Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66727

8
17541
Combined Localization, Beamforming, and Interference Threshold Estimation in Underlay Cognitive System
Abstract:
This paper aims at providing an innovative solution for blind interference threshold estimation in an underlay cognitive network to be used in adaptive beamforming by secondary user Transmitter and Receiver. For the task of threshold estimation, blind detection of modulation and SNR are used. For the sake of beamforming several localization algorithms are compared to settle on best one for cognitive environment. Beamforming algorithms as LCMV (Linear Constraint Minimum Variance) and MVDR (Minimum Variance Distortion less) are also proposed and compared. The idea of just nulling the primary user after knowledge of its location is discussed against the idea of working under interference threshold.
7
9506
Transesterification of Jojoba Oil Wax Using Microwave Technique
Abstract:
Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi-desert areas in Egypt and in some parts of the world. The main uses of jojoba oil wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the jojoba oil wax to biodiesel by transesterification with ethanol and a series of aliphatic alcohols using a more economic and energy saving method in a domestic microwave. The effect of time and power of the microwave on the extent of the transesterification using ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols has been studied. The separation of the alkyl esters from the fatty alcohols rich fraction has been done in a single crystallization step at low temperature (−18°C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. Gas chromatography has been used to follow up the transesterification process. All products have been characterized by spectral analysis.
6
78355
Rendering Religious References in English: Naguib Mahfouz in the Arabic as a Foreign Language Classroom
Abstract:
The transition from the advanced to the superior level of Arabic proficiency is widely known to pose considerable challenges for English speaking students of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Apart from the increasing complexity of the grammar at this juncture, together with the sprawling vocabulary, to name but two of those challenges, there is also the somewhat less studied hurdle along the way to superior level proficiency, namely, the seeming opacity of many aspects of Arab/ic culture to such learners. This presentation tackles one specific dimension of such issues: religious references in literary texts. It illustrates how carefully constructed translation activities may be used to expand and deepen students’ understanding and use of them. This is shown to be vital for making the leap to the desired competency, given that such elements, as reflected in customs, traditions, institutions, worldviews, and formulaic expressions lie at the very core of Arabic culture and, as such, pervade all modes and levels of Arabic discourse. A short story from the collection “Stories from Our Alley”, by preeminent novelist Naguib Mahfouz is selected for use in this context, being particularly replete with such religious references, of which religious expressions will form the focus of the presentation. As a miniature literary work, it provides an organic whole, so to speak, within which to explore with the class the most precise denotation, as well as the subtlest connotation of each expression in an effort to reach the ‘best’ English rendering. The term ‘best’ refers to approximating the meaning in its full complexity from the source text, in this case Arabic, to the target text, English, according to the concept of equivalence in translation theory. The presentation will show how such a process generates the sort of thorough discussion and close text analysis which allows students to gain valuable insight into this central idiom of Arabic. A variety of translation methods will be highlighted, gleaned from the presenter’s extensive work with advanced/superior students in the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program at the American University in Cairo. These begin with the literal rendering of expressions, with the purpose of reinforcing vocabulary learning and practicing the rules of derivational morphology as they form each word, since the larger context remains that of an AFL class, as opposed to a translation skills program. However, departures from the literal approach are subsequently explored by degrees, moving along the spectrum of functional and pragmatic freer translations in order to transmit the ‘real’ meaning in readable English to the target audience- no matter how culture/religion specific the expression- while remaining faithful to the original. Samples from students’ work pre and post discussion will be shared, demonstrating how class consensus is formed as to the final English rendering, proposed as the closest match to the Arabic, and shown to be the result of the above activities. Finally, a few examples of translation work which students have gone on to publish will be shared to corroborate the effectiveness of this teaching practice.
5
24555
Contemporary Arabic Novel Probing the Self and the Other: A Contrapuntal Study of Identity, Sexuality, and Fundamentalism
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper examines the role played by Arabic novelists in revolutionary change in the Arab world, discussing themes of identity, sexuality and fundamentalism as portrayed in a selection of modern and contemporary Arabic novels that are either written in English or translated from Arabic into English. It particularly focuses on the post-Naguib Mahfouz era. Taking my cue from the current political changes in the Arab world, starting with 9/11/ terrorist attacks in the USA and the UK, the ‘Arab Spring’ revolutions, the rise of political Islam and the emergence of Isis, the Islamic state in Iraq and the Levant, the study analyses the differences in the ways contemporary Arab novelists from different Arabic countries represent the interaction between identity, sexual politics and fundamentalist ideas in the Arab world, with a specific focus on the overlap between literature, religion and international politics in the region. It argues that the post-Mahfouz era marked a new phase in the development of the political Arabic novel not only as a force of resistance against political-religious oppression, but as a call for revolution as well. Thus, the Arabic novel reshapes values and prompts future action.
4
102501
Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: Case Study, El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt
Abstract:
Conservation and urban investment is a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and the reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, the historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze an existing situation of historic street named El Sheikh Kandil thus to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users, and visitors. Then, it concludes recommendations to improve the quality of life by the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthen the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta can benefit develop its city in order to preserve and revitalize its unique character and achieve tourism development.
3
101295
Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt
Abstract:
Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.
2
124057
Effect of Different Carbon Fabric Orientations on the Fracture Properties of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites
Abstract:
The main drawbacks of the traditional carbon fabric reinforced epoxy resin (CFRP) are low strain failure, delamination between composites layers, and low impact resistance due to the brittleness of epoxy resin. The aim of this study is to enhance the fracture properties of the CFRP composites laminates via the variation of composite's designs. A series of composites were fabricated in which bidirectional (00/900) carbon fabric (CF) layers were laid inside the resin matrix with orientation codes as F1 [(00, 900)/ (00, 900)], F2 [(900, 00)/ (00, 900)] and F3 [(00,900)/ (900, 00). The mechanical and dynamic properties of the composites were estimated. In addition, the morphology of samples surface was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after impact fracture. The results revealed that the CFRP properties could be tailored fitting specific applications by controlling the fabric orientation inside the CFRP composite design. F2 orientation [(900, 00)/ (00.900)] showed the highest tensile and flexural strength values. On the other hand, the impact strength values of composites were in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature Tg values obtained from the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) examination was in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The variation in the properties of the composite was clearly explained by the SEM micrographs as the failure of F3 orientation properties was referred to as the complete breakage of the CF layers upon fracture.
1
13960
Effect of Nitrogen and/or Bio-Fertilizer on the Yield, Total Flavonoids, Carbohydrate Contents, Essential Oil Quantity and Constituents of Dill Plants
Abstract:
This study was conducted during two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 to evaluate the response of Anethum graveolens L. plants to nitrogen fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizer on fruits yield, total flavonoids and carbohydrates content, essential oil yield and constituents. Results cleared that the treatment of 60 Kg N/feddan without and with bio-fertilizer gave the highest umbels number per plant through the two seasons and these increments were significant in comparison with control plants. Meanwhile, fruits weight (g/plant) showed significant increase with the treatments of nitrogen fertilizers alone and combined with bio-fertilizers compared with control plants in the first and second season. Maximum increments were resulted with the previous treatment (60 Kg N/fed). Fruits yield (Kg/fed) revealed the same trend of fruits weight (g/plant). Total flavonoids contents were significantly increased with all of used treatments. Maximum increase was noticed with bio-fertilizers combined with 60 Kg N/fed during two seasons. Total carbohydrate contents showed significant increase with applied nitrogen fertilizers treatments as alone, meanwhile total carbohydrate contents were increased non-significantly with the other used treatments during the two seasons in comparison with control plants content. The treatment of bio-fertilizer and in most of nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly increased essential oil percentage, content and yield. The treatment of 60 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizer gave the best values. All identified compounds were observed in the essential oil of all treatments. The major compounds were limonene, carvone and dillapiole. The most effective fertilization on limonene content was 40 Kg N/fed and/or bio-fertilizers. Meanwhile 20 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizers increased carvone, but most of fertilization treatments except those of bio-fertlizers and 40 Kg N/fed increased dillapiole content.