A Stochastic Diffusion Process Based on the Two-Parameters Weibull Density Function
Stochastic modeling concerns the use of probability
to model real-world situations in which uncertainty is present.
Therefore, the purpose of stochastic modeling is to estimate the
probability of outcomes within a forecast, i.e. to be able to predict
what conditions or decisions might happen under different situations.
In the present study, we present a model of a stochastic diffusion
process based on the bi-Weibull distribution function (its trend
is proportional to the bi-Weibull probability density function). In
general, the Weibull distribution has the ability to assume the
characteristics of many different types of distributions. This has
made it very popular among engineers and quality practitioners, who
have considered it the most commonly used distribution for studying
problems such as modeling reliability data, accelerated life testing,
and maintainability modeling and analysis. In this work, we start
by obtaining the probabilistic characteristics of this model, as the
explicit expression of the process, its trends, and its distribution by
transforming the diffusion process in a Wiener process as shown in
the Ricciaardi theorem. Then, we develop the statistical inference of
this model using the maximum likelihood methodology. Finally, we
analyse with simulated data the computational problems associated
with the parameters, an issue of great importance in its application to
real data with the use of the convergence analysis methods. Overall,
the use of a stochastic model reflects only a pragmatic decision on
the part of the modeler. According to the data that is available and
the universe of models known to the modeler, this model represents
the best currently available description of the phenomenon under
Modeling of Silicon Window Layers for Solar Cells Based SIGE
The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the modeling, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).
Simulation Of Silicon Window Layers For Solar Cells Based Sige
The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the simulation, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).
Thermal Processing of Zn-Bi Layered Double Hydroxide ZnO Doped Bismuth for a Photo-Catalytic Efficiency under Light Visible
The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of an acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The photo catalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of ZnO and ZnO-Bi respectively.
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Daucus Gracilis Extracts
The aerial parts of Daucus gracilis (Apiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation by a Clevenger apparatus to obtain the essential oil (EO) which has been analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The antioxidant properties of this EO and D. gracilis methanolic extract were studied by both of the free diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and the reducing power techniques. The dominant constituents of the EO were the elemicin (35.3 %) and the geranyl acetate (26.8 %). Both of EO and methanolic extract showed important antioxidant properties with respectively IC50 of 0,002 mg/ml and 0.06 mg/ml. They showed also a reducing power dose-dependent.
Solving Stochastic Eigenvalue Problem of Wick Type
In this paper we study mathematically the eigenvalue problem for stochastic elliptic partial differential equation of Wick type. Using the Wick-product and the Wiener-Ito chaos expansion, the stochastic eigenvalue problem is reformulated as a system of an eigenvalue problem for a deterministic partial differential equation and elliptic partial differential equations by using the Fredholm alternative. To reduce the computational complexity of this system, we shall use a decomposition-coordination method. Once this approximation is performed, the statistics of the numerical solution can be easily evaluated.
Electrochemical Study of Copper–Tin Alloy Nucleation Mechanisms onto Different Substrates
In the present work, several materials such as M/glass (M = Pt, Mo) were investigated to test their suitability for studying the early nucleation stages and growth of copper-tin clusters. It was found that most of these materials stand as good substrates to be used in the study of the nucleation and growth of electrodeposited Cu-Sn alloys from aqueous solution containing CuCl2, SnCl2 as electroactive species and Na3C6H5O7 as complexing agent. Among these substrates, Pt shows instantaneous models followed by 3D diffusion-limited growth. On the other hand, the electrodeposited copper-tin thin films onto Mo substrate followed progressive nucleation. The deposition mechanism of the Cu-Sn films has been studied using stationary electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetery (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The structural, morphological and compositional of characterization have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX techniques respectively.
Influence of Dairy Cows Food on Uncooked Pressed Dough Cheese "Edam" Quality
Cheese quality is an important manufacturing requirement. It deals with traceability, from the dairy cows feed to the storage location. In this study, we have seen the impact of distributing two different types of green feed (purple clover VS alfalfa), in a ration composed of oat hay, silage of corn and concentrated feed, in equal quantities, on resulting milk destined for an Edam manufacturing. It reveals that alfalfa allows a high production of milk, comparatively to purple clover. However, this latter allows a high quality of milk, in point of view physico-chemical properties, especially regarding proteins and fat yields, two essential factors affecting Edam quality. The obtained results indicated that milk allowed by purple clover shows a best physico-chemical quality beside alfalfa, for it use in Edam manufacturing according to the values recommended by standardized dairies.
In Silico Study of the Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Nigella sativa
Background: Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, belongs to the Ranunculaceae family. It has many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory; anti-bacterial; anti-hepatotoxic activities etc. Materials: In order to predict the pharmacological activity of Nigella Sativa’s compounds, some web based servers were used, namely, PubChem, Molinspiration, ADMET-SAR, PASS online and PharMapper. In addition to that, AutoDOCK was used to investigate the different molecular interactions between the selected compounds and their target proteins. Results: All compounds displayed a stable interaction with their targets and satisfactory binding energies, which means that they are active on their targets. Conclusion: Nigella sativa is an effective medicinal plant that has several ethno-medical uses; the latter uses are proven herein via an in-silico study of their pharmacological activities.
Study of the in vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Roots of the Barks of Zizyphus lotus
Natural extracts is known for their contents of biologically active molecules. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract prepared from the bark of the roots of Zizyphus lotus. The quantitative analysis based on the dosage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins provided following values: 0.39 ± 0.007 ug EAG/mg of extract for phenolic compounds, 0.05 ± 0.02ug EQ/mg extract for flavonoids and 0.0025 ± 7.071 E-4 ECT ug/mg extract for tannins. The study of the antioxidant activity by the DPPH test in vitro showed a powerful antiradical power with an IC50 = 8,8 ug/ml. For the DPPH test in vivo we used two rats lots, one lot with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract and a control lot. We found a significant difference in antiradical activity with p < 0.05.
Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Acid-Activated Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction
Synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nanoparticles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used montmorillonite pre-acidified under gentle conditions for AuNPs stabilization; using different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nanoparticles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nanoparticles stabilized in acid-activated montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nanaoparticles formation. The XRD N2 adsorption and MET results showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the pores of preacidified montmorillonite with an average size of 5.7nm. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au°-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 4.5min.
Thermal Transformation of Zn-Bi Double Hydroxide Lamellar in ZnO Doped with Bismuth in Application for Photo Catalysis under Visible Light
The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The material having a better efficacy was characterized by XRD and thereafter SEM. The result of XRD untreated Bi-Zn-LDH material thermally revealed peaks characteristic lamellar materials. Indeed, the lamellar morphology is very visible, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the lamellar character partially disappears when the material is treated at 550 °C in a muffle furnace. Thus obtained, a zinc oxide doped with bismuth confirmed by XRD. The photocatalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W at 114,6 µw/cm2 as maximum of irradiance was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of Bi-ZnO and ZnO respectively.
Study of the Chemical Composition of Rye, Millet and Sorghum from Algeria
Cereals are the most important source of dietary fiber in the Nordic diet. The fiber in cereals is located mainly in the outer layers of the kernel; particularly in the bran. Improved diet can help unlock the door to good health. Whole grains are an important source of nutrients that are in short supply in our diet, including digestible carbohydrates, dietary fiber, trace minerals, and other compounds of interest in disease prevention, including phytoestrogens and antioxidants (1). The objective of this study is to know the composition of whole grain cereals (rye, millet, white, and red sorghum) which a majority pushes in the south of Algeria.
This shows that the millet has a high rate of the sugar estimated at 67.6%. The high proportion of proteins has been found in the two varieties of sorghum and rye. The millet presents the great percentage in lipids compared with the others cereals. And at the last, a red sorghum has the highest rate of fiber(2). These nutrients, as well as other components of whole grain cereals, have, in terms of health, an increased effect if they are consumed together.
First Principle Calculations of the Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Cubic Perovskite CsSrF3
We have investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of a compound perovskite CsSrF3 using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used for exchange-correlation potential calculation. The ground state properties such as lattice parameter, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative were calculated and the results are compared whit experimental and theoretical data. Electronic and bonding properties are discussed from the calculations of band structure, density of states and electron charge density, where the fundamental energy gap is direct under ambient conditions. The contribution of the different bands was analyzed from the total and partial density of states curves. The optical properties (namely: the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function ε(ω), the refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω)) were calculated for radiation up to 35.0 eV. This is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the optical properties for the investigated compound and still awaits experimental confirmations.
Optimization of Adsorption Performance of Lignocellulosic Waste Pretreatment and Chemical Modification
In this work, we studied the effectiveness of a lignocellulosic waste (wood sawdust) for the removal of cadmium Cd (II) in aqueous solution. The adsorbent material SBO-CH2-CO2Na has been prepared by alkaline pretreatment of wood sawdust followed by a chemical modification with sodium salt of chloroacetic acid. The characterization of the as-prepared material by FTIR has proven that the grafting of acetate spacer took actually place in the lignocellulosic backbone by the appearance of characteristic band of carboxylic groups in the IR spectrum. The removal study of Cd2+ by SBO-CH2-CO2Na material at the solid-liquid interface was carried out by kinetics, sorption isotherms, effect of temperature and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The last part of this work was dedicated to assess the regenerability of the adsorbent material after three reuse cycles. The results indicate that SBO-CH2-CO2Na matrix possesses a high effectiveness in removing Cd (II) with an adsorption capacity of 222.22 mg/g, yet a better value that those of many low-cost adsorbents so far reported in the literature. The results found in the course of this study suggest that ionic exchange is the most appropriate mechanism involved in the removal of cadmium ions.
Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Na-Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction
Synthesis of gold nano particles has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nano particles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used Na-montmorillonite for gold nanoparticles stabilization; different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nano particles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nano particles Au-mont stabilized in Na-montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature. The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nano particles formation. The XRD and N2 adsorption results showed the formation of gold nano particles in the pores of montmorillonite with an average size of 5 nm obtained on samples with 2%Au-mont. The gold particles size increased with the increase of gold loading percentage. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au-Na-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 9 min for 1Au-mont and within 3 min for 2Au-mont.
Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water
The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.
Impact of Coccidia on Mortality and Weight Growth in Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianidae) in Algeria
Coccidiosis is a very common intestinal parasitic disease caused by a worldwide distributed protozoan of the genus Eimeria. This disease is very common in young birds beyond the second week of life, especially in land-based breeding. The study was carried out in a hunting center of Zeralda located in the north-east of Algiers. The objective of our work is to study the evolution of coccidiosis in quails from 1 to 35 days old by collecting their droppings daily. These are analyzed in the laboratory using the flotation method and the Mac Master one to count coccidia. Weight changes are taken into account as well as mortality in parallel with certain zootechnical parameters such as density. The species of coccidia recovered is Eimeria coturnicis. The results showed that there is an average evolution of mortality of individuals with a rate of 13.33% due to the presence of coccidia with a significant regression (p=0.031). The weight of the quails increases with the age of the animal with a rapid growth rate from the 3rd week onwards. Indeed, the statistical analysis reveals that the evolution of the number did not affect the evolution of the weight (p=0.70) and the GMQ (R=0.52).
The Mechanism of Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Effects of the Essential Oil and the Methanolic Extract of Carum montanum (Coss. et Dur.) Benth. Et Hook. Aerial Parts from Algeria
The methanolic extract (ME) of C. montanum obtained by a hydo-alcoholic maceration and its polyphenol content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu method. This extract and C. montanum essential oil were screened for antimicrobial activity against 21 microbial strains by agar diffusion method. MICs of the EO were determined by the broth micro dilution method. The mechanism of action of the EO was determined on the susceptible strains by the time kill assay and the lysis experience. Antioxidant properties were studied by both free DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power techniques. The TPC in the ME showed a high level of 101.50 ± 5.33 mg GAE /mg. B. cereus was the most sensitive strain with MIC of 55.5 µg/ml , then K. pneumoniae (111 µg/ml). A remarkable decrease in a survival rate as well as in the absorbance at 260 nm were recorded, which suggest that the cytoplasm membrane is one of the targets of the EO. Antioxidant effects were concentration dependent and IC50 values were 1.09 ± 0.37 µg/ml for the EO and 65.04 ± 0.00 µg/ml for the ME by DPPH method and a reducing power dose-dependent. In conclusion, C. montanum extracts showed potent which could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.
Malachite Green and Red Congo Dyes Adsorption onto Chemical Treated Sewage Sludge
In this study, the adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) by chemical treated sewage sludge has been studied. The sewage sludge, collected from drying beds of the municipal wastewater treatment station of IBN ZIED, Constantine, Algeria, was treated by different acids such us HNO₃, H₂SO₄, H₃PO₄ for modifying its aptitude to removal the MG from aqueous solutions. The results obtained shows that the sewage sludge activated by sulfuric acid give the highest elimination amounts of MG (9.52 mg/L) compared by the other acids used. The effects of operation parameters have been investigated, the results obtained show that the adsorption capacity per unit of adsorbent mass decreases from 18.69 to 1.20 mg/g when the mass of the adsorbent increases from 0.25 to 4 g respectively, the optimum mass for which a maximum of elimination of the dye is equal to 0.5g. The increasing in the temperature of the solution results in a slight decrease in the adsorption capacity of the chemically treated sludge. The highest amount of dye adsorbed by CSSS (9.56 mg/g) was observed for the optimum temperature of 25°C. The chemical activated sewage sludge proved its effectiveness for the removal of the Red Congo (RC), but by comparison the adsorption of the two dyes studies, we noted that the sludge has more affinity to adsorb the (MG).
Theoretical Study of Structural and Electronic Properties of Matlockite CaFX (X = I and Br) Compounds
The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW)method within density functional theory is applied to study, for the first time, the structural and electronic properties of CaFI and to compare them with CaFCl and CaFBr, all compounds belonging to the tetragonal PbFCl structure group with space group P4/nmm. We used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) based on exchange–correlation energy optimization to calculate the total energy and also the Engel– Vosko GGA formalism, which optimizes the corresponding potential for band structure calculations. Ground state properties such as the lattice parameters, c/a ratio, bulk modulus, pressure derivative of the bulk modulus and cohesive energy are calculated, as well as the optimized internal parameters, by relaxing the atomic position in the force directions. The variations of the calculated interatomic distances and angles between different atomic bonds are discussed. CaFCl was found to have a direct band gap at whereas CaFBr and BaFI have indirect band gaps. From these computed bands, all three materials are found to be insulators having band gaps of 6.28, 5.46, and 4.50 eV, respectively. We also calculated the valence charge density and the total density of states at equilibrium volume for each compound. The results are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.
Behaviour of Hollow Tubes Filled with Sand Slag Concrete
This paper presents the axial bearing capacity of thin welded rectangular steel stubs filled with concrete sand. A series of tests was conducted to study the behavior of short composite columns under axial compressive load, the cross section dimensions were: 100x70x2 mm. A total of 16 stubs have been tested, as follows: 4 filled with ordinary concrete appointed by BO columns, 6 filled with concrete witch natural sand was completely substitute a crystallized sand slag designated in this paper by BSI, and 6 others were tucked in concrete whose natural sand was partially replace by a crystallized sand slag called by BSII. The main objectives of these tests were to clarify the steel specimen's performance filled by concrete sand compared to those filled with ordinary concrete. The main parameters studied are: The height of the specimen (300mm-500mm), eccentricity of load and type of filling concrete. Based on test results obtained, it is confirmed that the length of the tubes, has a considerable effect on the bearing capacity and the failure mode. In all test tubes, fracture occurred by the convex warping of the largest, followed by the smallest due to the outward thrust of the concrete, it was observed that the sand concrete improves the bearing capacity of tubes compounds compared to those filled with ordinary concrete.
Comparison of Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV Infected Patients
Recent acquired or reactivation T.gondii infection is a serious complication in HIV patients. Classical serological diagnosis relies on the detection of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin ; however, serology may be unreliable in HIV immunodeficient patients who fail to produce significant titers of specific antibodies. PCR assays allow a rapid diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection. In this study, we compared the value of the PCR for diagnosing active toxoplasmosis in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples from HIV patients. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies IgG and IgM titers were determined by ELISA. In parallel, nested PCR targeting B1 gene and conventional PCR-ELISA targeting P30 gene were used to detect T. gondii DNA in 25 blood samples and 12 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients in whom toxoplasmic encephalitis was confirmed by clinical investigations. A total of 15 negative controls were used. Serology did not contribute to confirm toxoplasmic infection, as IgG and IgM titers decreased early. Only 8 out 25 blood samples and 5 out 12 cerebrospinal fluid samples PCRs yielded a positive result. 5 patients with confirmed toxoplasmosis had positive PCR results in either blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples. However, conventional nested B1 PCR gave best results than the P30 gene one for the detection of T.gondii DNA in both samples. All samples from control patients were negative. This study demonstrates the unusefulness of the serological tests and the high sensitivity and specificity of PCR in the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in HIV patients.
Membrane Distillation Process Modeling: Dynamical Approach
This paper presents a complete dynamic modeling of a membrane distillation process. The model contains two consistent dynamic models. A 2D advection-diffusion equation for modeling the whole process and a modified heat equation for modeling the membrane itself. The complete model describes the temperature diffusion phenomenon across the feed, membrane, permeate containers and boundary layers of the membrane. It gives an online and complete temperature profile for each point in the domain. It explains heat conduction and convection mechanisms that take place inside the process in terms of mathematical parameters, and justify process behavior during transient and steady state phases. The process is monitored for any sudden change in the performance at any instance of time. In addition, it assists maintaining production rates as desired, and gives recommendations during membrane fabrication stages. System performance and parameters can be optimized and controlled using this complete dynamic model. Evolution of membrane boundary temperature with time, vapor mass transfer along the process, and temperature difference between membrane boundary layers are depicted and included. Simulations were performed over the complete model with real membrane specifications. The plots show consistency between 2D advection-diffusion model and the expected behavior of the systems as well as literature. Evolution of heat inside the membrane starting from transient response till reaching steady state response for fixed and varying times is illustrated.
Contribution to the Study of Reproduction of Water Birds (Case of Marsh Bouessdra, North East Algeria)
The Gulf of Annaba, located at the extreme north eastern Algerian; our site of study is a marsh administratively it is part of the wilaya of Annaba, municipality of El-Bouni; extends on a surface from 55 hectare, the maximum depth is of less 2m. A scheme of work was adopted for an evaluation and characterization of the reproduction of the water nicheurs birds in the marsh of Boussedra.
Some important parameters described by the scientific literature; According to standardized methods, variables were the object of a regular follow-up during the period of reproduction.
These parameters were taken into account: the installation date of the nests, the vegetable support; blossoming of eggs, causes of the failure of the blossomings (predation or abandonment), characteristics of the nests (composition, internal diameter, external diameter, depth and heightening), measurements of the distances nest-nest nearest, Depth of water, the measurement of eggs, size of laying, size of laying. The follow-up in the marsh was carried out between March 2013 until the month of July 2014 at a rate of two outputs per weeks, one located and noted the nests to control them each week. The study on the reproduction of the water birds enables us to note that this site plays a very important part in the wintering and the reproduction of certain species important. This study opens broad prospects for study of several phenomena related to the ecology of the water birds, and the conservation of the wetlands.
Contribution to the Production of Phenazine Antibiotics Effect Type Compounds by Some Strains of Pseudomonas spp.fluorescent
Our work focuses on the production of compound antibiotic effect of volatile nature namely hydrogen cyanide and the production and identification of molecules phénazinique by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp isolated from the rhizosphere of some trees for a possible use as bio pesticides antifungal effect and/or antibiotic. We tested the production of hydrogen cyanide of 21 strains of Pseudomonas spp. fluorescent among them 19 strains (90, 47%) showed a positive cyanogenesis.The antagonism test executed in vitro showed that Pseudomonas strains have a higher anti fungal effect relative to their antibacterial effect with diameters of inhibition zones up to 3, 9 cm recorded by the strain F48 against Coleosporiumsp compared with recorded results against bacteria with a maximum inhibition of 1, 26 cm among this antagonistic strain.Three strains were selected by testing for producing phénazines namely PI9, BB9 and F20. The effect of the antimicrobial activity was performed on different culture media (GN, King B, ISP2 and PDA). The results of our study allowed us to retain the King B medium as ideal medium for the production of secondary metabolite. The produced phenazinique compounds was extracted from various organic solvents, and after the results of antibiographie against germs - targets, the extracts of ethyl acetate gave the best results compared to dichloromethane and hexane.The Analysis of these compounds of antibiotic phenazinique effect within layer chromatography (CCM) and high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) indicate that both strains PI9 and F20 are productive of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The BB9 strain is suspected to be productive of another phenazinique compound.
Chronic Cognitive Impacts of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury during Aging
To the extent of our knowledge, there has been little interest in the chronic effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on cognition during normal aging. This is rather surprising considering the impacts on daily and social functioning. In addition, sustaining a mTBI during late adulthood may increase the effect of normal biological aging in individuals who consider themselves normal and healthy. The objective of this study was to characterize the persistent neuropsychological repercussions of mTBI sustained during late adulthood, on average 12 months prior to testing. To this end, 35 mTBI patients and 42 controls between the ages of 50 and 69 completed an exhaustive neuropsychological assessment lasting three hours. All mTBI patients were asymptomatic and all participants had a score ≥ 27 at the MoCA. The evaluation consisted of 20 standardized neuropsychological tests measuring memory, attention, executive and language functions, as well as information processing speed. Performance on tests of visual (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised) and verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and WMS-IV Logical Memory subtest), lexical access (Boston Naming Test) and response inhibition (Stroop) revealed to be significantly lower in the mTBI group. These findings suggest that a mTBI sustained during late adulthood induces lasting effects on cognitive function. Episodic memory and executive functions seem to be particularly vulnerable to enduring mTBI effects.
Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against Culex pipiens (Insect: Culicidae) Effect of Bti on Two Non-Target Species Eylais hamata (Acari: Hydrachnidia) and Physa marmorata (Gastropoda: Physidae) and Dosage of Their GST Biomarker
Biological control presents a means of control for the protection of the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner 1915 is an inseticide of biological origin because it is a bacterium of the Bacillaceae family. This biocide has a biological importance, because of its specific larvicidal action against Culicidae, blood-sucking insects, responsible for several diseases to humans and animals through the world. As well as, its high specificity for these insects. Also, the freshwater mites, this necessarily parasitic group for aquatic species such as the Physidae, also have an effective biological control against the Culicidae, because of their voracious predation to the larvae of these insects. The present work aims to study the effects of the biocide Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis, against non-target adults of water mites Eylais hamata Koenike, 1897, as well as its associated host species Physa marmorata Fitzinger, 1833. After 12 days of oral treatment of adults with lethal concentration (LC50:0.08µg/ml), determined from essays on 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens (hematophagous insects). No adverse effect has been recorded for adult individuals of Eylais hamata, contrary, snail Physa marmorata were sensitive for this dose of Bti. In parallel, after treatment at the Bti by LC50, the enzyme stress bio marker glutathione S-transferase, was measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The enzymatic activity of GST has increased after 24 and 48 hours following treatment.
Cytotoxicity thiamethoxam Study on the Hepatopancreas and Its Reversibility under the Effect of Ginger in Helix aspersa
Living organisms in the soil are subject to regular fluctuations of abiotic parameters, as well as a chemical contamination of the environment due to human activities. They are subject to multiple stressors they face. The aim of our work was to study the effects of insecticide: thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid), and the potential reversibility of the effects by an antioxidant: ginger on a bioindicator species in ecotoxicology, the land snail Helix aspersa. The effects were studied by a targeted cell approach of evaluating the effect of these molecules on tissue and cellular aspect of hepatopancreas through histological study. Treatment with thiamethoxam concentrations 10, 20, and 40 mg/l shows signs of inflammation even at low concentrations and from the 5th day of treatment. Histological examination of the hepatopancreas of snails treated with thiamethoxam showed significant changes from the lowest concentrations tested , note intertubular connective tissue enlargement, necrosis deferent types of cells (cells with calcium , digestive, excretory) , also damage acini, alteration of the apical membrane and lysis of the basement membrane in a dose- dependent manner. After 10 days of treatment and with 40 mg/l, the same changes were observed with a very advanced degeneration of the wall of the member that could be confused with the cell debris. For cons, the histological study of the hepatopancreas in Helix aspersa treated with ginger for a period of 15 days after stopping treatment with thiamethoxam has shown a partial regeneration of hepatopancreatic tissue snails treated with all concentrations of thiamethoxam and especially in the intertubular connective tissue of the wall and hepatopancreatic digestive tubules. Finally, we can conclude that monitoring the effect of the insecticide thiamethoxam showed significant alterations, however, treatment with ginger shows regeneration of damaged cells themselves much sharper at low concentration (10 mg/L).
Bacteriological Quality and Physicochemical Water Beaches of the City of Annaba (Mediterranean Sea)
The intensity of human activities in regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea always has a strong long-term environmental impact resulting in coastal and marine degradation, as well as an aggravated risk of more serious damage. The available data on water quality show that most water resources in Algeria are polluted by uncontrolled discharges from municipal sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Annaba is a coastal town in Algeria; The Gulf of Annaba, responds to these changes as it receives the continental inputs and urban waste, industrial without prior treatment of a highly industrialized and urbanized city, subject to the same environmental problems that know the rest of the Algerian coast. In later year, the beaches of bacterial enumeration process waters showed relatively high levels of bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (group D streptococci, total and fecal coliforms), which reflect the risks to people attending these beaches. During the twelve months of our study, we isolated from three beaches in the city of Annaba (St. Cloud, El-Kettara, and Djenane El Bey) a number of pathogenic microorganisms considered, namely: Salmonella, Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Yersinia, Enterococcus, and E.coli. The microbial count revealed elevated levels of coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci quite high especially in urban beaches (St. Cloud and El-Kettara). They are widely popular during the summer by many vacationers. For the physico-chemical parameters, there exist some weak values which increase during the pluvial period, hivernal and festival saison. These values remain, nevertheless, weak to be able to cause an organic or metallic pollution.
Evaluation of Compatibility between Produced and Injected Waters and Identification of the Causes of Well Plugging in a Southern Tunisian Oilfield
Scale deposition during water injection into aquifer of oil reservoirs is a serious problem experienced in the oil production industry. One of the primary causes of scale formation and injection well plugging is mixing two waters which are incompatible. Considered individually, the waters may be quite stable at system conditions and present no scale problems. However, once they are mixed, reactions between ions dissolved in the individual waters may form insoluble products. The purpose of this study is to identify the causes of well plugging in a southern Tunisian oilfield, where fresh water has been injected into the producing wells to counteract the salinity of the formation waters and inhibit the deposition of halite. X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogical analysis has been carried out on scale samples collected from the blocked well. Two samples collected from both formation water and injected water were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, ion chromatography and other standard laboratory techniques. The results of complete waters analysis were the typical input parameters, to determine scaling tendency. Saturation indices values related to CaCO3, CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4 scales were calculated for the water mixtures at different share, under various conditions of temperature, using a computerized scale prediction model. The compatibility study results showed that mixing the two waters tends to increase the probability of barite deposition. XRD analysis confirmed the compatibility study results, since it proved that the analysed deposits consisted predominantly of barite with minor galena. At the studied temperatures conditions, the tendency for barite scale is significantly increasing with the increase of fresh water share in the mixture. The future scale inhibition and removal strategies to be implemented in the concerned oilfield are being derived in a large part from the results of the present study.
Forensic Entomology in Algeria
Forensic entomology is the use of insects and their arthropod relatives as silent witnesses to aid legal investigations by interpreting information concerning a death. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the postmortem interval or PMI Postmortem interval is a matter of crucial importance in the investigations of homicide and other untimely deaths when the body found is after three days. Forensic entomology has grown immensely as a discipline in the past thirty years. In Algeria, forensic entomology was introduced in 2010 by the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology of the National Gendarmerie (NICC). However, all the work that has been done so far in this growing field in Algeria has been unknown at both the national and international levels. In this context, the aim of this paper is to describe the state of forensic entomology in Algeria. The Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC is the only one of its kind in Algeria. It started its activities in 2010, consisting of two specialists. The main missions of the laboratory are estimation of the PMI by the analysis of entomological evidence, and determination if the body was moved. Currently, the laboratory is performing different tasks such as the expert work required by investigators to estimate the PMI using the insects. The estimation is performed by the accumulated degree days method (ADD) in most of the cases except for those where the cadaver is in dry decay. To assure the quality of the entomological evidence, crime scene personnel are trained by the laboratory of Entomology of the NICC. Recently, undergraduate and graduate students have been studying carrion ecology and insect activity in different geographic locations of Algeria using rabbits and wild boar cadavers as animal models. The Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC has also been involved in some of these research projects. Entomotoxicology experiments are also conducted with the collaboration of the Toxicology Department of the NICC. By dint of hard work that has been performed by the Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC, official bodies have been adopting more and more the use of entomological evidence in criminal investigations in Algeria, which is commendable. It is important, therefore, that steps are taken to fill in the gaps in the knowledge necessary for entomological evidence to have a useful future in criminal investigations in Algeria.
The Evaluation of the Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf)
The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants.In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalse, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.
In vitro and in vivo Potential Effect of the N-Acylsulfonamide Bis-oxazolidin-2-ones on Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan infection due to Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii). It is a significant cause of congenital disease and an important opportunistic pathogen which has become a worldwide increasing problem due to the AIDS epidemic. Current available drugs do not give satisfactory results and often have only a static and several adverse side effects as it is the case of pyrimethamine. So, the need to develop and evaluate new drugs is critical. The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of the new chiral N-acylsulfonamide bis-oxazolidin-2-ones on T.gondii. In this study, anti-T.gondii RH strain activities, of two new chiral N-acylsulfonamide bis-oxazolidin-2-ones were evaluated in vitro, using a MRC-5 fibroblast tissue cultures to determine the concentration that inhibit parasite multiplication by 50% (IC50) of each drug and in vivo, by PCR detection of the tachyzoites in mice ascites after new molecules treatment, using the 35-fold repetitive B1 gene of T.gondii. The in vitro results demonstrated that the treatment with the tested molecules decreased the amount of tachyzoites in cell culture in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was complete for concentrations over 4 mg/ml. The IC50 of Mol 1 and Mol 2 were 1.5 and 3 mg/ml, respectively, and were quite similar to the control one (2 mg/ml). The Mol 1 was highly active against T.gondii in cell cultures than Mol 2; these results were similar to those of sulfadiazine-treated group (p < 0.05). Toxoplasma-specific DNA was demonstrated in all ascites samples from infected mice of the different tested groups. Mol 1 showed better effect than Mol 2, but it did not completely inhibit the parasite proliferation. The intensity of amplification products increased when the treatment started late after infection. These findings suggest continuous parasite replication despite the treatment. In conclusion, our results showed a promising treatment effect of the tested molecules and suggest that in vitro, the Mol 1, and Mol 2 have a dose-dependent effect and a high cytotoxicity on the studied cells. The present study revealed that concentration and duration of tested molecules treatment are major factors that influence the course of Toxoplasma infection in infected mice.
Application of Forensic Entomology to Estimate the Post Mortem Interval
Forensic entomology has grown immensely as a discipline in the past thirty years. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the post mortem interval or PMI. Three days after the death, insect evidence is often the most accurate and sometimes the only method of determining elapsed time since death. This work presents the estimation of the PMI in an experiment to test the reliability of the accumulated degree days (ADD) method and the application of this method in a real case. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology of the National Gendarmerie, Algeria. The domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus L. was selected as the animal model. On 08th July 2012, the animal was killed. Larvae were collected and raised to adulthood. Estimation of oviposition time was calculated by summing up average daily temperatures minus minimum development temperature (also specific to each species). When the sum is reached, it corresponds to the oviposition day. Weather data were obtained from the nearest meteorological station. After rearing was accomplished, three species emerged: Lucilia sericata, Chrysomya albiceps, and Sarcophaga africa. For Chrysomya albiceps species, a cumulation of 186°C is necessary. The emergence of adults occured on 22nd July 2012. A value of 193.4°C is reached on 9th August 2012. Lucilia sericata species require a cumulation of 207°C. The emergence of adults occurred on 23rd, July 2012. A value of 211.35°C is reached on 9th August 2012. We should also consider that oviposition may occur more than 12 hours after death. Thus, the obtained PMI is in agreement with the actual time of death. We illustrate the use of this method during the investigation of a case of a decaying human body found on 03rd March 2015 in Bechar, South West of Algerian desert. Maggots were collected and sent to the Laboratory of Entomology. Lucilia sericata adults were identified on 24th March 2015 after emergence. A sum of 211.6°C was reached on 1st March 2015 which corresponds to the estimated day of oviposition. Therefore, the estimated date of death is 1st March 2015 ± 24 hours. The estimated PMI by accumulated degree days (ADD) method seems to be very precise. Entomological evidence should always be used in homicide investigations when the time of death cannot be determined by other methods.
Polarimetric Study of System Gelatin / Carboxymethylcellulose in the Food Field
Proteins and polysaccharides are the two types of biopolymers most frequently used in the food industry to control the mechanical properties and structural stability and organoleptic properties of the products. The textural and structural properties of these two types of blend polymers depend on their interaction and their ability to form organized structures. From an industrial point of view, a better understanding of mixtures protein / polysaccharide is an important issue since they are already heavily involved in processed food. It is in this context that we have chosen to work on a model system composed of a fibrous protein mixture (gelatin)/anionic polysaccharide (sodium carboxymethylcellulose). Gelatin, one of the most popular biopolymers, is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and photographic applications, because of its unique functional and technological properties. Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) is an anionic linear polysaccharide derived from cellulose. It is an important industrial polymer with a wide range of applications. The functional properties of this anionic polysaccharide can be modified by the presence of proteins with which it might interact. Another factor may also manage the interaction of protein-polysaccharide mixtures is the triple helix of the gelatin. Its complex synthesis method results in an extracellular assembly containing several levels. Collagen can be in a soluble state or associate into fibrils, which can associate in fiber. Each level corresponds to an organization recognized by the cellular and metabolic system. Gelatin allows this approach, the formation of gelatin gel has triple helical folding of denatured collagen chains, this gel has been the subject of numerous studies, and it is now known that the properties depend only on the rate of triple helices forming the network. Chemical modification of this system is quite controlled. Observe the dynamics of the triple helix may be relevant in understanding the interactions involved in protein-polysaccharides mixtures. Gelatin is central to any industrial process, understand and analyze the molecular dynamics induced by the triple helix in the transitions gelatin, can have great economic importance in all fields and especially the food. The goal is to understand the possible mechanisms involved depending on the nature of the mixtures obtained. From a fundamental point of view, it is clear that the protective effect of NaCMC on gelatin and conformational changes of the α helix are strongly influenced by the nature of the medium. Our goal is to minimize the maximum the α helix structure changes to maintain more stable gelatin and protect against denaturation that occurs during such conversion processes in the food industry. In order to study the nature of interactions and assess the properties of mixtures, polarimetry was used to monitor the optical parameters and to assess the rate of helicity gelatin.
Symptom Burden and Quality of Life in Advanced Lung Cancer Patients
Despite recent advances in treatment of the lung cancer patients, the prognosis remains poor. Information is limited regarding health related quality of life (QOL) status of advanced lung cancer patients. The purposes of this study were: to assess patient reported symptom burden, to measure their QOL, and to identify determinant factors associated with QOL. Materials/Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 patients was carried out from over the period of 03 months from February 1st to 30 April 2016. Patients were recruited in two department of health care: Pneumology department in a university hospital in Sousse and an oncology unit in a University Hospital in Kairouan. Patients with advanced stage (III and IV) of lung cancer who were hospitalized or admitted in the day hospital were recruited by convenience sampling. We used a questionnaire administrated and completed by a trained interviewer. This questionnaire is composed of three parts: demographic, clinical and therapeutic information’s, QOL measurements: based on the SF-36 questionnaire, Symptom’s burden measurement using the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). To assess Correlation between symptoms burden and QOL, we compared the scores of two scales two by two using the Pearson correlation. To identify factors influencing QOL in Lung cancer, a univariate statistical analysis then, a stepwise backward approach, wherein the variables with p< 0.2, were carried out to determine the association between SF-36 scores and different variables. Results: During the study period, 60 patients consented to complete symptom and quality of life questionnaires at a single point time (72% were recruited from day hospital). The majority of patients were male (88%), age ranged from 21 to 79 years with a mean of 60.5 years. Among patients, 48 (80%) were diagnosed as having non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Approximately, 60 % (n=36) of patients were in stage IV, 25 % in stage IIIa and 15 % in stage IIIb. For symptom burden, the symptom burden index was 43.07 (Standard Deviation, 21.45). Loss of appetite and fatigue were rated as the most severe symptoms with mean scores (SD): 49.6 (25.7) and 58.2 (15.5). The average overall score of SF36 was 39.3 (SD, 15.4). The physical and emotional limitations had the lowest scores. Univariate analysis showed that factors which influence negatively QOL were: married status (p< 0.03), smoking cessation after diagnosis (p< 0.024), LCSS total score (p< 0.001), LCSS symptom burden index (p< 0.001), fatigue (p< 0.001), loss of appetite (p< 0.001), dyspnea (p< 0.001), pain (p< 0.002), and metastatic stage (p< 0.01).
In multivariate analysis, unemployment (p< 0.014), smoking cessation after diagnosis (p< 0.013), consumption of analgesic (p< 0.002) and the indication of an analgesic radiotherapy (p< 0.001) are revealed as independent determinants of QOL. The result of the correlation analyses between total LCSS scores and the total and individual domain SF36 scores was significant (p< 0.001); the higher total LCSS score is, the poorer QOL is. Conclusion: A built in support of lung cancer patients would better control the symptoms and promote the QOL of these patients.