicles, and driver behaviours, and in this manner pretends provide to transport companies a tool which could result in a safer driving results and could reduce their costs related to traffic accidents of their vehicles, in that way, this tool could help them to be more competitive, and give a more reliable service. This paper will focus mainly on the information about routes that drivers use to travel in their professional work, and how the researchers of this project have catalogued and evaluated these routes, and finally how that information will be provided to users.
18
56628
Sediment Transport Monitoring in the Port of Veracruz Expansion Project
Abstract:
The construction of most coastal infrastructure developments around the world are usually made considering wave height, current velocities and river discharges; however, little effort has been paid to surveying sediment transport during dredging or the modification to currents outside the ports or marinas during and after the construction. This study shows a complete survey during the construction of one of the largest ports of the Gulf of Mexico. An anchored Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler (ADCP), a towed ADCP and a combination of model outputs were used at the Veracruz port construction in order to describe the hourly sediment transport and current modifications in and out of the new port. Owing to the stability of the system the new port was construction inside Vergara Bay, a low wave energy system with a tidal range of up to 0.40 m. The results show a two-current system pattern within the bay. The north side of the bay has an anticyclonic gyre, while the southern part of the bay shows a cyclonic gyre. Sediment transport trajectories were made every hour using the anchored ADCP, a numerical model and the weekly data obtained from the towed ADCP within the entire bay. The sediment transport trajectories were carefully tracked since the bay is surrounded by coral reef structures which are sensitive to sedimentation rate and water turbidity. The survey shows that during dredging and rock input used to build the wave breaker sediments were locally added (&lt; 2500 m2) and local currents disperse it in less than 4 h. While the river input located in the middle of the bay and the sewer system plant may add more than 10 times this amount during a rainy day or during the tourist season. Finally, the coastal line obtained seasonally with a drone suggests that the southern part of the bay has not been modified by the construction of the new port located in the northern part of the bay, owing to the two subsystem division of the bay.
17
77112
Educational Sport and Quality of Life for Children and Teenagers from Brazilian Northeast
Abstract:
The use of sport as an integration mean is a very important tool regarding the social involvement of children and teenagers in a vulnerability situation. This study aims to report the experiences of a multidisciplinary program that intends to improve the quality of life of children and teenagers in Fortaleza, in the Northeast of Brazil. More than 400 children and teenagers aging 11 and 16 years participated in this study. Poor communities experience many particular difficulties in the urban centers such as violence, poor housing conditions, unemployment, lack in health care and deficient physical education in school. Physical education, physiotherapy, odontology, medicine and pharmacy students are responsible for the activities in the project supervised by a general coordinator and a counselor teacher of each academic unit. There are classes about team sports like basketball and soccer. Lectures about sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases are ministered beside the ones about oral health education, basic life support education, first aids, use and care with pharmaceuticals and orientations about healthy nutrition. In order to get the children’s family closer, monthly informative lectures are ministered. There is also the concern about reflecting the actions and producing academic paperwork such as graduation final projects and books. The number of participants has oscillated lately, and one of the causes is the lack of practicing physical activities and sports regularly. However, 250 teenagers have participated regularly for at least two years. These teenagers have shown a healthier lifestyle and a better physical fitness profile. The resources for maintaining the project come from the Pro-Reitoria of Extension, Federal University of Ceara, as well as from the PROEXT/MEC, Federal Government. Actions of this nature need to be done thinking for long periods so the effects results can become effective. Public and private investments are needed due to low socioeconomic families who are most vulnerable and have fewer opportunities to enhance to health prevention services.
16
60094
Low Energy Technology for Leachate Valorisation
Abstract:
Landfills present long-term threats to soil, air, groundwater and surface water due to the formation of greenhouse gases (methane gas and carbon dioxide) and leachate from decomposing garbage. The composition of leachate differs from site to site and also within the landfill. The leachates alter with time (from weeks to years) since the landfilled waste is biologically highly active and their composition varies. Mainly, the composition of the leachate depends on factors such as characteristics of the waste, the moisture content, climatic conditions, degree of compaction and the age of the landfill. Therefore, the leachate composition cannot be generalized and the traditional treatment models should be adapted in each case. Although leachate composition is highly variable, what different leachates have in common is hazardous constituents and their potential eco-toxicological effects on human health and on terrestrial ecosystems. Since leachate has distinct compositions, each landfill or dumping site would represent a different type of risk on its environment. Nevertheless, leachates consist always of high organic concentration, conductivity, heavy metals and ammonia nitrogen. Leachate could affect the current and future quality of water bodies due to uncontrolled infiltrations. Therefore, control and treatment of leachate is one of the biggest issues in urban solid waste treatment plants and landfills design and management. This work presents a treatment model that will be carried out &quot;in-situ&quot; using a cost-effective novel technology that combines solar evaporation/condensation plus forward osmosis. The plant is powered by renewable energies (solar energy, biomass and residual heat), which will minimize the carbon footprint of the process. The final effluent quality is very high, allowing reuse (preferred) or discharge into watercourses. In the particular case of this work, the final effluents will be reused for cleaning and gardening purposes. A minority semi-solid residual stream is also generated in the process. Due to its special composition (rich in metals and inorganic elements), this stream will be valorized in ceramic industries to improve the final products characteristics.
15
73661
A Radiofrequency Based Navigation Method for Cooperative Robotic Communities in Surface Exploration Missions
Abstract:
When considering small robots working in a cooperative community for Moon surface exploration, navigation and inter-nodes communication aspects become a critical issue for the mission success. For this approach to succeed, it is necessary however to deploy the required infrastructure for the robotic community to achieve efficient self-localization as well as relative positioning and communications between nodes. In this paper, an exploration mission concept in which two cooperative robotic systems co-exist is presented. This paradigm hinges on a community of reference agents that provide support in terms of communication and navigation to a second agent community tasked with exploration goals. The work focuses on the role of the agent community in charge of the overall support and, more specifically, will focus on the positioning and navigation methods implemented in RF microwave bands, which are combined with the communication services. An analysis of the different methods for range and position calculation are presented, as well as the main limiting factors for precision and resolution, such as phase and frequency noise in RF reference carriers and drift mechanisms such as thermal drift and random walk. The effects of carrier frequency instability due to phase noise are categorized in different contributing bands, and the impact of these spectrum regions are considered both in terms of the absolute position and the relative speed. A mission scenario is finally proposed, and key metrics in terms of mass and power consumption for the required payload hardware are also assessed. For this purpose, an application case involving an RF communication network in UHF Band is described, in coexistence with a communications network used for the single agents to communicate within the both the exploring agents as well as the community and with the mission support agents. The proposed approach implements a substantial improvement in planetary navigation since it provides self-localization capabilities for robotic agents characterized by very low mass, volume and power budgets, thus enabling precise navigation capabilities to agents of reduced dimensions. Furthermore, a common and shared localization radiofrequency infrastructure enables new interaction mechanisms such as spatial arrangement of agents over the area of interest for distributed sensing.
14
53682
Pill-Box Dispenser as a Strategy for Therapeutic Management: A Qualitative Evaluation
Abstract:
Population ageing is directly correlated to an increase in medicine consumption. Beyond the latter and the polymedicated profile of elderly, it is possible to see a need for pharmacotherapeutic monitoring due to cognitive and physical impairment. In this sense, the tracking, organization and administration of medicines become a daily challenge and the pill-box dispenser system a solution. The pill-box dispenser (system) consists in a small compartmentalized container to unit dose organization, which means a container able to correlate the patient’s prescribed dose regimen and the time schedule of intake. In many European countries, this system is part of pharmacist’s role in clinical pharmacy. Despite this simple solution, therapy compliance is only possible if the patient adheres to the system, so it is important to establish a qualitative and quantitative analysis on the perception of the patient on the benefits and risks of the pill-box dispenser as well as the identification of the ideal system. The analysis was conducted through an observational study, based on the application of a standardized questionnaire structured with the numerical scale of Likert (5 levels) and previously validated on the population. The study was performed during a limited period of time and under a randomized sample of 188 participants. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions: 6 background measures and 16 specific measures. The standards for the final comparative analysis were obtained through the state-of-the-art on the subject. The study carried out using the Likert scale afforded a degree of agreement and discordance between measures (Sample vs. Standard) of 56,25% and 43,75%, respectively. It was concluded that the pill-box dispenser has greater acceptance among a younger population, that was not the initial target of the system. However, this allows us to guarantee a high adherence in the future. Additionally, it was noted that the cost associated with this service is not a limiting factor for its use. The pill-box dispenser system, as currently implemented, demonstrates an important weakness regarding the quality and effectiveness of the medicines, which is not understood by the patient, revealing a significant lack of literacy when it concerns with medicine area. The characteristics of an ideal system remain unchanged, which means that the size, appearance and availability of information in the pill-box continue to be indispensable elements for the compliance with the system. The pill-box dispenser remains unsuitable regarding container size and the type of treatment to which it applies. Despite that, it might be a future standard for clinical pharmacy, allowing a differentiation of the pharmacist role, as well as a wider range of applications to other age groups and treatments.
13
56681
Topographic Coast Monitoring Using UAV Photogrammetry: A Case Study in Port of Veracruz Expansion Project
Abstract:
Topographical changes in coastal areas are usually assessed with airborne LIDAR and conventional photogrammetry. In recent times Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been used several in photogrammetric applications including coastline evolution. However, its use goes further by using the points cloud associated to generate beach Digital Elevation Models (DEM). We present a methodology for monitoring coastal topographic changes along a 50 km coastline in Veracruz, Mexico using high-resolution images (less than 10 cm ground resolution) and dense points cloud captured with an UAV. This monitoring develops in the context of the port of Veracruz expansion project which construction began in 2015 and intends to characterize coast evolution and prevent and mitigate project impacts on coastal environments. The monitoring began with a historical coastline reconstruction since 1979 to 2015 using aerial photography and Landsat imagery. We could define some patterns: the northern part of the study area showed accretion while the southern part of the study area showed erosion. Since the study area is located off the port of Veracruz, a touristic and economical Mexican urban city, where coastal development structures have been built since 1979 in a continuous way, the local beaches of the touristic area are been refilled constantly. Those areas were not described as accretion since every month sand-filled trucks refill the sand beaches located in front of the hotel area. The construction of marinas and the comitial port of Veracruz, the old and the new expansion were made in the erosion part of the area. Northward from the City of Veracruz the beaches were described as accretion areas while southward from the city, the beaches were described as erosion areas. One of the problems is the expansion of the new development in the southern area of the city using the beach view as an incentive to buy front beach houses. We assessed coastal changes between seasons using high-resolution images and also points clouds during 2016 and preliminary results confirm that UAVs can be used in permanent coast monitoring programs with excellent performance and detail.
12
37793
Screening for Larvicidal Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Fourteen Selected Plants and Formulation of a Larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) Larvae
Abstract:
This study aims to: a) obtain ethanolic (95% EtOH) and aqueous extracts of Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus, Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens and screen them for larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae; b) to fractionate the most active extract and determine the most active fraction; c) to determine the larvicidal properties of the most active extract and fraction against by computing their percentage mortality, LC50, and LC90 after 24 and 48 hours of exposure; and d) to determine the nature of the components of the active extracts and fractions using phytochemical screening. Ethanolic (95% EtOH) and aqueous extracts of the selected plants will be screened for potential larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using standard procedures and 1% malathion and a Piper nigrum based ovicide-larvicide by the Department of Science and Technology as positive controls. The results were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA with Tukey&rsquo;s and Dunnett&rsquo;s test. The most active extract will be subjected to partial fractionation using normal-phase column chromatography, and the fractions subsequently screened to determine the most active fraction. The most active extract and fraction were subjected to dose-response assay and probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. The active extracts and fractions will be screened for phytochemical content. The ethanolic extracts of C. citratus, E. hirta, I. coccinea, G. sepium, M. koenigii, E globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens exhibited significant larvicidal activity, with C. frutescens being the most active. After fractionation, the ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the most active. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. A formulation using talcum powder&ndash;300 mg fraction per 1 g talcum powder&ndash;was made and again tested for larvicidal activity. At 2 g/L, the formulation proved effective in killing all of the test larvae after 24 hours.
11
42598
In Vitro Evaluation of a Chitosan-Based Adhesive to Treat Bone Fractures
Abstract:
Complex fractures located in articular surfaces are challenging to treat and their reduction with conventional treatments could compromise the functionality of the affected limb. An adhesive material to treat those fractures is desirable for orthopedic surgeons. This adhesive must be biocompatible and have a high adhesion to bone surface in an aqueous environment. The proposed adhesive is based on chitosan, given its adhesive and biocompatibility properties. Chitosan is mixed with calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite, which contribute to structural support and a gel like behavior, and glutaraldehyde is used as a cross-linking agent to keep the adhesive mechanical performance in aqueous environment. This work aims to evaluate the rheological, adhesion strength and biocompatibility properties of the proposed adhesive using in vitro tests. The gelification process of the adhesive was monitored by oscillatory rheometry in an ARG-2 TA Instruments rheometer, using a parallel plate geometry of 22 mm and a gap of 1 mm. Time sweep experiments were conducted at 1 Hz frequency, 1% strain and 37°C from 0 to 2400 s. Adhesion strength is measured using a butt joint test with bovine cancellous bone fragments as substrates. The test is conducted at 5 min, 20min and 24 hours after curing the adhesive under water at 37°C. Biocompatibility is evaluated by a cytotoxicity test in a fibroblast cell culture using MTT assay and SEM. Rheological results concluded that the average gelification time of the adhesive is 820±107 s, also it reaches storage modulus magnitudes up to 106 Pa; The adhesive show solid-like behavior. Butt joint test showed 28.6 ± 9.2 kPa of tensile bond strength for the adhesive cured for 24 hours. Also there was no significant difference in adhesion strength between 20 minutes and 24 hours. MTT showed 70 ± 23 % of active cells at sixth day of culture, this percentage is estimated respect to a positive control (only cells with culture medium and bovine serum). High vacuum SEM observation permitted to localize and study the morphology of fibroblasts presented in the adhesive. All captured fibroblasts presented in SEM typical flatted structure with filopodia growth attached to adhesive surface. This project reports an adhesive based on chitosan that is biocompatible due to high active cells presented in MTT test and these results were correlated using SEM. Also, it has adhesion properties in conditions that model the clinical application, and the adhesion strength do not decrease between 5 minutes and 24 hours.
10
42517
Insertion of Photovoltaic Energy at Residential Level at Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela, Honduras
Abstract:
Currently in Honduras, is been incentivized the generation of energy using renewable fonts, such as: hydroelectricity, wind power, biomass and, more recently with the strongest growth, photovoltaic energy. In July 2015 were installed 455.2 MW of photovoltaic energy, increasing by 24% the installed capacity of the national interconnected system existing in 2014, according the National Energy Company (NEC), that made possible reduce the thermoelectric dependency of the system. Given the good results of those large-scale photovoltaic plants, arises the question: is it interesting for the distribution utility and for the consumers the integration of photovoltaic systems in micro-scale in the urban and rural areas? To answer that question has been researched the insertion of photovoltaic energy in the residential sector in Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela (Central District), Honduras to determine the technical and economic viability. Francisco Morazán department, according the National Statistics Institute (NSI), in 2001 had more than 180,000 houses with power service. Tegucigalpa, department and Honduras capital, and Comayagüela, both, have the highest population density in the region, with 1,300,000 habitants in 2014 (NSI). The residential sector in the south-central region of Honduras represents a high percentage being 49% of total consumption, according with NEC in 2014; where 90% of this sector consumes in a range of 0 to 300 kWh / month. All this, in addition to the high level of losses in the transmission and distribution systems, 31.3% in 2014, and the availability of an annual average solar radiation of 5.20 kWh/(m2∙day) according to the NASA, suggests the feasibility of the implementation of photovoltaic systems as a solution to give a level of independency to the households, and besides could be capable of injecting the non-used energy to the grid. The capability of exchange of energy with the grid could make the photovoltaic systems acquisition more affordable to the consumers, because of the compensation energy programs or other kinds of incentives that could be created. Technical viability of the photovoltaic systems insertion has been analyzed, considering the solar radiation monthly average to determine the monthly average of energy that would be generated with the technology accessible locally and the effects of the injection of the energy locally generated on the grid. In addition, the economic viability has been analyzed too, considering the photovoltaic systems high costs, costs of the utility, location and monthly energy consumption requirements of the families. It was found that the inclusion of photovoltaic systems in Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela could decrease in 6 MW the demand for the region if 100% of the households use photovoltaic systems, which acquisition may be more accessible with the help of government incentives and/or the application of energy exchange programs.
9
68683
Most Recent Lifespan Estimate for the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant Computed by Using Borland and Miller Method and Mass Balance in Brazil, Paraguay
Abstract:
Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant is settled on the Paraná River, which is a natural boundary between Brazil and Paraguay; thus, the facility is shared by both countries. Itaipu Power Plant is the biggest hydroelectric generator in the world, and provides clean and renewable electrical energy supply for 17% and 76% of Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The plant started its generation in 1984. It counts on 20 Francis turbines and has installed capacity of 14,000 MWh. Its historic generation record occurred in 2016 (103,098,366 MWh), and since the beginning of its operation until the last day of 2016 the plant has achieved the sum of 2,415,789,823 MWh. The distinct sedimentologic aspects of the drainage area of Itaipu Power Plant, from its stretch upstream (Porto Primavera and Rosana dams) to downstream (Itaipu dam itself), were taken into account in order to best estimate the increase/decrease in the sediment yield by using data from 2001 to 2016. Such data are collected through a network of 14 automatic sedimentometric stations managed by the company itself and operating in an hourly basis, covering an area of around 136,000 km² (92% of the incremental drainage area of the undertaking). Since 1972, a series of lifespan studies for the Itaipu Power Plant have been made, being first assessed by Sir Hans Albert Einstein, at the time of the feasibility studies for the enterprise. From that date onwards, eight further studies were made through the last 44 years aiming to confer more precision upon the estimates based on more updated data sets. From the analysis of each monitoring station, it was clearly noticed strong increase tendencies in the sediment yield through the last 14 years, mainly in the Iguatemi, Ivaí, São Francisco Falso and Carapá Rivers, the latter situated in Paraguay, whereas the others are utterly in Brazilian territory. Five lifespan scenarios considering different sediment yield tendencies were simulated with the aid of the softwares SEDIMENT and DPOSIT, both developed by the author of the present work. Such softwares thoroughly follow the Borland & Miller methodology (empirical method of area-reduction). The soundest scenario out of the five ones under analysis indicated a lifespan foresight of 168 years, being the reservoir only 1.8% silted by the end of 2016, after 32 years of operation. Besides, the mass balance in the reservoir (water inflows minus outflows) between 1986 and 2016 shows that 2% of the whole Itaipu lake is silted nowadays. Owing to the convergence of both results, which were acquired by using different methodologies and independent input data, it is worth concluding that the mathematical modeling is satisfactory and calibrated, thus assigning credibility to this most recent lifespan estimate.
8
68807
Structural and Morphological Characterization of the Biomass of Aquatics Macrophyte (Egeria densa) Submitted to Thermal Pretreatment
Abstract:
The search for alternatives to control hunger in the world, generated a major environmental problem. Intensive systems of fish production can cause an imbalance in the aquatic environment, triggering the phenomenon of eutrophication. Currently, there are many forms of growth control aquatic plants, such as mechanical withdrawal, however some difficulties arise for their final destination. The Egeria densa is a species of submerged aquatic macrophyte-rich in cellulose and low concentrations of lignin. By applying the concept of second generation energy, which uses lignocellulose for energy production, the reuse of these aquatic macrophytes (Egeria densa) in the biofuels production can turn an interesting alternative. In order to make lignocellulose sugars available for effective fermentation, it is important to use pre-treatments in order to separate the components and modify the structure of the cellulose and thus facilitate the attack of the microorganisms responsible for the fermentation. Therefore, the objective of this research work was to evaluate the structural and morphological transformations occurring in the biomass of aquatic macrophytes (E.densa) submitted to a thermal pretreatment. The samples were collected in an intensive fish growing farm, in the low São Francisco dam, in the northeastern region of Brazil. After collection, the samples were dried in a 65 0C ventilation oven and milled in a 5mm micron knife mill. A duplicate assay was carried, comparing the in natural biomass with the pretreated biomass with heat (MT). The sample (MT) was submitted to an autoclave with a temperature of 1210C and a pressure of 1.1 atm, for 30 minutes. After this procedure, the biomass was characterized in terms of degree of crystallinity and morphology, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that there was a decrease of 11% in the crystallinity index (% CI) of the pretreated biomass, leading to the structural modification in the cellulose and greater presence of amorphous structures. Increases in porosity and surface roughness of the samples were also observed. These results suggest that biomass may become more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes of fermenting microorganisms. Therefore, the morphological transformations caused by the thermal pretreatment may be favorable for a subsequent fermentation and, consequently, a higher yield of biofuels. Thus, the use of thermally pretreated aquatic macrophytes (E.densa) can be an environmentally, financially and socially sustainable alternative. In addition, it represents a measure of control for the aquatic environment, which can generate income (biogas production) and maintenance of fish farming activities in local communities.
7
111555
Role of Lipid-Lowering Treatment in the Monocyte Phenotype and Chemokine Receptor Levels after Acute Myocardial Infarction
Abstract:
Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, characterized by lipid and fibrotic element deposition in large-caliber arteries. Conditions related to the development of atherosclerosis, as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are associated with endothelial dysfunction. There is a frequent recurrence of cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction and, at this sense, cycles of mobilization of monocyte subtypes (classical, intermediate and nonclassical) secondary to myocardial infarction may determine the colonization of atherosclerotic plaques in different stages of the development, contributing to early recurrence of ischemic events. The recruitment of different monocyte subsets during inflammatory process requires the expression of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1, to promote the migration of monocytes to the inflammatory site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipid-lowering treatment by six months in the monocyte phenotype and chemokine receptor levels of patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: This is a PROBE (prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoints) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02428374). Adult patients (n=147) of both genders, ageing 18-75 years, were randomized in a 2x2 factorial design for treatment with rosuvastatin 20 mg/day or simvastatin 40 mg/day plus ezetimibe 10 mg/day as well as ticagrelor 90 mg 2x/day and clopidogrel 75 mg, in addition to conventional AMI therapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after one month and six months of treatment. Monocyte subtypes (classical - inflammatory, intermediate - phagocytic and nonclassical – anti-inflammatory) were identified, quantified and characterized by flow cytometry, as well as the expressions of the chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5 and CX3CR1) were also evaluated in the mononuclear cells. Results: After six months of treatment, there was an increase in the percentage of classical monocytes and reduction in the nonclassical monocytes (p=0.038 and p < 0.0001 Friedman Test), without differences for intermediate monocytes. Besides, classical monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 after treatment, without differences related to CCR2 (p < 0.0001 for CCR5 and CX3CR1; p=0.175 for CCR2). Intermediate monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 and lower expression of CCR2 (p = 0.003; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Nonclassical monocytes had lower expressions of CCR2 and CCR5, without differences for CX3CR1 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.009 and p = 0.138, respectively). There were no differences after the comparison between the four treatment arms. Conclusion: The data suggest a time-dependent modulation of classical and nonclassical monocytes and chemokine receptor levels. The higher percentage of classical monocytes (inflammatory cells) suggest a residual inflammatory risk, even under preconized treatments to AMI. Indeed, these changes do not seem to be affected by choice of the lipid-lowering strategy.
6
99825
Estimating Estimators: An Empirical Comparison of Non-Invasive Analysis Methods
Abstract:
The non-invasive samples are an alternative of collecting genetic samples directly. Non-invasive samples are collected without the manipulation of the animal (e.g., scats, feathers and hairs). Nevertheless, the use of non-invasive samples has some limitations. The main issue is degraded DNA, leading to poorer extraction efficiency and genotyping. Those errors delayed for some years a widespread use of non-invasive genetic information. Possibilities to limit genotyping errors can be done using analysis methods that can assimilate the errors and singularities of non-invasive samples. Genotype matching and population estimation algorithms can be highlighted as important analysis tools that have been adapted to deal with those errors. Although, this recent development of analysis methods there is still a lack of empirical performance comparison of them. A comparison of methods with dataset different in size and structure can be useful for future studies since non-invasive samples are a powerful tool for getting information specially for endangered and rare populations. To compare the analysis methods, four different datasets used were obtained from the Dryad digital repository were used. Three different matching algorithms (Cervus, Colony and Error Tolerant Likelihood Matching - ETLM) are used for matching genotypes and two different ones for population estimation (Capwire and BayesN). The three matching algorithms showed different patterns of results. The ETLM produced less number of unique individuals and recaptures. A similarity in the matched genotypes between Colony and Cervus was observed. That is not a surprise since the similarity between those methods on the likelihood pairwise and clustering algorithms. The matching of ETLM showed almost no similarity with the genotypes that were matched with the other methods. The different cluster algorithm system and error model of ETLM seems to lead to a more criterious selection, although the processing time and interface friendly of ETLM were the worst between the compared methods. The population estimators performed differently regarding the datasets. There was a consensus between the different estimators only for the one dataset. The BayesN showed higher and lower estimations when compared with Capwire. The BayesN does not consider the total number of recaptures like Capwire only the recapture events. So, this makes the estimator sensitive to data heterogeneity. Heterogeneity in the sense means different capture rates between individuals. In those examples, the tolerance for homogeneity seems to be crucial for BayesN work properly. Both methods are user-friendly and have reasonable processing time. An amplified analysis with simulated genotype data can clarify the sensibility of the algorithms. The present comparison of the matching methods indicates that Colony seems to be more appropriated for general use considering a time/interface/robustness balance. The heterogeneity of the recaptures affected strongly the BayesN estimations, leading to over and underestimations population numbers. Capwire is then advisable to general use since it performs better in a wide range of situations.
5
68220
CO2 Utilization by Reverse Water-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis for Production of Heavier Fraction Hydrocarbons in a Container-Sized Mobile Unit
Abstract:
Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) are one of the key topics in mitigation of CO2 emissions. There are many different technologies that are applied for the production of diverse chemicals from CO2 such as synthetic natural gas, Fischer-Tropsch products, methanol and polymers. Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquids concepts arise as a synergetic solution for storing energy and producing value added products from the intermittent renewable energy sources and CCU. VTT is a research and technology development company having energy in transition as one of the key focus areas. VTT has extensive experience in piloting and upscaling of new energy and chemical processes. Recently, VTT has developed and commissioned a Mobile Synthesis Unit (MOBSU) in close collaboration with INERATEC, a spin-off company of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Germany). The MOBSU is a multipurpose synthesis unit for CO2 upgrading to energy carriers and chemicals, which can be transported on-site where CO2 emission and renewable energy are available. The MOBSU is initially used for production of fuel compounds and chemical intermediates by combination of two consecutive processes: reverse Water-Gas Shift (rWGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT). First, CO2 is converted to CO by high-pressure rWGS and then, the CO and H2 rich effluent is used as feed for FT using an intensified reactor technology developed and designed by INERATEC. Chemical equilibrium of rWGS reaction is not affected by pressure. Nevertheless, compression would be required in between rWGS and FT in the case when rWGS is operated at atmospheric pressure. This would also require cooling of rWGS effluent, water removal and reheating. For that reason, rWGS is operated using precious metal catalyst in the MOBSU at similar pressure as FT to simplify the process. However, operating rWGS at high pressures has also some disadvantages such as methane and carbon formation, and more demanding specifications for materials. The main parts of FT module are an intensified reactor, a hot trap to condense the FT wax products, and a cold trap to condense the FT liquid products. The FT synthesis is performed using cobalt catalyst in a novel compact reactor technology with integrated highly-efficient water evaporation cooling cycle. The MOBSU started operation in November 2016. First, the FT module is tested using as feedstock H2 and CO. Subsequently, rWGS and FT modules are operated together using CO2 and H2 as feedstock of ca. 5 Nm3/hr total flowrate. On spring 2017, The MOBSU unit will be integrated together with a direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 unit, and a PEM electrolyser unit at Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) premises for demonstration of the SoletAir concept. This would be the first time when synthetic fuels are produced by combination of DAC unit and electrolyser unit which uses solar power for H2 production.
4
86916
Supercritical Water Gasification of Organic Wastes for Hydrogen Production and Waste Valorization
Abstract:
Population growth and industrial development imply an increase in the energy demands and the problems caused by emissions of greenhouse effect gases, which has inspired the search for clean sources of energy. Hydrogen (H₂) is expected to play a key role in the world’s energy future by replacing fossil fuels. The properties of H₂ make it a green fuel that does not generate pollutants and supplies sufficient energy for power generation, transportation, and other applications. Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) represents an attractive alternative for the recovery of energy from wastes. SCWG allows conversion of a wide range of raw materials into a fuel gas with a high content of hydrogen and light hydrocarbons through their treatment at conditions higher than those that define the critical point of water (temperature of 374°C and pressure of 221 bar). Methane used as a transport fuel is another important gasification product. The number of different uses of gas and energy forms that can be produced depending on the kind of material gasified and type of technology used to process it, shows the flexibility of SCWG. This feature allows it to be integrated with several industrial processes, as well as power generation systems or waste-to-energy production systems. The final aim of this work is to study which conditions and equipment are the most efficient and advantageous to explore the possibilities to obtain streams rich in H₂ from oily wastes, which represent a major problem both for the environment and human health throughout the world. In this paper, the relative complexity of technology needed for feasible gasification process cycles is discussed with particular reference to the different feedstocks that can be used as raw material, different reactors, and energy recovery systems. For this purpose, a review of the current status of SCWG technologies has been carried out, by means of different classifications based on key features as the feed treated or the type of reactor and other apparatus. This analysis allows to improve the technology efficiency through the study of model calculations and its comparison with experimental data, the establishment of kinetics for chemical reactions, the analysis of how the main reaction parameters affect the yield and composition of products, or the determination of the most common problems and risks that can occur. The results of this work show that SCWG is a promising method for the production of both hydrogen and methane. The most significant choices of design are the reactor type and process cycle, which can be conveniently adopted according to waste characteristics. Regarding the future of the technology, the design of SCWG plants is still to be optimized to include energy recovery systems in order to reduce costs of equipment and operation derived from the high temperature and pressure conditions that are necessary to convert water to the SC state, as well as to find solutions to remove corrosion and clogging of components of the reactor.
3
91479
Supercritical Water Gasification of Organic Wastes for Hydrogen Production and Waste Valorization
Abstract:
Population growth and industrial development imply an increase in the energy demands and the problems caused by emissions of greenhouse effect gases, which has inspired the search for clean sources of energy. Hydrogen (H₂) is expected to play a key role in the world’s energy future by replacing fossil fuels. The properties of H₂ make it a green fuel that does not generate pollutants and supplies sufficient energy for power generation, transportation, and other applications. Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) represents an attractive alternative for the recovery of energy from wastes. SCWG allows conversion of a wide range of raw materials into a fuel gas with a high content of hydrogen and light hydrocarbons through their treatment at conditions higher than those that define the critical point of water (temperature of 374°C and pressure of 221 bar). Methane used as a transport fuel is another important gasification product. The number of different uses of gas and energy forms that can be produced depending on the kind of material gasified and type of technology used to process it, shows the flexibility of SCWG. This feature allows it to be integrated with several industrial processes, as well as power generation systems or waste-to-energy production systems. The final aim of this work is to study which conditions and equipment are the most efficient and advantageous to explore the possibilities to obtain streams rich in H₂ from oily wastes, which represent a major problem both for the environment and human health throughout the world. In this paper, the relative complexity of technology needed for feasible gasification process cycles is discussed with particular reference to the different feedstocks that can be used as raw material, different reactors, and energy recovery systems. For this purpose, a review of the current status of SCWG technologies has been carried out, by means of different classifications based on key features as the feed treated or the type of reactor and other apparatus. This analysis allows to improve the technology efficiency through the study of model calculations and its comparison with experimental data, the establishment of kinetics for chemical reactions, the analysis of how the main reaction parameters affect the yield and composition of products, or the determination of the most common problems and risks that can occur. The results of this work show that SCWG is a promising method for the production of both hydrogen and methane. The most significant choices of design are the reactor type and process cycle, which can be conveniently adopted according to waste characteristics. Regarding the future of the technology, the design of SCWG plants is still to be optimized to include energy recovery systems in order to reduce costs of equipment and operation derived from the high temperature and pressure conditions that are necessary to convert water to the SC state, as well as to find solutions to remove corrosion and clogging of components of the reactor.
2
60182
Membrane Technologies for Obtaining Bioactive Fractions from Blood Main Protein: An Exploratory Study for Industrial Application
Abstract:
The meat industry generates large volumes of blood as a result of meat processing. Several industrial procedures have been implemented in order to treat this by-product, but are focused on the production of low-value products, and in many cases, blood is simply discarded as waste. Besides, in addition to economic interests, there is an environmental concern due to bloodborne pathogens and other chemical contaminants found in blood. Consequently, there is a dire need to find extensive uses for blood that can be both applicable to industrial scale and able to yield high value-added products. Blood has been recognized as an important source of protein. The main blood serum protein in mammals is serum albumin. One of the top trends in food market is functional foods. Among them, bioactive peptides can be obtained from protein sources by microbiological fermentation or enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis. Bioactive peptides are short amino acid sequences that can have a positive impact on health when administered. The main drawback for bioactive peptide production is the high cost of the isolation, purification and characterization techniques (such as chromatography and mass spectrometry) that make unaffordable the scale-up. On the other hand, membrane technologies are very suitable to apply to the industry because they offer a very easy scale-up and are low-cost technologies, compared to other traditional separation methods. In this work, the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptide fractions from serum albumin by means of a simple procedure of only 2 steps (hydrolysis and membrane filtration) was evaluated, as an exploratory study for possible industrial application. The methodology used in this work was, firstly, a tryptic hydrolysis of serum albumin in order to release the peptides from the protein. The protein was previously subjected to a thermal treatment in order to enhance the enzyme cleavage and thus the peptide yield. Then, the obtained hydrolysate was filtered through a nanofiltration/ultrafiltration flat rig at three different pH values with two different membrane materials, so as to compare membrane performance. The corresponding permeates were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology in order to obtain the peptide sequences present in each permeate. Finally, different concentrations of every permeate were evaluated for their in vitro antihypertensive and antioxidant activities though ACE-inhibition and DPPH radical scavenging tests. The hydrolysis process with the previous thermal treatment allowed achieving a degree of hydrolysis of the 49.66% of the maximum possible. It was found that peptides were best transmitted to the permeate stream at pH values that corresponded to their isoelectric points. Best selectivity between peptide groups was achieved at basic pH values. Differences in peptide content were found between membranes and also between pH values for the same membrane. The antioxidant activity of all permeates was high compared with the control only for the highest dose. However, antihypertensive activity was best for intermediate concentrations, rather than higher or lower doses. Therefore, although differences between them, all permeates were promising regarding antihypertensive and antioxidant properties.
1
103547
Discovering Causal Structure from Observations: The Relationships between Technophile Attitude, Users Value and Use Intention of Mobility Management Travel App
Abstract:
The increasing complexity and demand of transport services strains transportation systems especially in urban areas with limited possibilities for building new infrastructure. The solution to this challenge requires changes of travel behavior. One of the proposed means to induce such change is multimodal travel apps. This paper describes a study of the intention to use a real-time multi-modal travel app aimed at motivating travel behavior change in the Greater Copenhagen Region (Denmark) toward promoting sustainable transport options. The proposed app is a multi-faceted smartphone app including both travel information and persuasive strategies such as health and environmental feedback, tailoring travel options, self-monitoring, tunneling users toward green behavior, social networking, nudging and gamification elements. The prospective for mobility management travel apps to stimulate sustainable mobility rests not only on the original and proper employment of the behavior change strategies, but also on explicitly anchoring it on established theoretical constructs from behavioral theories. The theoretical foundation is important because it positively and significantly influences the effectiveness of the system. However, there is a gap in current knowledge regarding the study of mobility-management travel app with support in behavioral theories, which should be explored further. This study addresses this gap by a social cognitive theory‐based examination. However, compare to conventional method in technology adoption research, this study adopts a reverse approach in which the associations between theoretical constructs are explored by Max-Min Hill-Climbing (MMHC) algorithm as a hybrid causal discovery method. A technology-use preference survey was designed to collect data. The survey elicited different groups of variables including (1) three groups of user’s motives for using the app including gain motives (e.g., saving travel time and cost), hedonic motives (e.g., enjoyment) and normative motives (e.g., less travel-related CO2 production), (2) technology-related self-concepts (i.e. technophile attitude) and (3) use Intention of the travel app. The questionnaire items led to the formulation of causal relationships discovery to learn the causal structure of the data. Causal relationships discovery from observational data is a critical challenge and it has applications in different research fields. The estimated causal structure shows that the two constructs of gain motives and technophilia have a causal effect on adoption intention. Likewise, there is a causal relationship from technophilia to both gain and hedonic motives. In line with the findings of the prior studies, it highlights the importance of functional value of the travel app as well as technology self-concept as two important variables for adoption intention. Furthermore, the results indicate the effect of technophile attitude on developing gain and hedonic motives. The causal structure shows hierarchical associations between the three groups of user’s motive. They can be explained by “frustration-regression” principle according to Alderfer's ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of needs meaning that a higher level need remains unfulfilled, a person may regress to lower level needs that appear easier to satisfy. To conclude, this study shows the capability of causal discovery methods to learn the causal structure of theoretical model, and accordingly interpret established associations.