Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 64156

Effect of Supply Frequency on Pre-Breakdown and Breakdown Phenomena in Unbridged Vacuum Gaps
This paper presents experimental results leading towards a better understanding of pre-breakdown and breakdown behavior of vacuum gaps under variable frequency alternating excitations. The frequency variation is in the range of 30 to 300 Hz in steps of 10 Hz for a fixed gap spacing of 0.5 mm. The results indicate that the pre-breakdown currents show an inverse relation with the breakdown voltage in general though erratic behavior was observed over a certain range of frequencies. A breakdown voltage peak was observed at 130 Hz. This was pronounced when the electrode pair was of stainless steel and less pronounced when copper and aluminum electrodes were used. The experimental results are explained based on F-N emission, I-F emission, and also thermal interaction due to quasi-continuous shower of anode micro-particles. Further, it is speculated that the ostensible cause for time delay between voltage and current peaks is due to the presence of neutral molecules in the gap.
Eco-Degradation and Phytodiversity of Pulicat Lagoon, Eastcoast of Southern India
Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lagoon after Chilika Lake of Orissa along the east coast of India. Estuaries and lagoons have brackish water which shows high biological productivity than fresh or sea water. Hence, it has a wide range of aquatic, terrestrial flora. The World Wide Fund for Nature declared it as a protected area. The present study aims to explore the flora of the lagoon along with the various threats for its eco-degradation which helps to plan necessary conservation methods.
Affirming Students’ Attention and Perceptions on Prezi Presentation via Eye Tracking System
The purpose of this study was to investigate graduate students’ visual attention and perceptions of a Prezi presentation. Ten post-graduate master students were presented with a Prezi presentation at the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The eye movement indicators such as dwell time, average fixation on the areas of interests, heat maps and focus maps were abstracted to indicate the students’ visual attention. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the students’ perception of the Prezi presentation in terms of text, slide design, images, layout and overall presentation. The result revealed that the students paid more attention to the text followed by the images and sub heading presented through the Prezi presentation.
Mitigation of Size Effects in Woven Fabric Composites Using Finite Element Analysis Approach
High-performance requirements and emission norms were forcing the automobile industry to opt for lightweight materials which improve the fuel efficiency and absorb energy during crash applications. In such scenario, the woven fabric composites are providing better energy absorption compared to metals. Woven fabric composites have a repetitive unit cell (RUC) and the mechanical properties of these materials are highly dependent on RUC. This work investigates the importance of detailed modelling of the RUC, the size effects associated and the mitigation techniques to avoid them using Finite element analysis approach.
Critical Accounting Estimates and Transparency in Financial Reporting: An Observation Financial Reporting under US GAAP
Estimates are very critical in accounting and Financial Reporting cannot be complete without these estimates. There is a long list of accounting estimates that are required to be made to compute Net Income and to determine the value of assets and liabilities. To name a few, valuation of inventory, depreciation, valuation of goodwill, provision for bad debts and estimated warranties, etc. require the use of different valuation models and forecasts. Different business entities under the same industry may use different approaches to measure the value of financial items being reported in Income Statement and Balance Sheet. The disclosure notes do not provide enough details of the approach used by a business entity to arrive at the value of a financial item. Lack of details in the disclosure notes makes it difficult to compare the financial performance of one business entity with the other in the same industry. This paper is an attempt to identify the lack of enough information about accounting estimates in disclosure notes, the impact of the absence of details of accounting estimates on the comparability of financial data and financial analysis. An attempt is made to suggest the detailed disclosure while taking care of the cost and benefit of making such disclosure.
Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Terminalia arjuna Encapsulated Dairy Drink
Terminalia arjuna (TA), an important medicinal plant in Indian System of Medicine, is specifically recognized for its recuperative effect on heart ailments. Alcoholic extract of TA (both free and encapsulated) was incorporated into milk to obtain functional dairy beverages. The respective beverages were appropriately flavored and optimized using response surface methodology to improve the sensory appeal. The beverages were evaluated for their compositional, anti-oxidative and various other physico-chemical aspects. Addition of herb (0.3%) extract to flavoured dairy drink (Drink 1) resulted in significantly lowered (p>0.05) HMF content and increased antioxidant activity, total phenol content as compared with control (Control 1). Subsequently, a significant (p>0.05) increase in acidity and sedimentation was also observed. Encapsulated herb (1.8%) incorporated drink (Drink 2) had significantly (P>0.05) enhanced HMF value and decreased antioxidant activity, phenol content as compared to herb added vanilla chocolate dairy drink (Drink 1). It can be concluded that addition of encapsulated TA extract and non-encapsulated TA extract to chocolate dairy drink at 0.3% concentration altered the functional properties vanilla chocolate dairy drink which could be related to the interaction of herb components such as polyphenol with milk protein or maltodextrin/ gum Arabic matrix.
A Multi-Scale Approach for the Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composites
Fiber reinforced polymer resin composite materials are finding wide variety of applications in automotive and aerospace industry because of their high specific stiffness and specific strengths when compared to metals. New class of 2D and 3D textile and woven fabric composites offer excellent fracture toughens as they bridge the cracks formed during fracture. Due to complexity of their fiber architectures and its resulting composite microstructures, optimized design and analysis of these structures is very complicated. A traditional homogenization approach is typically used to analyze structures made up of these materials. This approach usually fails to predict damage initiation as well as damage propagation and ultimate failure of structure made up of woven and textile composites. This study demonstrates a methodology to analyze woven and textile composites by using the multi-level multi-scale modelling approach. In this approach, a geometric repetitive unit cell (RUC) is developed with all its constituents to develop a representative volume element (RVE) with all its constituents and their interaction modeled correctly. The structure is modeled based on the RUC/RVE and analyzed at different length scales with desired levels of fidelity incorporating the damage and failure. The results are passed across (up and down) the scales qualitatively as well as quantitatively from the perspective of material, configuration and architecture.
Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Studies over Seven Cities of Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation
Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface over seven cities of Sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Chore, Padidan, Nawabshah, Rohri and Jacobabad were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization at Sindh province. The result obtained shows a variation of direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in southern Sindh (50% direct and 50% diffuse for Karachi, and Hyderabad) where there is a large variation in direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in northern region (80% direct and 20% diffuse for Rohri and Jacobabad). In southern Sindh, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is higher during the monsoon months (July and August). The sky remains clear during September to June. In northern Sindh (Rohri and Jacobabad) the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low even in monsoon months i,e in July and August. The Kt value for northern Sindh indicates a clear sky. In northern part of the Sindh percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. The appearance of cloud is rare. From the point of view of power generation, the estimated values indicate that northern part of Sindh has high solar potential while the southern part has low solar potential.
Pretreatment of Aquatic Weed Typha latifolia with Sodium Bisulphate for Enhanced Acid and Enzyme Hydrolysis for Production of Xylitol and Bioethanol
Employing lignocellulosic biomass in fermentative production of xylitol and bioethanol is gaining interest as it is renewable, cheap, and abundantly available. Xylitol is a polyol, gaining its importance in the food and pharmacological industry due to its low calorific value and anti-cariogenic nature. Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is widely accepted as an alternative fuel for transportation with reduced CO₂ emissions, thus reducing the greenhouse effect. Typha latifolia, an aquatic weed, was found to be promising lignocellulosic substrate as it posses a high amount of sugars and does not compete with arable lands and interfere with food and feed competition. In the present study, xylose from hemicellulosic fraction of typha is converted to xylitol by isolate Jfh5 (Candida. tropicalis) and cellulose part to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiaeVS3. Initially, alkali pretreatment of typha using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium bisulphate and sodium dithionate for overnight (18h) at room temperature (28 ± 2°C), resulted in maximum delignification of 75% with 2% (v/v) sodium bisulphate. Later, pretreated biomass was subjected to acid hydrolysis with 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3% H₂SO₄ at 110 °C and 121°C for 30 and 60 min, respectively. 2% H₂SO₄ at 121°C for 60 min was found to release 13.5 g /l sugars, which on detoxification and fermentation produced 8.1g/l xylitol with yield and productivity of 0.65g/g and 0.112g/l/h respectively. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual substrate obtained after acid hydrolysis released 11g/l sugar, which on fermentation with VS3 produced 4.9g/l ethanol with yield and productivity of 0.22g/g and 0.136g/l/h respectively.
An Evaluation of Rational Approach to Management by Objectives in Construction Contracting Organisation
Management By Objectives (MBO) is a management technique in which objectives of an organisation are conveyed to the employees to establish the individual goals. These objectives and goals are then monitored and assessed jointly by management and the employee time to time. This tool can be used for planning, monitoring as well as for performance appraisal. The success of an organisation is largely dependent on its’s Vision. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve the realm of vision through a mission which is well crafted within the organisation to address the objectives. The success of the mission depends upon how realistic and action oriented philosophical approach, an organisation caters to; and how the individual goals are set to track and meet the objectives. Thus, focused and passionate efforts of the team, assigned for the mission, are an absolute obligation for achieving the vision of any organisation. Any construction site is generally a controlled disorder having huge investments, resources and logistics involved. The Construction progression is time-consuming with many isolated as well as interconnected activities. Traditional MBO approach can be unsuccessful if planning and control is non-realistic and inflexible. Moreover, the Construction Industry is far behind understanding these concepts. It is important to address the employee engagement in defining and creating awareness to achieve the targets. Besides, current economic environment and competitive world demands refined management tools to achieve profit, growth and survival of the business. Therefore, the necessity of rational MBO becomes vital part towards the success of an organisation. This paper details about the philosophical assumptions to develop the grounded theory in lieu of achieving objectives through RATIONAL MBO approach in Construction Contracting Organisations. The goals and objectives of the Construction Contracting Organisations can be achieved efficiently by adopting this RATIONAL MBO approach, as those are based on realistic, logical and balanced assumptions.
Appraisal of Conservation Strategies of Veligonda Forest Range of Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India
Veligonda and adjoining hill range spread along about 170 Km North to South in Kadapa and Nellore Districts stretching a little further into Prakasam District. The latitude in general ranges up to 1000m. The forests are generally dry deciduous type. Veligonda and adjoining hill ranges comprise of Palakonda, Seshachalam, Lankamala and the terminal part of Nallamalais from mid-region of Southern Eastern Ghats. The Veligonda range which separates the Nellore district from Kadapa and Kurnool is the backbone of the Eastern Ghats, starting from Nagari promontory in Chittoor district. It runs in a northerly direction along the western border of the Nellore district, with a raising elevation of 3,626 ft at Penchalakona in Raipur thaluk. Veligonda hill ranges are high in altitude and have deep valleys. Among the Veligondas range of hills the Durgam in Venkatagiri range and Penchalakona are the most prominent and are situated 914 meters above mean sea level. It has more than 3000 species of plants along with 500 animal species. The unique specialty of this region is the presence of Pterocarpus santalinus(endangered) and Santalum album (vulnerable). In the present study, an attempt is made to assess the efforts that are going on to conserve the biodiversity of flora and fauna of this region. Various conservation strategies were suggested to protect the biodiversity and richness of Veligonda forest, hill region of Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. The major threats and the reasons for the dwindling species richness are poor rainfall, adverse climatic conditions, robbery of Red sanders and poaching of animals by the local tribals. Efforts are to be made to conserve some of the animals by both in situ and ex-situ methods. More awareness is to be developed among the local communities who are dwelling in the vicinity and importance of conservation is to be emphasized to them. Anthropogenic attachments are to be made by introducing more numbers of sacred groves. Gross enforcement of law is to be made to protect the various forest resources in this area. The important species with the medicinal values are to be identified. It was found that two important wildlife sanctuaries named Sri Lankamalleswarawildlife sanctuary and Sripenusila Narasimha wildlife sanctuary are working for the comprehensive conservation of the environment in this area. Apart from this more than 38 important sacred grooves are there where the plants and animals are protected by local Yanadi and other communities.
Traditional Medicine and Islamic Holistic Approach in Palliative Care Management of Terminal Illpatient of Cancer
Any ailment can go into terminal stages, cancer being one such disease which is many times detected in latent stages. Cancer is often characterized by constitutional symptoms which are agonizing in nature which disturbs patients and their family as well. In order to relieve such intolerable symptoms treatment modality employed is known to be ‘Palliative Care’. The goal of palliative care is to enhance patient’s quality of life by relieving or rather reducing the distressing symptoms of patients such as pain, nausea/ vomiting, anorexia/loss of appetite, excessive salivation, mouth ulcers, weight loss, constipation, oral thrush, emaciation etc. which are due to the effect of disease or due to the undergoing treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation etc. Ayurveda and Unani as well as other traditional medicines is getting more and more international attention in recent years and Ayurveda and Unani holistic perspective of the disease, it seems that there are many herbs and herbomineral preparation which can be employed in the treatment of malignancy and also in palliative care. Though many of them have yet to be scientifically proved as anti-cancerous but there is definitely a positive lead that some of these medications relieve the agonising symptoms thereby making life of the patient easy. Health is viewed in Islam in a holistic way. One of the names of the Quran is al-shifa' meaning ‘that which heals’ or ‘the restorer of health’ to refer to spiritual, intellectual, psychological, and physical health. The general aim of medical science, according to Islam, is to secure and adopt suitable measures which, with Allah’s permission, help to preserve or restore the health of the human body. Islam motivates the Physician to view the patient as one organism. The patient has physical, social, psychological, and spiritual dimensions that must be considered in synthesis with an integrated, holistic approach. Aims & Objectives: - To suggest herbs which are mentioned in Ayurveda Unani with potential palliative activity in case of Cancer patients. - Most of tibb nabawi [Prophetic Medicine] is preventive medicine and must have been divinely inspired. - Spiritual Aspects of Healing: Prayer, dua, recitation of the Quran - Remembrance of Allah play a central role.Materials & Method: Literary review of the herbs supported with experiential evidence will be discussed. Discussion: On the basis of collected data subject will be discussed in length. Conclusion: Will be presented in paper.
Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Vicinity of Tannery Industries in Warangal, India
Groundwater quality is deteriorating day by day in different parts of the world due to various reasons, toxic chemicals are being discharged without proper treatment into inland water bodies and land which in turn add pollutants to the groundwater. In this kind of situation, the rural communities which do not have municipal drinking water have to rely on groundwater though it is polluted for various uses. Tannery industry is one of the major industry which provides economy and employment to India. Since most of the developed countries stopped using chemicals which are toxic, the tanning industry which uses chromium as its major element are being shifted towards developing countries. Most of the tanning industries in India can be found in clusters concentrated mainly in states of Tamilnadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and limited places of Punjab. Limited work is present in the case of tanneries of Warangal. There exists 18 group of tanneries in Desaipet, Enamamula region of Warangal, out of which 4 are involved in dry process and are low responsible for groundwater pollution. These units of tanneries are discharging their effluents after treatment into Sai Cheruvu. Though the treatment effluents are being discharged, the Sai Cheruvu is turned in to Pink colour, with higher levels of BOD, COD, chromium, chlorides, total hardness, TDS and sulphates. An attempt was made to analyse the groundwater samples around this polluted Sai Cheruvu region since literature shows that a single tannery can pollute groundwater to a radius of 7-8 kms from the point of disposal. Sample are collected from 6 different locations around Sai Cheruvu. Analysis was performed for determining various constituents in groundwater such as pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3-, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, F and Cr+6. The analysis of these constitutes gave values greater than permissible limits. Even chromium is also present in groundwater samples which is exceeding permissible limits People in Paidepally and Sardharpeta villages already stopped the usage of groundwater. They are buying bottle water for drinking purpose. Though they are not using groundwater for drinking purpose complaints are made about using this water for washing also. So treatment process should be adopted for groundwater which should be simple and efficient. In this study rice husk silica (RHS) is used to treat pollutants in groundwater with varying dosages of RHS and contact time. Rice husk is treated, dried and place in a muffle furnace for 6 hours at 650°C. Reduction is observed in total hardness, chlorides and chromium levels are observed after the application RHS. Pollutants reached permissible limits for 27.5mg/l and 50 mg/l of dosage for a contact time of 130 min at constant pH and temperature.
Magnetic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) as Novel Theranostic Nanocarriers: Enhanced Targeting and Noninvasive MRI Tracking
Specific and effective targeting of drug delivery systems (DDS) to cancerous sites remains a major challenge for a better diagnostic and therapy. Recently, SWCNTs with their unique physicochemical properties and the ability to cross the cell membrane show promising in the biomedical field. The purpose of this study was first to develop a biocompatible iron oxide tagged SWCNTs as diagnostic nanoprobes to allow their noninvasive detection using MRI and their preferential targeting in a breast cancer murine model by placing an optimized flexible magnet over the tumor site. Magnetic targeting was associated to specific antibody-conjugated SWCNTs active targeting. The therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin-conjugated SWCNTs was assessed, and the superiority of diffusion-weighted (DW-) MRI as sensitive imaging biomarker was investigated. Short Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized water soluble SWCNTs were first developed, tagged with iron oxide nanoparticles and conjugated with Endoglin/CD105 monoclonal antibodies. They were then conjugated with doxorubicin drugs. SWCNTs conjugates were extensively characterized using TEM, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS) zeta potential analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Their MR relaxivities (i.e. r1 and r2*) were measured at 4.7T and their iron content and metal impurities quantified using ICP-MS. SWCNTs biocompatibility and drug efficacy were then evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a set of immunological assays. Luciferase enhanced bioluminescence 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells (4T1-Luc2) were injected into the right inguinal mammary fat pad of Balb/c mice. Tumor bearing mice received either free doxorubicin (DOX) drug or SWCNTs with or without either DOX or iron oxide nanoparticles. A multi-pole 10x10mm high-energy flexible magnet was maintained over the tumor site during 2 hours post-injections and their properties and polarity were optimized to allow enhanced magnetic targeting of SWCNTs toward the primary tumor site. Tumor volume was quantified during the follow-up investigation study using a fast spin echo MRI sequence. In order to detect the homing of SWCNTs to the main tumor site, susceptibility-weighted multi-gradient echo (MGE) sequence was used to generate T2* maps. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements were also performed as a sensitive imaging biomarker providing early and better assessment of disease treatment. At several times post-SWCNT injection, histological analysis were performed on tumor extracts and iron-loaded SWCNT were quantified using ICP-MS in tumor sites, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lung. The optimized multi-poles magnet revealed an enhanced targeting of magnetic SWCNTs to the primary tumor site, which was found to be much higher than the active targeting achieved using antibody-conjugated SWCNTs. Iron-loading allowed their sensitive noninvasive tracking after intravenous administration using MRI. The active targeting of doxorubicin through magnetic antibody-conjugated SWCNTs nanoprobes was found to considerably decrease the primary tumor site and may have inhibited the development of metastasis in the tumor-bearing mice lung. ADC measurements in DW-MRI were found to significantly increase in a time-dependent manner after the injection of DOX-conjugated SWCNTs complexes.