Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 61079

200
2873
Curcumin Attenuates Angiogenesis in Liver Fibrosis and Inhibits Angiogenic Properties of Hepatic Stellate Cells
Abstract:
Sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were not impaired by curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by disrupting PDGF-βR/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin via blocking PDGF-βR/FAK/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of PPARγ was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. PPARγ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis.
199
63126
AIPM:An Integrator and Pull Request Matching Model in Github
Abstract:
Pull Request (PR) is the primary method for code contributions from the external contributors in Github. PR review is an essential part of open source software developments for maintaining the quality of software. Matching a new PR of an appropriate integrator will make the PR review more effective. However, PR and integrator matching are now organized manually in Github. To reduce this cost, we presented an AIPM model to predict highly relevant integrator of incoming PRs. AIPM uses topic model to extract topics from the PRs, and builds a one-to-one correspondence between topics and integrators. Then, AIPM finds the most suitable integrator according to the maximum entry of the topic-document distribution. On average, AIPM can reach a precision of 60%, and even in some projects, can reach a precision of 80%.
198
62620
The Precarious Chinese Ecology of Financial Expertise: Discontent in the Mix
Abstract:
Within the contemporary financial capitalist configuration, the interplay of Chinese statecraft and financialization has shaped a new ‘ecology of financial expertise.’ This indicates the emergence of a new financial technocratic governance; that is increasingly changing the Chinese economy, reducing the state’s administrative and fiscal functions and increasing state assets in accordance with a new shareholder logic. In this shift, the creation of the stock market by the state was conceived not only as a new redistributor of wealth but as a ‘clearing house’ for social discontent resulting from work casualization, wage repression and a lack of social welfare. Since its inception in the wake of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms, the Chinese state has used the stock market as a means of securing social legitimation by providing a prearranged space where the disaggregated and vulnerable subjects left behind by the dismantlement of the collective work units of the Maoist period (danwei) can congregate. However, fieldwork which included both participant observation as well as interviews with investors in brokerage rooms in Shanghai (where one of only two mainland Chinese stock exchanges is situated) reveals that both new formal and informal financial experts—namely the haigui (Chinese returnees with a financial degree abroad) and sanhu (individual Chinese scattered players), are equally dissatisfied with their investing activities. They express discontent with the state, which they hold responsible for the summer 2015 financial crisis and for the financial turmoil that jeopardizes China’s financial and political project. What the investors want is a state that will guarantee the continuation of the current gupiaore ‘stock fever’. This paper holds that, by embracing financialization, the state is undermining the contract at the base of its legitimacy.
197
86263
Methods of Livable Goal-Oriented Master Urban Design: A Case Study on Zibo City
Abstract:
The implementation of the 'Urban Design Management Measures' requires that the master urban design should aim at creating a livable urban space. However, to our best knowledge, the existing researches and practices of master urban design not only focus less on the livable space but also face a number of problems such as paying more attention to the image of the city, ignoring the people-oriented and lacking dynamic continuity. In order to make the master urban design can better guide the construction of city. Firstly, the paper proposes the livable city hierarchy system to meet the needs of different groups of people and then constructs the framework of livable goal-oriented master urban design based on the theory of livable content and the ideological origin of people-oriented. Secondly, the paper takes the master urban design practice of Zibo as a sample and puts forward the design strategy of strengthening the pattern, improve the quality of space, shape the feature, and establish a series of action plans based on the strategy of urban space development. Finally, the paper explores the method system of livable goal-oriented master urban design from the aspects of safety pattern, morphology pattern, neighborhood scale, open space, street space, public interface, style feature, public participation and action plans.
196
106975
Soil Penetration Resistance and Water Content Spatial Distribution Following Different Tillage and Crop Rotation in a Chinese Mollisol
Abstract:
To better understand the spatial variability of soil penetration resistance (SPR) and soil water content (SWC) induced by different tillage and crop rotation in a Mollisol of Northeast China, the soil was sampled from the tillage experiment which was established in Dehui County, Jilin Province, Northeast China, in 2001. Effect of no-tillage (NT), moldboard plow (MP) and ridge tillage (RT) under corn-soybean rotation (C-S) and continuous corn (C-C) system on SPR and SWC were compared with horizontal and vertical variations. The results showed that SPR and SWC spatially varied across the ridge. SPR in the rows was higher than inter-rows, especially in topsoil (2.5-15 cm) of NT and RT plots. SPR of MP changed in the trend with the curve-shaped ridge. In contrast to MP, NT, and RT resulted in average increment of 166.3% and 152.3% at a depth of 2.5-17.5 cm in the row positions, respectively. The mean SPR in topsoil in the rows means soil compaction is not the main factor limiting plant growth and crop yield. SPR in the row of RT soil was lower than NT at a depth of 2.5-12.5 cm. The SWC in NT and RT soil was highest in the inter-rows and least in the rows or shoulders, respectively. However, the lateral variation trend of MP was opposite to NT. From the profile view of SWC, MP was greater than NT and RT in 0-20 cm of the rows. SWC in RT soil was higher than NT in the row of 0-20 cm. Crop rotation did not have a marked impact on SPR and SWC. In addition to the tillage practices, the factor which affects SPR greatly was depth but not position. These two factors have significant effects on SWC. These results indicated that the adoption of RT was a more suitable conservation tillage practices than NT in the black soil of Northeast China.
195
20156
Modeling and Validation of Microspheres Generation in the Modified T-Junction Device
Abstract:
This paper presents a model for a modified T-junction device for microspheres generation. The numerical model is developed using a commercial software package: COMSOL Multiphysics. In order to test the accuracy of the numerical model, multiple variables, such as the flow rate of cross-flow, fluid properties, structure, and geometry of the microdevice are applied. The results from the model are compared with the experimental results in the diameter of the microsphere generated. The comparison shows a good agreement. Therefore the model is useful in further optimization of the device and feedback control of microsphere generation if any.
194
93209
China's Role in Promoting Regionalism in East Asia in Post-Maoist Era: An Analysis through Uneven and Combined Development
Authors:
Abstract:
China was considered as a revisionist state by the countries of East Asia during Maoist era; but China’s role changed from a revisionist state to a constructive member of East Asian Community in post-Maoist era. This research will mainly investigate the two phenomena: what were reasons of behavioral change of China in East Asia and what role has China played to promote regionalism in East Asia since Open Door Policy of Deng Xiaoping. To understand these two phenomena, this study applies the international relations theory of Uneven and Combined Development (U&CD). The central finding of this study is that ‘whip of external necessity’ posed by the Western dominance during the Chinese ‘century of ignominy’ resulted in a Maoist regime in China in 1948 which was hostile to its neighbors due to ideological tensions. Maoist regime in China could not solve the challenges posed by the ‘international’; therefore after Mao’s death, a new economic approach was introduced in China to deal with the challenges postured by the ‘international’. Due to Deng Xiaoping’s 'Open Door Policy' era, China used its ‘privilege of historic backwardness’ and witnessed unprecedented economic growth. As the societies are multiple and exist in real time, therefore interaction among societies is pertinent. Export oriented domestic policy pushed China to concentrate less on class struggle and improve its relations with its neighbors in East Asia. As China soon become a global hub of trade after market oriented reforms, therefore friendly relations with the states of East Asia was pertinent. This study will investigate Chinese role in regionalism in East Asia in three area: Chinese role in promoting regionalism in East Asia, China’s role in economic integration in East Asia and China’s role in combatting terrorism in East Asia. This study will be divided in two section. The first section will deal with the transformation in Chinese behavior in East Asia in post Maoist era, and the second section will analyze China’s role in East Asia by looking at Chinese role in institutional mechanism, economic integration and combatting terrorism in East Asia.
193
75463
Design and Thermal Simulation Analysis of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System Injector-I Cryomodule
Abstract:
The Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system (C-ADS) uses a high-energy proton beam to bombard the metal target and generate neutrons to deal with the nuclear waste. The Chinese ADS proton linear has two 0~10 MeV injectors and one 10~1500 MeV superconducting linac. Injector-I is studied by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) under construction in the Beijing, China. The linear accelerator consists of two accelerating cryomodules operating at the temperature of 2 Kelvin. This paper describes the structure and thermal performances analysis of the cryomodule. The analysis takes into account all the main contributors (support posts, multilayer insulation, current leads, power couplers, and cavities) to the static and dynamic heat load at various cryogenic temperature levels. The thermal simulation analysis of the cryomodule is important theory foundation of optimization and commissioning.
192
110905
Created Duration and Stillness: Chinese Director Zhang Ming Images to Matrophobia Dreamland in Films
Authors:
Abstract:
Zhang Ming is a never-A-listed writer-director in China who is famous for his poetic art-house filmmaking in mainland China, and his complex to spectacles of tiny places in south China. Entirely, Zhang’s works concentrate on the interconnection amongst settlement images, desirable fictional storytelling, and the dilemma of alienated interpersonal relationships. Zhang uses his pendulous camerawork to reconstruct the spectacles of his hometown and detached places in northern China, such as hometown Wushan county, lower-tier cities or remote areas that close to nature, where the old spectacles are experiencing great transformation and vanishment. Under his camera, the cities' geo-cultural and geopolitical implications which are not only a symbolic meaning that these places are not only settlements for residents to live but also representations to the abstraction of time-lapse, dimensional disorientation and revealment to people’s innerness. Zhang Ming is good at creating the essay-like expression, poetic atmosphere and vague metaphors in films, so as to show the sensitivity, aimlessness and slight anxiety of Chinese wenren (intellectuals), whose unique and objective experiences to a few aspects inside or outside their the living circumstance, typically for example, transformation of the environment, obscure expression to inner desire and aspirations, personal loneliness because of being isolated, slight anxiety to the uncertainty of life, and other mental dilemma brought by maladjustment. Also, Zhang’s works impressed the audience as slow cinemas, via creating stillness, complicity and fluidity of images and sound, by decompressing liner time passing and wandering within the enclosed loopback-space with his camera, so as to produce poeticized depiction and mysterious dimensions in films. This paper aims to summarize these mentioned features of Zhang’s films, by analyzing filmic texts and film-making styles, in order to prove an outcome that as a wenren-turned-filmmaker, Zhang Ming is good at use metaphor to create an artistic situation to depict the poetry in films and portray characteristics. In addition to this, Zhang Ming’s style relatively reflects some aesthetic features of Chinese wenren cinema.
191
9179
DSPIC30F6010A Control for 12/8 Switched Reluctance Motor
Abstract:
This paper briefly mentions the micro controller unit, and then goes into details about the exact regulations for SRM. Firstly, it proposes the main driving state control for motor and the importance of the motor position sensor. For different speed, the controller will choice various styles such as voltage chopper control, angle position control and current chopper control for which owns its advantages and disadvantages. Combining the strengths of the three discrepant methods, the main control chip will intelligently select the best performing control depending on the load and speed demand. Then the exact flow diagram is showed in paper. At last, an experimental platform is established to verify the correctness of the proposed theory.
190
85912
Multiple Images Stitching Based on Gradually Changing Matrix
Abstract:
Image stitching is a very important branch in the field of computer vision, especially for panoramic map. In order to eliminate shape distortion, a novel stitching method is proposed based on gradually changing matrix when images are horizontal. For images captured horizontally, this paper assumes that there is only translational operation in image stitching. By analyzing each parameter of the homography matrix, the global homography matrix is gradually transferred to translation matrix so as to eliminate the effects of scaling, rotation, etc. in the image transformation. This paper adopts matrix approximation to get the minimum value of the energy function so that the shape distortion at those regions corresponding to the homography can be minimized. The proposed method can avoid multiple horizontal images stitching failure caused by accumulated shape distortion. At the same time, it can be combined with As-Projective-As-Possible algorithm to ensure precise alignment of overlapping area.
189
39796
Shock Isolation Performance of a Pre-Compressed Large Deformation Shock Isolator with Quasi-Zero-Stiffness Characteristic
Abstract:
Based on the synthetic principle of force, a pre-compressed nonlinear isolator with quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) is developed for shock isolation of ship equipment. The proposed isolator consists of a vertical spring with positive stiffness and several lateral springs with negative stiffness. An analytical expression of vertical stiffness of the nonlinear isolator is derived and numerical simulation on the effect of the geometric design parameters is carried out. Besides, a pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system model is established. The stiffness characteristic of the system is studied and the effects of excitation amplitude and friction damping on shock isolation performance are discussed respectively. The research results show that in comparison with linear shock isolation system, the pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system could realize constant-force or approximately constant-force function and perform better anti-impact performance.
188
115269
Application of Heuristic Integration Ant Colony Optimization in Path Planning
Abstract:
This paper mainly studies the path planning method based on ant colony optimization (ACO) and proposes heuristic integration ant colony optimization (HIACO). This paper not only analyzes and optimizes the principle but also simulates and analyzes the parameters related to the application of HIACO in path planning. Compared with the original algorithm, the improved algorithm optimizes probability formula, tabu table mechanism, and updating mechanism, and introduces more reasonable heuristic factors. The optimized HIACO not only draws on the excellent ideas of the original algorithm but also solves the problems of premature convergence, convergence to the sub-optimal solution, and improper exploration to some extent. HIACO can be used to achieve better simulation results and achieve the desired optimization. Combined with the new probability formula and update formula, several parameters of HIACO are tested. This paper proves the principle of the HIACO and gives the best parameter range in the research of path planning.
187
67140
The Effect of Physical Evidence of Themed Casino Hotels on Customer Value and Satisfaction
Abstract:
Physical evidence has emerged as an important concept for understanding customers' behavior in the service industry. While it is still not clear about the effect of physical evidence of themed casino hotels on customer value and satisfaction. After deciding on the research context, the processes of this research started with a review of literature in three subject areas: physical evidence, customer value, and customer satisfactions. Insights from the literature review and pilot interviews are important input that informs the development of the specific research questions. Data collection for this research will be done for two studies: a photo elicitation study and an in-depth interview study.
186
82841
Attention Problems among Adolescents: Examining Educational Environments
Abstract:
This study investigated the attention problems with the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Two thousand eight hundred and ninety-four adolescents were surveyed by using a stratified sampling method. We examined the relationships between relevant background variables and attention problems. Multiple regression models were applied to analyze the data. Relevant variables such as sports activities, hobbies, age, grade and the number of close friends were included in this study as predictive variables. The analysis results indicated that educational environments and extracurricular activities are important factors which influence students’ attention problems.
185
24993
Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV
Abstract:
High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affect the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.
184
58362
Reliability Evidence of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Based on a Chinese Sample
Abstract:
The Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is the one of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales, by which behavioral and emotional problems of early adolescents were examined. In order to further understand the robustness of the scale, its reliability has been examined. CBCL consists of 8 problems to measure internalizing, externalizing and social problems. In internalizing problem, there are Anxious, Withdrawn and Somatic Complaints. In this study, as an example, we only examined the anxious aspect which consisted of 13 questions. Cronbach alpha and factor analysis methods were used to examine the reliability of the scale. The result indicated that Cronbach alpha value was above 0.80.
183
60778
Simulation of Piezoelectric Laminated Smart Structure under Strong Electric Field
Abstract:
Applying strong electric field on piezoelectric actuators, on one hand very significant electroelastic material nonlinear effects will occur, on the other hand piezo plates and shells may undergo large displacements and rotations. In order to give a precise prediction of piezolaminated smart structures under large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for both electroelastic material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity with large rotations based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is applied to analyze a piezolaminated semicircular shell structure.
182
40188
Externalizing Behavior Problems Influencing Social Behavior in Early Adolescence
Abstract:
This study focuses on early adolescent externalizing behavioral problems which specifically concentrate on rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the externalizing behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 1975 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a hierarchical modeling method was used to explore the causal relations among background variables, breaking behavior variables and aggressive behavior variables.
181
64648
The Causal Relationships between Educational Environments and Rule-Breaking Behavior Issues in Early Adolescence
Abstract:
This study focused on early adolescent rule-breaking behavioral problems using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the rule-breaking behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a path analysis method was used to explore the correlational and causal relationships among background variables and breaking behavior variables.
180
65141
Analysis of the Social Problems of the Early Adolescents in Northeast China
Abstract:
The social problems of early adolescents in Northeast China were examined with the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). In this study, the data consisted of 2532 early adolescents. The relevant variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends, as independent variables have been included in this study. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The analysis results indicated that sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends, as predictors can be used in a predictive model, which significantly predict the social problem T-score.
179
58360
An Analysis of Anxious/Depressed Behaviors of Chinese Adolescents
Abstract:
This study explored early adolescents’ anxious and depressed syndromes in Northeast China. Specifically, the study examined anxious and depressed behaviors and the relationship to education environments. The purpose is to examine how the elements of educational environments and the early adolescents’ behaviors as independent variables influence and possibly predict the early adolescents’ anxious/depressed problems. Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), was the instrument, used in collection of data. A stratified sampling method was utilized to collect data from 2532 participants in seven schools. The results indicated that several background variables influenced anxious/depressed problem. Specifically, age, grade, sports activities and hobbies had a relationship with the anxious/depressed variable.
178
86729
An Introduction to the Radiation-Thrust Based on Alpha Decay and Spontaneous Fission
Abstract:
As the key system of the spacecraft, various propelling system have been developing rapidly, including ion thrust, laser thrust, solar sail and other micro-thrusters. However, there still are some shortages in these systems. The ion thruster requires the high-voltage or magnetic field to accelerate, resulting in extra system, heavy quantity and large volume. The laser thrust now is mostly ground-based and providing pulse thrust, restraint by the station distribution and the capacity of laser. The thrust direction of solar sail is limited to its relative position with the Sun, so it is hard to propel toward the Sun or adjust in the shadow.In this paper, a novel nuclear thruster based on alpha decay and spontaneous fission is proposed and the principle of this radiation-thrust with alpha particle has been expounded. Radioactive materials with different released energy, such as 210Po with 5.4MeV and 238Pu with 5.29MeV, attached to a metal film will provides various thrust among 0.02-5uN/cm2. With this repulsive force, radiation is able to be a power source. With the advantages of low system quantity, high accuracy and long active time, the radiation thrust is promising in the field of space debris removal, orbit control of nano-satellite array and deep space exploration. To do further study, a formula lead to the amplitude and direction of thrust by the released energy and decay coefficient is set up. With the initial formula, the alpha radiation elements with the half life period longer than a hundred days are calculated and listed. As the alpha particles emit continuously, the residual charge in metal film grows and affects the emitting energy distribution of alpha particles. With the residual charge or extra electromagnetic field, the emitting of alpha particles performs differently and is analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, three more complex situations are discussed. Radiation element generating alpha particles with several energies in different intensity, mixture of various radiation elements, and cascaded alpha decay are studied respectively. In combined way, it is more efficient and flexible to adjust the thrust amplitude. The propelling model of the spontaneous fission is similar with the one of alpha decay, which has a more complex angular distribution. A new quasi-sphere space propelling system based on the radiation-thrust has been introduced, as well as the collecting and processing system of excess charge and reaction heat. The energy and spatial angular distribution of emitting alpha particles on unit area and certain propelling system have been studied. As the alpha particles are easily losing energy and self-absorb, the distribution is not the simple stacking of each nuclide. With the change of the amplitude and angel of radiation-thrust, orbital variation strategy on space debris removal is shown and optimized.
177
16982
Numerical Solving Method for Specific Dynamic Performance of Unstable Flight Dynamics with PD Attitude Control
Abstract:
In the realm of flight control, the Proportional- Derivative (PD) control is still widely used for the attitude control in practice, particularly for the pitch control, and the attitude dynamics using PD controller should be investigated deeply. According to the empirical knowledge about the unstable flight dynamics, the control parameter combination conditions to generate sole or finite number of closed-loop oscillations, which is a quite smooth response and is more preferred by practitioners, are presented in analytical or numerical manners. To analyze the effects of the combination conditions of the control parameters, the roots of several polynomials are sought to obtain feasible solutions. These conditions can also be plotted in a 2-D plane which makes the conditions be more explicit by using multiple interval operations. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed methods and some comparisons are also performed.
176
43501
Using Information Theory to Observe Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence
Abstract:
This paper takes a philosophical view as axiom, and reveals the relationship between information theory and Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence under real world conditions. This paper also derives the relationship between natural intelligence and nature. According to communication principle of information theory, Natural Intelligence can be divided into real part and virtual part. Based on information theory principle that Information does not increase, the restriction mechanism of Natural Intelligence creativity is conducted. The restriction mechanism of creativity reveals the limit of natural intelligence and artificial intelligence. The paper provides a new angle to observe natural intelligence and artificial intelligence.
175
19908
Reliability and Validity Examinations of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL): One of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment
Abstract:
In this study, three Chinese versions of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales were used to examine adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. These three scales are CBCL, TRF, and YSR. In order to further understand the robustness of these scales, their reliability and construct validity have been examined. Each scale consists of about 113 items plus relevant background variables. These 113 items were further classified into 8 psychological and behavioral problems: emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, somatic complaints, withdrawn, attention problems, aggressive behavior, social problems, thought problems, and association problems. The study explored the item and construct correlation relations and the correlations between the corresponding constructs among three scales. The results indicated that the associations between item and constructs varied. The construct validities were very robust.
174
59975
A Minimum Spanning Tree-Based Method for Initializing the K-Means Clustering Algorithm
Abstract:
The traditional k-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the algorithm often converges to local minima for the reason that it is sensitive to the initial cluster centers. In this paper, an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers on the basis of minimum spanning tree (MST) is presented. The set of vertices in MST with same degree are regarded as a whole which is used to find the skeleton data points. Furthermore, a distance measure between the skeleton data points with consideration of degree and Euclidean distance is presented. Finally, MST-based initialization method for the k-means algorithm is presented, and the corresponding time complexity is analyzed as well. The presented algorithm is tested on five data sets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm compared to three existing initialization methods.
173
58371
The Examination of Withdrawn Behavior in Chinese Adolescents
Abstract:
This study examined withdrawn syndromes of Chinese school children in northeast China in Northeast China. Specifically, the study examined withdrawn behaviors and the relationship to anxious syndromes and education environments. The purpose is to examine how the elements of educational environments and the early adolescents’ behaviors as independent variables influence and possibly predict the school children’s withdrawn problems. Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), was the instrument, used in collection of data. A stratified sampling method was utilized to collect data from 2532 participants in seven schools. The results indicated that several background variables influenced withdrawn problem. Specifically, age, grade, sports activities and hobbies had a relationship with the anxious/depressed variable. Further withdrawn syndromes and anxious problem indicate a significant correlation.
172
76296
The Flotation Device Designed to Treat Phosphate Rock
Abstract:
To overcome the some shortcomings associated with traditional flotation machines and columns in collophanite flotation, a flotation device was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. A multi-impeller pump with same function as a mechanical cell was used instead of the injection sparger and circulation pump in column flotation unit. The influence of main operational parameters of the device like feed flow rate, air flow rate and impellers’ speed on collophanite flotation was analyzed. Experiment results indicate that the influence of the operational parameters were significant on flotation recovery and grade of phosphate concentrate. The best operating conditions of the device were: feed flow rate 0.62 L/min, air flow rate 6.67 L/min and impellers speed 900 rpm. At these conditions, a phosphate concentrate assaying about 30.5% P2O5 and 1% MgO with a P2O5 recovery of about 81% was obtained from a Yuan'an phosphate ore sample containing about 22.30% P2O5 and 3.2% MgO.
171
19907
Hierarchically Modeling Cognition and Behavioral Problems of an Under-Represented Group
Abstract:
This study examines adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. The Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) were used as the instrument. The problem framework consists of internal, external and social behavioral problems which are theoretically developed based on about 113 items plus relevant background variables. In this study, the sample consist of 1,975 sixth and seventh grade students in Northeast China. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect the data, meaning that samples were from different school districts, schools, and classes. The researchers looked at both macro and micro effect. Therefore, multilevel analysis techniques were used in the data analysis. The parts of the research results indicated that the background variables such as extracurricular activities were directly related to students’ internal problems.
170
87289
Luminescent Properties of Plastic Scintillator with Large Area Photonic Crystal Prepared by a Combination of Nanoimprint Lithography and Atomic Layer Deposition
Abstract:
Plastic scintillators play an important role in the measurement of a mixed neutron/gamma pulsed radiation, neutron radiography and pulse shape discrimination technology. In some research, these luminescent properties are necessary that photons produced by the interactions between a plastic scintillator and radiations can be detected as much as possible by the photoelectric detectors and more photons can be emitted from the scintillators along a specific direction where detectors are located. Unfortunately, a majority of these photons produced are trapped in the plastic scintillators due to the total internal reflection (TIR), because there is a significant light-trapping effect when the incident angle of internal scintillation light is larger than the critical angle. Some of these photons trapped in the scintillator may be absorbed by the scintillator itself and the others are emitted from the edges of the scintillator. This makes the light extraction of plastic scintillators very low. Moreover, only a small portion of the photons emitted from the scintillator easily can be detected by detectors effectively, because the distribution of the emission directions of this portion of photons exhibits approximate Lambertian angular profile following a cosine emission law. Therefore, enhancing the light extraction efficiency and adjusting the emission angular profile become the keys for improving the number of photons detected by the detectors. In recent years, photonic crystal structures have been covered on inorganic scintillators to enhance the light extraction efficiency and adjust the angular profile of scintillation light successfully. However, that, preparation methods of photonic crystals will deteriorate performance of plastic scintillators and even destroy the plastic scintillators, makes the investigation on preparation methods of photonic crystals for plastic scintillators and luminescent properties of plastic scintillators with photonic crystal structures inadequate. Although we have successfully made photonic crystal structures covered on the surface of plastic scintillators by a modified self-assembly technique and achieved a great enhance of light extraction efficiency without evident angular-dependence for the angular profile of scintillation light, the preparation of photonic crystal structures with large area (the diameter is larger than 6cm) and perfect periodic structure is still difficult. In this paper, large area photonic crystals on the surface of scintillators were prepared by nanoimprint lithography firstly, and then a conformal layer with material of high refractive index on the surface of photonic crystal by atomic layer deposition technique in order to enhance the stability of photonic crystal structures and increase the number of leaky modes for improving the light extraction efficiency. The luminescent properties of the plastic scintillator with photonic crystals prepared by the mentioned method are compared with those of the plastic scintillator without photonic crystal. The results indicate that the number of photons detected by detectors is increased by the enhanced light extraction efficiency and the angular profile of scintillation light exhibits evident angular-dependence for the scintillator with photonic crystals. The mentioned preparation of photonic crystals is beneficial to scintillation detection applications and lays an important technique foundation for the plastic scintillators to meet special requirements under different application backgrounds.
169
19615
Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw
Abstract:
Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.
168
82847
Confirmatory Analysis of Externalizing Issue Validity from an Adolescent Sample
Abstract:
This study investigated the structural validity of externalizing issues of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) via a Chinese sample. The externalizing problems consist of two sub-problems: rule-breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. The rule-breaking behavior consists of 17 items, and aggressive behavior consists of 18 items. The factor analysis model was used to examine the structure validity. For the rule breaking behavior, at the first step, the most items weighted with component 2. After the rotation, there was a clear weight on both component 1 and 2. For the aggressive behavior, at the first step, there was no clear picture about the components. After the rotation, two clusters of items were closer to component 1 and 2 respectively. It seemed that both rule breaking behavior issue and aggressive behavior issue suggested two components. Further studies should be done to examine both samples and structures of externalizing problems.
167
40647
Cross Coupling Sliding Mode Synchronization Control of Dual-Driving Feed System
Abstract:
A cross coupling sliding synchronization control strategy is proposed for the dual-driving feed system. This technology will minimize the position error oscillation and achieve the precise synchronization performance in the high speed and high precision drive system, especially some high speed and high precision machine. Moreover, a cross coupling compensation matrix is provided to offset the mismatched disturbance and the disturbance observer is established to eliminate the chattering phenomenon. Performance comparisons of proposed dual-driving cross coupling sliding mode control (CCSMC), normal cross coupling control (CCC) strategy with PID control, and electronic virtual main shaft control (EVMSC) strategy with SMC control are investigated by simulation and a dual-driving control system; the results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
166
72915
Nonlinear Modelling and Analysis of Piezoelectric Smart Thin-Walled Structures in Supersonic Flow
Abstract:
Thin-walled structures are used more and more widely in modern aircrafts and some other structures in aerospace field nowadays. Accompanied by the wider applications, the vibration of the structures has been a bigger problem. Because of the direct and converse piezoelectric effect, piezoelectric materials combined to host thin-walled structures, named as piezoelectric smart structures, can be an effective way to suppress the vibration. So, an accurate model for piezoelectric thin-walled structures in air flow is necessary and important. In our recent work, an electromechanical coupling nonlinear aerodynamic finite element model of piezoelectric smart thin-walled structures is built based on the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory and first-order piston theory for aerodynamic pressure of supersonic flow. Von Kármán type nonlinearity is considered in the present model. Finally, the model is validated by experimental and numerical results from the literature, which can describe the vibration of the structures in supersonic flow precisely.
165
61618
Performance of an Optical Readout Gas Chamber for Charged Particle Track
Abstract:
We develop an optical readout gas chamber based on avalanche-induced scintillation for energetic charged particles track. The gas chamber is equipped with a Single Anode Wires (SAW) structure to produce intensive electric field when the measured particles are of low yield or even single. In the presence of an intensive electric field around the single anode, primary electrons, resulting from the incident charged particles when depositing the energy along the track, accelerate to the anode effectively and rapidly. For scintillation gasses, this avalanche of electrons induces multiplying photons comparing with the primary scintillation excited directly from particle energy loss. The electric field distribution for different shape of the SAW structure is analyzed, and finally, an optimal one is used to study the optical readout performance. Using CF4 gas and its mixture with the noble gas, the results indicate that the optical readout characteristics of the chamber are attractive for imaging. Moreover, images of particles track including single particle track from 5.485MeV alpha particles are successfully acquired. The track resolution is quite well for the reason that the electrons undergo less diffusion in the intensive electric field. With the simple and ingenious design, the optical readout gas chamber has a high sensitivity. Since neutrons can be converted to charged particles when scattering, this optical readout gas chamber can be applied to neutron measurement for dark matter, fusion research, and others.
164
110253
Application of a Bayesian Network Model to Assessing Undergraduate Students' Reading Motivation in South Texas
Abstract:
This study was to develop an assessment framework with a Bayesian network model to assess adult research motivation. In the survey study designed by the same authors (Kambara, & Zhang, 2019), Motivation for Reading Questionnaire was used to collect data from 1210 undergraduate students in South Texas. The questionnaire consists of 21 items, which can be categorized into four dimensions: a) reading as part of self, b) reading efficacy, c) reading for recognition and d) reading to do well in other realms. One of the study purposes was to establish an effective assessment model to examine the reading motivation of undergraduate students. The Bayesian network was used to establish a dynamic assessment model in examination of these four aspects of the reading motivation. The data collected from 1210 undergraduate students were used to test the model. The result indicated that the model was very robust. For the illustrating purpose, the part of the data was reported for Bayesian network learning purpose in the assessment model. The result further indicated that the model was effective and valid.
163
53935
Enhanced Magnetoelastic Response near Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnetic Materials: Experimental and Theoretical Analysis
Abstract:
The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) recently has attracted constant interest in ferromagnetic systems for obtaining enhanced large magnetoelastic response. In the present study, structural and magnetoelastic properties of MPB involved ferromagnetic Tb1-xGdxFe2 (0≤x≤1) system has been investigated. The change of easy magnetic direction from <111> to <100> with increasing x up MPB composition of x=0.9 is detected by step-scanned [440] synchrotron X-ray diffraction reflections. The Gd substitution for Tb changes the composition for the anisotropy compensation near MPB composition of x=0.9, which was confirmed by the analysis of detailed scanned XRD, magnetization curves and the calculation of the first anisotropy constant K1. The spin configuration diagram accompanied with different crystal structures for Tb1-xGdxFe2 was designed. The calculated first anisotropy constant K1 shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.9. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction, and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant │λS∕K1│ appears at MPB composition, which makes it a potential material for magnetostrictive application. Based on experimental results, a theoretically approach was also proposed to signify that the facilitated magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic effect near MPB composition are a consequence of the anisotropic flattening of free energy of ferromagnetic crystal. Our work specifies the universal existence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials which is important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties and may provide a new route to develop advanced functional materials.
162
43275
Uniform Porous Multilayer-Junction Thin Film for Enhanced Gas-Sensing Performance
Abstract:
Highly-uniform In2O3/CuO bilayer and multilayer porous thin films were successfully fabricated using self-assembled soft template and simple sputtering deposition technique. The sensor based on the In2O3/CuO bilayer porous thin film shows obviously improved sensing performance to ethanol at the lower working temperature, compared to single layer counterpart sensors. The response of In2O3/CuO bilayer sensors exhibits nearly 3 and 5 times higher than those of the single layer In2O3 and CuO porous film sensors over the same ethanol concentration, respectively. The sensing mechanism based on p-n hetero-junction, which contributed to the enhanced sensing performance was also experimentally confirmed by a control experiment which the SiO2 insulation layer was inserted between the In2O3 and CuO layers to break the p-n junction. In addition, the sensing performance can be further enhanced by increasing the number of In2O3/CuO junction layers. The facile process can be easily extended to the fabrication of other semiconductor oxide gas sensors for practical sensing applications.
161
62323
Design of 900 MHz High Gain SiGe Power Amplifier with Linearity Improved Bias Circuit
Abstract:
A 900 MHz three-stage SiGe power amplifier (PA) with high power gain is presented in this paper. Volterra Series is applied to analyze nonlinearity sources of SiGe HBT device model clearly. Meanwhile, the influence of operating current to IMD3 is discussed. Then a β-helper current mirror bias circuit is applied to improve linearity, since the β-helper current mirror bias circuit can offer stable base biasing voltage. Meanwhile, it can also work as predistortion circuit when biasing voltages of three bias circuits are fine-tuned, by this way, the power gain and operating current of PA are optimized for best linearity. The three power stages which fabricated by 0.18 μm SiGe technology are bonded to the printed circuit board (PCB) to obtain impedances by Load-Pull system, then matching networks are done for best linearity with discrete passive components on PCB. The final measured three-stage PA exhibits 21.1 dBm of output power at 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) with power added efficiency (PAE) of 20.6% and 33 dB power gain under 3.3 V power supply voltage.
160
12506
Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Roadside Soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway in Liaoning Province, China
Abstract:
The heavy metal contaminations were determined with a detailed soil survey in roadside soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway of Liaoning Province (China) and Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The average concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn in roadside soils was determined to be 43.8, 26.5, 0.119, 32.1, 71.3 mg/kg respectively, and all of the heavy metal contents were higher than the background values. Different heavy metal distribution regularity was found in different land use type of roadside soil, there was an obvious peak of heavy concentration at 25m from road edge in the farmland, while in the forest and orchard soil, all heavy metals gradually decreased with the increase of distance from road edge and conformed to the exponential model. Furthermore, the heavy metal contents of heavy metals except Cd were markedly increased compared with those in 1999 and 2007, and the heavy metals concentrations of Shenyang- Dalian Highway were considered medium or low in comparison with those in other cities around the world. The assessment of heavy metal contamination of roadside soils illustrated a common low pollution for all heavy metal and recommended that more attention should be paid to Pb contamination in roadside soils in Shenyang-Dalian Highway.
159
104472
lncRNA Gene Expression Profiling Analysis by TCGA RNA-Seq Data of Breast Cancer
Abstract:
Introduction: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified in 4 subgroups using transcriptional profiling. The role of lncRNA expression in human breast cancer biology, prognosis, and molecular classification remains unknown. Methods and results: Using an integrative comprehensive analysis of lncRNA, mRNA and DNA methylation in 900 breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, we unraveled the molecular portraits of 1,700 expressed lncRNA. Some of those lncRNAs (i.e, HOTAIR) are previously reported and others are novel (i.e, HOTAIRM1, MAPT-AS1). The lncRNA classification correlated well with the PAM50 classification for basal-like, Her-2 enriched and luminal B subgroups, in contrast to the luminal A subgroup which behaved differently. Importantly, estrogen receptor (ESR1) expression was associated with distinct lncRNA networks in lncRNA clusters III and IV. Gene set enrichment analysis for cis- and trans-acting lncRNA showed enrichment for breast cancer signatures driven by breast cancer master regulators. Almost two third of those lncRNA were marked by enhancer chromatin modifications (i.e., H3K27ac), suggesting that lncRNA expression may result in increased activity of neighboring genes. Differential analysis of gene expression profiling data showed that lncRNA HOTAIRM1 was significantly down-regulated in basal-like subtype, and DNA methylation profiling data showed that lncRNA HOTAIRM1 was highly methylated in basal-like subtype. Thus, our integrative analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation strongly suggested that lncRNA HOTAIRM1 should be a tumor suppressor in basal-like subtype. Conclusion and significance: Our study depicts the first lncRNA molecular portrait of breast cancer and shows that lncRNA HOTAIRM1 might be a novel tumor suppressor.
158
92165
Thermodynamic Performance Tests for 3D Printed Steel Slag Powder Concrete Walls
Abstract:
The three dimensional (3D) printing technology has undergone rapid development in the last few years and it is possible to print engineering structures. 3D printing buildings use wastes from constructions, industries and mine tailings as “ink”, and mix it with property improved materials, such as cement, fiber etc. This paper presents a study of the Thermodynamic performance of 3D printed walls using cement and steel slag powder. Analyses the thermal simulation regarding 3D printed walls and solid brick wall by the way of the hot-box methods and the infrared technology, and the results were contrasted with theoretical calculation. The results show that the excellent thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete wall made it suitable as the partial materials for self-thermal insulation walls in residential buildings. The thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete walls depended on the density of materials, distribution of holes, and the filling materials. Decreasing the density of materials, increasing the number of holes or replacing the filling materials with foamed concrete could improve its thermodynamic performance significantly. The average of heat transfer coefficient and thermal inertia index of 3D printed steel slag powder concrete wall all better than the traditional solid brick wall with a thickness of 240mm.
157
93881
Distributed Optical Fiber Vibration Sensing Using Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation Algorithm
Abstract:
Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors are gaining extensive attention, for the advantages of high sensitivity, accurate location, light weight, large-scale monitoring, good concealment, and etc. In this paper, a novel optical fiber distributed vibration sensing system is proposed, which is based on self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering with phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation algorithm. Pulsed lights are sent into the sensing fiber and the Rayleigh backscattering light from a certain position along the sensing fiber would interfere through an unbalanced Michelson Interferometry (MI) to generate the interference light. An improved PGC demodulation algorithm is carried out to recover the phase information of the interference signal, which carries the sensing information. Three vibration events were applied simultaneously to different positions over 2000m sensing fiber and demodulated correctly. Experiments show that the spatial resolution of is 10 m, and the noise level of the Φ-OTDR system is about 10-3 rad/√Hz, and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is about 30.34dB. This vibration measurement scheme can be applied at surface, seabed or downhole for vibration measurements or distributed acoustic sensing (DAS).
156
74873
Collective Behavior of Mice Passing through a Middle-Exit or Corner-Exit under Panic
Abstract:
The existence of animal groups and collective migration are common in nature, and collective behavior is attracting more and more attention of researchers. Previous results have shown that architectural design had an important effect on the process of crowd evacuation. In this paper, collective behavior of mice passing through a middle-exit or corner-exit under panic was investigated. Selfish behavior and herd behavior were easily observed in our video, which caused the congregation with high density near the exit. Triangle structure of congregation formed near the middle-exit while arch structure formed near the corner-exit. It is noteworthy that the exit located at the middle of the wall was more effective for evacuation than at the corner. Meanwhile, the escape sequence of mouse passing through the exit was investigated, and the result showed that the priority depends largely on its location in the congregation. With the level of stimulus increasing, these phenomena still exist. The frequency distributions of time intervals and the burst sizes were also analyzed in this study to explore the secret of collective behavior of mice. These results could provide evidence for the hypothesis or prediction about human behavior in crowd evacuation. However, it is not clear whether the simulated results from different species can correspond to reality or not. Broader comparison among different species about this topic will be eager to be conducted to deepen our understanding of collective behavior in nature.
155
72720
Finite Element Analysis of Piezolaminated Structures with Both Geometric and Electroelastic Material Nonlinearities
Abstract:
Piezoelectric laminated smart structures can be subjected to the strong driving electric field, which may result in large displacements and rotations. In one hand, piezoelectric materials usually behave very significant material nonlinear effects under strong electric fields. On the other hand, thin-walled structures undergoing large displacements and rotations exist nonnegligible geometric nonlinearity. In order to give a precise prediction of piezo laminated smart structures under the large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for material nonlinearity (piezoelectric part) and geometric nonlinearity based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is first validated by both experimental and numerical examples from the literature. Afterwards, it is applied to simulate for plate and shell structures with multiple piezoelectric patches under the strong applied electric field. From the simulation results, it shows that large discrepancies occur between linear and nonlinear predictions for piezoelectric laminated structures driving at the strong electric field. Therefore, both material and geometric nonlinearities should be taken into account for piezoelectric structures under strong electric.
154
100161
Effect of Experience on Evacuation of Mice in Emergency Conditions
Abstract:
With the acceleration of urbanization and the increasing of the population in the city, the evacuation of pedestrians suffering from disaster environments such as fire in a room or other limited space becomes a vital issue in modern society. Mice have been used in experimental crowd evacuation in recent years for its good similarities to human in physical structure and stress reaction. In this study, the effect of experience or memory on the collective behavior of mice was explored. To help mice familiarize themselves with the design of the space and the stimulus caused by smoke, we trained them repeatedly for 2 days so that they can escape from the emergency conditions as soon as possible. The escape pattern, trajectories, walking speed, turning angle and mean individual escape time of mice in each training trail were analyzed. We found that mice can build memory quickly after the first trial on the first day. On the second day, the evacuation of mice was maintained in a stable and efficient state. Meanwhile, the group with size of 30 (G30) had a shorter mean individual escape time compared with G12. Furthermore, we tested the experience of evacuation skill of mice after several days. The results showed that the mice can hold the experience or memory over 3 weeks. We proposed the importance of experience of evacuation skill and the research of training methods in experimental evacuation of mice. The results can deepen our understanding of collective behavior of mice and conduce to the establishment of animal models in the study of pedestrian crowd dynamics in emergency conditions.
153
28404
A New Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Brake Light
Abstract:
In this research, a car-following model with consideration of the status of the brake light is proposed. The numerical results show that the stability of the traffic flow is improved. The ability of the brake light to reduce car accident is also showed.
152
101476
Investigation of Shear Thickening Fluid Isolator with Vibration Isolation Performance
Abstract:
According to the theory of the vibration isolation for linear systems, linear damping can reduce the transmissibility at the resonant frequency, but inescapably increase the transmissibility of the isolation frequency region. To resolve this problem, nonlinear vibration isolation technology has recently received increasing attentions. Shear thickening fluid (STF) is a special colloidal material. When STF is subject to high shear rate, it rheological property changes from a flowable behavior into a rigid behavior, i.e., it presents shear thickening effect. STF isolator is a vibration isolator using STF as working material. Because of shear thickening effect, STF isolator is a variable-damped isolator. It exhibits small damping under high vibration frequency and strong damping at resonance frequency due to shearing rate increasing. So its special inherent character is very favorable for vibration isolation, especially for restraining resonance. In this paper, firstly, STF was prepared by dispersing nano-particles of silica into polyethylene glycol 200 fluid, followed by rheological properties test. After that, an STF isolator was designed. The vibration isolation system supported by STF isolator was modeled, and the numerical simulation was conducted to study the vibration isolation properties of STF. And finally, the effect factors on vibrations isolation performance was also researched quantitatively. The research suggests that owing to its variable damping, STF vibration isolator can effetely restrain resonance without bringing unfavorable effect at high frequency, which meets the need of ideal damping properties and resolves the problem of traditional isolators.
151
102625
A Modified Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Large Scale Unconstrained Optimization Problems
Abstract:
It is well known that nonlinear conjugate gradient method is one of the widely used first order methods to solve large scale unconstrained smooth optimization problems. Because of the low memory requirement, attractive theoretical features, practical computational efficiency and nice convergence properties, nonlinear conjugate gradient methods have a special role for solving large scale unconstrained optimization problems. Large scale optimization problems are with important applications in practical and scientific world. However, nonlinear conjugate gradient methods have restricted information about the curvature of the objective function and they are likely less efficient and robust compared to some second order algorithms. To overcome these drawbacks, the new modified nonlinear conjugate gradient method is presented. The noticeable features of our work are that the new search direction possesses the sufficient descent property independent of any line search and it belongs to a trust region. Under mild assumptions and standard Wolfe line search technique, the global convergence property of the proposed algorithm is established. Furthermore, to test the practical computational performance of our new algorithm, numerical experiments are provided and implemented on the set of some large dimensional unconstrained problems. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm is an efficient and robust compared with other similar algorithms.
150
72780
The Metabolite Profiling of Fulvestrant-3 Boronic Acid under Biological Oxidation
Abstract:
Fulvestrant was approved by FDA to treat breast cancer as a selective estrogen receptor downregulator (SERD) with intramuscular injection administration. ZB716, a fulvestarnt-3 boronic acid, is an SERD with comparable anticancer effect to fulvestrant, but could produce good pharmacokinetic properties under oral administration with mice or rat models. To understand why ZB716 produced much better oral bioavailability, it was proposed that the boronic acid blocked the phase II direct biotransformation with the hydroxyl group on the 3 position of the aromatic ring on fulvestrant. In this study, ZB716 or fulvestrant was incubated with human liver microsome and oxidation cofactor NADPH in vitro. Their metabolites after oxidation were profiled with the Q-Exactive, a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The result showed that ZB716 blocked the forming of hydroxyl groups on its benzene ring except for the oxidation of C-B bond forming fulvestrant in its metabolites, and the concentration of fulvestrant with one more hydroxyl group found in the metabolites from incubation with fulvestrant was about 34 fold high as that formed from incubation with ZB716. Compared to fulvestrant, ZB716 is expected to be much difficult to be further bio-transformed into more hydrophilic compounds, to be difficult excreted out of blood system, and to have longer residence time in blood, which can lead to higher oral bioavailability. This study provided evidence to explain the high bioavailability of ZB716 after oral administration from the perspective of its difficulty of oxidation, a phase I biotransformation, on positions on its aromatic ring.
149
89378
Study on Science and Technology Resources Coordinated Development and Innovation of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
Abstract:
Coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is of great importance and has been emphasized by the government in recent years. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region accumulates a large part of S&T resources of the whole country and boasts the most influential achievements. In order to improve innovation capability of the region, universities, research institutions and enterprises from Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei have cooperated in many forms, but technological innovation is not so satisfactory due to unbalanced allocation, poor sharing and low utilization efficiency of S&T resources. Therefore, it’s very necessary to promote resources sharing, optimize their overall layout, and enhance their innovation performance, which can further deepen coordination development of the region. This study focuses on S&T resources with the methods of documents research plus field investigation and qualitative research combing plus quantitive research. It starts from the macro background of promoting coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and arrives at improving regional innovation capability. Firstly, the author makes a literature review on coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and summarizes that coordinated development has been carried forward in the major fields which lay foundation for regional innovation; secondly, analyzes current S&T resources distribution and coordinated innovation by taking key industries as the examples; based on analysis of the status quo of resources sharing and innovation in the region, the author points out problems and obstacles that holdbacks coordinated innovation of the region and at last raises some suggestions to resources sharing and regional innovation. It reaches the conclusion that an efficient management mechanism, market laws, favorable environment, model innovation and incentive measures can help to accelerate resources sharing and regional innovation in the region.
148
83461
The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China
Abstract:
The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.
147
83458
The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China
Abstract:
The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.
146
83465
The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China
Abstract:
The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.
145
81023
The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China
Abstract:
The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.
144
83459
The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China
Abstract:
The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.
143
83462
The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China
Abstract:
The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.
142
83460
The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China
Abstract:
The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.
141
83464
The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China
Abstract:
The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.
140
40864
Application of Hydrological Model in Support of Streamflow Allocation in Arid Watersheds in Northwestern China
Abstract:
Spatial heterogeneity of landscape significantly affects watershed hydrological processes, particularly in high elevation and cold mountainous watersheds such as the inland river (terminal lake) basins in Northwest China, where the upper reach mountainous areas are the main source of streamflow for the downstream agricultural oases and desert ecosystems. Thus, it is essential to take into account spatial variations of hydrological processes in streamflow allocation at the watershed scale. This paper adapts the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model (DLBRM) to the Heihe River Watershed, the second largest inland river with a drainage area of about 128,000 km2 in Northwest China, for understanding the transfer and partitioning mechanism among the glacier and snowmelt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge among the upper, middle, and lower reaches in the study area. Results indicate that the upper reach Qilian Mountain area is the main source of streamflow for the middle reach agricultural oasis and downstream desert areas. Large withdrawals for agricultural irrigation in the middle reach had significantly depleted river flow for the lower reach desert ecosystems. Innovative conservation and enforcement programs need to be undertaken to ensure the successful implementation of water allocation plan of delivering 0.95 x 109 m3 of water downstream annually by the State Council in the Heihe River Watershed.
139
98570
Human-Centric Sensor Networks for Comfort and Productivity in Offices: Integrating Environmental, Body Area Network, and Participatory Sensing
Abstract:
Indoor environment in office buildings directly affects comfort, productivity, health, and well-being of building occupants. Wireless environmental sensor networks have been deployed in many modern offices to monitor and control the indoor environments. However, indoor environmental variables are not strong enough predictors of comfort and productivity levels of every occupant due to personal differences, both physiologically and psychologically. This study proposes human-centric sensor networks that integrate wireless environmental sensors, body area network sensors and participatory sensing technologies to collect data from both environment and human and support building operations. The sensor networks have been tested in one small-size and one medium-size office rooms with 22 participants for five months. Indoor environmental data (e.g., air temperature and relative humidity), physiological data (e.g., skin temperature and Galvani skin response), and physiological responses (e.g., comfort and self-reported productivity levels) were obtained from each participant and his/her workplace. The data results show that: (1) participants have different physiological and physiological responses in the same environmental conditions; (2) physiological variables are more effective predictors of comfort and productivity levels than environmental variables. These results indicate that the human-centric sensor networks can support human-centric building control and improve comfort and productivity in offices.
138
51238
Characterization of Double Shockley Stacking Fault in 4H-SiC Epilayer
Abstract:
In-grow stacking-faults (IGSFs) in 4H-SiC epilayers can cause increased leakage current and reduce the blocking voltage of 4H-SiC power devices. Double Shockley stacking fault (2SSF) is a common type of IGSF with double slips on the basal planes. In this study, a 2SSF in the 4H-SiC epilayer grown by chemical vaper deposition (CVD) is characterized. The nucleation site of the 2SSF is discussed, and a model for the 2SSF nucleation is proposed. Homo-epitaxial 4H-SiC is grown on a commercial 4 degrees off-cut substrate by a home-built hot-wall CVD. Defect-selected-etching (DSE) is conducted with melted KOH at 500 degrees Celsius for 1-2 min. Room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) is conducted at a 20 kV acceleration voltage. Low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) is conducted at 3.6 K with the 325 nm He-Cd laser line. In the CL image, a triangular area with bright contrast is observed. Two partial dislocations (PDs) with a 20-degree angle in between show linear dark contrast on the edges of the IGSF. CL and LTPL spectrums are conducted to verify the IGSF’s type. The CL spectrum shows the maximum photoemission at 2.431 eV and negligible bandgap emission. In the LTPL spectrum, four phonon replicas are found at 2.468 eV, 2.438 eV, 2.420 eV and 2.410 eV, respectively. The Egx is estimated to be 2.512 eV. A shoulder with a red-shift to the main peak in CL, and a slight protrude at the same wavelength in LTPL are verified as the so called Egx- lines. Based on the CL and LTPL results, the IGSF is identified as a 2SSF. Back etching by neutral loop discharge and DSE are conducted to track the origin of the 2SSF, and the nucleation site is found to be a threading screw dislocation (TSD) in this sample. A nucleation mechanism model is proposed for the formation of the 2SSF. Steps introduced by the off-cut and the TSD on the surface are both suggested to be two C-Si bilayers height. The intersections of such two types of steps are along [11-20] direction from the TSD, while a four-bilayer step at each intersection. The nucleation of the 2SSF in the growth is proposed as follows. Firstly, the upper two bilayers of the four-bilayer step grow down and block the lower two at one intersection, and an IGSF is generated. Secondly, the step-flow grows over the IGSF successively, and forms an AC/ABCABC/BA/BC stacking sequence. Then a 2SSF is formed and extends by the step-flow growth. In conclusion, a triangular IGSF is characterized by CL approach. Base on the CL and LTPL spectrums, the estimated Egx is 2.512 eV and the IGSF is identified to be a 2SSF. By back etching, the 2SSF nucleation site is found to be a TSD. A model for the 2SSF nucleation from an intersection of off-cut- and TSD- introduced steps is proposed.
137
81065
Development of Solar Energy Resources for Land along the Transportation Infrastructure: Taking the Lan-Xin Railway in the Silk Road Economic Belt as an Example
Abstract:
Making full use of space along transportation infrastructure to develop renewable energy sources, especially solar energy resources, has become a research focus in relevant fields. In recent years, relevant international researches can be classified into three stages of theoretical and technical exploration, exploratory practice as well as planning implementation. Compared with traditional solar energy development mode, the development of solar energy resources in places along the transportation infrastructure has special advantages, which can also bring forth new opportunities for the development of green transportation. 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic', a development model of combining transport and new energy, has been actively studied and applied in developed countries, but it was still in its infancy in China. 'New Silk Road Economic Belt' has great advantage to carry out the 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic' because of the rich solar energy resources in its path, the shortages of renewable energy, the constraints of agricultural land and other reasons. Especially the massive amount of construction of transportation infrastructure brought by Silk Road Economic Belt, large area of developable land along the transportation line will be generated. Abundant solar energy recourses along the Silk Road will provide extremely superb practical opportunities to the land development along transportation infrastructure. We take PVsyst, GIS and Google map software for simulation of its potential by taking Lan-Xin Railway as an example, so potential electrical energy generation can be quantified and further analyzed. Research of 'New Silk Road Economic Belt' combined with 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic' is a creative development for the along transport and energy infrastructure. It not only can make full use of solar radiation and land in its path, but also bring more long-term advantages and benefits.
136
69918
Mathematical Model and Algorithm for the Berth and Yard Resource Allocation at Seaports
Abstract:
This paper studies a deterministic container transportation problem, jointly optimizing the berth allocation, quay crane assignment and yard storage allocation at container ports. The problem is formulated as an integer program to coordinate the decisions. Because of the large scale, it is then transformed into a set partitioning formulation, and a framework of branchand- price algorithm is provided to solve it.
135
86161
Statistical Correlation between Ply Mechanical Properties of Composite and Its Effect on Structure Reliability
Abstract:
Due to the large uncertainty on the mechanical properties of FRP (fibre reinforced plastic), the reliability evaluation of FRP structures are currently receiving much attention in industry. However, possible statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties has been so far overlooked, and they are mostly assumed to be independent random variables. In this study, the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties of uni-directional and plain weave composite is firstly analyzed by a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and finite element modeling of the FRP unit cell. Large linear correlation coefficients between the in-plane mechanical properties are observed, and the correlation coefficients are heavily dependent on the uncertainty of the fibre volume ratio. It is also observed that the correlation coefficients related to Poisson’s ratio are negative while others are positive. To experimentally achieve the statistical correlation coefficients between in-plane mechanical properties of FRP, all concerned in-plane mechanical properties of the same specimen needs to be known. In-plane shear modulus of FRP is experimentally derived by the approach suggested in the ASTM standard D5379M. Tensile tests are conducted using the same specimens used for the shear test, and due to non-uniform tensile deformation a modification factor is derived by a finite element modeling. Digital image correlation is adopted to characterize the specimen non-uniform deformation. The preliminary experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical analysis on the statistical correlation. Then, failure probability of laminate plates is calculated in cases considering and not considering the statistical correlation, using the Monte-Carlo and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods, respectively. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties to achieve accurate failure probability of laminate plates. Furthermore, it is found that for the multi-layer laminate plate, the statistical correlation between the ply elastic properties significantly affects the laminate reliability while the effect of statistical correlation between the ply strength is minimal.
134
96706
Statistical Correlation between Ply Mechanical Properties of Composite and Its Effect on Structure Reliability
Abstract:
Due to the large uncertainty on the mechanical properties of FRP (fibre reinforced plastic), the reliability evaluation of FRP structures are currently receiving much attention in industry. However, possible statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties has been so far overlooked, and they are mostly assumed to be independent random variables. In this study, the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties of uni-directional and plain weave composite is firstly analyzed by a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and finite element modeling of the FRP unit cell. Large linear correlation coefficients between the in-plane mechanical properties are observed, and the correlation coefficients are heavily dependent on the uncertainty of the fibre volume ratio. It is also observed that the correlation coefficients related to Poisson’s ratio are negative while others are positive. To experimentally achieve the statistical correlation coefficients between in-plane mechanical properties of FRP, all concerned in-plane mechanical properties of the same specimen needs to be known. In-plane shear modulus of FRP is experimentally derived by the approach suggested in the ASTM standard D5379M. Tensile tests are conducted using the same specimens used for the shear test, and due to non-uniform tensile deformation a modification factor is derived by a finite element modeling. Digital image correlation is adopted to characterize the specimen non-uniform deformation. The preliminary experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical analysis on the statistical correlation. Then, failure probability of laminate plates is calculated in cases considering and not considering the statistical correlation, using the Monte-Carlo and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods, respectively. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties to achieve accurate failure probability of laminate plates. Furthermore, it is found that for the multi-layer laminate plate, the statistical correlation between the ply elastic properties significantly affects the laminate reliability while the effect of statistical correlation between the ply strength is minimal.
133
96707
Statistical Correlation between Ply Mechanical Properties of Composite and Its Effect on Structure Reliability
Abstract:
Due to the large uncertainty on the mechanical properties of FRP (fibre reinforced plastic), the reliability evaluation of FRP structures are currently receiving much attention in industry. However, possible statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties has been so far overlooked, and they are mostly assumed to be independent random variables. In this study, the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties of uni-directional and plain weave composite is firstly analyzed by a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and finite element modeling of the FRP unit cell. Large linear correlation coefficients between the in-plane mechanical properties are observed, and the correlation coefficients are heavily dependent on the uncertainty of the fibre volume ratio. It is also observed that the correlation coefficients related to Poisson’s ratio are negative while others are positive. To experimentally achieve the statistical correlation coefficients between in-plane mechanical properties of FRP, all concerned in-plane mechanical properties of the same specimen needs to be known. In-plane shear modulus of FRP is experimentally derived by the approach suggested in the ASTM standard D5379M. Tensile tests are conducted using the same specimens used for the shear test, and due to non-uniform tensile deformation a modification factor is derived by a finite element modeling. Digital image correlation is adopted to characterize the specimen non-uniform deformation. The preliminary experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical analysis on the statistical correlation. Then, failure probability of laminate plates is calculated in cases considering and not considering the statistical correlation, using the Monte-Carlo and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods, respectively. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties to achieve accurate failure probability of laminate plates. Furthermore, it is found that for the multi-layer laminate plate, the statistical correlation between the ply elastic properties significantly affects the laminate reliability while the effect of statistical correlation between the ply strength is minimal.
132
72802
Study on Eco-Feedback of Thermal Comfort and Cost Efficiency for Low Energy Residence
Abstract:
China with annual increasing 0.5-0.6 billion squares city residence has brought in enormous energy consumption by HVAC facilities and other appliances. In this regard, governments and researchers are encouraging renewable energy like solar energy, geothermal energy using in houses. However, high cost of equipment and low energy conversion result in a very low acceptable to residents. So what’s the equilibrium point of eco-feedback to reach economic benefit and thermal comfort? That is the main question should be answered. In this paper, the objective is an on-site solar PV and heater house, which has been evaluated as a low energy building. Since HVAC system is considered as main energy consumption equipment, the residence with 24-hour monitoring system set to measure temperature, wind velocity and energy in-out value with no HVAC system for one month of summer and winter. Thermal comfort time period will be analyzed and confirmed; then the air-conditioner will be started within thermal discomfort time for the following one summer and winter month. The same data will be recorded to calculate the average energy consumption monthly for a purpose of whole day thermal comfort. Finally, two analysis work will be done: 1) Original building thermal simulation by computer at design stage with actual measured temperature after construction will be contrastive analyzed; 2) The cost of renewable energy facilities and power consumption converted to cost efficient rate to assess the feasibility of renewable energy input for residence. The results of the experiment showed that a certain deviation exists between actual measured data and simulated one for human thermal comfort, especially in summer period. Moreover, the cost-effectiveness is high for a house in targeting city Guilin now with at least 11 years of cost-covering. The conclusion proves that an eco-feedback of a low energy residence is never only consideration of its energy net value, but also the cost efficiency that is the critical factor to push renewable energy acceptable by the public.
131
31314
Dynamic Behavior of the Nanostructure of Load-Bearing Biological Materials
Abstract:
Typical load-bearing biological materials like bone, mineralized tendon and shell, are biocomposites made from both organic (collagen) and inorganic (biomineral) materials. This amazing class of materials with intrinsic internally designed hierarchical structures show superior mechanical properties with regard to their weak components from which they are formed. Extensive investigations concentrating on static loading conditions have been done to study the biological materials failure. However, most of the damage and failure mechanisms in load-bearing biological materials will occur whenever their structures are exposed to dynamic loading conditions. The main question needed to be answered here is: What is the relation between the layout and architecture of the load-bearing biological materials and their dynamic behavior? In this work, a staggered model has been developed based on the structure of natural materials at nanoscale and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used to study the dynamic behavior of the structure of load-bearing biological materials to answer why the staggered arrangement has been selected by nature to make the nanocomposite structure of most of the biological materials. The results showed that the staggered structures will efficiently attenuate the stress wave rather than the layered structure. Furthermore, such staggered architecture is effectively in charge of utilizing the capacity of the biostructure to resist both normal and shear loads. In this work, the geometrical parameters of the model like the thickness and aspect ratio of the mineral inclusions selected from the typical range of the experimentally observed feature sizes and layout dimensions of the biological materials such as bone and mineralized tendon. Furthermore, the numerical results validated with existing theoretical solutions. Findings of the present work emphasize on the significant effects of dynamic behavior on the natural evolution of load-bearing biological materials and can help scientists to design bioinspired materials in the laboratories.
130
67322
Hydrodynamics of Undulating Ribbon-fin and Its Application in Bionic Underwater Robot
Abstract:
The Gymnarchus Niioticus fish(GNF) cruises generally with high efficiency by undulating ribbon-fin propulsion while keeping its body for straight line. The swing amplitude of GNF fins is usually in 60° to 90°, and in normal state the amplitude is close to 90°, only in the control of hovering or swimming at very low speed, the amplitude is smaller (about 60°). It provides inspiration for underwater robot design. In the paper, the unsteady flow of undulating ribbon-fin propulsion is numerical simulated by the dynamic grid technique including spring-based smoothing model and local grid remeshing to adapt to the fin surface significantly deforming, and the swing amplitude of fin ray reaches 850. The numerical simulation method is validated by thrust experiments. The spatial vortex structure and its evolution with phase angle is analyzed. The propulsion mechanism is investigated by comprehensive analysis of the hydrodynamics, vortex structure, and pressure distribution on the fin surface. The numerical results indicates that there are mainly three kinds of vortexes, i.e. streamwise vortex, crescent vortex and toroidal vortex. The intensity of streamwise vortex is the strongest among all kinds of vortexes. Streamwise vortexes and crescent vortexes all alternately distribute on the two sides of mid-sagittal plane. Inside the crescent vortexes is high-speed flow, while outside is low-speed flow. The crescent vortexes mainly induce high-speed axial jet, which produces the primary thrust. This is hydrodynamic mechanism undulating ribbon-fin propulsion. The streamwise vortexes mainly induce the vertical jet, which generates the primary heave force. The effect on hydrodynamics of main geometry and movement parameters including wave length, amplitude and advanced coefficients is investigated. A bionic underwater robot with bilateral undulating ribbon-fins is designed, and its navigation performance and maneuverability are measured.
129
110584
Towards the Prediction of Aesthetic Requirements for Women’s Apparel Product
Abstract:
The prediction of aesthetics of apparel is helpful for the development of a new type of apparel. This study is to build the quantitative relationship between the aesthetics and its design parameters. In particular, women’s pants have been preliminarily studied. This aforementioned relationship has been carried out by statistical analysis. The contributions of this study include the development of a more personalized apparel design mechanism and the provision of some empirical knowledge for the development of other products in the aspect of aesthetics.
128
25498
The Role of Mass Sport Guidance in the Health Service Industry of China
Abstract:
Facing the problem of the demand of economic restructuring and risk of social economy stagnation due to the ageing of population, the Health Service Industry will play a very important role in the structure of industry in the future. During the process, the orient of Chinese sports medicine as well as the joint with preventive medicine, and the integration with data bank and cloud computing will be involved.
127
27264
Chaotic Behavior in Monetary Systems: Comparison among Different Types of Taylor Rule
Abstract:
The aim of the present study is to detect the chaotic behavior in monetary economic relevant dynamical system. The study employs three different forms of Taylor rules: current, forward, and backward looking. The result suggests the existence of the chaotic behavior in all three systems. In addition, the results strongly represent that using expectations especially rational expectation hypothesis can increase complexity of the system and leads to more chaotic behavior.
126
93880
Solvent extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite slag using t-BAMBP
Authors:
Abstract:
Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.
125
93843
Solvent extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite slag using t-BAMBP
Authors:
Abstract:
Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.
124
93877
Solvent extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite slag using t-BAMBP
Authors:
Abstract:
Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.
123
93879
Solvent extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite slag using t-BAMBP
Authors:
Abstract:
Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.
122
41829
Cross Site Scripting (XSS) Attack and Automatic Detection Technology Research
Abstract:
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the most popular WEB Attacking methods at present, and also one of the most risky web attacks. Because of the population of JavaScript, the scene of the cross site scripting attack is also gradually expanded. However, since the web application developers tend to only focus on functional testing and lack the awareness of the XSS, which has made the on-line web projects exist many XSS vulnerabilities. In this paper, different various techniques of XSS attack are analyzed, and a method automatically to detect it is proposed. It is easy to check the results of vulnerability detection when running it as a plug-in.
121
9660
Catalytic Cracking of Butene to Propylene over Modified HZSM-5 Zeolites
Abstract:
Catalytic cracking of butene to propylene was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over HZSM-5 catalysts modified by nickel and phosphorus. The structure and acidity of catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD and XPS. The results revealed that surface area and strong acid sites both decreased with increasing phosphorus loadings. The increment of phosphorus loadings reduced the butene conversion but enhanced the propylene selectivity and catalyst stability.
120
82683
Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP
Abstract:
Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.
119
8980
Binarized-Weight Bilateral Filter for Low Computational Cost Image Smoothing
Abstract:
We propose a simplified bilateral filter with binarized coefficients for accelerating it. Its computational cost is further decreased by sampling pixels. This computationally low cost filter is useful for smoothing or denoising images by using mobile devices with limited computational power.
118
44143
3D Receiver Operator Characteristic Histogram
Abstract:
ROC curves, as a widely used evaluating tool in machine learning field, are the tradeoff of true positive rate and negative rate. However, they are blamed for ignoring some vital information in the evaluation process, such as the amount of information about the target that each instance carries, predicted score given by each classification model to each instance. Hence, in this paper, a new classification performance method is proposed by extending the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to 3D space, which is denoted as 3D ROC Histogram. In the histogram, the
117
42503
APPLE: Providing Absolute and Proportional Throughput Guarantees in Wireless LANs
Abstract:
This paper proposes an APPLE scheme that aims at providing absolute and proportional throughput guarantees, and maximizing system throughput simultaneously for wireless LANs with homogeneous and heterogenous traffic. We formulate our objectives as an optimization problem, present its exact and approximate solutions, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution. Simulations validate that APPLE scheme is accurate, and the approximate solution can well achieve the desired objectives already.
116
39337
Uni-Mode Uniqueness Conditions for Candecomp/Parafac of N-Way Arrays with Linearly Dependent Loadings
Abstract:
Recently three sufficient conditions for the three-way Candecomp/Parafac (CP) model which ensure uniqueness in one of the three modes(“uni-mode uniqueness”) are given. In this paper, we generalize these uniqueness conditions to n ≤ 3 and give a sufficient conditions for the n-way Candecomp/Parafac (CP) model, which ensure uniqueness in one of the n modes.
115
60130
The Preparation of High Surface Area Ni/MgAl2O4 Catalysts for Syngas Methanation
Abstract:
High surface area MgAl2O4 supported Nickel catalysts with PVA loadings varying from 0% to 15% were prepared by precipitation and impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction and H2 temperature programmed reduction. Compared with Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts exhibited higher activity and selectivity in high temperature. Among the catalysts, Ni/MgAl2O4-5P with 5 wt% PVA showed the best performance, and achieved 95% CO conversion and 96% CH4 selectivity at 600°C, 2.0 MPa, and a WHSV of 12,000 mL·g⁻¹.h⁻¹. It also maintained good stability in 50h life test.
114
87067
A Geosynchronous Orbit Synthetic Aperture Radar Simulator for Moving Ship Targets
Abstract:
Ship detection is of great significance for both military and civilian applications. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with all-day, all-weather, ultra-long-range characteristics, has been used widely. In view of the low time resolution of low orbit SAR and the needs for high time resolution SAR data, GEO (Geosynchronous orbit) SAR is getting more and more attention. Since GEO SAR has short revisiting period and large coverage area, it is expected to be well utilized in marine ship targets monitoring. However, the height of the orbit increases the time of integration by almost two orders of magnitude. For moving marine vessels, the utility and efficacy of GEO SAR are still not sure. This paper attempts to find the feasibility of GEO SAR by giving a GEO SAR simulator of moving ships. This presented GEO SAR simulator is a kind of geometrical-based radar imaging simulator, which focus on geometrical quality rather than high radiometric. Inputs of this simulator are 3D ship model (.obj format, produced by most 3D design software, such as 3D Max), ship's velocity, and the parameters of satellite orbit and SAR platform. Its outputs are simulated GEO SAR raw signal data and SAR image. This simulating process is accomplished by the following four steps. (1) Reading 3D model, including the ship rotations (pitch, yaw, and roll) and velocity (speed and direction) parameters, extract information of those little primitives (triangles) which is visible from the SAR platform. (2) Computing the radar scattering from the ship with physical optics (PO) method. In this step, the vessel is sliced into many little rectangles primitives along the azimuth. The radiometric calculation of each primitive is carried out separately. Since this simulator only focuses on the complex structure of ships, only single-bounce reflection and double-bounce reflection are considered. (3) Generating the raw data with GEO SAR signal modeling. Since the normal ‘stop and go’ model is not available for GEO SAR, the range model should be reconsidered. (4) At last, generating GEO SAR image with improved Range Doppler method. Numerical simulation of fishing boat and cargo ship will be given. GEO SAR images of different posture, velocity, satellite orbit, and SAR platform will be simulated. By analyzing these simulated results, the effectiveness of GEO SAR for the detection of marine moving vessels is evaluated.
113
75962
A Comparative Study of Insurance Policies Worldwide in Public Private Partnerships
Abstract:
The frequent occurrence of failures in PPP projects which caused great loss has raised attention from the government as well as the concessionaire. PPPs are complex arrangements for its long operation period and multiple players. Many types of risks in PPP projects may cause the project fail. The insurance is an important tool to transfer the risks. Through a comparison and analysis of international government PPP guidelines and contracts as well as the case studies worldwide, we have identified eight main insurance principles, discussed thirteen insurance types in different stages. An overall procedure would be established to improve the practices in PPP projects.
112
57180
Effect of Surfactant Concentration on Dissolution of Hydrodynamically Trapped Sparingly Soluble Oil Micro Droplets
Abstract:
Work presented here is based on a novel experimental technique used to hydrodynamically trap oil microdroplets inside a microfluidic chip at the junction of microchannels known as stagnation point. Hydrodynamic trapping has been recently used to trap and manipulate a number of particles starting from microbeads to DNA and single cells. Benzyl Benzoate (BB) is used as droplet material. The microdroplets are trapped individually at stagnation point and their dissolution was observed. Experiments are performed for two concentrations (10mM or 10µM) of AOT surfactant (Docusate Sodium Salt) and two flow rates for each case. Moreover, experimental data is compared with Zhang-Yang-Mao (ZYM) model which studies dissolution of liquid microdroplets in the presence of a host fluid experiencing extensional creeping flow. Industrial processes like polymer blending systems in which heat or mass transport occurs experience extensional flow and an insight into these phenomena is of significant importance to many industrial processes. The experimental technique exploited here gives an insight into the dissolution of liquid microdroplets under extensional flow regime. The comparison of our experimental results with ZYM model reveals that dissolution of microdroplets at lower surfactant concentration (10µM) fits the ZYM model at saturation concentration (Cs) value reported in literature (Cs = 15×10⁻³Kg\m³) while for higher surfactant concentration (10mM) which is also above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant (5mM) the data fits ZYM model at (Cs = 45×10⁻³Kg\m³) which is 3X times the value reported in literature. The difference in Cs value from the literature shows enhancement in dissolution rate of sparingly soluble BB microdroplets at surfactant concentrations higher than CMC. Enhancement in the dissolution of sparingly soluble materials is of great importance in pharmaceutical industry. Enhancement in the dissolution of sparingly soluble drugs is a key research area for drug design industry. The experimental method is also advantageous because it is robust and has no mechanical contact with droplets under study are freely suspended in the fluid as compared existing methods used for testing dissolution of drugs. The experiments also give an insight into CMC measurement for surfactants.
111
48437
Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst
Abstract:
Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.
110
30022
A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test
Abstract:
Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.
109
55925
Conceptualization and Assessment of Key Competencies for Children in Preschools: A Case Study in Southwest China
Abstract:
This study explores the conceptualization of key competencies that children are expected to develop in three year preschools (age 3-6) and the assessment practices of such key competencies in China. Assessment of children development has been put into the central place of early childhood education quality evaluation system in China. In the context of students key competencies development centered education reform in China, defining and selecting key competencies of children in preschools are of great significance in that they would lay a solid foundation for children’s lifelong learning path, and they would lead to curriculum and instruction reform, teacher development reform as well as quality evaluation reform in the early childhood education area. Based on sense making theory and framework, this study adopted multiple stakeholders’ (early childhood educators, parents, evaluation administrators, scholars in the early childhood education field) perspectives and grass root voices to conceptualize and operationalize key competencies for children in preschools in Southwest China. On the ground of children development theories, Chinese and international literature related to children development and key competencies, and key competencies frameworks by UNESCO, OECD and other nations, the authors designed a two-phase sequential mixed method study to address three main questions: (a) How is early childhood key competency defined or labeled from literature and from different stakeholders’ views? (b) Based on the definitions explicated in the literature and the surveys on different stakeholders, what domains and components are regarded to constitute the key competency framework of children in three-year preschools in China? (c) How have early childhood key competencies been assessed and measured, and how such assessment and measurement contribute to enhancing early childhood development quality? On the first phase, a series of focus group surveys were conducted among different types of stakeholders around the research questions. Moreover, on the second phase, based on the coding of the participants’ answers, together with literature synthesis findings, a questionnaire survey was designed and conducted to select most commonly expected components of preschool children’s key competencies. Semi-structured open questions were also included in the questionnaire for the participants to add on competencies beyond the checklist. Rudimentary findings show agreeable concerns on the significance and necessity of conceptualization and assessment of key competencies for children in preschools, and a key competencies framework composed of 7 domains and 25 indicators was constructed. Meanwhile, the findings also show issues in the current assessment practices of children’s competencies, such as lack of effective assessment tools, lack of teacher capacity in applying the tools to evaluating children and advancing children development accordingly. Finally, the authors put forth suggestions and implications for China and international communities in terms of restructuring early childhood key competencies framework, and promoting child development centered reform in early childhood education quality evaluation and development.
108
9499
Na Promoted Ni/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts Prepared by Solution Combustion Method for Syngas Methanation
Abstract:
Ni-based catalysts with different amounts of Na as promoter from 2 to 6 wt % were prepared by solution combustion method. The catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity are greatly influenced by sodium loading. Adding 2 wt% Na remarkably improves catalytic activity and long-term stability, attributed to its smaller mean NiO particle size, better distribution, and milder metal-support interaction. However, excess addition of Na results in deactivation distinctly due to the blockage of active sites.
107
106882
The Modern Significance of Chinese Traditional Gardens for the Development of Modern Eco-Garden Cities
Authors:
Abstract:
Chinese traditional gardens are the historical and cultural treasures of the whole mankind, among which the excellent parts still have important guiding significance for modern urban design. Based on the background of eco-garden city and reality, through the analysis of various design elements of classical gardens, combined with the needs of today's urban development, starting from the three needs of landscape, energy saving and environmental protection. To explore how Chinese traditional gardens can be revitalized in modern urban planning.
106
12773
Influence of Bacterial Motility on Biofilm Formation
Abstract:
Two motility mechanisms were introduced into iDynoMiCs software, which adopts an individual-based modeling method. Based on the new capabilities, along with the pressure motility developed before, influence of bacterial motility on biofilm formation was studied. Simulation results were evaluated both qualitatively through 3D structure inspections and quantitatively by parameter characterizations. It was showed that twitching motility increased the biofilm surface irregularity probably due to movement of cells towards higher nutrient concentration location whereas free motility, on the other hand, could make biofilms flatter and smoother relatively. Pressure motility showed no significant influence in this study.
105
53469
Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature
Abstract:
Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.
104
92104
The Co-Existence of Multidominance and Movement in the Syntax of Chinese Bi-Comparatives
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper puts forward a syntactic analysis involving multidominance and rightward movement in Chinese bi-comparatives, as in 'Yuehan bi Mali gao (John is taller than Mary).' It is argued here that the predicate of comparison is a shared constituent in two small clauses, namely one for the target and one for the standard; and then it moves rightward to form a degree phrase with the comparative morpheme. This proposal comes from four aspects. First, the example above can also be expressed in this way, 'A: Yuehan he Mali, shui gao? (John and Mary, who is taller?) B: Yuehan gao./Yuehan geng gao. (John is taller).' This shows that the gradable adjective is predicated of the target. In addition, according to a constraint on Chinese bi-comparatives, namely the target and the standard must be arguments of the predicate simultaneously, it is not unreasonable to assume that the gradable adjective may also be predicated of the standard. Second, subcomparatives are totally disallowed in Chinese, as in '*zhe-zhang zhuozi bi zhe-zhang yizi kuan chang. (This table is longer than this chair is wide.)' In order to save it from ungrammaticality, the target and the standard should be compared along the same dimension denoted by the gradable adjective. It may follow that in Chinese comparatives, having equal roles in the same eventuality, the target and the standard bear the same thematic relationship with the predicate of comparison. Third, verb-copy can appear in Chinese bi-comparatives, as in 'Yuehan qi ma bi Mali qi ma qi de kuai. (John rides horses faster than Mary does.)' The predicate qi seems to form a small clause with both the target and the standard. This might be supporting evidence that both the target and the standard share the predicate of comparison. Fourth, Chinese comparatives do have comparative morphemes, as in 'Yuehan bi Mali geng gao. (John is taller than Mary)', which is semantically equivalent to the first example above. Thus, it follows that one feature of Chinese comparative morphemes is that they can remain overt or covert in the syntax, which will not affect semantics. This further shows that comparative morphemes in bi-comparatives may not be able to saturate the degree argument denoted by the predicate of comparison due to its optionality in the structure. These four aspects present a challenge to the Direct Analysis used in Chinese comparatives since this approach would presume that the target and the standard somehow show independency with the predicate in the syntax. Meanwhile, this study also rejects the previous analysis of multidomiance in bi-comparatives in which the degree phrase comprised of the comparative morpheme and the gradable adjective may be shared by the standard when the comparative morpheme is covert. This syntactic analysis proposed in this study will therefore offer a different perspective of how to treat degree phrase in Chinese comparatives and may offer evidence to argue whether there is degree phrase movement in bi-comparatives as in its English counterparts.
103
30316
E-Bike FE Model Analysis: Connection Stiffness of Elements with Different DOFs
Abstract:
Finite Element (FE) model of simplified e-bike structure was generated by main frame with two tiers, which consisted of pipe, mass, beam, and shell elements (pipe 289, beam188, shell 181, shell 281, combin14, link11, mass21). These elements would be introduced and demonstrated using mathematical formulas. Based on coupling theory, constrain equations was proposed. Exporting all the parameters obtained from theory part, the connection stiffness matrix of the whole e-bike structure between each of these elements was detected.
102
7667
Methanation Catalyst for Low CO Concentration
Abstract:
A Ni-based catalyst supported by γ-Al2O3 was prepared by impregnation method, and the catalyst was used in a low CO and CO2 concentration methanation system. The effect of temperature, pressure and space velocity on the methanation reaction was investigated in an experimental fixed-bed reactor. The methanation reaction was operated at the conditions of 190-240°C, 3000-24000ml•g-1•h-1 and 1.5-3.5MPa. The results show that temperature and space velocity play important role on the reaction. With the increase of reaction temperature the CO and CO2 conversion increase and the selectivity of CH4 increase. And with the increase of the space velocity the conversion of CO and CO2 and the selectivity of CH4 decrease sharply.
101
67273
A Study of the Relationship among the Hotel Staff's Work Stress, Perceived Organizational Support, and Work Efficacy: A Case Study of Macao
Abstract:
Work pressure is an emerging research of organizational behavior. Many factors associated with this study also attracted the interest of scholars. Macao is surrounding by open micro-capitalist economy which has a high internationalization level and Mature operation system. And there is no doubt that tourism and hotel service industry is the pillar of the Macao economy with the developing of the mainland individual tourist visa. More and more cities are willing to inclusive culture diversity which lead to the amount of inbound tourists present high-speed up trend cause the hotel industry has a strong customer base and development space. At the same time, the hotel staff is an important role in the service. However, affected by some adverse factors, the hotel staff face a variety of pressures. This study combs the concept and theory of pressures relevant influencing factors and puts forward the purpose of this research. The focus of this study will be organizational supported by work efficiency and work pressure, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through questionnaires and interviews, 10 hotels in Macao were selected and 500 questionnaires were distributed to the employees. Statistical analysis software SPSS was used for descriptive statistics. By exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, effect. And the relevant practitioners on behalf of the interview content analysis. The innovation of this research lies in the empirical study of the relationship between the working pressure, organizational support and working efficiency of Macau hotel practitioners, and constructs and validates the structural model of the relationship among them. This model will be helpful for people to use more research methods to study hotel practitioners pressure in the future. At the same time, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a significant negative correlation between salary level and job stress; 2. There is a significant negative correlation between job stress and performance; 3. Different organizational support can interfere the relationship between job stress and performance; 4. Put forward the strategy of relevance adjustment, which provides a reference value for the hotel industry in human resource management. It would be helpful to improve their service standard by training their practitioners more scientifically and rationally.
100
23258
Real-Time Detection of Space Manipulator Self-Collision
Abstract:
In order to avoid self-collision of space manipulators during operation process, a real-time detection method is proposed in this paper. The manipulator is fitted into a cylinder enveloping surface, and then the detection algorithm of collision between cylinders is analyzed. The collision model of space manipulator self-links can be detected by using this algorithm in real-time detection during the operation process. To ensure security of the operation, a safety threshold is designed. The simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for a 7-DOF space manipulator.
99
70008
A Study of the Relationship among the Hotel Staff's Work Stress, Perceived Organizational Support and Work Efficacy: A Case Study of Macau
Abstract:
Work pressure is an emerging research of organizational behavior. Many factors associated with this study also attracted the interest of scholars. Macao is surrounding by open micro-capitalist economy which has a high internationalization level and Mature operation system. And there is no doubt that tourism and hotel service industry is the pillar of the Macao economy with the developing of the mainland individual tourist visa. More and more cities are willing to inclusive culture diversity which lead to the amount of inbound tourists present high-speed up trend cause the hotel industry has a strong customer base and development space. At the same time, the hotel staff is an important role in the service. However, affected by some adverse factors, the hotel staff face a variety of pressures. This study combs the concept and theory of pressures relevant influencing factors and puts forward the purpose of this research. The focus of this study will be organizational supported by work efficiency and work pressure, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through questionnaires and interviews, 10 hotels in Macao were selected and 500 questionnaires were distributed to the employees. Statistical analysis software SPSS was used for descriptive statistics. By exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, effect. And the relevant practitioners on behalf of the interview content analysis. The innovation of this research lies in the empirical study of the relationship between the working pressure, organizational support and working efficiency of Macau hotel practitioners, and constructs and validates the structural model of the relationship among them. This model will be helpful for people to use more research methods to study hotel practitioners pressure in the future. At the same time, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a significant negative correlation between salary level and job stress; 2. There is a significant negative correlation between job stress and performance; 3. Different organizational support can interfere the relationship between job stress and performance; 4. Put forward the strategy of relevance adjustment, which provides a reference value for the hotel industry in human resource management. It would be helpful to improve their service standard by training their practitioners more scientifically and rationally.
98
70010
A Study of the Relationship among the Hotel Staff's Work Stress, Perceived Organizational Support and Work Efficacy: A Case Study of Macau
Abstract:
Work pressure is an emerging research of organizational behavior. Many factors associated with this study also attracted the interest of scholars. Macao is surrounding by open micro-capitalist economy which has a high internationalization level and Mature operation system. And there is no doubt that tourism and hotel service industry is the pillar of the Macao economy with the developing of the mainland individual tourist visa. More and more cities are willing to inclusive culture diversity which lead to the amount of inbound tourists present high-speed up trend cause the hotel industry has a strong customer base and development space. At the same time, the hotel staff is an important role in the service. However, affected by some adverse factors, the hotel staff face a variety of pressures. This study combs the concept and theory of pressures relevant influencing factors and puts forward the purpose of this research. The focus of this study will be organizational supported by work efficiency and work pressure, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through questionnaires and interviews, 10 hotels in Macao were selected and 500 questionnaires were distributed to the employees. Statistical analysis software SPSS was used for descriptive statistics. By exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, effect. And the relevant practitioners on behalf of the interview content analysis. The innovation of this research lies in the empirical study of the relationship between the working pressure, organizational support and working efficiency of Macau hotel practitioners, and constructs and validates the structural model of the relationship among them. This model will be helpful for people to use more research methods to study hotel practitioners pressure in the future. At the same time, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a significant negative correlation between salary level and job stress; 2. There is a significant negative correlation between job stress and performance; 3. Different organizational support can interfere the relationship between job stress and performance; 4. Put forward the strategy of relevance adjustment, which provides a reference value for the hotel industry in human resource management. It would be helpful to improve their service standard by training their practitioners more scientifically and rationally.
97
70036
A Study of the Relationship among the Hotel Staff's Work Stress, Perceived Organizational Support and Work Efficacy: A Case Study of Macau
Abstract:
Work pressure is an emerging research of organizational behavior. Many factors associated with this study also attracted the interest of scholars. Macao is surrounding by open micro-capitalist economy which has a high internationalization level and Mature operation system. And there is no doubt that tourism and hotel service industry is the pillar of the Macao economy with the developing of the mainland individual tourist visa. More and more cities are willing to inclusive culture diversity which lead to the amount of inbound tourists present high-speed up trend cause the hotel industry has a strong customer base and development space. At the same time, the hotel staff is an important role in the service. However, affected by some adverse factors, the hotel staff face a variety of pressures. This study combs the concept and theory of pressures relevant influencing factors and puts forward the purpose of this research. The focus of this study will be organizational supported by work efficiency and work pressure, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through questionnaires and interviews, 10 hotels in Macao were selected and 500 questionnaires were distributed to the employees. Statistical analysis software SPSS was used for descriptive statistics. By exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, effect. And the relevant practitioners on behalf of the interview content analysis. The innovation of this research lies in the empirical study of the relationship between the working pressure, organizational support and working efficiency of Macau hotel practitioners, and constructs and validates the structural model of the relationship among them. This model will be helpful for people to use more research methods to study hotel practitioners pressure in the future. At the same time, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a significant negative correlation between salary level and job stress; 2. There is a significant negative correlation between job stress and performance; 3. Different organizational support can interfere the relationship between job stress and performance; 4. Put forward the strategy of relevance adjustment, which provides a reference value for the hotel industry in human resource management. It would be helpful to improve their service standard by training their practitioners more scientifically and rationally.
96
70011
A Study of the Relationship among the Hotel Staff's Work Stress, Perceived Organizational Support and Work Efficacy: A Case Study of Macau
Abstract:
Work pressure is an emerging research of organizational behavior. Many factors associated with this study also attracted the interest of scholars. Macao is surrounding by open micro-capitalist economy which has a high internationalization level and Mature operation system. And there is no doubt that tourism and hotel service industry is the pillar of the Macao economy with the developing of the mainland individual tourist visa. More and more cities are willing to inclusive culture diversity which lead to the amount of inbound tourists present high-speed up trend cause the hotel industry has a strong customer base and development space. At the same time, the hotel staff is an important role in the service. However, affected by some adverse factors, the hotel staff face a variety of pressures. This study combs the concept and theory of pressures relevant influencing factors and puts forward the purpose of this research. The focus of this study will be organizational supported by work efficiency and work pressure, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through questionnaires and interviews, 10 hotels in Macao were selected and 500 questionnaires were distributed to the employees. Statistical analysis software SPSS was used for descriptive statistics. By exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, effect. And the relevant practitioners on behalf of the interview content analysis. The innovation of this research lies in the empirical study of the relationship between the working pressure, organizational support and working efficiency of Macau hotel practitioners, and constructs and validates the structural model of the relationship among them. This model will be helpful for people to use more research methods to study hotel practitioners pressure in the future. At the same time, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a significant negative correlation between salary level and job stress; 2. There is a significant negative correlation between job stress and performance; 3. Different organizational support can interfere the relationship between job stress and performance; 4. Put forward the strategy of relevance adjustment, which provides a reference value for the hotel industry in human resource management. It would be helpful to improve their service standard by training their practitioners more scientifically and rationally.
95
70009
A Study of the Relationship among the Hotel Staff's Work Stress, Perceived Organizational Support and Work Efficacy: A Case Study of Macau
Abstract:
Work pressure is an emerging research of organizational behavior. Many factors associated with this study also attracted the interest of scholars. Macao is surrounding by open micro-capitalist economy which has a high internationalization level and Mature operation system. And there is no doubt that tourism and hotel service industry is the pillar of the Macao economy with the developing of the mainland individual tourist visa. More and more cities are willing to inclusive culture diversity which lead to the amount of inbound tourists present high-speed up trend cause the hotel industry has a strong customer base and development space. At the same time, the hotel staff is an important role in the service. However, affected by some adverse factors, the hotel staff face a variety of pressures. This study combs the concept and theory of pressures relevant influencing factors and puts forward the purpose of this research. The focus of this study will be organizational supported by work efficiency and work pressure, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through questionnaires and interviews, 10 hotels in Macao were selected and 500 questionnaires were distributed to the employees. Statistical analysis software SPSS was used for descriptive statistics. By exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, effect. And the relevant practitioners on behalf of the interview content analysis. The innovation of this research lies in the empirical study of the relationship between the working pressure, organizational support and working efficiency of Macau hotel practitioners, and constructs and validates the structural model of the relationship among them. This model will be helpful for people to use more research methods to study hotel practitioners pressure in the future. At the same time, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a significant negative correlation between salary level and job stress; 2. There is a significant negative correlation between job stress and performance; 3. Different organizational support can interfere the relationship between job stress and performance; 4. Put forward the strategy of relevance adjustment, which provides a reference value for the hotel industry in human resource management. It would be helpful to improve their service standard by training their practitioners more scientifically and rationally.
94
62526
Condensation of Vapor in the Presence of Non-Condensable Gas on a Vertical Tube
Abstract:
The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is widely used in the advanced nuclear reactor in case of the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the main steam line break accident (MSLB). The internal heat exchanger is one of the most important equipment in the PCCS and its heat transfer characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this investigation, a theoretical model is presented for predicting the heat and mass transfer which accompanies condensation. The conduction through the liquid condensate is considered and the interface temperature is defined by iteration. The parameter in the correlation to describe the suction effect should be further determined through experimental data.
93
41687
English Complex Aspectuality: A Functional Approach
Authors:
Abstract:
Based on Systemic Functional Linguistics, this paper aims to explore the complex aspectuality system of English. This study shows that the complex aspectuality is classified into complex viewpoint aspect which refers to the homogeneous or heterogeneous ways continuously viewing on the same situation by the speaker and complex situation aspect which is the combined configuration of the internal time schemata of situation. Through viewpoint shifting and repeating, the complex viewpoint aspect is formed in two combination ways. Complex situation aspect is combined by the way of hypotactic verbal complex and the limitation of participant and circumstance in a clause.
92
51881
Online Estimation of Clutch Drag Torque in Wet Dual Clutch Transmission Based on Recursive Least Squares
Abstract:
This paper focuses on developing an estimation method of clutch drag torque in wet DCT. The modelling of clutch drag torque is investigated. As the main factor affecting the clutch drag torque, dynamic viscosity of oil is discussed. The paper proposes an estimation method of clutch drag torque based on recursive least squares by utilizing the dynamic equations of gear shifting synchronization process. The results demonstrate that the estimation method has good accuracy and efficiency.
91
22053
Effect of Oxidation on Wetting Behavior between Silicon and Silicon Carbide
Abstract:
Experimental oxidation tests at high temperature (1300°C-1500°C) on α-SiC samples have been performed with different holding times and atmosphere (air, argon). Oxidized samples were then analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to SEM and DAKTEK surface profiler verification. The oxidation rate and the mas gain were found to increase with temperature and holding times, corresponding to a passive oxidation regime which lead to the formation of SiO2 layer. The sessile drop method is employed in order to measure the wetting angles between Si/SiC system at high temperature (1430°C-1550°C). Contact angle can be varied between 44 °C to 85°C, by controlling the oxygen content in α-SiC. Increasing the temperature occurred the infiltration of liquid silicon and deoxidation of the coating.
90
68295
Islamic Finance: Challenges of Islamic Banking in Pakistan
Abstract:
Islamic finance is growing with remarkable pace, especially Islamic banking, a major segment of Islamic finance, is expanding rapidly. This paper discusses the position of Islamic finance and Islamic banking, around the world in general and particularly in Pakistan. History of Islamic banking in Pakistan is protested, presently a significant growth is observed. However Islamic banking is confronting with number of challenges, which are refraining from sustainable growth of this industry in Pakistan. Growth level of Islamic banks should be steeper to contribute substantial share in country’s economy. It is important to formulate effective policies, at institutional and operational level to address these challenges through close collaboration of key stakeholders.
89
26433
Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data
Abstract:
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.
88
20120
Case-Based Reasoning Approach for Process Planning of Internal Thread Cold Extrusion
Abstract:
For the difficult issues of process selection, case-based reasoning technology is applied to computer aided process planning system for cold form tapping of internal threads on the basis of similarity in the process. A model is established based on the analysis of process planning. Case representation and similarity computing method are given. Confidence degree is used to evaluate the case. Rule-based reuse strategy is presented. The scheme is illustrated and verified by practical application. The case shows the design results with the proposed method are effective.
87
54104
Development of Configuration Software of Space Environment Simulator Control System Based on Linux
Abstract:
This paper presents a configuration software solution in Linux, which is used for the control of space environment simulator. After introducing the structure and basic principle, it is said that the developing of QT software frame and the dynamic data exchanging between PLC and computer. The OPC driver in Linux is also developed. This driver realizes many-to-many communication between hardware devices and SCADA software. Moreover, an algorithm named "Scan PRI" is put forward. This algorithm is much more optimizable and efficient compared with "Scan in sequence" in Windows. This software has been used in practical project. It has a good control effect and can achieve the expected goal.
86
92930
The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou
Abstract:
At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.
85
84274
The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂ Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin
Abstract:
AgInS₂/SnS₂ (AIS) nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AIS nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AIS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, the interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed by DFT calculations.
84
105255
Reflection Phase Tuning of Graphene Plasmons by Substrate Design
Abstract:
Reflection phase of graphene plasmons (GPs) at an abrupt interface is very important, which determines the plasmon resonance of graphene structures of deep sub-wavelength scales. However, at an abrupt graphene edge, the reflection phase is always a constant, ΦR ≈ π/4. In this work, we show that the reflection phase of GPs can be efficiently changed through substrate design. Reflection phase of graphene plasmons (GPs) at an abrupt interface is very important, which determines the plasmon resonance of graphene structures of deep sub-wavelength scales. However, at an abrupt graphene edge, the reflection phase is always a constant, ΦR ≈ π/4. In this work, we show that the reflection phase of GPs can be efficiently changed through substrate design. Specifically, the reflection phase is no longer π/4 at the interface formed by placing a graphene sheet on different substrates. Moreover, tailorable reflection phase of GPs up to 2π variation can be further achieved by scattering GPs at a junction consisting of two such dielectric interfaces with various gap width acting as a Fabry-Perot cavity. Besides, the evolution of plasmon mode in graphene ribbons based on the interface reflection phase tuning is predicted, which is expected to be observed in near-field experiments with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Our work provides another way for in-plane plasmon control, which should find applications for integrated plasmon devices design using graphene.Specifically, the reflection phase is no longer π/4 at the interface formed by placing a graphene sheet on different substrates. Moreover, tailorable reflection phase of GPs up to 2π variation can be further achieved by scattering GPs at a junction consisting of two such dielectric interfaces with various gap width acting as a Fabry-Perot cavity. Besides, the evolution of plasmon mode in graphene ribbons based on the interface reflection phase tuning is predicted, which is expected to be observed in near-field experiments with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Our work provides a new way for in-plane plasmon control, which should find applications for integrated plasmon devices design using graphene.
83
46773
The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation
Abstract:
Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.
82
95289
Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnets: Unusual Magnetoelastic Behavior In Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂
Abstract:
The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB); a boundary between two different crystallographic symmetries in the composition–temperature phase diagram has been widely studied in ferroelectrics and recently has drawn interest in ferromagnets for obtaining enhanced large field-induced strain. At MPB, the system gets a compressed free energy state, which allows the polarization to freely rotate and hence results in a high magnetoelastic response (e.g., high magnetization, low coercivity, and large magnetostriction). Based on the same mechanism, we designed MPB in a ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. The temperature-dependent magnetization curves showed spin reorientation (SR); which can be explained by a two-sublattice model. Contrary to previously reported MPB involved ferromagnetic systems, the MPB composition of Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ exhibits a low saturation magnetization (MS), indicating a compensation of the Tb and Nd magnetic moments at MPB. The coercive field (HC) under a low magnetic field and first anisotropy constant (K₁) shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.65. A detailed spin configuration diagram is provided for the Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ around the composition for the anisotropy compensation; this can guide the development of novel magnetostrictive materials. The anisotropic magnetostriction (λS) first decreased until x=0.8 and then continuously increased in the negative direction with further increase of Nd concentration. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant (λS/K₁) appears at MPB, indicating that Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ has good magnetostrictive properties. Present work shows an anomalous type of MPB in ferromagnetic materials, revealing that MPB can also lead to a weakening of magnetoelastic behavior as shown in the ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. Our work shows the universal presence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials and suggests the differences between different ferromagnetic MPB systems that are important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties. Based on the results of this study, similar MPB effects might be achieved in other ferroic systems that can be used for technological applications. The finding of magnetic MPB in the ferromagnetic system leads to some important significances. First, it provides a better understanding of the fundamental concept of spin reorientation transitions (SRT) like ferro-ferro transitions are not only reorientation of magnetization but also crystal symmetry change upon magnetic ordering. Second, the flattened free energy corresponding to a low energy barrier for magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic response near MPB. Third, to attain large magnetostriction with MPB approach two terminal compounds have different easy magnetization directions below Curie temperature Tc in order to accomplish the weakening of magnetization anisotropy at MPB (as in ferroelectrics), thus easing the magnetic domain switching and the lattice distortion difference between two terminal compounds should be large enough, e.g., lattice distortion of R symmetry ˃˃ lattice distortion of T symmetry). So that the MPB composition agrees to a nearly isotropic state along with large ‘net’ lattice distortion, which is revealed in a higher value of magnetostriction.
81
54112
Working Mode and Key Technology of Thermal Vacuum Test Software for Spacecraft Test
Abstract:
A universal software platform is developed for improving the defects in the practical one. This software platform has distinct advantages in modularization, information management, and the interfaces. Several technologies such as computer technology, virtualization technology, network technology, etc. are combined together in this software platform, and four working modes are introduced in this article including single mode, distributed mode, cloud mode, and the centralized mode. The application area of the software platform is extended through the switch between these working modes. The software platform can arrange the thermal vacuum test process automatically. This function can improve the reliability of thermal vacuum test.
80
67808
Low Power Consuming Electromagnetic Actuators for Pulsed Pilot Stages
Abstract:
Pilot stages are one of the most common positioners and regulators in industry. In this paper, we present two novel concepts for pilot stages with low power consumption to regulate a pneumatic device. Pilot 1, first concept, is designed based on a conventional frame core electro-magnetic actuator and a leaf spring to control the air flow and pilot 2 has an axisymmetric actuator and spring made of non-oriented electrical steel. Concepts are simulated in a system modeling tool to study their dynamic behavior. Both concepts are prototyped and tested. Experimental results are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The most promising concept that consumes less than 8 mW is highlighted and presented.
79
71518
Cognitive SATP for Airborne Radar Based on Slow-Time Coding
Abstract:
Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) techniques have been motivated as a key enabling technology for advanced airborne radar applications. In this paper, the notion of cognitive radar is extended to STAP technique, and cognitive STAP is discussed. The principle for improving signal-to-clutter ratio (SCNR) based on slow-time coding is given, and the corresponding optimization algorithm based on cyclic and power-like algorithms is presented. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
78
86788
Catalytic Study of Methanol-to-Propylene Conversion over Nano-Sized HZSM-5
Abstract:
Methanol-to-propylene conversion was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over nano-sized HZSM-5 zeolites. The HZSM-5 catalysts were synthesized with different Si/Al ratio and silicon sources, and treated with NaOH. The structural property, morphology, and acidity of catalysts were measured by XRD, N2 adsorption, FE-SEM, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The results indicate that the increment of Si/Al ratio decreased the acidity of catalysts and then improved propylene selectivity, while silicon sources had slight impact on the acidity but affected the product distribution. The desilication after alkali treatment could increase intracrystalline mesopores and enhance propylene selectivity.
77
22176
Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5
Abstract:
HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts. The introduction of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and enhance propylene selectivity.
76
21208
An Output Oriented Super-Efficiency Model for Considering Time Lag Effect
Abstract:
There exists some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in calculating efficiency of decision making units (DMU). Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. This problem can be resolved a super-efficiency model. However, a super efficiency model sometimes causes infeasibility problem. This paper suggests an output oriented super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model
75
88980
Acoustic Performance and Application of Three Personalized Sound-Absorbing Materials
Abstract:
In recent years, more and more personalized sound absorbing materials have entered the Chinese room acoustical decoration market. The acoustic performance of three kinds of personalized sound-absorbing materials: Flame-retardant Flax Fiber Sound-absorbing Cotton, Eco-Friendly Sand Acoustic Panel and Transparent Micro-perforated Panel (Film) are tested by Reverberation Room Method. The sound absorption characteristic curves show that their performance match for or even exceed the traditional sound absorbing material. Through the application in the actual projects, these personalized sound-absorbing materials also proved their sound absorption ability and unique decorative effect.
74
54863
H-Infinity Controller Design for the Switched Reluctance Machine
Abstract:
The switched reluctance machine (SRM) has undeniable qualities in terms of low cost and mechanical robustness. However, its highly nonlinear character and its uncertain parameters justify the development of complicated controls. In this paper, authors present the design of a robust H-infinity current controller for an 8/6 SRM with taking into account the nonlinearity of the SRM and with rejection of disturbances. The electromagnetic torque is indirectly regulated through the current controller. To show the performances of this control, a robustness analysis is performed by comparing the H-infinity and PI controller simulation results. This comparison demonstrates better performances for the presented controller. The effectiveness and robustness of the presented controller are also demonstrated by experimental tests.
73
35473
The Application of Data Mining Technology in Building Energy Consumption Data Analysis
Abstract:
Energy consumption data, in particular those involving public buildings, are impacted by many factors: the building structure, climate/environmental parameters, construction, system operating condition, and user behavior patterns. Traditional methods for data analysis are insufficient. This paper delves into the data mining technology to determine its application in the analysis of building energy consumption data including energy consumption prediction, fault diagnosis, and optimal operation. Recent literature are reviewed and summarized, the problems faced by data mining technology in the area of energy consumption data analysis are enumerated, and research points for future studies are given.
72
35618
NSBS: Design of a Network Storage Backup System
Abstract:
The first layer of defense against data loss is the backup data. This paper implements an agent-based network backup system used the backup, server-storage and server-backup agent these tripartite construction, and we realize the snapshot and hierarchical index in the NSBS. It realizes the control command and data flow separation, balances the system load, thereby improving the efficiency of the system backup and recovery. The test results show the agent-based network backup system can effectively improve the task-based concurrency, reasonably allocate network bandwidth, the system backup performance loss costs smaller and improves data recovery efficiency by 20%.
71
60785
Limit State of Heterogeneous Smart Structures under Unknown Cyclic Loading
Abstract:
This paper presents a numerical solution, namely limit and shakedown analysis, to predict the safety state of smart structures made of heterogeneous materials under unknown cyclic loadings, for instance, the flexure hinge in the micro-positioning stage driven by piezoelectric actuator. In combination of homogenization theory and finite-element method (FEM), the safety evaluation problem is converted to a large-scale nonlinear optimization programming for an acceptable bounded loading as the design reference. Furthermore, a general numerical scheme integrated with the FEM and interior-point-algorithm based optimization tool is developed, which makes the practical application possible.
70
52767
Design and Implementation of a Fan Coil Unit Controller Based on the Duty Ratio Fuzzy Method
Abstract:
A microcontroller-based fan coil unit (FCU) fuzzy controller is designed and implemented in this paper. The controller employs the concept of duty ratio on the electric valve control, which could make full use of the cooling and dehumidifying capacity of the FCU when the valve is off. The traditional control method and its limitations are analyzed. The hardware and software design processes are introduced in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more energy efficient compared to the traditional controlling strategy. Furthermore, a more comfortable room condition could be achieved by the proposed method. The proposed low-cost FCU fuzzy controller deserves to be widely used in engineering applications.
69
16842
An Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
Aiming at the shortcomings of the Quantum Genetic Algorithm such as the multimodal function optimization problems easily falling into the local optimum, and vulnerable to premature convergence due to no closely relationship between individuals, the paper presents an Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm (IMWQGA). The paper using the concept of Many Worlds; using the derivative way of parallel worlds’ parallel evolution; putting forward the thought which updating the population according to the main body; adopting the transition methods such as parallel transition, backtracking, travel forth. In addition, the algorithm in the paper also proposes the quantum training operator and the combinatorial optimization operator as new operators of quantum genetic algorithm.
68
111210
Characterization of Herberine Hydrochloride Nanoparticles
Abstract:
A drug-loaded nanoparticles containing berberine hydrochloride (BH/FA-CTS-NPs) was prepared. The physicochemical characterizations of BH/FA-CTS-NPs and the inhibitory effect on the HeLa cells were investigated. Folic acid-conjugated chitosan (FA-CTS) was prepared by amino reaction of folic acid active ester and chitosan molecules; BH/FA-CTS-NPs were prepared using ionic cross-linking technique with BH as a model drug. The morphology and particle size were determined by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The average diameters and polydispersity index (PDI) were evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The interaction between various components and the nanocomplex were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The entrapment efficiency (EE), drug-loading (DL) and in vitro release were studied by UV spectrophotometer. The effect of cell anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions of BH/FA-CTS-NPs were investigated using MTT assays, wound healing assays, Annexin-V-FITC single staining assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. HeLa nude mice subcutaneously transplanted tumor model was established and treated with different drugs to observe the effect of BH/FA-CTS-NPs in vivo on HeLa bearing tumor. The BH/FA-CTS-NPs prepared in this experiment have a regular shape, uniform particle size, and no aggregation phenomenon. The results of DLS showed that mean particle size, PDI and Zeta potential of BH/FA-CTS NPs were (249.2 ± 3.6) nm, 0.129 ± 0.09, 33.6 ± 2.09, respectively, and the average diameter and PDI were stable in 90 days. The results of FT-IR demonstrated that the characteristic peaks of FA-CTS and BH/FA-CTS-NPs confirmed that FA-CTS cross-linked successfully and BH was encapsulated in NPs. The EE and DL amount were (79.3 ± 3.12) % and (7.24 ± 1.41) %, respectively. The results of in vitro release study indicated that the cumulative release of BH/FA-CTS NPs was (89.48±2.81) % in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) within 48h; these results by MTT assays and wund healing assays indicated that BH/FA-CTS NPs not only inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner but can induce apoptosis as well. The subcutaneous xenograft tumor formation rate of human cervical cancer cell line HeLa in nude mice was 98% after inoculation for 2 weeks. Compared with BH group and BH/CTS-NPs group, the xenograft tumor growth of BH/FA-CTS-NPs group was obviously slower; the result indicated that BH/FA-CTS-NPs could significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa xenograft tumor. BH/FA-CTS NPs with the sustained release effect could be prepared successfully by the ionic crosslinking method. Considering these properties, block proliferation and impairing the migration of the HeLa cell line, BH/FA-CTS NPs could be an important compound for consideration in the treatment of cervical cancer.
67
110474
Characterization of Herberine Hydrochloride Nanoparticles
Abstract:
A drug-loaded nanoparticles containing berberine hydrochloride (BH/FA-CTS-NPs) was prepared. The physicochemical characterizations of BH/FA-CTS-NPs and the inhibitory effect on the HeLa cells were investigated. Folic acid-conjugated chitosan (FA-CTS) was prepared by amino reaction of folic acid active ester and chitosan molecules; BH/FA-CTS-NPs were prepared using ionic cross-linking technique with BH as a model drug. The morphology and particle size were determined by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The average diameters and polydispersity index (PDI) were evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The interaction between various components and the nanocomplex were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The entrapment efficiency (EE), drug-loading (DL) and in vitro release were studied by UV spectrophotometer. The effect of cell anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions of BH/FA-CTS-NPs were investigated using MTT assays, wound healing assays, Annexin-V-FITC single staining assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. HeLa nude mice subcutaneously transplanted tumor model was established and treated with different drugs to observe the effect of BH/FA-CTS-NPs in vivo on HeLa bearing tumor. The BH/FA-CTS-NPs prepared in this experiment have a regular shape, uniform particle size, and no aggregation phenomenon. The results of DLS showed that mean particle size, PDI and Zeta potential of BH/FA-CTS NPs were (249.2 ± 3.6) nm, 0.129 ± 0.09, 33.6 ± 2.09, respectively, and the average diameter and PDI were stable in 90 days. The results of FT-IR demonstrated that the characteristic peaks of FA-CTS and BH/FA-CTS-NPs confirmed that FA-CTS cross-linked successfully and BH was encapsulated in NPs. The EE and DL amount were (79.3 ± 3.12) % and (7.24 ± 1.41) %, respectively. The results of in vitro release study indicated that the cumulative release of BH/FA-CTS NPs was (89.48±2.81) % in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) within 48h; these results by MTT assays and wund healing assays indicated that BH/FA-CTS NPs not only inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner but can induce apoptosis as well. The subcutaneous xenograft tumor formation rate of human cervical cancer cell line HeLa in nude mice was 98% after inoculation for 2 weeks. Compared with BH group and BH/CTS-NPs group, the xenograft tumor growth of BH/FA-CTS-NPs group was obviously slower; the result indicated that BH/FA-CTS-NPs could significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa xenograft tumor. BH/FA-CTS NPs with the sustained release effect could be prepared successfully by the ionic crosslinking method. Considering these properties, block proliferation and impairing the migration of the HeLa cell line, BH/FA-CTS NPs could be an important compound for consideration in the treatment of cervical cancer.
66
56147
Gender Recognition with Deep Belief Networks
Abstract:
A gender recognition system is able to tell the gender of the given person through a few of frontal facial images. An effective gender recognition approach enables to improve the performance of many other applications, including security monitoring, human-computer interaction, image or video retrieval and so on. In this paper, we present an effective method for gender classification task in frontal facial images based on deep belief networks (DBNs), which can pre-train model and improve accuracy a little bit. Our experiments have shown that the pre-training method with DBNs for gender classification task is feasible and achieves a little improvement of accuracy on FERET and CAS-PEAL-R1 facial datasets.
65
106500
A Study of the Assistant Application for Tourists Taking Metros
Abstract:
With the proliferation and development of mobile devices, various mobile apps have appeared to satisfy people’s needs. Metro, with the feature of convenient, punctuality and economic, is one of the most popular modes of transportation in cities. Yet there are still some inconveniences brought by various factors, impacting tourists’ riding experience. The aim of this study is to help tourists shorten the time of purchasing tickets, provide them clear metro information and direct navigation, detailed schedule as well as a way to collect metro cards as a souvenir. The study collects data through three phases, including observation, survey, and test. Data collected from 106 tourists totally in Wuhan metro stations are discussed in the study. The result reflects tourists’ demand when they take the metro. It also indicates the feasibility of using mobile technology to improve passenger’s experience.
64
106501
A Study of the Assistant Application for Tourists Taking Metros
Abstract:
With the proliferation and development of mobile devices, various mobile apps have appeared to satisfy people’s needs. Metro, with the feature of convenient, punctuality and economic, is one of the most popular modes of transportation in cities. Yet there are still some inconveniences brought by various factors, impacting tourists’ riding experience. The aim of this study is to help tourists shorten the time of purchasing tickets, provide them clear metro information and direct navigation, detailed schedule as well as a way to collect metro cards as a souvenir. The study collects data through three phases, including observation, survey, and test. Data collected from 106 tourists totally in Wuhan metro stations are discussed in the study. The result reflects tourists’ demand when they take the metro. It also indicates the feasibility of using mobile technology to improve passenger’s experience.
63
106499
A Study of the Assistant Application for Tourists Taking Metros
Abstract:
With the proliferation and development of mobile devices, various mobile apps have appeared to satisfy people’s needs. Metro, with the feature of convenient, punctuality and economic, is one of the most popular modes of transportation in cities. Yet there are still some inconveniences brought by various factors, impacting tourists’ riding experience. The aim of this study is to help tourists shorten the time of purchasing tickets, provide them clear metro information and direct navigation, detailed schedule as well as a way to collect metro cards as a souvenir. The study collects data through three phases, including observation, survey, and test. Data collected from 106 tourists totally in Wuhan metro stations are discussed in the study. The result reflects tourists’ demand when they take the metro. It also indicates the feasibility of using mobile technology to improve passenger’s experience.
62
106502
A Study of the Assistant Application for Tourists Taking Metros
Abstract:
With the proliferation and development of mobile devices, various mobile apps have appeared to satisfy people’s needs. Metro, with the feature of convenient, punctuality and economic, is one of the most popular modes of transportation in cities. Yet there are still some inconveniences brought by various factors, impacting tourists’ riding experience. The aim of this study is to help tourists shorten the time of purchasing tickets, provide them clear metro information and direct navigation, detailed schedule as well as a way to collect metro cards as a souvenir. The study collects data through three phases, including observation, survey, and test. Data collected from 106 tourists totally in Wuhan metro stations are discussed in the study. The result reflects tourists’ demand when they take the metro. It also indicates the feasibility of using mobile technology to improve passenger’s experience.
61
3589
Effects of Macrophyte Vallisneria asiatica Biomasses on the Algae Community
Abstract:
To improve the water quality of lakes and control algae blooms, The effects of Vallisneria asiatica which is one of aquatic plants spread over Lake Taihu. With different biomasses on the water quality and algae communities were researched. The results indicated that V. asiatica could control an excess of Microcystis spp. When the V. asiatica biomass was larger than 50g in the tank with 30L solution in the laboratory, Planktonic and epiphytic algae responded differently to V. asiatica. The presence of macrophyte V. asiatica in eutrophic waters has a positive effect on algae compositions because of different sensitivities of algae species to allelopathic substances released by macrophyte V. asiatica. That is, V. asiatica could inhibit the growth of Microcystis spp. effectively and was benefited to the diatom on the condition in the laboratory.
60
57421
Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers
Abstract:
One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.
59
61886
Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks to Characterize and Predict Job Placement
Abstract:
Understanding the career placement of graduates from the university is crucial for both the qualities of education and ultimate satisfaction of students. In this research, we adapt the capabilities of dynamic Bayesian networks to characterize and predict students’ job placement using data from various universities. We also provide elements of the estimation of the indicator (score) of the strength of the network. The research focuses on overall findings as well as specific student groups including international and STEM students and their insight on the career path and what changes need to be made. The derived Bayesian network has the potential to be used as a tool for simulating the career path for students and ultimately helps universities in both academic advising and career counseling.
58
23109
Quantification of Site Nonlinearity Based on HHT Analysis of Seismic Recordings
Abstract:
This study proposes a recording-based approach to characterize and quantify earthquake-induced site nonlinearity, exemplified as soil nonlinearity and/or liquefaction. Alternative to Fourier spectral analysis (FSA), the paper introduces time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of so-called Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the nonlinear features shown in the recordings. With the use of the 2001 Nisqually earthquake recordings, this study shows that the proposed approach is effective in characterizing site nonlinearity and quantifying the influences in seismic ground responses.
57
71241
Analysis on Urban Form and Evolution Mechanism of High-Density City: Case Study of Hong Kong
Authors:
Abstract:
Along with large population and great demands for urban development, Hong Kong serves as a typical high-density city with multiple altitudes, advanced three-dimensional traffic system, rich city open space, etc. This paper contributes to analyzing its complex urban form and evolution mechanism from three aspects of view, separately as time, space and buildings. Taking both horizontal and vertical dimension into consideration, this paper provides a perspective to explore the fascinating process of growing and space folding in the urban form of high-density city, also as a research reference for related high-density urban design.
56
87826
The Study on the Overall Protection of the Ancient Villages
Authors:
Abstract:
The discussion about elements of cultural heritage and their relevance among the ancient villages is comparably insufficient. The protection work is strongly influenced by touristic development and cultural gimmick, resulting in low protection efficiency and many omissions. Historical villages as the cultural settlement patterns bear a large number of heritage relics. They were regionally scattered with a clear characteristic of gathering. First of all, this study proposes the association and similarities of the forming mechanism between four historic cultural villages in Mian Mountain. Secondly, the study reveals that these villages own the strategic pass, underground passage, and the mountain barrier. Thirdly, based on the differentiated characteristics of villages’ space, the study discusses about the integrated conservation from three levels: the regional heritage conservation, the cultural line shaping, and the featured brand building.
55
17570
Application of Semantic Technologies in Rapid Reconfiguration of Factory Systems
Abstract:
Digital factory based on visual design and simulation has emerged as a mainstream to reduce digital development life cycle. Some basic industrial systems are being integrated via semantic modelling, and products (P) matching process (P)-resource (R) requirements are designed to fulfill current customer demands. Nevertheless, product design is still limited to fixed product models and known knowledge of product engineers. Therefore, this paper presents a rapid reconfiguration method based on semantic technologies with PPR ontologies to reuse known and unknown knowledge. In order to avoid the influence of big data, our system uses a cloud manufactory and distributed database to improve the efficiency of querying meeting PPR requirements.
54
65522
A Study on the Acquisition of Chinese Classifiers by Vietnamese Learners
Abstract:
In the field of language study, classifier is an interesting research feature. In the world’s languages, some languages have classifier system, some do not. Mandarin Chinese and Vietnamese languages are a rich classifier system, however, because of the language system, the cognitive, cultural differences, so that the syntactic structure of classifier of them also dissimilar. When using Mandarin Chinese classifiers must collocate with nouns or verbs, in the lexical category it is not like nouns or verbs, belong to the open class. But some scholars believe that Mandarin Chinese measure words are similar to English and other Indo European languages. The word hanging on the structure and word formation (suffix), is a closed class. Compared to other languages, such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai and other Asian languages are still belonging to the classifier language’s second type, this type of language is classifier, it is in the majority of quantity must exist, and following deictic, anaphoric or quantity appearing together, not separation between its modified noun, also known as numeral classifier language. Main syntactic structure of Chinese classifiers are as follows: ‘quantity+measure+noun’, ‘pronoun+measure+noun’, ‘pronoun+quantity+measure+noun’, ‘prefix+quantity+measure +noun’, ‘quantity +adjective + measure +noun’, ‘ quantity (above 10 whole number), + duo (多)measure +noun’, ‘ quantity (around 10) + measure + duo (多) +noun’. Main syntactic structure of Vietnamese classifiers are: ‘quantity+measure+noun’, ‘ measure+noun+pronoun’, ‘quantity+measure+noun+pronoun’, ‘measure+noun+prefix+ quantity’, ‘quantity+measure+noun+adjective', ‘duo (多) +quanlity+measure+noun’, ‘quantity+measure+adjective+pronoun (quantity word could not be 1)’, ‘measure+adjective+pronoun’, ‘measure+pronoun’. In daily life, classifiers are commonly used, if Chinese learners failed to standardize this using catergory, because the negative impact might occur on their verbal communication. The richness of the Chinese classifier system contributes to the complexity in the study of the system by foreign learners, especially in the inter language of Vietnamese learners. As above mentioned, Vietnamese language also has a rich system of classifiers, however, the basic structure order of two languages are similar but both still have differences. These similarities and dissimilarities between Chinese and Vietnamese classifier systems contribute significantly to the common errors made by Vietnamese students while they acquire Chinese, which are distinct from the errors made by students from the other language background. This article from a comparative perspective of language, has an orientation towards Chinese and Vietnamese languages commonly used in classifiers semantics and structural form two aspects. This comparative study aims to identity Vietnamese students while learning Chinese classifiers may face some negative transference of mother language, beside that through the analysis of the classifiers questionnaire, find out the causes and patterns of the errors they made. As the preliminary analysis shows, Vietnamese students while learning Chinese classifiers made some errors such as: overuse classifier ‘ge’(个); misuse the other classifiers ‘*yi zhang ri ji’(yi pian ri ji), ‘*yi zuo fang zi’(yi jian fang zi), ‘*si zhang jin pai’(si mei jin pai); homonym words ‘dui, shuang, fu, tao’ (对、双、副、套), ‘ke, li’ (颗、粒).
53
14226
Study of Temperature Difference and Current Distribution in Parallel-Connected Cells at Low Temperature
Abstract:
Two types of commercial cylindrical lithium ion batteries (Panasonic 3.4 Ah NCR-18650B and Samsung 2.9 Ah INR-18650), were investigated experimentally. The capacities of these samples were individually measured using constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) method at different ambient temperatures (-10 ℃, 0 ℃, 25 ℃). Their internal resistance was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and pulse discharge methods. The cells with different configurations of parallel connection NCR-NCR, INR-INR and NCR-INR were charged/discharged at the aforementioned ambient temperatures. The results showed that the difference of internal resistance between cells much more evident at low temperatures. Furthermore, the parallel connection of NCR-NCR exhibits the most uniform temperature distribution in cells at -10 ℃, this feature is quite favorable for the safety of the battery pack.
52
63520
Topology Optimization of Composite Structures with Material Nonlinearity
Abstract:
Currently, topology optimization technique is widely used to define the layout design of structures that are presented as truss-like topologies. However, due to the difficulty in combining optimization technique with more realistic material models where their nonlinear properties should be considered, the achieved optimized topologies are commonly unable to apply straight towards the practical design problems. This study presented an optimization procedure of composite structures where different elastic stiffness, yield criteria, and hardening models are assumed for the candidate materials. From the results, it can be concluded that a more explicit modeling has the significant influence on the resulting topologies. Also, the isotropic or kinematic hardening is important for elastoplastic structural optimization design. The capability of the proposed optimization procedure is shown through several cases.
51
89010
Unsupervised Images Generation Based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey with Deep Convolutional Generative Neural Networks
Abstract:
Convolution neural network (CNN) has attracted more and more attention on recent years. Especially in the field of computer vision and image classification. However, unsupervised learning with CNN has received less attention than supervised learning. In this work, we use a new powerful tool which is deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs) to generate images from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Training by various star and galaxy images, it shows that both the generator and the discriminator are good for unsupervised learning. In this paper, we also took several experiments to choose the best value for hyper-parameters and which could help to stabilize the training process and promise a good quality of the output.
50
78152
Bridging Educational Research and Policymaking: The Development of Educational Think Tank in China
Abstract:
Educational think tank is agreeably regarded as significant part of a nation’s soft power to promote the scientific and democratic level of educational policy making, and it plays critical role of bridging educational research in higher institutions and educational policy making. This study explores the concept, functions and significance of educational think tank in China, and conceptualizes a three dimensional framework to analyze the approaches of transforming research-based higher institutions into effective educational think tanks to serve educational policy making in the nation wide. Since 2014, the Ministry of Education P.R. China has been promoting the strategy of developing new type of educational think tanks in higher institutions, and such a strategy has been put into the agenda for the 13th Five Year Plan for National Education Development released in 2017.In such context, increasing scholars conduct studies to put forth strategies of promoting the development and transformation of new educational think tanks to serve educational policy making process. Based on literature synthesis, policy text analysis, and analysis of theories about policy making process and relationship between educational research and policy-making, this study constructed a three dimensional conceptual framework to address the following questions: (a) what are the new features of educational think tanks in the new era comparing traditional think tanks, (b) what are the functional objectives of the new educational think tanks, (c) what are the organizational patterns and mechanism of the new educational think tanks, (d) in what approaches traditional research-based higher institutions can be developed or transformed into think tanks to effectively serve the educational policy making process. The authors adopted case study approach on five influential education policy study centers affiliated with top higher institutions in China and applied the three dimensional conceptual framework to analyze their functional objectives, organizational patterns as well as their academic pathways that researchers use to contribute to the development of think tanks to serve education policy making process.Data was mainly collected through interviews with center administrators, leading researchers and academic leaders in the institutions. Findings show that: (a) higher institution based think tanks mainly function for multi-level objectives, providing evidence, theoretical foundations, strategies, or evaluation feedbacks for critical problem solving or policy-making on the national, provincial, and city/county level; (b) higher institution based think tanks organize various types of research programs for different time spans to serve different phases of policy planning, decision making, and policy implementation; (c) in order to transform research-based higher institutions into educational think tanks, the institutions must promote paradigm shift that promotes issue-oriented field studies, large data mining and analysis, empirical studies, and trans-disciplinary research collaborations; and (d) the five cases showed distinguished features in their way of constructing think tanks, and yet they also exposed obstacles and challenges such as independency of the think tanks, the discourse shift from academic papers to consultancy report for policy makers, weakness in empirical research methods, lack of experience in trans-disciplinary collaboration. The authors finally put forth implications for think tank construction in China and abroad.
49
56683
Satisfaction Evaluation on the Fundamental Public Services for a Large-Scale Indemnificatory Residential Community: A Case Study of Nanjing
Abstract:
In order to solve the housing problem for the low-income families, the construction of affordable housing is booming in China. However, due to various reasons, the service facilities and systems in the indemnificatory residential community meet many problems. This article established a Satisfaction Evaluation System of the Fundamental Public Services for Large-scale Indemnificatory Residential Community based on the national standards and local criteria and developed evaluation methods and processes. At last, in the case of Huagang project in Nanjing, the satisfaction of basic public service is calculated according to a survey of local residents.
48
24012
Finite Time Blow-Up and Global Solutions for a Semilinear Parabolic Equation with Linear Dynamical Boundary Conditions
Abstract:
For a class of semilinear parabolic equations with linear dynamical boundary conditions in a bounded domain, we obtain both global solutions and finite time blow-up solutions when the initial data varies in the phase space H1(Ω). Our main tools are the comparison principle, the potential well method and the concavity method. In particular, we discuss the behavior of the solutions with the initial data at critical and high energy level.
47
75514
Water End-Use Classification with Contemporaneous Water-Energy Data and Deep Learning Network
Abstract:
‘Water-related energy’ is energy use which is directly or indirectly influenced by changes to water use. Informatics applying a range of mathematical, statistical and rule-based approaches can be used to reveal important information on demand from the available data provided at second, minute or hourly intervals. This study aims to combine these two concepts to improve the current water end use disaggregation problem through applying a wide range of most advanced pattern recognition techniques to analyse the concurrent high-resolution water-energy consumption data. The obtained results have shown that recognition accuracies of all end-uses have significantly increased, especially for mechanised categories, including clothes washer, dishwasher and evaporative air cooler where over 95% of events were correctly classified.
46
37878
Refractometric Optical Sensing by Using Photonics Mach–Zehnder Interferometer
Abstract:
An on-chip refractive index sensor with high sensitivity and large measurement range is demonstrated in this paper. The sensing structures are based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, built on the SOI substrate. The wavelength sensitivity of the sensor is estimated to be 3129 nm/RIU. Meanwhile, according to the interference pattern period changes, the measured period sensitivities are 2.9 nm/RIU (TE mode) and 4.21 nm/RIU (TM mode), respectively. As such, the wavelength shift and the period shift can be used for fine index change detection and larger index change detection, respectively. Therefore, the sensor design provides an approach for large index change measurement with high sensitivity.
45
30363
Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy
Abstract:
Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.
44
98923
A Study of the Assistant Application for Tourists Taking Metros
Abstract:
With the proliferation and development of mobile devices, various mobile apps have appeared to satisfy people’s needs. Metro, with the feature of convenient, punctuality and economic, is one of the most popular modes of transportation in cities. Yet, there are still some inconveniences brought by various factors, impacting tourists’ riding experience. The aim of this study is to help tourists to shorten the time of purchasing tickets, to provide them clear metro information and direct navigation, detailed schedule as well as a way to collect metro cards as souvenir. The study collects data through three phases, including observation, survey and test. Data collected from 106 tourists totally in Wuhan metro stations are discussed in the study. The result reflects tourists’ demand when they take the metro. It also indicates the feasibility of using mobile technology to improve passenger’s experience.
43
82754
Analysis of Space Requirements of Chinese Square-Dancing Space through Newspaper Reports
Abstract:
The square-dancing is one of the most popular new physical activities in China in recent years, which has become a hotspot of Chinese landscape research. This paper collects 749 news reports from four authoritative newspapers in Harbin for 3 years, and probes into the space use needs of participants and non-participants of square-dancing. In this paper, the research results are compared with the contents of three related planning and design codes in China, and some modification or supplementary suggestions are proposed from three aspects, such as decision-making process, total-quantity control, and site design. Different from the traditional research, this research does not use the data from interviews and the questionnaires, but uses the traditional media report content for analyzing. To some extent, it avoids the research result being excessively subjective, enhances objectivity and the authority.
42
105213
Mechanical Properties of Diamond Reinforced Ni Nanocomposite Coatings Made by Co-Electrodeposition with Glycine as Additive
Abstract:
Diamond-reinforced Ni matrix composite has been widely applied in engineering for coating large-area structural parts owing to its high hardness, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance compared with those features of pure nickel. The mechanical properties of Ni-diamond composite coating can be promoted by the high incorporation and uniform distribution of diamond particles in the nickel matrix, while the distribution features of particles are affected by electrodeposition process parameters, especially the additives in the plating bath. Glycine has been utilized as an organic additive during the preparation of pure nickel coating, which can effectively increase the coating hardness. Nevertheless, to author’s best knowledge, no research about the effects of glycine on the Ni-diamond co-deposition has been reported. In this work, the diamond reinforced Ni nanocomposite coatings were fabricated by a co-electrodeposition technique from a modified Watt’s type bath in the presence of glycine. After preparation, the SEM morphology of the composite coatings was observed combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and the diamond incorporation was analyzed. The surface morphology and roughness were obtained by a three-dimensional profile instrument. 3D-Debye rings formed by XRD were analyzed to characterize the nickel grain size and orientation in the coatings. The average coating thickness was measured by a digital micrometer to deduce the deposition rate. The microhardness was tested by automatic microhardness tester. The friction coefficient and wear volume were measured by reciprocating wear tester to characterize the coating wear resistance and cutting performance. The experimental results confirmed that the presence of glycine effectively improved the surface morphology and roughness of the composite coatings. By optimizing the glycine concentration, the incorporation of diamond particles was increased, while the nickel grain size decreased with increasing glycine. The hardness of the composite coatings was increased as the glycine concentration increased. The friction and wear properties were evaluated as the glycine concentration was optimized, showing a decrease in the wear volume. The wear resistance of the composite coatings increased as the glycine content was increased to an optimum value, beyond which the wear resistance decreased. Glycine complexation contributed to the nickel grain refinement and improved the diamond dispersion in the coatings, both of which made a positive contribution to the amount and uniformity of embedded diamond particles, thus enhancing the microhardness, reducing the friction coefficient, and hence increasing the wear resistance of the composite coatings. Therefore, additive glycine can be used during the co-deposition process to improve the mechanical properties of protective coatings.
41
63172
Plantation Forests Height Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial System
Abstract:
Plantation forests are useful for timber production, recreation, environmental protection and social development. Stands height is an important parameter for the estimation of forest volume and carbon stocks. Although lidar is suitable technology for the vertical parameters extraction of forests, but high costs make it not suitable for operational inventory. With the development of computer vision and photogrammetry, aerial photos from unmanned aerial system can be used as an alternative solution for height mapping. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry technique can be used to extract DSM and DEM information. Canopy height model (CHM) can be achieved by subtraction DEM from DSM. Our result shows that overlapping aerial photos is a potential solution for plantation forests height mapping.
40
48278
Interferometric Demodulation Scheme Using a Mode-Locker Fiber Laser
Abstract:
We demonstrated an interferometric demodulation scheme using a mode-locked fiber laser. The mode-locked fiber laser is launched into a two-beam interferometer. When the ratio between the fiber path imbalance of interferometer and the laser cavity length is close to an integer, an interferometric fringe emerges as a result of vernier effect, and then the phase shift of the interferometer can be demodulated. The mode-locked fiber laser provides a large bandwidth and reduces the cost for wavelength division multiplexion (WDM). The proposed interferometric demodulation scheme can be further applied in multi-point sensing system such as fiber optics hydrophone array, seismic wave detection network with high sensitivity and low cost.
39
71527
Learning to Recommend with Negative Ratings Based on Factorization Machine
Abstract:
Rating prediction is an important problem for recommender systems. The task is to predict the rating for an item that a user would give. Most of the existing algorithms for the task ignore the effect of negative ratings rated by users on items, but the negative ratings have a significant impact on users’ purchasing decisions in practice. In this paper, we present a rating prediction algorithm based on factorization machines that consider the effect of negative ratings inspired by Loss Aversion theory. The aim of this paper is to develop a concave and a convex negative disgust function to evaluate the negative ratings respectively. Experiments are conducted on MovieLens dataset. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods by comparing with other four the state-of-the-art approaches. The negative ratings showed much importance in the accuracy of ratings predictions.
38
57551
Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Silica Fume
Abstract:
The present study investigated the mechanical properties and microstructure of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) containing supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF), and to verify the synergistic effect in the ternary system. On the basis of 30% fly ash replacement, the incorporation of either 10% SF or 20% SF show a better performance compared to the reference sample. The efficiency factor (k-value) was calculated as a synergistic effect to predict the compressive strength of UHPC with these SCMs. The SEM of micrographs and pore volume from BJH method indicate a high correlation with compressive strength. Further, an artificial neural networks model was constructed for prediction of the compressive strength of UHPC containing these SCMs.
37
59153
Effect of Horizontal Joint Reinforcement on Shear Behaviour of RC Knee Connections
Abstract:
To investigate seismic performance of beam-column knee joints, four full-scale reinforced concrete beam-column knee joints, which were fabricated to simulate those in as-built RC frame buildings designed to ACI 318-14 and ACI-ASCE 352R-02, were tested under reversed cyclic loading. In the experimental programme, particular emphasis was given to the effect of horizontal reinforcement (in format of inverted U-shape bars) on the shear strength and ductility capacity of knee joints. Test results are compared with those predicted by four seismic design codes, including ACI 318-14, EC8, NZS3101 and GB50010. It is seen that the current design codes of practice cannot accurately predict the shear strength of seismically designed knee joints.
36
48962
Electrokinetic Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Soil by Ion Exchange Membranes
Abstract:
The contamination of significant quantities of soils and sediments with uranium and other actinide elements as a result of nuclear activity poses many environmental risks. The electrokinetic process is one of the most promising remediation techniques for sludge, sediment, and saturated or unsaturated soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. However, secondary waste is a major concern for soil contaminated with nuclides. To minimize the generation of secondary wastes, this study used the anion and cation exchange membranes to improve the performance of the experimental apparatus. Remediation experiments of uranium-contaminated soil were performed with different agents. The results show that using acetic acid and EDTA as chelating agents clearly enhances the migration ability of the uranium. The ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in the experiments not only reduce secondary wastes, but also, keep the soil pH stable.
35
106835
Design of Jumping Structure of Spherical Robot Based on Archimedes' Helix
Authors:
Abstract:
Nowadays, spherical robots have played an important role in many fields, but the insufficient ability of obstacle surmounting limits their wider application fields. To solve this problem, a jumping system of a spherical robot is designed based on Archimedes helix. The jumping system of the robot utilizes the characteristics of Archimedes helix and isovelocity helix to achieve constant speed and stable contraction, which ensures the stability of the system. Also, the jumping action of the robot is realized by instantaneous release of elastic potential energy. In order to verify the effectiveness of the jumping system, we designed a spherical robot and its jumping system. The experimental results show that the jumping system has the advantages of light weight, small size, high energy conversion efficiency, and can realize the spherical jumping function.
34
20010
Novel Stator Structure Switching Flux Permanent Magnet Motor
Abstract:
Switching flux permanent magnet (SFPM) motor has doubly salient structure which lead to high torque ripple, and also has cogging torque as a permanent magnet motor. Torque ripple and cogging torque have impact on the motor performance. A novel stator structure SFPM motor is presented in this paper. A triangular shape silicon steel sheet is put in the stator slot to reduce the torque ripple, which will not deteriorate the cogging torque. The simulation of proposed motor is analyzed using 2-D finite element method (FEM) based on Ansoft and Simplorer software, and the result show a good performance of the proposed SFPM motor.
33
62094
Flow inside Micro-Channel Bounded by Superhydrophobic Surface with Eccentric Micro-Grooves
Abstract:
The superhydrophobic surface is widely used to reduce friction for the flow inside micro-channel and can be used to control/manipulate fluid, cells and even proteins in lab-on-chip. Fabricating micro grooves on hydrophobic surfaces is a common method to obtain such superhydrophobic surface. This study utilized the numerical method to investigate the effect of eccentric micro-grooves on the friction of flow inside micro-channel. A detailed parametric study was conducted to reveal how the eccentricity of micro-grooves affects the micro-channel flow under different grooves sizes, channel heights, Reynolds number. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with eccentric micro-grooves induces less friction than the counter part with aligning micro-grooves, which means requiring less power for pumps.
32
39136
The LIP’s Electric Propulsion Development for Chinese Spacecraft
Abstract:
Lanzhou Institute of Physics (LIP) is the major supplier of electric propulsion subsystems for Chinese satellite platforms. The development statuses of these electric propulsion subsystems were summarized including the LIPS-200 ion electric propulsion subsystem (IEPS) for DFH-3B platform, the LIPS-300 IEPS for DFH-5 and DFH-4SP platform, the LIPS-200+ IEPS for DFH-4E platform and near-earth asteroid exploration spacecraft, the LIPS-100 IEPS for small satellite platform, the LHT-100 hall electric propulsion subsystem (HEPS) for flight test on XY-2 satellite, the LHT-140 HEPS for large LEO spacecraft, the LIPS-400 IEPS for deep space exploration mission and other EPS for other Chinese spacecraft.
31
73138
Optimal Location of the I/O Point in the Parking System
Abstract:
In this paper, we deal with the optimal I/O point location in an automated parking system. In this system, the S/R machine (storage and retrieve machine) travels independently in vertical and horizontal directions. Based on the characteristics of the parking system and the basic principle of AS/RS system (Automated Storage and Retrieval System), we obtain the continuous model in units of time. For the single command cycle using the randomized storage policy, we calculate the probability density function for the system travel time and thus we develop the travel time model. And we confirm that the travel time model shows a good performance by comparing with discrete case. Finally in this part, we establish the optimal model by minimizing the expected travel time model and it is shown that the optimal location of the I/O point is located at the middle of the left-hand above corner.
30
13535
DAG Design and Tradeoff for Full Live Virtual Machine Migration over XIA Network
Abstract:
Traditional TCP/IP network is showing lots of shortages and research for future networks is becoming a hotspot. FIA (Future Internet Architecture) and FIA-NP (Next Phase) are supported by US NSF for future Internet designing. Moreover, virtual machine migration is a significant technique in cloud computing. As a network application, it should also be supported in XIA (expressive Internet Architecture), which is in both FIA and FIA-NP projects. This paper is an experimental study aims at verifying the feasibility of VM migration over XIA. We present three ways to maintain VM connectivity and communication states concerning DAG design and routing table modification. VM migration experiments are conducted intra-AD and inter-AD with KVM instances. The procedure is achieved by a migration control protocol which is suitable for the characters of XIA. Evaluation results show that our solutions can well supports full live VM migration over XIA network respectively, keeping services seamless.
29
13008
A Super-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Efficiency in the Presence of Time Lag Effect
Abstract:
In many cases, there is a time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in evaluating the performance of organizations. Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. Multi-periods input(MpI) and Multi-periods output(MpO) models are integrated models to calculate simple efficiency considering time lag effect. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. That is, efficient DMUs can’t be discriminated because their efficiency scores are same. Thus, this paper suggests a super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect based on the MpO model. A case example using a long-term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.
28
24659
Torque Magnetometry of Low Anisotropic CaCo2As2 Single Crystals
Abstract:
Role of Co spins in CaCo2As2 single crystal is systematically studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque measurements. A spin-flop transition in the antiferromagnetism (AFM) CaCo2As2 single crystal is studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque. Field dependent and angle dependent torque magnetometry confirmed the existence of spin-flop transition in this compound which is in agreement with the dc magnetization studies. A comparison of dc magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements for CaCo2As2 single crystal is done in detail. In conclusion, torque magnetometry can be a useful tool to study the spin flop transition in low anisotropic compounds analogous to dc magnetization studies.
27
41727
Global Convergence of a Modified Three-Term Conjugate Gradient Algorithms
Abstract:
This paper deals with a new nonlinear modified three-term conjugate gradient algorithm for solving large-scale unstrained optimization problems. The search direction of the algorithms from this class has three terms and is computed as modifications of the classical conjugate gradient algorithms to satisfy both the descent and the conjugacy conditions. An example of three-term conjugate gradient algorithm from this class, as modifications of the classical and well known Hestenes and Stiefel or of the CG_DESCENT by Hager and Zhang conjugate gradient algorithms, satisfying both the descent and the conjugacy conditions is presented. Under mild conditions, we prove that the modified three-term conjugate gradient algorithm with Wolfe type line search is globally convergent. Preliminary numerical results show the proposed method is very promising.
26
13060
Mean Square Responses of a Cantilever Beam with Various Damping Mechanisms
Abstract:
In the present paper, the stationary random vibration of a uniform cantilever beam is investigated. Two types of damping mechanism, i.e. the external and internal viscous dampings, are taken into account simultaneously. The excitation form is the support motion, and it is ideal white. Because two type of damping mechanism are considered concurrently, the product of the modal damping ratio and the natural frequency is not a constant anymore. As a result, the infinite definite integral encountered in the process of computing the mean square response is more complex than that in the existing literature. One signal progress of this work is to have calculated these definite integrals accurately. The precise solution of the mean square response is thus obtained in the infinite series form finally. Numerical examples are supplied and the numerical outcomes acquired confirm the validity of the theoretical analyses.
25
102731
The Investigation and Analysis of Village Remains in Jinzhong Prefecture of Shanxi Province, China
Authors:
Abstract:
Shanxi Province is a province with a long history in China. The historical characteristics of Jinzhong Prefecture in Shaanxi Province are very prominent. This research has done a lot of field research and analysis, and has analyzed a large number of documents. The formation and characteristics of villages in Jinzhong Prefecture are summarized. But the remains of many areas have not been systematically discovered and analyzed. This study found that the reasons for the formation of villages are natural, cultural, traffic and economic reasons. It mainly includes water, mountain, and developed business culture during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. By analyzing the evolution characteristics of each period, the characteristics and remains of the existing villages are explained in detail. These types of relics mainly include courtyards, fortresses, and Exchange shops. This study can provide systematic guidance on the protection of future village remains.
24
61480
Study on Fabrication of Surface Functional Micro and Nanostructures by Femtosecond Laser
Abstract:
The functional micro and nanostructures, which can endow material surface with unique properties such as super-absorptance, hydrophobic and drag reduction. Recently, femtosecond laser ablation has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for surface functional micro and nanostructures fabrication. In this paper, using femtosecond laser ablation processing technique, we fabricated functional micro and nanostructures on Ti and Al alloy surfaces, test results showed that processed surfaces have 82%~96% absorptance over a broad wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared. The surface function properties, which determined by micro and nanostructures, could be modulated by variation laser parameters. These functional surfaces may find applications in such areas as photonics, plasmonics, spaceborne devices, thermal radiation sources, solar energy absorbers and biomedicine.
23
97448
Task Space Synchronization Control of Multi-Robot Arms with Position Synchronous Method
Abstract:
Synchronization is of great importance to ensure the multi-arm robot to complete the task. Therefore, a synchronous controller is designed to coordinate task space motion of the multi-arm in the paper. The position error, the synchronous position error, and the coupling position error are all considered in the controller. Besides, an adaptive control method is used to adjust parameters of the controller to improve the effectiveness of coordinated control performance. Simulation in the Matlab shows the effectiveness of the method. At last, a robot experiment platform with two 7-DOF (Degree of Freedom) robot arms has been established and the synchronous controller simplified to control dual-arm robot has been validated on the experimental set-up. Experiment results show the position error decreased 10% and the corresponding frequency is also greatly improved.
22
83504
The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂/RGO Heterojunctions with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin
Abstract:
Novel AgInS2/SnS2/RGO (AISR) heterojunctions photocatalysts were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AISR nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AISR photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, laser flash photolysis technique was conducted to test the lifetime of charge carriers of the fabricated nanocomposites. The interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed.
21
51465
A Method for Modeling Flexible Manipulators: Transfer Matrix Method with Finite Segments
Abstract:
This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the modeling of robot manipulators with flexible links and joints. This approach combines the Discrete Time Transfer Matrix Method with the Finite Segment Method, in which the flexible links are discretized by a number of rigid segments connected by torsion springs; and the flexibility of joints are modeled by torsion springs. The proposed method avoids the global dynamics and has the advantage of modeling non-uniform manipulators. Experiments and simulations of a single-link flexible manipulator are conducted for verifying the proposed methodologies. The simulations of a three-link robot arm with links and joints flexibility are also performed.
20
107831
Investigating the Role of Circular RNA GATAD2A on H1N1 Replication
Abstract:
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical roles in various diseases. However, whether and how circular RNA regulates influenza A virus (IAV) infection is unknown. Here, we studied the role of circular RNA GATA Zinc Finger Domain Containing 2A (circ-GATAD2A) in the replication of IAV H1N1 in A549 cells. Circ-GATAD2A was formed upon H1N1 infection. Knockdown of circ-GATAD2A in A549 cells enhanced autophagy and inhibited H1N1 replication. By contrast, overexpression of circ-GATAD2A impaired autophagy and promoted H1N1 replication. Similarly, knockout of vacuolar protein sorting 34 (VPS34) blocked autophagy and increased H1N1 replication. However, the expression of circ-GATAD2A could not further enhance H1N1 replication in VPS34 knockout cells. Collectively, these data indicated that circ-GATAD2A promotes the replication of H1N1 by inhibiting autophagy.
19
61350
Trace Network: A Probabilistic Relevant Pattern Recognition Approach to Attribution Trace Analysis
Abstract:
Network attack prevention is a critical research area of information security. Network attack would be oppressed if attribution techniques are capable to trace back to the attackers after the hacking event. Therefore attributing these attacks to a particular identification becomes one of the important tasks when analysts attempt to differentiate and profile the attacker behind a piece of attack trace. To assist analysts in expose attackers behind the scenes, this paper researches on the connections between attribution traces and proposes probabilistic relevance based attribution patterns. This method facilitates the evaluation of the plausibility relevance between different traceable identifications. Furthermore, through analyzing the connections among traces, it could confirm the existence probability of a certain organization as well as discover its affinitive partners by the means of drawing relevance matrix from attribution traces.
18
79085
Multivariate Genome-Wide Association Studies for Identifying Additional Loci for Myopia
Abstract:
A systematic, simultaneous analysis of multiple phenotypes in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) draws a great attention to integrate the signals from single phenotypes with increased power. However, lacking an interpretable and efficient multivariate GWAS analysis impede the application of such approach. In this study, we propose to decompose the multivariate model into a series of simple univariate models. This transformation illuminates what exactly the individual trait contributes to the significant signals from the multivariate analyses. By employing our approach in the analysis of three myopia-related endophenotypes from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SIMES), we identify novel candidate loci which were successfully validated in an independent Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES).
17
81401
An Improved Circulating Tumor Cells Analysis Method for Identifying Tumorous Blood Cells
Abstract:
Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) is used to detect tumoral cell metastases using blood samples of patients with cancer (lung, breast, etc.). Using an immunofluorescent method a three channel image (Red, Green, and Blue) are obtained. These set of images usually overpass the 11 x 30 M pixels in size. An aided tool is designed for imaging cell analysis to segmented and identify the tumorous cell based on the three markers signals. Our Method, it is cell-based (area and cell shape) considering each channel information and extracting and making decisions if it is a valid CTC. The system also gives information about number and size of tumor cells found in the sample. We present results in real-life samples achieving acceptable performance in identifying CTCs in short time.
16
16405
Analysis of Nonlinear Bertrand Duopoly Game with Heterogeneous Players
Authors:
Abstract:
A dynamic of Bertrand duopoly game is analyzed, where players use different production methods and choose their prices with bounded rationality. The equilibriums of the corresponding discrete dynamical systems are investigated. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability of Nash equilibrium, as some parameters of the model are varied, gives rise to complex dynamics such as cycles of higher order and chaos. On this basis, we discover that an increase of adjustment speed of bounded rational player can make Bertrand market sink into the chaotic state. Finally, the complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by numerical simulation.
15
54812
Dynamic Analysis of Offshore 2-HUS/U Parallel Platform
Abstract:
For the stability and control demand of offshore small floating platform, a 2-HUS/U parallel mechanism was presented as offshore platform. Inverse kinematics was obtained by institutional constraint equation, and the dynamic model of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform was derived based on rigid body’s Lagrangian method. The equivalent moment of inertia, damping and driving force/torque variation of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform were analyzed. A numerical example shows that, for parallel platform of given motion, system’s equivalent inertia changes 1.25 times maximally. During the movement of platform, they change dramatically with the system configuration and have coupling characteristics. The maximum equivalent drive torque is 800 N. At the same time, the curve of platform’s driving force/torque is smooth and has good sine features. The control system needs to be adjusted according to kinetic equation during stability and control and it provides a basis for the optimization of control system.
14
54222
Dynamic Transmission Modes of Network Public Opinion on Subevents Clusters of an Emergent Event
Abstract:
The rise and attenuation of the public opinion broadcast of an emergent accident, in the social network, has a close relationship with the dynamic development of its subevents cluster. In this article, we take Tianjin Port explosion's subevents as an example to research the dynamic propagation discipline of Internet public opinion in a sudden accident, and analyze the overall structure of dynamic propagation to propose four different routes for subevents clusters propagation. We also generate network diagrams for the dynamic public opinion propagation, analyze each propagation type specifically. Based on this, suggestions on the supervision and guidance of Internet public opinion broadcast can be made.
13
33020
Ion Thruster Grid Lifetime Assessment Based on Its Structural Failure
Abstract:
This article developed an ion thruster optic system sputter erosion depth numerical 3D model by IFE-PIC (Immersed Finite Element-Particle-in-Cell) and Mont Carlo method, and calculated the downstream surface sputter erosion rate of accelerator grid; Compared with LIPS-200 life test data, the results of the numerical model are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. Finally, we predict the lifetime of the 20cm diameter ion thruster via the erosion data obtained with the model. The ultimate result demonstrates that under normal operating condition, the erosion rate of the grooves wears on the downstream surface of the accelerator grid is 34.6μm⁄1000h, which means the conservative lifetime until structural failure occurring on the accelerator grid is 11500 hours.
12
13729
Saliency Detection Using a Background Probability Model
Abstract:
Image saliency detection has been long studied, while several challenging problems are still unsolved, such as detecting saliency inaccurately in complex scenes or suppressing salient objects in the image borders. In this paper, we propose a new saliency detection algorithm in order to solving these problems. We represent the image as a graph with superixels as nodes. By considering appearance similarity between the boundary and the background, the proposed method chooses non-saliency boundary nodes as background priors to construct the background probability model. The probability that each node belongs to the model is computed, which measures its similarity with backgrounds. Thus we can calculate saliency by the transformed probability as a metric. We compare our algorithm with ten-state-of-the-art salient detection methods on the public database. Experimental results show that our simple and effective approach can attack those challenging problems that had been baffling in image saliency detection.
11
67148
Rural Tourism Planning from the Perspective of Water Resource Protection and Regional Integration: Taking Villages along Tongji Lake as an Example
Abstract:
Currently, there is a great tendency that more and more villages in China are trying to increase income by development of tourism. Especially in Zhejiang Province, 'Beautiful Rural Construction' provides an excellent opportunity for the development of tourism. In this context, development orientation, transportation routes and tourism service facilities are analyzed under the perspective of water resources protection and regional integration based on the development tourism industry of the six villages in Pujiang County, Zhejiang Province as a research object. In the program, the biggest issue is the contradiction between the ecological protection of the water and the development of economy. How to deal with the relationship between protection and development is the key to the design of this case. Furthermore, the six villages are regarded as a whole, connecting to each other by the system of five-path and the landscape along the lake. Every village has its own features, but cannot develop without one another. The article is actively exploring for suggestions and countermeasures to promote the development premised on protection and based on a regional view.
10
69595
Analysis of Gas Disturbance Characteristics in Lunar Sample Storage
Abstract:
The lunar sample storage device is mainly used for the preparation of the lunar samples, observation, physical analysis and other work. The lunar samples and operating equipment are placed directly inside the storage device. The inside of the storage device is a high purity nitrogen environment to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by the Earth's environment. In order to ensure that the water and oxygen indicators in the storage device meet the sample requirements, a dynamic gas cycle is required between the storage device and the external purification equipment. However, the internal gas disturbance in the storage device can affect the operation of the sample. In this paper, the storage device model is established, and the tetrahedral mesh is established by Tetra/Mixed method. The influence of different inlet position and gas flow on the internal flow field disturbance is calculated, and the disturbed flow area should be avoided during the sampling operation.
9
32964
Current Status of 5A Lab6 Hollow Cathode Life Tests in Lanzhou Institute of Physics, China
Abstract:
The current statuses of lifetime test of LaB6 hollow cathode at the Lanzhou institute of physics (LIP), China, was described. 5A LaB6 hollow cathode was designed for LIPS-200 40mN Xenon ion thruster and it could be used for LHT-100 80 mN Hall thruster, too. Life test of the discharge and neutralizer modes of LHC-5 hollow cathode were stared in October 2011, and cumulative operation time reached 17,300 and 16,100 hours in April 2015, respectively. The life of cathode was designed more than 11,000 hours. Parameters of discharge and key structure dimensions were monitored in different stage of life test indicated that cathodes were health enough. The test will continue until the cathode cannot work or operation parameter is not in normally. The result of the endurance test of cathode demonstrated that the LaB6 hollow cathode is satisfied for the required of thruster in life and performance.
8
37350
Dynamic of Nonlinear Duopoly Game with Heterogeneous Players
Abstract:
A dynamic of Bertrand duopoly game is analyzed, where players use different production methods and choose their prices with bounded rationality. The equilibriums of the corresponding discrete dynamical systems are investigated. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability of Nash equilibrium, as some parameters of the model are varied, gives rise to complex dynamics such as cycles of higher order and chaos. On this basis, we discover that an increase of adjustment speed of bounded rational player can make Bertrand market sink into the chaotic state. Finally, the complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by numerical simulation.
7
57255
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Cable Damage Detection Using an MFL Technique
Abstract:
Non-destructive testing on cable is in great demand due to safety accidents at sites where many equipments using cables are installed. In this paper, the quantitative change of the obtained signal was analyzed using a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method. A two-dimensional simulation was conducted with a FEM model replicating real elevator cables. The simulation data were compared for three parameters (depth of defect, width of defect and inspection velocity). Then, an experiment on same conditions was carried out to verify the results of the simulation. Signals obtained from both the simulation and the experiment were transformed to characterize the properties of the damage. Throughout the results, a cable damage detection based on an MFL method was confirmed to be feasible. In further study, it is expected that the MFL signals of an entire specimen will be gained and visualized as well.
6
108546
Heuristic for Scheduling Correlated Parallel Machine to Minimize Maximum Lateness and Total Weighed Completion Time
Abstract:
This research focuses on the bicriteria correlated parallel machine scheduling problem. The two objective functions considered in this problem are to minimize maximum lateness and total weighted completion time. We first present a mixed integer programming (MIP) model that can find the entire efficient frontier for the studied problem. Next, we have proposed a bicriteria heuristic that can find non-dominated solutions for the studied problem. The performance of the proposed bicriteria heuristic is compared with the efficient frontier generated by solving the MIP model. Computational results indicate that the proposed bicriteria heuristic can solve the problem efficiently and find a set of diverse solutions that are uniformly distributed along the efficient frontier.
5
71164
Characterization of N+C, Ti+N and Ti+C Ion Implantation into Ti6Al4V Alloy
Abstract:
TiN and TiC films have been prepared on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates by plasma-based ion implantation. The effect of N+C and Ti+N hybrid ion implantation at 50 kV, and Ti+C hybrid ion implantation at 20 kV, 35 kV and 50 kV extraction voltages on mechanical properties at a dose of 2×10¹⁷ ions / cm² was studied. The chemical states and microstructures of the implanted samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), together with the mechanical and tribological properties of the samples were characterized using nano-indentation and ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that the modified layer by Ti+C implanted at 50 kV was composed of mainly TiC and Ti-O bond and the layer of Ti+N implanted at 50 kV was observed to be TiN and Ti-O bond. Hardness tests have shown that the hardness values for N+C, Ti+N, and Ti+C hybrid ion implantation samples were much higher than the un-implanted ones. The results of wear tests showed that both Ti+C and Ti+N ion implanted samples had much better wear resistance compared un-implanted sample. The wear rate of Ti+C implanted at 50 kV sample was 6.7×10⁻⁵mm³ / N.m, which was decreased over one order than unimplanted samples.
4
16824
Effects of Microwave Heating Rate on the Color, Total Anthocyanin Content and Total Phenolics of Elderberry Juice during Come-up-Time
Abstract:
Elderberry could protect human health from oxidative stress, and reduce aging and certain cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity. However, these bioactive phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins and other phenolic acids, are susceptible to degradation during processing of elderberries to juice, jam, and powder due to intensity and duration of thermal exposure. The effects of microwave heating rate during come-up-times, using a domestic 2450 MHz microwave, on the color, total anthocyanin content and total phenolics on elderberry juice was studied. With a variation of come-up-time from 30 sec to 15 min at different power levels (10–50 % of total wattage), the temperature of elderberry juice vary from 40.6 °C to 91.5 °C. However, the color parameters (L, A, and B), total anthocyanin content (using pH differential method) and total phenolics did not vary significantly when compared to the control samples.
3
65275
An Attribute Based Access Control Model with POL Module for Dynamically Granting and Revoking Authorizations
Abstract:
Currently, resource sharing and system security are critical issues. This paper proposes a POL module composed of PRIV ILEGE attribute (PA), obligation and log which improves attribute based access control (ABAC) model in dynamically granting authorizations and revoking authorizations. The following describes the new model termed PABAC in terms of the POL module structure, attribute definitions, policy formulation and authorization architecture, which demonstrate the advantages of it. The POL module addresses the problems which are not predicted before and not described by access control policy. It can be one of the subject attributes or resource attributes according to the practical application, which enhances the flexibility of the model compared with ABAC. A scenario that illustrates how this model is applied to the real world is provided.
2
108116
Several Spectrally Non-Arbitrary Ray Patterns of Order 4
Abstract:
An (n x n) matrix is called a ray pattern if its entries are either 0 or reᶦθ, r > 0. A ray pattern A of order n is called spectrally arbitrary if the complex matrices in the ray pattern class of A give rise to all possible nth degree complex polynomial f(x). Otherwise, it is said to be spectrally non-arbitrary ray patterns. A ray pattern A of order n. We call a spectrally arbitrary ray pattern A of order n is minimally spectrally arbitrary if any nonzero entry of A is replaced, then A is not spectrally arbitrary. L. Corpuz and J.J. McDonald proposed the existence of spectrally arbitrary sign patterns and gave the nilpotent-Jacobi method which is used to verify a sign pattern and all its super patterns that are spectrally arbitrary sign patterns. Recently, McDonald and Stuart generalized this method for sign patterns to ray patterns. In this paper, they defined the n x n ray sign patterns Aₙ and proved that the pattern is spectrally arbitrary for n ≥ 4 Unfortunately, we find that Aₙ is not spectrally arbitrary when n = 4 for any θ with 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. In this article, we give several ray patterns A₄(θ) that are not spectrally arbitrary for some 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π by using the nilpotent-Jacobi method. One example is given in our paper. some 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. One example is given in our paper.
1
25000
Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-To-Olefins Process
Abstract:
Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1 m tall methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The measurement of axial levels was conducted in the full developed region. The effect of axial level on flow development was not obvious under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons between upward, downward and average particle velocity were conducted. The average particle velocity was close to upward velocity and higher than downward velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.