Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 61052

Research of the Activation Energy of Conductivity in P-I-N SiC Structures Fabricated by Doping with Aluminum Using the Low-Temperature Diffusion Method
The activation energy of conductivity in p-i-n SiC structures fabricated by doping with Aluminum using the new low-temperature diffusion method is investigated. In this method, diffusion is stimulated by the flux of carbon and silicon vacancies created by surface oxidation. The activation energy of conductivity in the p - layer is 0.25 eV and it is close to the ionization energy of Aluminum in 4H-SiC from 0.21 to 0.27 eV for the hexagonal and cubic positions of aluminum in the silicon sublattice for weakly doped crystals. The conductivity of the i-layer (measured in the reverse biased diode) shows 2 activation energies: 0.02 eV and 0.62 eV. Apparently, the 0.62 eV level is a deep trap level and it is a complex of Aluminum with a vacancy. According to the published data, an analogous level system (with activation energies of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.67 eV) was observed in the ion Aluminum doped 4H-SiC samples.
Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.
Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification
Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.
Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification
Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.
Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry
Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as an insulation material for energy-efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravimetry analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than the grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation, signifying equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on the extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.
Convective Hot Air Drying of Different Varieties of Blanched Sweet Potato Slices
Drying behaviour of blanched sweet potato in a cabinet dryer using different five air temperatures (40-80oC) and ten sweet potato varieties sliced to 5 mm thickness were investigated. The drying data were fitted to eight models. The Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data obtained during the drying of all the varieties while Newton (Lewis) and Wang and Singh models gave the least fit. The values of Deff obtained for Bophelo variety (1.27 x 10-9 to 1.77 x 10-9 m2/s) was the least while that of S191 (1.93 x 10-9 to 2.47 x 10-9 m2/s) was the highest which indicates that moisture diffusivity in sweet potato is affected by the genetic factor. Activation energy values ranged from 0.27-6.54 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method. The drying behavior of blanched sweet potato was investigated in a cabinet dryer. Drying time decreased considerably with increase in hot air temperature. Out of the eight models fitted, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data on all the varieties while Newton, Wang and Singh models gave the least. The lower activation energy (0.27-6.54 kJ/mol) obtained indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method.
Catalytic Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Oxidation of Paraffin-Based Fuels
Paraffin-based fuels are regarded to be a promising fuel of hybrid rocked motor because of the high regression rate, low price, and environmental friendliness. Graphene Oxide (GO) is an attractive energetic material which is expected to be widely used in propellants, explosives, and some high energy fuels. Paraffin-based fuels with paraffin and GO as raw materials were prepared, and the oxidation process of the samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) under oxygen (O₂) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) atmospheres. The oxidation reaction kinetics of the fuels was estimated through the non-isothermal measurements and model-free isoconversional methods based on the experimental results of TGA. The results show that paraffin-based fuels are easier oxidized under O₂ rather than N₂O with atmospheres due to the lower activation energy; GO plays a catalytic role for the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels under the both atmospheres, and the activation energy of the oxidation process decreases with the increase of GO; catalytic effect of GO on the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels are more obvious under O₂ atmospheres than under N₂O atmospheres.
Thin-Layer Drying Characteristics and Modelling of Instant Coffee Solution
The thin-layer drying characteristics of instant coffee solution were investigated in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (80, 100 and 120 °C) and an air velocity of 1.2 m/s. Drying experimental data obtained are fitted to six (6) thin-layer drying models using the non-linear least squares regression analysis. The acceptability of the thin-layer drying model has been based on a value of the correlation coefficient that should be close to one, and low values for root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square (x²). According to this evaluation, the most suitable model for describing drying process of thin-layer instant coffee solution is the Page model. Further, the effective moisture diffusivity and the activation energy were computed employing the drying experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 1.6133 × 10⁻⁹ to 1.6224 × 10⁻⁹ m²/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 162.62 J/mol.
Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels
Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.
The Utilization of Tea Residues for Activated Carbon Preparation
Waste tea is commonly generated in certain areas of China and its utilization has drawn a lot of concern nowadays. In this paper, highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea by physical activation in the presence of water vapor in a tubular furnace. The effect of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of produced activated carbon are studied. The yield decreased with the increase of activation temperature. According to the Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the micropore and mesopore are both developed in the activated carbon. The specific surface area and the mesopore volume fractions of the activated carbon increased with the raise of activation temperature. The maximum specific surface area attained 756 m²/g produced at activation temperature 900°C. The results showed that the activation temperature had a significant effect on the micro and mesopore volumes as well as the specific surface area.
Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines
Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.
Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current (TSDC) and Transient Current Study in Polysulfone (PSF) and Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) Blends
In the present investigations, an attempt has been made to study the charge storage mechanism and mechanism for the flow of transient charging and discharging current in an amorphous polymer (Polysulfone) (PSF) and a semi-crystalline polar Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blends in ratio PSF: PVDF: 80:20;85:15;90:10 and 95:05 at various poling temperatures (i.e. 60, 75, 90 and 1150C) and with field strength (100, 150, 200 and 250kVcm⁻¹). Thermally stimulated depolarizing current TSDC thermograms for (Polysulfone (PSF) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) Blends sample have been obtained under different polarizing conditions. Peaks are found at high-temperature side. The variation of structure on blending and poling condition affects the magnitude of TSDC. The activation energy values have been calculated using the initial rise method of Garlick and Gibson. The transient current with the similar polarizing condition has been investigated over a period of 3X10³ sec. The observed characteristics obey Curie-Von Schweidler law in the studied temperature range. The charging current versus polarizing temperature curves at a constant time, i.e., isochronal current characteristics were studied and the activation energies were calculated. The activation energy in transient thermograms calculated by different methods is in good agreement with the values obtained from TSDC studies.
Kinetic Study on Extracting Lignin from Black Liquor Using Deep Eutectic Solvents
Lignin, the largest inventory of organic carbon with a high caloric energy value is a major component in woody and non-woody biomass. In pulping mills, a large amount of the lignin is burned for energy. At the same time, the phenolic structure of lignin enables it to be converted to value-added compounds.This study has focused on extracting lignin from black liquor using deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Therefore, three choline chloride (ChCl)-DESs paired with lactic acid (LA) (1:11), oxalic acid.2H₂O (OX) (1:4), and malic acid (MA) (1:3) were synthesized at 90oC and atmospheric pressure. The kinetics of lignin recovery from black liquor using DES was investigated at three moderate temperatures (338, 353, and 368 K) at time intervals from 30 to 210 min. The extracted lignin (acid soluble lignin plus Klason lignin) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR studies included comparing the extracted lignin with a model Kraft lignin. The extracted lignin was characterized spectrophotometrically to determine the acid soluble lignin (ASL) [TAPPI UM 250] fraction and Klason lignin was determined gravimetrically using TAPPI T 222 om02. The lignin extraction reaction using DESs was modeled by first-order reaction kinetics and the activation energy of the process was determined. The ChCl:LA-DES recovered lignin was 79.7±2.1% at 368K and a DES:BL ratio of 4:1 (v/v). The quantity of lignin extracted for the control solvent, [emim][OAc], was 77.5+2.2%. The activation energy measured for the LA-DES system was 22.7 KJ mol⁻¹, while the activation energy for the OX-DES and MA-DES systems were 7.16 KJ·mol⁻¹ and 8.66 KJ·mol⁻¹ when the total lignin recovery was 75.4 ±0.9% and 62.4 ±1.4, % respectively.
Improving Cyclability and Capacity of Lithium Oxygen Batteries via Low Rate Pre-Activation
Cycling life has become the threshold for the prospective application of Li-O₂ batteries, and the protection of Li anode has recently regarded as the key factor to the performance. Herein, a simple low rate pre-activation (20 cycles at 0.5 Ag⁻¹ and a capacity of 200 mAh g⁻¹) was employed to effectively improve the performance and cyclability of Li-O₂ batteries. The charge/discharge cycles at 1 A g⁻¹ with a capacity of 1000 mAh g⁻¹ were maintained for up to 290 times versus 55 times for the cell without pre-activation. The ultimate battery capacity and high rate discharge property were also largely enhanced. Morphology, XRD and XPS analyses reveal that the performance improvement is in close association with the formation of the smooth and compact surface layer formed on the Li anode after low rate pre-activation, which apparently alleviated the corrosion of Li anode and the passivation of cathode during battery cycling, and the corresponding mechanism was also discussed.
A Study on the Strategy for Domestic Space Industry Activation
In this study, a business ecosystem of a domestic space industry is comprehensively analyzed to derive the influence factors. The priority level of each element as well as the disparity between the ideal and reality are investigated through a literature review and an expert survey. The three major influence factors determined are: (a) investment scale and approach, (b) propulsion system, and (c) industrialization with overseas expansion. Related issues based on the current status are evaluated, followed by a proposed activation strategy. This research's findings offer a direction for R&D budget allocation and law system maintenance for the activation of the domestic space industry.
The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants
The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.
Microstructural Evidences for Exhaustion Theory of Low Temperature Creep in Martensitic Steels
Down-sizing of combustion engines in automobiles are prevailed owing to required increase in efficiency. This leads to a stress increment on valve springs, which affects their intended function due to an increase in relaxation. High strength martensitic steels are used for valve spring applications. Recent investigations unveiled that low temperature creep (LTC) in martensitic steels obey a logarithmic creep law. The exhaustion theory links the logarithmic creep behavior to an activation energy which is characteristic for any given time during creep. This activation energy increases with creep strain due to barriers of low activation energies exhausted during creep. The assumption of the exhaustion theory is that the material is inhomogeneous in microscopic scale. According to these assumptions it is anticipated that small obstacles (e. g. ε–carbides) having a wide range of size distribution are non-uniformly distributed in the materials. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the presence of ε–carbides in high strength martensitic steels. In this study, high strength martensitic steels that are crept in the temperature range of 75 – 150 °C were investigated with the aid of a transmission electron microscope for the evidence of an inhomogeneous distribution of obstacles having different size to examine the validation of exhaustion theory.
Saturation Misbehavior and Field Activation of the Mobility in Polymer-Based OTFTs
In this paper we intend to give a comprehensive view of the saturation misbehavior of thin film transistors (TFTs) based on disordered semiconductors, such as most organic TFTs, and its link to the field activation of the mobility. Experimental evidence of the field activation of the mobility is given for disordered semiconductor based TFTs, when reducing the gate length. Saturation misbehavior is observed simultaneously. Advanced transport models have been implemented in a quasi-2D numerical TFT simulation software. From the numerical simulations it is clearly established that field activation of the mobility alone cannot explain the saturation misbehavior. Evidence is given that high longitudinal field gradient at the drain end of the channel is responsible for an excess charge accumulation, preventing saturation. The two combined effects allow reproducing the experimental output characteristics of short channel TFTs, with S-shaped characteristics and saturation failure.
Thermal Transformation and Structural on Se90Te7Cu3 Chalcogenide Glass
In this study, Se90Te7Cu3 chalcogenide glass was prepared using the melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the as prepared samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) under nonisothermal condition on composition bulk materials are reported and discussed. It shows that these glasses exhibit a single-stage glass transition and a single-stage crystallization on heating rates. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the onset crystallization (Tc), the crystallization temperature (Tp), were found by dependent on the composition and heating rates. Activation energy for glass transition (Et), activation energy of the amorphous –crystalline transformation (Ec), crystallization reaction rate constant (Kp), (n) and (m) are constants related to crystallization mechanism of the bulk samples have been determined by different formulations.
Drying Characteristics of Shrimp by Using the Traditional Method of Oven
In this study, the drying characteristics of shrimp are studied by using the traditional drying method of oven. Drying temperatures are selected between 60-80°C. Obtained experimental drying results are applied to eleven mathematical models of Alibas, Aghbashlo et al., Henderson and Pabis, Jena and Das, Lewis, Logaritmic, Midilli and Kucuk, Page, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Weibull. The best model was selected as parabolic based on the highest coefficient of determination (R²) (0.999990 at 80°C) and the lowest χ² (0.000002 at 80°C), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.000976 at 80°C) values are compared to other models. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values were calculated using the Fick’s second law’s cylindrical coordinate approximation and are found between 6.61×10⁻⁸ and 6.66×10⁻⁷ m²/s. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated using modified form of Arrhenius equation and is found as 18.315 kW/kg.
Evaluate the Kinetic Parameters and Characterize for Waste Prosopis juliflora Pods
The Prosopis juliflora (called algaroba in Northeastern Region of Brazil) is a species of medium to large size that can reach 18 meters high, being typical of arid and semi-arid regions by to requirement less water to survive; this is a fundamental attribute from its adaptation. It's considered of multiple uses, because the trunk, the fruit, and the algaroba pods are utilized for several purposes, among them, the production of wood from lumber mill, charcoal, alcohol, animal and human consumption, being hence, a culture of economic and social value. The use of waste Prosopis juliflora can be carried out for like pyrolysis and gasification processes, in order to energy production in those regions where it is grown. Thus this study aims to characterize the residue of the algaroba pods and evaluate the kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (k0), the devolatilization process through the data obtained from TG/DTG curves with different levels of heating rates. At work was used the heating rates of 5 K.min-1, 10 K.min-1, 15 K.min-1, 20 K.min-1 and 30 K.min-1, in inert nitrogen atmosphere (99.997%) under a flow of 40 ml.min-1. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall.
Inhibitory Effects of PPARγ Ligand, KR-62980, on Collagen-Stimulated Platelet Activation
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are member of nuclear receptor superfamily that act as a ligand-activated transcription factors. Although platelets lack a nucleus, previous studies have shown that PPARγ agonists, rosiglitazone, inhibited platelet activation induced by collagen. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of KR-62980, a newly synthesized PPARγ agonist, on collagen receptor-stimulated platelet activation. The specific tyrosine phosphorylations of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk and PLCγ2) for collagen receptor signaling pathways were suppressed by KR-62980. KR-62980 also attenuated downstream responses including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. PPARγ was found to associate with multiple proteins within the LAT signaling complex in collagen-stimulated platelets. This association was prevented by KR-62980, indicating a potential mechanism for PPARγ function in collagen-stimulated platelet activation. Furthermore, KR-62980 inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. Collectively, these data suggest that KR-62980 inhibits collagen-stimulated platelet activation and thrombus formation through modulating the collagen receptor signaling pathways.
A Study on Energy-Saving Modular Housing Units Considering Environmental and Aesthetic Aspects
This study aims to propose design technologies for the energy-saving modular housing units considering environmental and aesthetic aspects. Modular houses are environmentally friendly based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) because they can dramatically reduce carbon dioxide and construction wastes generated during the construction, use, and disposal process by the pre-fabrication at the factory and the recyclability of the unit, compared to the existing construction methods. The existing modular housing, however, tends to focus on quantitative aspects of energy reduction, such as windows, insulation, and introduction of renewable energy, and there is not much research on energy-saving type units considering the environmental aspects such as daylighting and ventilation, and the design that goes beyond the standardized appearance. Therefore, this study conducts theoretical investigation and analytical case studies on the energy-saving methods through various architectural planning elements as well as materials like insulation considering the environmental and aesthetic aspects in the modular housing. Then, comparative analysis on the energy efficiency through the energy simulation is conducted. As a conclusion, the energy-saving modular housing units considering environmental and aesthetics aspects are proposed. It is expected that this study will contribute to the supply and activation of modular housing through deriving design technologies for the energy-saving modular housing units that consider not only quantitative aspects but also qualitative aspects.
Determination of Material Constants and Zener-Hollomon Parameter of AA2017 Aluminium Alloy under Hot Compression Test
The formability of metals depends on a number of variables such as strain, strain rate, and temperature. Though most of the metals are formable at room temperature, few are not. To evaluate the workability of such metals at elevated temperatures, thermomechanical experiments should be carried out to find out the forming temperatures and strain rates. Though a number of constitutive relations are available to correlate the material parameters and the corresponding formability at elevated temperatures, the constitutive rule proposed by Arrhenius has been used in this work. Thus, in the present work, the material constants such as A (constant), α (stress multiplier), β (constant), and n (stress exponent) of AA 2017 has been found by conducting a series of hot compression tests at different temperatures such as 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C and at different strain rates such as 0.16, 0.18, and 0.2. True stress (σt), true strains (εt) deformation activation energy (Q), and the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z value) were also calculated. The results indicate that the value of ln (Z) decreases as the temperature increases and it increases as the strain rate increases.
Effect of Plasma Discharge Power on Activation Energies of Plasma Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Thin Films
Plasma Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition (PAPVD) method used to produce Poly(ethylene oxide) (pPEO) thin films. Depositions were progressed at various plasma discharge powers as 0, 2, 5 and 30 W for pPEO at 500nm film thicknesses. The capacitance and dielectric dissipation of the thin films were measured at 0,1-107 Hz frequency range and 173-353 K temperature range by an impedance analyzer. Then, alternative conductivity (σac) and activation energies were derived from capacitance and dielectric dissipation. σac of conventional PEO (PEO precursor) was measured to determine the effect of plasma discharge. Differences were observed between the alternative conductivity of PEO’s and pPEO’s depending on plasma discharge power. By this purpose, structural characterization techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied on pPEO thin films. Structural analysis showed that density of crosslinking is plasma power dependent. The crosslinking density increases with increasing plasma discharge power and this increase is displayed as increasing dynamic glass transition temperatures at DSC results. Also, shifting of frequencies of some type of bond vibrations, belonging to bond vibrations produced after fragmentation because of plasma discharge, were observed at FTIR results. The dynamic glass transition temperatures obtained from alternative conductivity results for pPEO consistent with the results of DSC. Activation energies exhibit Arrhenius behavior. Activation energies decrease with increasing plasma discharge power. This behavior supports the suggestion expressing that long polymer chains and long oligomers are fragmented into smaller oligomers or radicals.
The Role of a Novel DEAD-Box Containing Protein in NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation
The inflammasome is a protein complex that modulates caspase-1 activity, resulting in proteolytic cleavage of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18, into their bioactive forms. It has been shown that the inflammasomes play a crucial role in the clearance of pathogenic infection and tissue repair. However, dysregulated inflammasome activation contributes to a wide range of human diseases such as cancers and auto-inflammatory diseases. Yet, regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains largely unknown. We discovered a novel DEAD box protein, whose biological function has not been reported, not only negatively regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by interfering NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and cellular localization but also mitigate pyroptosis upon pathogen evasion. The DEAD-box protein is the first DEAD-box protein gets involved in modulation of the inflammasome activation. In our study, we found that caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1β production were largely enhanced upon LPS challenge in the DEAD box-containing protein- deleted THP-1 macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). In addition, this DEAD box-containing protein migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm upon LPS stimulation, which is required for its inhibitory role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The DEAD box-containing protein specifically interacted with the LRR motif of NLRP3 via its DEAD domain. Furthermore, due to the crucial role of the NLRP3 LRR domain in the recruitment of NLRP3 to mitochondria and binding to its adaptor ASC, we found that the interaction of NLRP3 and ASC was downregulated in the presence of the DEAD box-containing protein. In addition to the mechanical study, we also found that this DEAD box protein protects host cells from inflammasome-triggered cell death in response to broad-ranging pathogens such as Candida albicans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, etc., involved in nosocomial infections and severe fever shock. Collectively, our results suggest that this novel DEAD box molecule might be a key therapeutic strategy for various infectious diseases.
Effect of TPA and HTLV-1 Tax on BRCA-1 and ERE Controlled Genes Expression
BRCA-1 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor, whose expression is activated by the estrogen (E2)-liganded ERα receptor. The activated ERα is a transcriptional factor which activates various genes either by direct binding to the DNA at E2-responsive elements (EREs) and indirectly associated with a range of alternative non-ERE elements. Interference with BRCA-1 expression and/or functions leads to high risk of breast or/and ovarian cancer. Our lab investigated the involvement of Human T-cell leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) in breast cancer, since HTLV-1 Tax was found to strongly inhibit BRCA-1 expression. In addition, long exposure of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which is one of the stress-inducing agents activated the HTLV-1 promoter. So here the involvement of TPA in breast cancer had been examined by testing the effect of TPA on BRCA-1 and ERE expression. The results showed that TPA activated both BRCA-1 and ERE expression. In the 12 hours TPA activated the tow promoters more than others time, and after 24 hours the level of the tow promoters was decreased. Tax inhibited BRCA-1 expression but did not succeed to inhibit the effect of TPA. Then the activation of the two promoters was not through ERα pathway because TPA had no effect on ERα binding to the two promoters of the BRCA-1 and ERE. Also, the activation was not via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway because when the inhibitory of NF-κB had been added to the TPA, it still activated the tow promoters. However, it seems that 53BP1 may be involved in TPA activation of these promoters because ectopic high expression of 53BP1 significantly reduced the TPA activity. In addition, in the presence of Bisindolylmaleimide-I (BI)- the inhibitor of Protein Kinase C (PKC)- there was no activation for the two promoters, so the PKC is agonized BRCA-1 and ERE activation.
Probing Multiple Relaxation Process in Zr-Cu Base Alloy Using Mechanical Spectroscopy
Relaxation dynamics of Zr44Cu40Al8Ag8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) has been probed using dynamic mechanical analyzer. The BMG sample was casted in the form of a plate of dimension 55 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm using tilt casting technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope have been used for the microstructural characterization of as-cast BMG. For the mechanical spectroscopy study, samples in the form of a bar of size 55 mm X 2 mm X 3 mm were machined from the BMG plate. The mechanical spectroscopy was performed on dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) by 50 mm 3-point bending method in a nitrogen atmosphere. It was observed that two glass transition process were competing in supercooled liquid region around temperature 390°C and 430°C. The supercooled liquid state was completely characterized using DMA and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition to the main α-relaxation process, presence of β relaxation process around temperature 360°C; below the glass transition temperature was also observed. The β relaxation process could be described by Arrhenius law with the activation energy of 160 kJ/mole. The volume of the flow unit associated with this relaxation process has been estimated. The results from DMA study has been used to characterize the shear transformation zone in terms of activation volume and size. High fragility parameter value of 34 and higher activation volume indicates that this alloy could show good plasticity in supercooled liquid region. The possible mechanism for the relaxation processes has been discussed.
Integration of the Electro-Activation Technology for Soy Meal Valorization
Nowadays, the interest of using sustainable technologies for protein extraction from underutilized oilseeds is growing. Currently, a major disposal problem for the oil industry is by-products of plant food processing such as soybean meal. That is why valorization of soybean meal is important for the oil industry since it contains high-quality proteins and other valuable components. Generally, soybean meal is used in livestock and poultry feed but is rarely used in human feed. Though chemical composition of this meal compensate nutritional deficiency and can be used to balance protein in human food. Regarding the efficiency of soybean meal valorization, extraction is a key process for obtaining enriched protein ingredient, which can be incorporated into the food matrix. However, most of the food components such as proteins extracted from oilseeds by-products imply the utilization of organic and inorganic chemicals (e.g. acids, bases, TCA-acetone) having a significant environmental impact. In a context of sustainable production, the use of an electro-activation technology seems to be a good alternative. Indeed, the electro-activation technology requires only water, food grade salt and electricity as main materials. Moreover, this innovative technology helps to avoid special equipment and trainings for workers safety as well as transport and storage of hazardous materials. Electro-activation is a technology based on applied electrochemistry for the generation of acidic and alkaline solutions on the basis of the oxidation-reduction reactions that occur at the vicinity electrode/solution interfaces. It is an eco-friendly process that can be used to replace the conventional acidic and alkaline extraction. In this research, the electro-activation technology for protein extraction from soybean meal was carried out in the electro-activation reactor. This reactor consists of three compartments separated by cation and anion exchange membranes that allow creating non-contacting acidic and basic solutions. Different current intensities (150 mA, 300 mA and 450 mA) and treatment durations (10 min, 30 min and 50 min) were tested. The results showed that the extracts obtained by the electro-activation method have good quality in comparison to conventional extracts. For instance, extractability obtained with electro-activation method was 55% whereas with the conventional method it was only 36%. Moreover, a maximum protein quantity of 48 % in the extract was obtained with the electro-activation technology comparing to the maximum amount of protein obtained by conventional extraction of 41 %. Hence, the environmentally sustainable electro-activation technology seems to be a promising type of protein extraction that can replace conventional extraction technology.
Effects of Strain-Induced Melt Activation Process on the Structure and Morphology Mg₂Si in Al-15%Mg₂Si Composite
The effect of deformation on the semisolid microstructure and degree of globularity of Al–15%Mg₂Si composite produced by the strain induced melt activation (SIMA) process was studied. Deformation of 25% was used. After deformation, the samples were heated to a temperature above the solidus and below the liquidus point and maintained in the isothermal conditions at three different temperatures (560, 580 and 595 °C) for varying time (5, 10, 20 and 40 min). The microstructural study was carried out on the alloy by the use of optical microscopy. It was observed that strain induced deformation and subsequently melt activation has caused the globular morphology of Mg₂Si particles. The results showed that for the desired microstructures of the alloy during SIMA process, the optimum temperature and time are 595 °C and 40 min respectively.
Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation
This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activation of fly ash (FA) to use in deep soil mixing (DSM) technology. The content of FA was 20% by dry mass of soil, and the alkaline activator was sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Samples were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days to evaluate the effect of curing time on strength development. To study the effect of adding slag (S) to the mixture on the strength development, 5% S was replaced with FA. In addition, the effect of the initial unit weight of samples on strength development was studied by preparing specimens with two different static compaction stresses. This was to replicate the field conditions where during implementing the DSM technique, the pressure on the soil while being mixed, increases with depth. Unconfined compression strength (UCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tests were conducted on the specimens. The results show that adding S to the FA based geopolymer activated by Na2SiO3 decreases the strength. Furthermore, samples prepared at a higher unit weight demonstrate greater strengths. Moreover, samples prepared at lower unit weight reached their final strength at about 14 days of curing, whereas the strength development continues to 56 days for specimens prepared at a higher unit weight.
The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation
In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.
Degradation of Acetaminophen with Fe3O4 and Fe2+ as Activator of Peroxymonosulfate
Perxymonosulfate (PMS)-based oxidation processes, as an alternative of hydrogen peroxide-based oxidation processes, are more and more popular because of reactive radical species (SO4-•, OH•) produced in systems. Magnetic nano-scaled particles Fe3O4 and ferrous anion (Fe2+) were studied for the activation of PMS for degradation of acetaminophen (APAP) in water. The Fe3O4 MNPs were found to effectively catalyze PMS for APAP and the reactions well followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern (R2 > 0.95), while the degradation of APAP in PMS-Fe2+ system proceeds through two stages: a fast stage and a much slower stage. Within 5 min, approximately 7% and 18% of 10 ppm APAP was accomplished by 0.2 mM PMS in Fe3O4 (0.8g/L) and Fe2+ (0.1mM) activation process. However, as reaction proceed to 120 min, approximately 75% and 35% of APAP was removed in Fe3O4 activation process and Fe2+ activation process, respectively. Within 120 min, the mineralization of APAP was about 7.5% and 5.0% (initial APAP of 10 ppm and [PMS]0 of 0.2 mM) in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, while the mineralization could be greatly increased to about 31% and 40% as [PMS]0 increased to 2.0 mM in in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, respectively. At last, the production of reactive radical species were validated directly from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ESR) tests with 0.1 M 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine N-oxide (DMPO). Plausible mechanisms on the radical generation from Fe3O4 and Fe2+ activation of PMS are proposed on the results of radial identification tests. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4 MNPs activated PMS and Fe2+ anion activated PMS systems are promising technologies for water pollution caused by contaminants such as pharmaceutical. Fe3O4-PMS system is more suitable for slowly remediation, while Fe2+-PMS system is more suitable for fast remediation.
Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography
Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p< 0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.
Effect of Particle Size on Alkali-Activation of Slag
In this study grinding experiments were performed in a laboratory ball mill using Polish ferronickel slag in order to study the effect of the particle size on alkali activation and the properties of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs). In this regard, the particle size distribution and the specific surface area of the grinding products in relation to grinding time were assessed. The experimental results show that products with high compressive strength, e.g. higher than 60 MPa, can be produced when the slag median size decreased from 39.9 &mu;m to 11.9 &mu;m. Also, finer fractions are characterized by higher reactivity and result in the production of AAMs with lower porosity and better mechanical properties.
A Comparative Density Functional Theory Study of Hydrocarbon Combustion on Metal Surfaces
Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbons is an important technology developed to produce energy with minimum pollutant formation. The catalyst plays a key role in this process which operates at lower temperatures compared to conventional flame combustion. The energetics of the direct combustion of hydrocarbons (CH → C + H) on a series of metal surfaces including Ag, Au, Al, Cu, Rh, Pt, Pd, Ni, Fe and Co were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) and transition state scaling (TSS) correlations were proposed based on DFT calculations on the Ag, Au, Al, Cu, Rh, Pt and Pd surfaces. These correlations were then used to estimate the energetics on Fe, Ni and Co surfaces. Results showed that the estimated reaction and activation energies by BEP and TSS correlations on Fe, Ni and Co surfaces are in an excellent agreement with those obtained by DFT calculations. Therefore these correlations can be efficiently used to predict energetics of similar reactions on these surfaces without doing computationally costly transition state calculations. It was found that the activation barrier for CH dissociation follows the order Ag ˃ Au ˃ Al ˃ Cu ˃ Pt ˃ Pd ˃ Ni > Co > Rh > Fe. Also, BEP (with R2 value of 0.96) and TSS correlations (with R2 value of 0.99) support the results.
Kinetic Study of the Esterification of Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Salmon Oil (Salmosalar L.)
The objective of this study was to synthesize a triglyceride with high content of unsaturated fatty acids from salmon oil (Salmo salar L.) by esterification with glycerol catalyzed dealuminized zeolite. A kinetic study was conducted to determine the reaction order and the activation energy. A statistical study was conducted to determine optimal reaction conditions. Initially, the crude oil was refined salmon physically and chemically. The crude oil was hydrolyzed and unsaturated free fatty acids were separated by urea complexation method. An experimental project to verify the parameters (temperature, glycerin and catalyst) with the greatest impact on the reaction was developed. In experiments aliquots were taken at predetermined times to measure the amount of free fatty acids. Pareto, surface, contour and hub graphs were used to determine the factors that maximized the reaction. According to the graphs the best reaction conditions were: temperature 80 ° C, the proportion glycerine/oil 5: 1 and 1% of catalyst. The kinetic data showed that the system was compatible with a second-order reaction. After analyzing the rate constant versus temperature charts a value of 85.31 kJ/mol was obtained for the reaction activation energy.
Removal of Heavy Metals by KOH Activated Diplotaxis harra Biomass: Experimental Design Optimization
The objective of this study was to produce high quality activated carbons from Diplotaxis harra biomass by potassium hydroxide activation and their application for heavy metals removal. To reduce the number of experiments, full factorial experimental design at two levels were carried out to occur optimal preparation conditions and better conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of different variables during the activation process, such as carbonization temperature, activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio (g KOH/g carbon) have been investigated, and the best production conditions were determined. The experimental results showed that removal of cadmium and cobalt ions onto activated carbons was more sensitive to methylene blue index instead of iodine number. Although, the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions is more influenced by activation temperature with a negative effect followed by the impregnation ratio with a positive impact. Based on the statistical data, the best conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt by prepared activated carbons have been established. The maximum iodine number and methylene blue index obtained under these conditions and the greater sorption capacities for cadmium and cobalt were investigated. These sorption capacities were greater than those of a commercial activated carbon used in water treatment.
Test of Moisture Sensor Activation Speed
Nocturnal enuresis or bed-wetting is intermittent incontinence during sleep of children after age 5 that may precipitate wide range of behavioural and developmental problems. One of the non-pharmacological treatment methods is the use of a bed-wetting alarm system. In order to improve comfort conditions of nocturnal enuresis alarm system, modular moisture sensor should be replaced by a textile sensor. In this study behaviour and moisture detection speed of woven and sewn sensors were compared by analysing change in electrical resistance after solution (salt water) was dripped on sensor samples. Material of samples has different structure and yarn location, which affects solution detection rate. Sensor system circuit was designed and two sensor tests were performed: system activation test and false alarm test to determine the sensitivity of the system and activation threshold. Sewn sensor had better result in system’s activation test – faster reaction, but woven sensor had better result in system’s false alarm test – it was less sensitive to perspiration simulation. After experiments it was found that the optimum switching threshold is 3V in case of 5V input voltage, which provides protection against false alarms, for example – during intensive sweating.
Radical Degradation of Acetaminophen with Peroxymonosulfate-Based Oxidation Processes
Perxymonosulfate (PMS)-based oxidation processes, as an alternative of hydrogen peroxide-based oxidation processes, are more and more popular because of reactive radical species (SO4-•, OH•) produced in systems. Magnetic nano-scaled particles Fe3O4 and ferrous anion (Fe2+) were studied for the activation of PMS for degradation of acetaminophen (APAP) in water. The Fe3O4 MNPs were found to effectively catalyze PMS for APAP and the reactions well followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern (R2>0.95). While the degradation of APAP in PMS-Fe2+ system proceeds through two stages: a fast stage and a much slower stage. Within 5 min, approximately 7% and 18% of 10 ppm APAP was accomplished by 0.2 mM PMS in Fe3O4 (0.8g/L) and Fe2+ (0.1mM) activation process. However, as reaction proceed to 120 min, approximately 75% and 35% of APAP was removed in Fe3O4 activation process and Fe2+ activation process, respectively. Within 120 min, the mineralization of APAP was about 7.5% and 5.0% (initial APAP of 10 ppm and [PMS]0 of 0.2 mM) in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, while the mineralization could be greatly increased to about 31% and 40% as [PMS]0 increased to 2.0 mM in in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, respectively. At last, the production of reactive radical species were validated directly from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ESR) tests with 0.1 M 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine N-oxide (DMPO). Plausible mechanisms on the radical generation from Fe3O4 and Fe2+ activation of PMS are proposed on the results of radial identification tests. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4 MNPs activated PMS and Fe2+ anion activated PMS systems are promising technologies for water pollution caused by contaminants such as pharmaceutical. Fe3O4-PMS system is more suitable for slowly remediation, while Fe2+-PMS system is more suitable for fast remediation.
Force Distribution and Muscles Activation for Ankle Instability Patients with Rigid and Kinesiotape while Standing
Background: Deficit in neuromuscular recruitment and decrease force distribution were the common problems among ankle instability patients due to altered joint kinematics that lead to recurrent ankle injuries. Rigid Tape and KT Tape had widely been used as therapeutic and performance enhancement tools in ankle stability. However the difference effect between this two tapes is still controversial. Objective: To investigate the different effect between Rigid Tape and KT Tape on force distribution and muscle activation among ankle instability patients while standing. Study design: Crossover trial. Participants: 27 patients, age between 18 to 30 years old participated in this study. All the subjects were applied with KT Tape & Rigid Tape on their affected ankle with 3 days of interval for each intervention. The subjects were tested with their barefoot (without tape) first to act as a baseline before proceeding with KT Tape, and then with Rigid Tape. Result: There were no significant difference on force distribution at forefoot and back-foot for both tapes while standing. However the mean data shows that Rigid Tape has the highest force distribution at back-foot rather than forefoot when compared with KT Tape that had more force distribution at forefoot while standing. Regarding muscle activation (Peroneus Longus), results showed significant difference between Rigid Tape and KT Tape (p= 0.048). However, there was no significant difference on Tibialis Anterior muscle activation between both tapes while standing. Conclusion: The results indicated that Peroneus longus muscle was more active when applied Rigid Tape rather than KT Tape in ankle instability patients while standing.
The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel
Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.
Energy Initiatives for Turkey
Dependency of humanity on the energy is ever-increasing today and the energy policies are reaching undeniable and un-ignorable dimensions steering the political events as well. Therefore, energy has the highest priority for Turkey like any other country. In this study, the energy supply security for Turkey evaluated according to the strategic criteria of energy policy. Under these circumstances, different alternatives are described and assessed with in terms of the energy expansion of Turkey. With this study, different opportunities in the energy expansion of Turkey is clarified and emphasized.
Rh(III)-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction of 8-Methylquinolines with Maleimides
Transition-metal-catalyzed C–H bond activation and its subsequent functionalization has been one of the most attractive topics in organic synthesis because of its remarkable potential for atom economy and environmental sustainability. In this addition, a variety of C(sp2)–H functionalization has been developed under metal catalysis in the past decade. Recently, much attention has been moved towards the C(sp3)–H functionalization events, which continue to be a challenging issue. In this area, directing group assisted sp3 C–H functionalization has been explored by use of amides, carboxylic acids, oximes, N-heterocycles, and etc. In particular, 8-methylquinolines have been found as good substrates for sp3 C–H functionalization due to its ability to form cyclometalated complexes. Succinimides have been recognized as privileged structural cores found in a number of bioactive natural products, pharmaceuticals, and functional materials. Furthermore, the reduced derivatives such as pyrrolidines and γ-lactams have been also found in a large number of pharmaceutical relevant molecules, thus making them one of the most important and promising compounds. We herein describe the first C(sp3)–H activation of 8-methylquinolines and subsequent functionalization with maleimides to afford various succinimide derivatives.
Usage of Biosorbent Material for the Removal of Nitrate from Wastewater
Nitrate can cause serious environmental and human health problems. Effluent from different industries and excessive use of fertilizers have increased the level of nitrate in ground and surface water. Nitrate can convert to nitrite in the body, and as a result, can lead to Methemoglobinemia and cancer. Therefore, different organizations have set standard limits for nitrate and nitrite. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of 10 mg N/L for nitrate and 1 mg N/L for nitrite. The removal of nitrate from water and wastewater is very important to ensure the availability of clean water. Different plant materials such as banana peel, rice hull, coconut and bamboo shells, have been studied as biosorbents for the removal of nitrates from water. The use of abundantly existing plant material as an adsorbent material and the lack of energy requirement for the adsorption process makes biosorption a sustainable approach. Therefore, in this research, the fruit of the plant was investigated for its ability to act as a biosorbent to remove the nitrate from wastewater. The effect of pH on nitrate removal was studied using both the raw and chemically activated fruit (adsorbent). Results demonstrated that the adsorbent needs to be chemically activated before usage to remove the nitrate from wastewater. pH did not have a significant effect on the adsorption process, with maximum adsorption of nitrate occurring at pH 4. SEM/EDX results demonstrated that there is no change in the surface of the adsorbent as a result of the chemical activation. Chemical activation of the adsorbent using NaOH increased the removal of nitrate by 6%; therefore, various methods of activation of the adsorbent will be investigated to increase the removal of nitrate.
Synthesis of Biologically Active Heterocyclic Compounds via C-H Bond Activation
The isoindoline, indazole and indole heterocycles are ubiquitous structural motif found in heterocyclic compounds as they exhibit biological and medicinal applications. For example, isoindoline motif is present in molecules that act as endothelin-A receptor antagonists and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors. Moreover, isoindoline derivatives are very crucial constituents in the field of materials science as attractive candidates for organic light-emitting devices. However, compounds containing the indazole motif are known to exhibit to a variety of biological activities, such as estrogen receptor, HIV protease inhibition and anti-tumor activity. The prevalence of indazoles and indoles has led to the development of many useful methods for their preparation. Thus, isoindoline, indazole and indole heterocycles can be new candidates for the next generation of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the development of highly efficient strategies for the formation of these heterocyclic architectures is an area of great interest in organic synthesis. The past years, transition-metal-catalyzed C−H activation followed by annulation reaction has been frequently used as a powerful tool to construct various heterocycles. Herein, we describe our recent achievements about the transition-metal-catalyzed tandem cyclization reactions of N-benzyltriflamides, 1,2-disubstituted arylhydrazines, acetanilides, etc. via C−H bond activation to access the corresponding bioactive heterocylic scaffolds.
Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries
Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.
Performance and Processing Evaluation of Solid Oxide Cells by Co-Sintering of GDC Buffer Layer and LSCF Air Electrode
Solid Oxide Cell(SOC) systems can contribute to the transition to the hydrogen society by utilized as a power and hydrogen generator by the electrochemical reaction with high efficiency at high operation temperature (>750 ℃). La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3, which is an air electrode, is occurred stability degradations due to reaction and delamination with yittria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) electrolyte in a water electrolysis mode. To complement this phenomenon SOCs need gadolinium doped ceria(GDC) buffer layer between electrolyte and air electrode. However, GDC buffer layer requires a high sintering temperature and it causes a reaction with YSZ electrolyte. This study carried out low temperature sintering of GDC layer by applying Cu-oxide as a sintering aid. The effect of a copper additive as a sintering aid to lower the sintering temperature for the construction of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was investigated. GDC buffer layer with 0.25-10 mol% CuO sintering aid was prepared by reacting GDC power and copper nitrate solution followed by heating at 600 ℃. The sintering of CuO-added GDC powder was optimized by investigating linear shrinkage, microstructure, grain size, ionic conductivity, and activation energy of CuO-GDC electrolytes at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1400 ℃. The sintering temperature of the CuO-GDC electrolyte decreases from 1400 ℃ to 1100 ℃ by adding the CuO sintering aid. The ionic conductivity of the CuO-GDC electrolyte shows a maximum value at 0.5 mol% of CuO. However, the addition of CuO has no significant effects on the activation energy of GDC electrolyte. GDC-LSCF layers were co-sintering at 1050 and 1100 ℃ and button cell tests were carried out at 750 ℃.
Thermodynamics of Water Condensation on an Aqueous Organic-Coated Aerosol Aging via Chemical Mechanism
A large subset of aqueous aerosols can be initially (immediately upon formation) coated with various organic amphiphilic compounds whereof the hydrophilic moieties are attached to the aqueous aerosol core while the hydrophobic moieties are exposed to the air thus forming a hydrophobic coating thereupon. We study the thermodynamics of water condensation on such an aerosol whereof the hydrophobic organic coating is being concomitantly processed by chemical reactions with atmospheric reactive species. Such processing (chemical aging) enables the initially inert aerosol to serve as a nucleating center for water condensation. The most probable pathway of such aging involves atmospheric hydroxyl radicals that abstract hydrogen atoms from hydrophobic moieties of surface organics (first step), the resulting radicals being quickly oxidized by ubiquitous atmospheric oxygen molecules to produce surface-bound peroxyl radicals (second step). Taking these two reactions into account, we derive an expression for the free energy of formation of an aqueous droplet on an organic-coated aerosol. The model is illustrated by numerical calculations. The results suggest that the formation of aqueous cloud droplets on such aerosols is most likely to occur via Kohler activation rather than via nucleation. The model allows one to determine the threshold parameters necessary for their Kohler activation. Numerical results also corroborate previous suggestions that one can neglect some details of aerosol chemical composition in investigating aerosol effects on climate.
Calpain-Mediated, Cisplain-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. However, the role of calpain in cisplatin (CDDP)-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells is not fully understood. Here, TNBC (MDA-MB231) cells were treated with different concentration of CDDP (0, 20 & 40 µM) and calpain activation and apoptosis were measured by western blot and Hoechst Stain respectively. In addition, calpain modulation by either activation and/or inhibition and its effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis were assessed by the same above approaches. Our findings showed that CDDP induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and thus Calcium release and subsequently activate calpain α-fodrin cleavage indicated by the increase in GRP78 and Calmodulin protein expression and respectively in MDA-MB231 cells. It also induced apoptosis as measured by Hoechst stain and caspase-12 cleavage. Calpain activation by both Cyclopiazonic acid and Thapsigargin showed similar effect and enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to CDDP treatment. On the other hand, calpain inhibition by either specific siRNA and/or exogenous inhibitor (Calpeptin) had an adverse effect where it attenuated calpain activation and thus CDDP- induced apoptosis in these cells. Altogether, these findings suggested that calpain activation play an essential role in sensitizing the TNBC cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis. This might lead to the discovery of novel treatment to over this aggressive type of breast cancer.
SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy
Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.
Microglia Activation in Animal Model of Schizophrenia
Maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from maternal viral infection during pregnancy is a known risk factor for schizophrenia. The neural mechanisms by which maternal infections increase the risk for schizophrenia remain unknown, although the prevailing hypothesis argues that an activation of the maternal immune system induces changes in the maternal-fetal environment that might interact with fetal brain development. It may lead to an activation of fetal microglia inducing long-lasting functional changes of these cells. Based on post-mortem analysis showing an increased number of activated microglial cells in patients with schizophrenia, it can be hypothesized that these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis and may actively be involved in gray matter loss observed in such patients. In the present study, we hypothesize that prenatal treatment with the inflammatory agent Poly(I:C) during embryogenesis at contributes to microglial activation in the offspring, which may, therefore, represent a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and underlines the need for new pharmacological treatment options. Pregnant rats were treated with intraperitoneal injections a single dose of Poly(I:C) or saline on gestation day 17. Brains of control and Poly(I:C) offspring, were removed and into 20-μm-thick coronal sections were cut by using a Cryostat. Brain slices were fixed and immunostained with ba1 antibody. Subsequently, Iba1-immunoreactivity was detected using a secondary antibody, goat anti-rabbit. The sections were viewed and photographed under microscope. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed increases in microglia cell number in the prefrontal cortex, in offspring of poly(I:C) treated-rats as compared to the controls injected with NaCl. However, no significant differences were observed in microglia activation in the cerebellum among the groups. Prenatal immune challenge with Poly(I:C) was able to induce long-lasting changes in the offspring brains. This lead to a higher activation of microglia cells in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region critical for many higher brain functions, including working memory and cognitive flexibility. which might be implicated in possible changes in cortical neuropil architecture in schizophrenia. Further studies will be needed to clarify the association between microglial cells activation and schizophrenia-related behavioral alterations.
Radium Equivalent and External Hazard Indices of Trace Elements Concentrations in Aquatic Species by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed to analyze the level of trace elements concentrations in sediment samples and their bioaccumulation in some aquatic species selected randomly from surface water resources in the Northern peninsula of Malaysia. The NAA results of the sediment samples indicated a wide range in concentration of different elements were observed. Fe, K, and Na were found to have major concentration values that ranges between 61,000 ± 1400 to 4,500 ± 100 ppm, 20100±1000 to 3100±600 and 3,100±600 and 200±10 ppm, respectively. Traces of heavy metals with much more contamination health concern, such as Cr and As, were also identified in many of the samples analyzed. The average specific activities of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in soil and the corresponding radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were all found to be lower than the maximum permissible limits (370 Bq kg-1 and 1).
Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning
The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.
Neural Correlates of Decision-Making Under Ambiguity and Conflict
Studies of decision making under uncertainty generally focus on imprecise information about outcome probabilities (“ambiguity”). It is not clear, however, whether conflicting information about outcome probabilities affects decision making in the same manner as ambiguity does. Here we combine functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and a simple gamble design to study this question. In this design, the levels of ambiguity and conflict are parametrically varied, and ambiguity and conflict gambles are matched on both expected value and variance. Behaviorally, participants avoided conflict more than ambiguity, and attitudes toward ambiguity and conflict did not correlate across subjects. Neurally, regional brain activation was differentially modulated by ambiguity level and aversion to ambiguity and by conflict level and aversion to conflict. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the level of ambiguity and with ambiguity aversion, whereas activation in the ventral striatum was correlated with the level of conflict and with conflict aversion. This novel double dissociation indicates that decision makers process imprecise and conflicting information differently, a finding that has important implications for basic and clinical research.
Impact of Design Choices on the Life Cycle Energy of Modern Buildings
Traditionally the embodied energy of design choices which reduce operational energy were assumed to have a negligible impact on the life cycle energy of buildings. However with new buildings having considerably lower operational energy, the significance of embodied energy increases. A life cycle assessment of a population of house designs was conducted in a mild and mixed climate zone. It was determined not only that embodied energy dominates life cycle energy, but that the impact on embodied of design choices was of equal significance to the impact on operational energy.
Identification of Potential Small Molecule Regulators of PERK Kinase
PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) is serine/threonie endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane kinase activated during ER-stress. PERK can activate signaling pathways known as unfolded protein response (UPR). Attenuation of translation is mediated by PERK via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which is necessary for translation initiation. PERK activation also directly contributes to activation of Nrf2 which regulates expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. An increased phosphorylation of eIF2α has been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD) patient hippocampus, indicating that PERK is activated in this disease. Recent data have revealed activation of PERK signaling in non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Results also revealed that loss of PERK limits mammary tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with these observations, activation of UPR in vitro increases levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the peptide from which beta-amyloid plaques (AB) fragments are derived. Finally, proteolytic processing of APP, including the cleavages that produce AB, largely occurs in the ER, and localization coincident with PERK activity. Thus, we expect that PERK-dependent signaling is critical for progression of many types of diseases (human cancer, neurodegenerative disease and other). Therefore, modulation of PERK activity may be a useful therapeutic target in the treatment of different diseases that fail to respond to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies, including Alzheimer’s disease. Our goal will be to developed therapeutic modalities targeting PERK activity.
Theoretical Study of Acetylation of P-Methylaniline Catalyzed by Cu²⁺ Ions
Theoretical study of acetylation of p-methylaniline catalyzed by Cu2+ ions from the analysis of intermediate of the reaction was carried out. The study of acetylation of amines is of great interest by the utility of its products of reaction and is one of the most frequently used transformations in organic synthesis as it provides an efficient and inexpensive means for protecting amino groups in a multistep synthetic process. Acetylation of amine is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This reaction can be catalyzed by Lewis acid, metallic ion. In reaction mechanism, the metallic ion formed a complex with the oxygen of the acetic anhydride carbonyl, facilitating the polarization of the same and the successive addition of amine at the position to form a tetrahedral intermediate, determining step of the rate of the reaction. Experimental work agreed that this reaction takes place with the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. In the present theoretical work were investigated the structure and energy of the tetrahedral intermediate of the reaction catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. Geometries of all species involved in the acetylation were made and identified. All of the geometry optimizations were performed by the method at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory and the method MP2. Were adopted the 6-31+G* basis sets. Energies were calculated using the Mechanics-UFF method. Following the same procedure it was identified the geometric parameters and energy of reaction intermediate. The calculations show 61.35 kcal/mol of energy for the tetrahedral intermediate and the energy of activation for the reaction was 15.55 kcal/mol.
Comprehensive Study of Renewable Energy Resources and Present Scenario in India
Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes. For example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy- bio-fuels grown sustain ably), hydropower etc., are some of the examples of renewable energy sources. A renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight, wind, falling-water, sea-waves, geothermal heat, or biomass into a form, we can use such as heat or electricity. Most of the renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted, and therefore they are called renewable. This paper presents a review about conventional and renewable energy scenario of India. The paper also presents current status, major achievements and future aspects of renewable energy in India and implementing renewable for the future is also been presented.
Simulation of Human Heart Activation Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Simulating the heart’s electrical stimulation is essential in modeling and evaluating the electrophysiology behavior of the heart. For achieving that, there are two structures in concern: the ventricles’ Myocardium, and the ventricles’ Conduction Network. Ventricles’ Myocardium has been modeled as anisotropic material from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) scan, and the Conduction Network has been extracted from DTI as a case-based structure based on the biological properties of the heart tissues and the working methodology of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner. Results of the produced activation were much similar to real measurements of the reference model that was presented in the literature.
Validation of Two Field Base Dynamic Balance Tests in the Activation of Selected Hip and Knee Stabilizer Muscles
The purpose of this study was to validate muscle activation amplitudes of two field base dynamic balance tests that are used as strengthen and motor control exercises too in the activation of selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles. Methods: Eighteen college-age females students (21±2 years; 65.6± 8.7 kg; 169.7±8.1 cm) who participated at least for 30 minutes in physical activity most days of the week volunteered. The wireless BIOPAC (MP150, BIOPAC System. Inc, California, USA) surface electromyography system was used to validate the activation of the Gluteus Medius and the Adductor Magnus of hip stabilizer muscles; and the Hamstrings, Quadriceps, and the Gastrocnemius of the knee stabilizer muscles. Surface electrodes (EL 503, BIOPAC, System. Inc) connected to dual wireless EMG BioNormadix Transmitters were place on selected muscles of participants dominate side. Manual muscle testing was performed to obtain the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in which all collected muscle activity data during the three reaching direction: anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the Y-balance Test (YBT) data could be normalized. All participants performed three trials for each reaching direction of the SEBT and the YBT. The domanial leg trial for each participant was selected for analysis which was also the standing leg. Results: the selected hip stabilizer muscles (Gluteus Medius, Adductor Magnus) were both greater than 100%MVIC during the performance of the SEBT and in all three directions. Whereas, selected knee stabilizer muscles had greater activation 0f 100% MVIC and were significantly more activated during the performance of the YBT test in all three reaching directions. The results showed that the posterolateral and the postmedial reaching directions for both dynamic balance tests had greater activation levels and greater than 200%MVIC for all tested muscles expect of the hamstrings. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that the SEBT and the YBT had validated high levels of muscular activity for the hip and the knee stabilizer muscles; which can be used to represent the improvement, strength, control and the decreasing in the injury levels. Since these selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles, represent 35% of all athletic injuries depending on the type of sport.
Economic Analysis of Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency
Energy efficiency improvement is one of the means to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Recently, some developed countries have implemented the tradable white certificate scheme (TWC) as a new policy instrument based on market approach to support energy efficiency improvements. The major focus of this paper is to compare the White Certificates (TWC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement to other policy instruments: energy taxes and regulations setting a minimum level of energy efficiency. On the basis of our theoretical discussion and numerical simulation, we show that the white certificates system is the most interesting policy instrument for saving energy because it generates the most important level of energy savings and the least increase in energy service price.
Energy Policy and Interactions with Politics and Economics
Demand on production and thereby the global need of energy is growing continuously. Each country has different trends on energy demand and supply according to their geopolitical and geographical locations, underground reserves, weather conditions and level of industrialization. Conventional energy resources such as oil, gas and coal –in other words fossil resources- remain dominant on primary energy supply in spite of causing of environmental problems. Energy supply and demand securities are essential within the energy importing and exporting countries. This concept affected all sectors, but especially impressed on political aspects of the countries and also global economic views.
Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) for Radiation Dosimetry Applications
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is one of the polymers belongs to polyethylene (PE) family having monomer –CH2– and average molecular weight is approximately 3-6 million g/mol. Due its chemical, mechanical, physical and biocompatible properties, it has been extensively used in the field of electrical insulation, medicine, orthopedic, microelectronics, engineering, chemistry and the food industry etc. In order to alter/modify the properties of UHMWPE for particular application of interest, certain various procedures are in practice e.g. treating the material with high energy irradiations like gamma ray, e-beam, and ion bombardment. Radiation treatment of UHMWPE induces free radicals within its matrix, and these free radicals are the precursors of chain scission, chain accumulation, formation of double bonds, molecular emission, crosslinking etc. All the aforementioned physical and chemical processes are mainly responsible for the modification of polymers properties to use them in any particular application of our interest e.g. to fabricate LEDs, optical sensors, antireflective coatings, polymeric optical fibers, and most importantly for radiation dosimetry applications. It is therefore, to check the feasibility of using UHMWPE for radiation dosimetery applications, the compressed sheets of UHMWPE were irradiated at room temperature (~25°C) for total dose values of 30 kGy and 100 kGy, respectively while one were kept un-irradiated as reference. Transmittance data (from 400 nm to 800 nm) of e-beam irradiated UHMWPE and its hybrids were measured by using Muller matrix spectro-polarimeter. As a result significant changes occur in the absorption behavior of irradiated samples. To analyze these (radiation induced) changes in polymer matrix Urbach edge method and modified Tauc’s equation has been used. The results reveal that optical activation energy decreases with irradiation. The values of activation energies are 2.85 meV, 2.48 meV, and 2.40 meV for control, 30 kGy, and 100 kGy samples, respectively. Direct and indirect energy band gaps were also found to decrease with irradiation due to variation of C=C unsaturation in clusters. We believe that the reported results would open new horizons for radiation dosimetery applications.
Renewable Energy and Energy Security in Malaysia: A Quantitative Analysis
Robust economic growth, increasing population, and personal consumption are the main drivers for the rapid increase of energy demand in Malaysia. Increasing demand has compounded the issue of national energy security due to over-dependence on fossil fuel, depleting indigenous domestic conventional energy resources which in turns has increased the country’s energy import dependence. In order to improve its energy security, Malaysia has seriously embarked on a renewable energy journey. Many initiatives on renewable energy have been introduced in the past decade. These strategies have resulted in the exploding growth of renewable energy deployment in Malaysia. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of renewable energy deployment on energy security. Secondary data was used to calculate the energy security indicators. The study also compared the results of applying different energy security indicators namely availability, applicability, affordability and acceptability dimension of energy resources. The evaluation shows that Malaysia will experience slight improvement in availability and acceptability dimension of energy security. This study suggests that energy security level could be further enhanced by efficient utilization of energy, reducing carbon content of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries.
Experimental Investigation on Effects of Carrier Solvent and Oxide Fluxes in Activated TIG Welding of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel
This work attempts to investigate the effect of oxide fluxes on 6mm thick Reduced Activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFM) during Activated TIG (A-TIG) welding. Six different fluxes Al₂O₃, Co₃O₄, CuO, HgO, MoO₃, and NiO were mixed with methanol for conversion into paste and bead-on-plate experiments were then carried out. This study, systematically investigates the influence of oxide-based flux powder and carrier solvent composition on the weld bead shape, geometric shape of weld bead and dominant depth enhancing mechanism in tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel. It was inferred from the study that flux Co₃O₄ and MoO₃ imparted full and secure (more than 6mm) penetration with methanol owing to dual mechanism of reversed Marangoni and arc construction. The use of methanol imparted good spreadabilty and coverability and ultimately higher peak temperatures were observed with its use owing to stronger depth enhancing mechanisms than use of acetone with same oxide fluxes and welding conditions.
Potential Activities of Human Endogenous Retroviral kDNA in Melanoma Pathogenesis and HIV-1 Infection
Human endogenous retroviral elements (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. They are thought to be germline-integrated genetic remnants of retroviral infections. Although HERV sequences are highly defective, some, especially the K type (HERV-K), have been shown to be expressed and may have biological activities in the pathogenesis of cancer, chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. We found that HERV-K GAG and ENV proteins were strongly expressed in pleomorphic melanoma cells. We also detected a critical role of HERV-K ENV in mediating intercellular fusion and colony formation of melanoma cells. Interestingly, we found that levels of HERV-K GAG and ENV expression correlated with the activation of ERK and loss of p16INK4A in melanoma cells, and inhibition of MEK or CDK4, especially in combination, reduced HERV-K expression in melanoma cells. We also performed a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using DNase I digestion to remove “contaminating” HERV-K genomic DNA and examined HERV-K RNA expression in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected individuals. We found a covariation between HERV-K RNA expression and CD4 cell counts in HIV-1 positive samples. Although a causal link between HERV-K activation and melanoma development, and between HERV-K activation, HIV-1 infection and CD4 cell count have yet to be determined, existing data support the further research efforts in HERV-K.
Interrelationship between Quadriceps' Activation and Inhibition as a Function of Knee-Joint Angle and Muscle Length: A Torque and Electro and Mechanomyographic Investigation
Incomplete activation, or activation failure, of motor units during maximal voluntary contractions is often referred to as muscle inhibition (MI), and is defined as the inability of the central nervous system to maximally drive a muscle during a voluntary contraction. The purpose of the present study was to assess the interrelationship amongst peak torque (PT), muscle inhibition (MI; incomplete activation of motor units), and voluntary muscle activation (VMA) of the quadriceps’ muscle group as a function of knee angle and muscle length during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). Nine young adult males (mean + standard deviation: age: 21.58 + 1.30 years; height: 180.07 + 4.99 cm; weight: 89.07 + 7.55 kg) performed MVICs in random order with the knee at 15, 55, and 95° flexion. MI was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique and was estimated by the amount of additional knee extensor PT evoked by the superimposed twitch during MVICs. Voluntary muscle activation was estimated by root mean square amplitude electromyography (EMGrms) and mechanomyography (MMGrms) of agonist (vastus medialis [VM], vastus lateralis [VL], and rectus femoris [RF]) and antagonist (biceps femoris ([BF]) muscles during MVICs. Data were analyzed using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Results revealed a strong dependency of quadriceps’ PT (p < 0.001), MI (p < 0.001) and MA (p < 0.01) on knee joint position: PT was smallest at the most shortened muscle position (15°) and greatest at mid-position (55°); MI and MA were smallest at the most shortened muscle position (15°) and greatest at the most lengthened position (95°), with the RF showing the greatest change in MA. It is hypothesized that the ability to more fully activate the quadriceps at short compared to longer muscle lengths (96% contracted at 15°; 91% at 55°; 90% at 95°) might partly compensate for the unfavorable force-length mechanics at the more extended position and consequent declines in VMA (decreases in EMGrms and MMGrms muscle amplitude during MVICs) and force production (PT = 111-Nm at 15°, 217-NM at 55°, 199-Nm at 95°). Biceps femoris EMG and MMG data showed no statistical differences (p = 0.11 and 0.12, respectively) at joint angles tested, although there were greater values at the extended position. Increased BF muscle amplitude at this position could be a mechanism by which anterior shear and tibial rotation induced by high quadriceps’ activity are countered. Measuring and understanding the degree to which one sees MI and VMA in the QF muscle has particular clinical relevance because different knee-joint disorders, such ligament injuries or osteoarthritis, increase levels of MI observed and markedly reduced the capability of full VMA.
A Review on Modeling and Optimization of Integration of Renewable Energy Resources (RER) for Minimum Energy Cost, Minimum CO₂ Emissions and Sustainable Development, in Recent Years
The rising economic activities, growing population and improving living standards of world have led to a steady growth in its appetite for quality and quantity of energy services. As the economy expands the electricity demand is going to grow further, increasing the challenges of the more generation and stresses on the utility grids. Appropriate energy model will help in proper utilization of the locally available renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small hydro etc. to integrate in the available grid, reducing the investments in energy infrastructure. Further to these new technologies like smart grids, decentralized energy planning, energy management practices, energy efficiency are emerging. In this paper, the attempt has been made to study and review the recent energy planning models, energy forecasting models, and renewable energy integration models. In addition, various modeling techniques and tools are reviewed and discussed.
Energy Potential of Turkey and Evaluation of Solar Energy Technology as an Alternative Energy
Emerging demand for energy in developing countries rapid population growth and industrialization are causing a rapid increase, such as Turkey. Energy is an important and indispensable factor in the industry. At the same time, energy is one of the main indicators that reflect a country's economic and social development potential. There is a linear relationship between the energy consumption and social development, and in parallel this situation, it is seen that energy consumption increase with economic growth and prosperity. In recent year’s, energy sources consumption is increasingly continuing, because of population growth and economy in Turkey. 80% of the energy used in Turkey is supplied from abroad. At the same time, while almost all of the energy obtained from our country is met by hydropower. Alternatively, studies of determining and using potential renewable energy sources such as solar energy have been realized for recent years. In this study, first of all, the situation of energy sources was examined in Turkey. Information of reserve/capacity, production and consumption values of energy sources were emphasized. For this purpose, energy production and consumption, CO2 emission and electricity energy consumption of countries were investigated. Energy consumption and electricity energy consumption per capita were comparatively analyzed.
Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a PCM Integrated Solar Chimney
Natural ventilation systems have increasingly been the subject of research due to rising energetic consumption within the building sector and increased environmental awareness. In the last two decades, the mounting concern of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for an efficient passive ventilation system have driven the development of new alternative passive technologies such as ventilated facades, trombe walls or solar chimneys. The objective of the study is the assessment of PCM panels in an in situ solar chimney for the establishment of a numerical model. The PCM integrated solar chimney shows slight performance improvement in terms of mass flow rate and external temperature and outlet temperature difference. An increase of 11.3659 m3/h can be observed during low wind speed periods. Additionally, the surface temperature across the chimney goes beyond 45 &deg;C and allows the activation of PCM panels.
Formation of Volatile Iodine from Cesium Iodide Aerosols: A DFT Study
Periodic DFT calculations were performed to study the chemistry of CsI particles and the possible release of volatile iodine from CsI surfaces for nuclear safety interest. The results show that water adsorbs at low temperature associatively on the (011) surface of CsI, while water desorbs at higher temperatures. On the other hand, removing iodine species from the surface requires oxidizing the surface one time for each removed iodide atom. The activation energy of removing I2 from the surface in the presence of two OH is 1,2 eV.
Refractive Index, Excess Molar Volume and Viscometric Study of Binary Liquid Mixture of Morpholine with Cumene at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, and 308.15 K
Experimental data of refractive index, excess molar volume and viscosity of binary mixture of morpholine with cumene over the whole composition range at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K and normal atmospheric pressure have been measured. The experimental data were used to compute the density, deviation in molar refraction, deviation in viscosity and excess Gibbs free energy of activation as a function of composition. The experimental viscosity data have been correlated with empirical equations like Grunberg- Nissan, Herric correlation and three body McAllister’s equation. The excess thermodynamic properties were fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the binary mixtures are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.
Energy Audit: A Case Study of a Hot Rolling Mill in Steel Industry
As the energy demands rise and the pollution levels grow, it becomes imperative for us to save energy in all the fields in which it is used. The industrial sector is the major commercial energy consuming sector in India, where electrical energy is the most common and widely used type of energy. As the demand and price of energy are increasing day by day, therefore, the subject of energy conservation is a concern for most energy users particularly industry. Judicious use of energy becomes imperative for third world developing country being presence of energy crisis. This paper provides some measure for energy saving that can be commonly recommended for a rolling unit of steel industry. A case of hot rolling unit in JSL Stainless Ltd., Hisar for energy conservation is given. Overall improvement in energy consumption in light of the stated recommendation is illustrated along with the proposed utilization of the techniques and their applications. Energy conservation in conventional motor with replacement or use of star delta star converter, reduction in cable losses, replacement of filament of LED lamps, replacement of conventional transformer with cast resin dry type transformer and provision of energy management system for energy conservation and per unit production cost reduction are elaborated in this paper.
Comparative Advantage of Mobile Agent Application in Procuring Software Products on the Internet
This paper brings to fore the inherent advantages in application of mobile agents to procure software products rather than downloading software content on the Internet. It proposes a system whereby the products come on compact disk with mobile agent as deliverable. The client/user purchases a software product, but must connect to the remote server of the software developer before installation. The user provides an activation code that activates mobile agent which is part of the software product on compact disk. The validity of the activation code is checked on connection at the developer&rsquo;s end to ascertain authenticity and prevent piracy. The system is implemented by downloading two different software products as compare with installing same products on compact disk with mobile agent&rsquo;s application. Downloading software contents from developer&rsquo;s database as in the traditional method requires a continuously open connection between the client and the developer&rsquo;s end, a fixed network is not economically or technically feasible. Mobile agent after being dispatched into the network becomes independent of the creating process and can operate asynchronously and autonomously. It can reconnect later after completing its task and return for result delivery. Response Time and Network Load are very minimal with application of Mobile agent.
The Impact of Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury upon the Biological Function of Mesenteric Lymph
Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury drives systemic inflammation and organ failure following trauma/haemorrhagic shock (T/HS), through the release of pro-inflammatory mediators into the mesenteric lymph (ML). However, changes in the biological function of ML are not fully understood, and therefore, a specific model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury is required to obtain ML for the study of its biological function upon inflammatory cells. ML obtained from a model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury was used to assess biological function upon inflammatory cells and investigate changes in the biological function of individual ML components. An additional model was used to determine the effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) upon biological function. Rat ML was obtained by mesenteric lymphatic duct cannulation before and after occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMAO). ML was incubated with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes and lymphocytes, and the biological function of these cells was assessed. ML was then separated into supernatant, exosome and micro-vesicle components, and biological activity was compared in monocytes. A model with an additional VNS phase was developed, in which the right cervical vagal nerve was exposed and stimulated, and ML collected for comparison of biological function with the conventional model. The biological function of ML was altered by intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury, increasing PMN activation, monocyte activation, and lymphocyte apoptosis. Increased monocyte activation was only induced by the exosome component of ML, with no significant changes induced by the supernatant or micro-vesicle components. VNS partially attenuated monocyte activation, but no attenuation of PMN activation was observed. Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury induces changes in the biological function of ML upon both innate and adaptive inflammatory cells, supporting the role of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in driving systemic inflammation following T/HS. The exosome component of ML appears to be critical to the transport of pro-inflammatory mediators in ML. VNS partially attenuates changes in innate inflammatory cell biological activity observed, presenting possibilities for future novel treatment development in multiple organ failure patients.
Activation-TV® to Reduce Elderly Loneliness and Insecurity
Objectives: In the year 2011 the City of Vaasa started to develop know-how in the technology and the introduction of services for aging people in cooperation with the Polytechnic Novia University of Applied Sciences and VAMK, University of Applied Sciences. The project´s targets included: to help elderly people to maintain their ability to function, to provide them social and physical activities, to prevent their social exclusion, to decrease their feelings of loneliness and insecurity and to develop their technical know-how. Methods: The project was built based on open source code, tailor-made service system and user interface for the elderly living at home and their families, based on the users´ expectations and experiences of services. Activation-TV®-project vas carried out 1.4.2011-31.3.2014. A pilot group of eight elderly persons, who were living at home, were selected to the project. All necessary technical means as well as guidance and teaching equipment were provided to the pilot group. The students of University of Applied Sciences (VAMK, Novia) and employees of Center of Ageing were made all programs to the Activation-TV®. The project group were interviewed after and before intervention. The data were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The built service includes a video library, a group room for interactive programs and a personal room for bilateral meetings and direct shipment. The program is bilingual and produced in both national languages. The Activation TV® reduced elderly peoples´ (n=8) feelings of emptiness, added mental well-being and quality of life with social contacts. Relatives felt, that they were able to get in to older peoples´ everyday life with Activation TV®. Discussion: The built application was tailored to the model that has not been developed elsewhere in Finland. This model can be copied from one server to another and thus transferred to other municipalities but the program requires its own personnel system management and maintenance as well as program production cooperation between the different actors. This service can be used for the elderly who are living at home without dementia.
Towards Achieving Energy Efficiency in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is currently one of the dynamically developing states in its region. The stable growth in all sectors of the economy leads to a corresponding increase in energy consumption. Thus, country consumes a significant amount of energy due to the high level of industralisation and the presence of energy-intensive manufacturing such as mining and metallurgy which in turn leads to low energy efficiency. With allowance for this the Government has set several priorities to adopt a transition of Republic of Kazakhstan to a “green economy”. This article provides an overview of Kazakhstan’s energy efficiency situation in for the period of 1991-2014. First, the dynamics of production and consumption of conventional energy resources are given. Second, the potential of renewable energy sources is summarised, followed by the description of GHG emissions trends in the country. Third, Kazakhstan’ national initiatives, policies and locally implemented projects in the field of energy efficiency are described.
NLRP3-Inflammassome Participates in the Inflammatory Response Induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
The inflammatory response initiates after the recognition of pathogens by receptors expressed by innate immune cells. Among these receptors, the NLRP3 was associated with the recognition of pathogenic fungi in experimental models. NLRP3 operates forming a multiproteic complex called inflammasome, which actives caspase-1, responsible for the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. In this study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of NLRP3 in the inflammatory response elicited in macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), the etiologic agent of PCM. Macrophages were differentiated from THP-1 cells by treatment with phorbol-myristate-acetate. Following differentiation, macrophages were stimulated by Pb yeast cells for 24 hours, after previous treatment with specific NLRP3 (3,4-methylenedioxy-beta-nitrostyrene) and/or caspase-1 (VX-765) inhibitors, or specific inhibitors of pathways involved in NLRP3 activation such as: Reactive Oxigen Species (ROS) production (N-Acetyl-L-cysteine), K+ efflux (Glibenclamide) or phagossome acidification (Bafilomycin). Quantification of IL-1beta and IL-18 in supernatants was performed by ELISA. Our results showed that the production of IL-1beta and IL-18 by THP-1-derived-macrophages stimulated with Pb yeast cells was dependent on NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation, once the presence of their specific inhibitors diminished the production of these cytokines. Furthermore, we found that the major pathways involved in NLRP3 activation, after Pb recognition, were dependent on ROS production and K+ efflux. In conclusion, our results showed that NLRP3 participates in the recognition of Pb yeast cells by macrophages, leading to the activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome and production of IL-1beta and IL-18. Together, these cytokines can induce an inflammatory response against P. brasiliensis, essential for the establishment of the initial inflammatory response and for the development of the subsequent acquired immune response.
Language Activation Theory: Unlocking Bilingual Language Processing
It is conventional to see and hear Filipinos, in general, speak two or more languages. This phenomenon brings us to a closer look on how our minds process the input and produce an output with a specific chosen language. This study aimed to generate a theoretical model which explained the interaction of the first and the second languages in the human mind. After a careful analysis of the gathered data, a theoretical prototype called Language Activation Model was generated. For every string, there are three specialized banks: lexico-semantics, morphono-syntax, and pragmatics. These banks are interrelated to other banks of other language strings. As the bilingual learns more languages, a new string is replicated and is filled up with the information of the new language learned. The principles of the first and second languages' interaction are drawn; these are expressed in laws, namely: law of dominance, law of availability, law of usuality and law of preference. Furthermore, difficulties encountered in the learning of second languages were also determined.
Kinetics Study for the Recombinant Cellulosome to the Degradation of Chlorella Cell Residuals
In this study, lipid-deprived residuals of microalgae were hydrolyzed for the production of reducing sugars by using the recombinant Bacillus cellulosome, carrying eight genes from the Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405. The obtained cellulosome was found to exist mostly in the broth supernatant with a cellulosome activity of 2.4 U/mL. Furthermore, the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax of cellulosome were found to be 14.832 g/L and 3.522 U/mL. The activation energy of the cellulosome to hydrolyze microalgae LDRs was calculated as 32.804 kJ/mol.
Design and Development of Bioactive a-Hydroxy Carboxylate Group Modified MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle: Comparative Fluorescence Study, Magnetism and DNA Nuclease Activity
Three new α-hydroxy carboxylate group functionalized MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to explore the microscopic origin of ligand modified fluorescence and magnetic properties of nearly monodispersed MnFe₂O₄ NPs. The surface functionalization has been carried out with three small organic ligands (tartrate, malate, and citrate) having different number of α-hydroxy carboxylate functional group along with steric effect. Detailed study unveils that α-hydroxy carboxylate moiety of the ligands plays key role to generate intrinsic fluorescence in functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NPs through the activation of ligand to metal charge transfer transitions, associated with ligand-Mn²⁺/Fe³⁺ interactions along with d-d transition corresponding to d-orbital energy level splitting of Fe³⁺ ions on NP surface. Further, MnFe₂O₄ NPs show a maximum 140.88% increase in coercivity and 97.95% decrease in magnetization compared to its bare one upon functionalization. The ligands that induce smallest crystal field splitting of d-orbital energy level of transition metal ions are found to result in strongest ferromagnetic activation of the NPs. Finally, our developed tartrate functionalized MnFe₂O₄ (T-MnFe₂O₄) NPs have been utilized for studying DNA binding interaction and nuclease activity for stimulating their beneficial activities toward diverse biomedical applications. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs bind calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode. The ability of T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs to induce DNA cleavage was studied by gel electrophoresis technique where the complex is found to promote the cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA from the super coiled form I to linear coiled form II and nicked coiled form III with good efficiency. This may be taken into account for designing new biomolecular detection agents and anti-cancer drug which can open up a new door toward diverse non-invasive biomedical applications.
Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Dependent CREB Activation is Required for the Induction of Aromatase in Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer
Estrogens are important for the development and growth of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, for which anti-estrogen therapy is one of the most effective treatments. However, its efficacy can be limited by either de novo or acquired resistance. Aromatase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogens, and inhibition of this enzyme leads to profound hypoestrogenism. Here, we found that the basal expression and activity of aromatase were significantly increased in tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant human breast cancer (TAMR-MCF-7) cells compared to control MCF-7 cells. We further revealed that aromatase immunoreactivity in tumor tissues was increased in recurrence group after TAM therapy compared to non-recurrence group after TAM therapy. Phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 kinase were all increased in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) suppressed the transactivation of the aromatase gene and its enzyme activity. Furthermore, we have also shown that PI3K/Akt-dependent cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) activation was required for the enhanced expression of aromatase in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that aromatase expression is up-regulated in TAM-resistant breast cancer via PI3K/Akt-dependent CREB activation.
Development of a Mathematical Theoretical Model and Simulation of the Electromechanical System for Wave Energy Harvesting
As a result of the studies performed on the wave energy resource worldwide, a research project was set up to harvest wave energy for its conversion into electrical energy. Within this framework, a theoretical model of the electromechanical energy harvesting system, developed with MATLAB&rsquo;s Simulink software, will be provided. This tool recreates the site conditions where the device will be installed and offers valuable information about the amount of energy that can be harnessed. This research provides a deeper understanding of the utilization of wave energy in order to improve the efficiency of a 1:1 scale prototype of the device.
The Environmental Impact of Geothermal Energy and Opportunities for Its Utilization in Hungary
According to the International Energy Association the previous principles of the energy sector should be reassessed, in which renewable energy sources have a significant role. We might witness the exchange of roles of countries from importer to exporter, which look for the main resources of market needs. According to the World Energy Outlook 2013, the duration of high oil prices is exceptionally long in the history of the energy market. Forecasts also point at the expected great differences between the regional prices of gas and electric energy. The energy need of the world will grow by its third. two thirds of which will appear in China, India, and South-East Asia, while only 4 per cent of which will be related to OECD countries. Current trends also forecast the growth of the price of energy sources and the emission of glasshouse gases. As a reflection of these forecasts alternative energy sources will gain value, of which geothermic energy is one of the cheapest and most economical. Hungary possesses outstanding resources of geothermic energy. The aim of the study is to research the environmental effects of geothermic energy and the opportunities of its exploitation in Hungary, related to „Horizon 2020” project.
A Comparative Study between Behaviour Activation, Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and Waiting List Control for Major Depressive Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common of psychiatric disorders. It has a wide range of symptoms, aetiologies and risk factors, and these reasons make MDD affect not only the primary patient, but also their family, caregivers and associates; by negatively impacting their self dignity, economic condition and self-confidence. Thus, it is important to help individuals suffering from MDD learn adaptive mechanism and deal effectively with their environment, with that aim this study focused on a comparative therapeutic intervention using Behaviour Activation (BA), Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and Waiting list control (WLC) for management of MDD. This study apart from enhancing personal skills will also help us understand which therapeutic method would be more beneficial in treating and prolonging relapse in patients with MDD in Indian population. Fifteen individuals following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected as study samples. They were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Ten sessions of therapy, forty-five minutes each according to the proposed sessions plan were conducted for each group. The individuals selected as samples were re–assessed after 2 months and 6 months post intervention. The overall result showed that individuals treated with BA and REBT showed more improvement in comparison to those in WLC.
Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia
The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable energy in Malaysia. Energy policies and strategies to protect the non-renewable energy utilization also are highlighted, focusing in the different sources of energy available for high and sustained economic growth. Emphasis is also placed on a discussion of the role of renewable energy as an alternative source for the increase of electricity supply security. It is now evident that to achieve sustainable development through renewable energy, energy policies and strategies have to be well designed and supported by the government, industries (firms), and individual or community participation. The hope is to create a positive impact on sustainable development through renewable sources for current and future generations.
Design Analysis of Solar Energy Panels for Tropical Nigeria
More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man have greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of a consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discusses solar energy as the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting the energy and recommends solar energy as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power in Nigeria supersedes supply.
Compositional Dependence of Hydroxylated Indium-Oxide on the Reaction Rate of CO2/H2 Reduction
A major goal in the emerging field of solar fuels is to realize an ‘artificial leaf’ – a material that converts light energy in the form of solar photons into chemical energy – using CO2 as a feedstock to generate useful chemical species. Enabling this technology will allow the greenhouse gas, CO2, emitted from energy and manufacturing production exhaust streams to be converted into valuable solar fuels or chemical products. Indium Oxide (In2O3) with surface hydroxyl (OH) groups have been shown to reduce CO2 in the presence of H2 to CO with a reaction rate of 15 μmol gcat−1 h−1. The likely mechanism is via a Frustrated Lewis Pair sites heterolytically splitting H2 to be absorbed and form protonic and hydric sites that can dissociate CO2. In this study, we investigate the dependence of oxygen composition of In2O3 on the CO2 reduction rate. In2O3-x films on quartz fiber paper were DC sputtered with an Indium target and varying O2/Ar plasma mixture. OH surface groups were then introduced by immersing the In2O3-x samples in KOH. We show that hydroxylated In2O3-x reduces more CO2 than non-hydroxylated groups and that a hydroxylated and higher O2/Ar ratio sputtered In2O3-x has a higher reaction rate of 45 μmol gcat-1 h-1. We show by electrical resistivity-temperature curves that H2 is adsorbed onto the surface of In2O3 whereas CO2 itself does not affect the indium oxide surface. We also present activation and ionization energy levels of the hydroxylated In2O3-x under vacuum, CO2 and H2 atmosphere conditions.
Biocompatible Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Efficient Delivery Vehicle for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Lipids to Induce Potent Cytokines and Antibody Response through Activation of γδ T-Cells in Mice
Activation of cell mediated and humoral immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are critical for protection. Herein, we show that mice immunized with Mtb lipid bound chitosan nanoparticles(NPs) induce secretion of prominent Th1 and Th2 cytokines in lymph node and spleen cells, and also induced significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgM in comparison to control mice measured by ELISA. Furthermore, significantly enhanced γδ-T cell activation was observed in lymph node cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid coated chitosan-NPs as compared to mice immunized with chitosan-NPs alone or Mtb lipid liposomes through flow cytometric analysis. Also, it was observed that in comparison to CD8+ cells, significantly higher CD4+ cells were present in both the lymph node and spleen cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid coated chitosan NP. In conclusion, this study represents a promising new strategy for efficient delivery of Mtb lipids using chitosan NPs to trigger enhanced cell mediated and antibody response against Mtb lipids.
The Role of Inflammasomes for aβ Microglia Phagocytosis in Alzheimer Disease
Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the modulation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Microglia, the main immune effector of the brain, are able to migrate to sites of Amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition to eliminate Aβ phagocytosis upon activation by multiple receptors: Toll like receptors and scavenger receptors. The issue of whether microglia are able to eliminate pathological lesions such as neurofibrillary tangles or senile plaques from AD brain still remains the matter of controversy. Recent data suggest that the Nod Like Receptor 3 (NLRP3), multiprotein inflammasome complexes, plays a role in AD, as its activation in the microglia by Aβ triggers. IL-1β is produced as a biologically inactive pro-form and requires caspase-1 for activation and secretion. Caspase-1 activity is controlled by inflammasomes. We investigate about the importance of inflammasomes complex in the Aβ phagocytosis and its degradation. The preliminary results of phagocytosis assay and immunofluorescent experiment on primary Microglia cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) an Aβ exposure show that a previous treatment with LPS reduce Aβ phagocytosis. Different results were obtained in Primary Microglia wild type, NLRP3 and ASC Knockout suggesting a real inflammasomes involvement in Alzheimer's pathology. Inflammasomes inactivation reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines prolonging the protective activity of microglia and Aβ clearance, featuring a typical microglia phenotype of the early stage of AD disease.
Energy Planning Analysis of an Agritourism Complex Based on Energy Demand Simulation: A Case Study of Wuxi Yangshan Agritourism Complex
China is experiencing the rural development process, with the agritourism complex becoming one of the significant modes. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the energy performance of agritourism complex. This study focuses on a typical case of the agritourism complex and simulates the energy consumption performance on condition of the regular energy system. It was found that HVAC took 90% of the whole energy demand range. In order to optimize the energy supply structure, the hierarchical analysis was carried out on the level of architecture with three main factors such as construction situation, building types and energy demand types. Finally, the energy planning suggestion of the agritourism complex was put forward and the relevant results were obtained.
Stochastic Energy and Reserve Scheduling with Wind Generation and Generic Energy Storage Systems
Energy storage units can play an important role to provide an economic and secure operation of future energy systems. In this paper, a stochastic energy and reserve market clearing scheme is presented considering storage energy units. The approach is proposed to deal with stochastic and non-dispatchable renewable sources with a high level of penetration in the energy system. A two stage stochastic programming scheme is formulated where in the first stage the energy market is cleared according to the forecasted amount of wind generation and demands and in the second stage the real time market is solved according to the assumed scenarios.
Preparation of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) Impregnated with Ionic Silver Particles from Cotton Woven Waste and Its Performance as Antibacterial Agent
In this work, the antibacterial effect of activated carbon fibers (ACF) impregnated with ionic silver particles was studied. ACF were prepared from samples of cotton woven wastes (cotton based fabrics 5x10 cm) by applying a chemical activation procedure with H3PO4. This treatment was performed using several H3PO4: Cotton based fabrics weight ratios (1:2–2:1), temperatures (600–900 ºC) and activation times (0.5–2 h). The ACF obtained under the best activation conditions showed BET surface area of 1103 m2/g; this result along with iodine index demonstrated the microporous nature of the fibers herein obtained. Then, the obtained fibers were impregnated with ionic silver particles by immersion in 0.1 and 0.5 M AgNO3 solutions followed by drying and thermal decomposition in order to fix the silver particles in the structure of ACF. It was determined that the presence of Ag ions lowered the BET surface area of the ACF in approximately 17 % due to the obstruction of the porosities along the carbonized structure. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the ACF impregnated with silver was studied through direct counting method for coliforms. The antibacterial activity of the impregnated fibers was demonstrated, and it was attributed to the strongly inhibition of bacteria growth because of chemical properties of the particles of silver inside the ACF. This behavior was demonstrated at concentrations of silver as low as 0.035 % w/w.
Illuminating the Policies Affecting Energy Security in Malaysia’s Electricity Sector
For the past few decades, the Malaysian economy has expanded at an impressive pace, whilst, the Malaysian population has registered a relatively high growth rate. These factors had driven the growth of final energy demand. The ballooning energy demand coupled with the country&rsquo;s limited indigenous energy resources have resulted in an increased of the country&rsquo;s net import. Therefore, acknowledging the precarious position of the country&rsquo;s energy self-sufficiency, this study has identified three main concerns regarding energy security, namely; over-dependence on fossil fuel, increasing energy import dependency, and increasing energy consumption per capita. This paper discusses the recent energy demand and supply trends, highlights the policies that are affecting energy security in Malaysia and suggests strategic options towards achieving energy security. The paper suggested that diversifying energy sources, reducing carbon content of energy, efficient utilization of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries could further enhance the effectiveness of the measures as the introduction of policies and initiatives will be more holistic.
Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel
Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.
Investigating the Invalidity of the Law of Energy Conservation Based on Waves Interference Phenomenon Inside a Ringed Waveguide
Law of energy conservation is one of the fundamental laws of physics. Energy is conserved, and the total amount of energy is constant. It can be transferred from one object to another and changed from one state to another. However, in the case of wave interference, this law faces important contradictions. Based on the presented mathematical relationship in this paper, it seems that validity of this law depends on the path of energy wave, like light, in which it is located. In this paper, by using some fundamental concepts in physics like the constancy of the electromagnetic wave speed in a specific media and wave theory of light, it will be shown that law of energy conservation is not valid in every condition and in some circumstances, it is possible to increase energy of a system with a determined amount of energy without any input.
The Effect of Surface Wave on the Performance Characteristic of a Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation System
More than 70% of the Earth is covered by oceans, which are considered to possess boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy, and chemical energy. The hybrid system help in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper propose a hybrid power generation system suitable for remote area application and highlight the impact of surface waves on turbine design and performance, and the importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions.
Kinetic Study of Municipal Plastic Waste
Municipal Plastic Waste (MPW) comprises a mixture of thermoplastics such as high and low density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Recycling rate of these plastics is low, e.g. only 27% in 2013. The remains were incinerated or disposed in landfills. As MPW generation increases approximately 5% per annum, MPW management technologies have to be developed to comply with legislation . Pyrolysis, thermochemical decomposition, provides an excellent alternative to convert MPW into valuable resources like fuels and chemicals. Most studies on waste plastic kinetics only focused on HDPE and LDPE with a simple assumption of first order decomposition, which is not the real reaction mechanism. The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic study for each of the polymers in the MPW mixture using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) over a range of heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40°C/min) in N2 atmosphere and sample size of 1 – 4mm. A model-free kinetic method was applied to quantify the activation energy at each level of conversion. Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS) and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) equations jointly with Master Plots confirmed that the activation energy was not constant along all the reaction for all the five plastic studied, showing that MPW decomposed through a complex mechanism and not by first-order kinetics. Master plots confirmed that MPW decomposed following a random scission mechanism at conversions above 40%. According to the random scission mechanism, different radicals are formed along the backbone producing the cleavage of bonds by chain scission into molecules of different lengths. The cleavage of bonds during random scission follows first-order kinetics and it is related with the conversion. When a bond is broken one part of the initial molecule becomes an unsaturated one and the other a terminal free radical. The latter can react with hydrogen from and adjacent carbon releasing another free radical and a saturated molecule or reacting with another free radical and forming an alkane. Not every time a bonds is broken a molecule is evaporated. At early stages of the reaction (conversion and temperature below 40% and 300°C), most products are not short enough to evaporate. Only at higher degrees of conversion most of cleavage of bonds releases molecules small enough to evaporate.
Microglia Activity and Induction of Mechanical Allodynia after Mincle Receptor Ligand Injection in Rat Spinal Cord
Mincle is expressed in macrophages and is members of immunoreceptors induced after exposure to various stimuli and stresses. Mincle receptor activation promotes the production of these substances by increasing the transcription of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines, which play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of such inflammatory pain diseases, have a significant effect on sensory neurons in addition to their enhancement and inhibitory effects on immune and inflammatory cells as mediators of cell interaction. Glial cells in the central nervous system play a critical role in development and maintenance of chronic pain states. Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages in the central nervous system, and belong to a group of mononuclear phagocytes. In the central nervous system, mincle receptor is present in neurons and glial cells of the brain.This study was performed to identify the Mincle receptor in the spinal cord and to investigate the effect of Mincle receptor activation on nociception and the changes of microglia. Materials and Methods: C-type lectins(Mincle) was identified in spinal cord of Male Sprague–Dawley rats. Then, mincle receptor ligand (TDB), via an intrathecal catheter. Mechanical allodynia was measured using von Frey test to evaluate the effect of intrathecal injection of TDB. Result: The present investigation shows that the intrathecal administration of TDB in the rat produces a reliable and quantifiable mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, The mechanical hyperalgesia after TDB injection gradually developed over time and remained until 10 days. Mincle receptor is identified in the spinal cord, mainly expressed in neuronal cells, but not in microglia or astrocyte. These results suggest that activation of mincle receptor pathway in neurons plays an important role in inducing activation of microglia and inducing mechanical allodynia.
[Keynote Talk]: Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation Approach for Characterizing Performance of Surface Wave
Boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy and chemical energy are covered and possessed by oceans. The hybrid system helps in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The objective and concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper reviews applications of using hybrid power generation system for remote area. It also highlights the future directions to investigate the impacts of surface waves on turbine design and performance. The importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions could also been explored.
Carbon Nanomaterials from Agricultural Wastes for Adsorption of Organic Pollutions
Agricultural waste materials from traditional oil mill and after extraction of natural raw materials in supercritical conditions were used for the preparation of carbon nanomaterials (activated carbons) by two various methods. Chemical activation using acetic acid and physical activation with a gaseous agent (carbon dioxide) were chosen as mild and environmentally friendly ones. The effect of influential factors: type of raw material, temperature and activation agent on the porous structure characteristics of the materials was discussed by using N₂ adsorption/desorption isotherms at 77 K. Furthermore scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to examine the physicochemical properties of the obtained sorbents. Selection of a raw material and an optimization of the conditions of the synthesis process, allowed to obtain the cheap sorbents with a targeted distribution of pores enabling effective adsorption of the model organic pollutants carried out in the multicomponent systems. Adsorption behavior (capacity and rate) of the chosen activated carbons was estimated by utilizing Crystal violet (CV), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D) as the adsorbates. Both rate and adsorption capacity of the organics on the sorbents evidenced that the activated carbons could be effectively used in sewage treatment plants. The mechanisms of organics adsorption were studied and correlated with activated carbons properties.
The Use of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Building for Sustainable Development
High energy consumptions of urban settlements in Nigeria are escalating due to strong population growth and migration as a result of crises. The demand for lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (LHVAC) is becoming higher. Conversely, there is a poor electricity supply to both rural and urban settlement in Nigeria. Generators were mostly used in Nigeria as a source of energy for LHVAC. Energy efficiency can be defined as any measure taken to reduce the amount of energy consumed for heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC), and house hold appliances like computers, stoves, refrigerators, televisions etc. The aim of the study was to minimize energy consumption in building through the integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy in building sector. Some of the energy efficient buildings within the study area were identified, the study covers there major cities of Nigeria namely, Abuja, Kaduna and Lagos city. The cost of investment on the energy efficiency and renewable energy was determined and compared with other fossil energy source for conventional building. Findings revealed that the low energy and energy efficient buildings in Nigeria are cheaper than the conventional ones. Based on the finding of the research, construction stake holders are strongly encouraged to abandon the conventional buildings and consider energy efficiency and renewable energy in buildings.
Input Energy Requirements and Performance of Different Soil Tillage Systems on Yield of Maize Crop
The aims of this study were to determine direct input energy and indirect energy in maize production, to evaluate the inputs energy consumption and outputs energy gained for maize production in Islamabad, Pakistan for spring 2013. Results showed that grain yield was maximum under deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input/output were maximum in deep tillage as compared to conventional tillage while lowest in zero tillage, net energy gain were found maximum under deep tillage.
Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process
The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases
Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux* 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, India, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.
Promotion of Renewable Marines Energies in Morocco: Perspectives and Strategies
The current energy policy recommends the subject of energy efficiency and to phase out fossil energy as a master question for the prospective years. The kingdom requires restructuring its power equipment by improving the percentage of renewable energy supply and optimizing power systems and storage. Developing energy efficiency, therefore, obliges as a consubstantial objection to reducing energy consumption. The objective of this work is to show the energy transition in Morocco towards renewable energies, in particular, to show the great potential of renewable marine energies in Morocco, This goes back to the advantages of cost and non-pollution in addition to that of the independence of fossil energies. Bearing in mind the necessity of the balance of the Moroccan energy mix, hydraulic and thermal power plants have also been installed which will be added to the power stations already established as a prospect for a balanced network that is flexible to fluctuate demand.
Energy Efficiency Factors in Toll Plazas
Energy efficiency is one of the most important issues for green buildings and their sustainability. This is not only due to the environmental impacts, but also because of significantly high energy cost. The aim of this study is to identify the potential actions required for toll plaza that lead to energy reduction. The data were obtained through set of questionnaire and interviewing targeted respondents, including the employees at toll plaza, and architects and engineers who are directly involved in design of highway projects. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics analysis method. The findings of this study are the critical elements that influence the energy usage and factors that lead to energy wastage. Finally, potential actions are recommended to reduce energy consumption in toll plazas.
Influence of Moringa Leaves Extract on the Response of Hb Molecule to Dose Rates’ Changes: II. Relaxation Time and Its Thermodynamic Driven State Functions
Irradiation deposits energy through ionisation changing the bio-system&rsquo;s net dipole, allowing the use of dielectric parameters and thermodynamic state functions related to these parameters as biophysical detectors to electrical inhomogeneity within the biosystem. This part is concerned with the effect of Moringa leaves extract, natural supplement, on the response of the biosystem to two different dose rates of irradiation. Having Hb molecule as a representative to the biosystem to be least invasive to the biosystem, dielectric measurements were used to extract the relaxation time of certain process found in the Hb spectrum within the indicated frequency window and the interrelated thermodynamic state functions were calculated from the deduced relaxation time. The results showed that relaxation time was decreased for both dose rates indicating a strong influence of Moringa on the response of biosystem and consequently Hb molecule. This influence was presented in the relaxation time and other parameters as well.
Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of New Quinazolinone-Based Compounds against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7
In the current study, we prepared two new quinazoline schiff bases through condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzhydrazide with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 3-methoxy-5-bromosalicylaldehyde. The chemical structures of both newly synthesized compounds (1 and 2) were confirmed by FT-IR and X-ray crystallography studies. The cytotoxic effect of compounds was investigated against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MTT results showed that (1) and (2) decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, exhibiting an IC50 value of 3.23 ± 0.28 µg/mL and 3.41 ± 0.34 µg/mL, respectively, after a 72-hours treatment period. In contrast, they did not show significant anti-proliferative effect towards MCF-10A normal breast cells and WRL-68 normal liver cells. We found a perturbation in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, suggesting an activation of apoptosis by compounds, which was confirmed by activation of the initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3/7. (1) was also able to trigger extrinsic pathway via activation of caspase-8 and inhibition of NF-κB translocation. The acute toxicity test showed no toxicity effect of the compounds in rats. Our results showed that the selected synthesized compounds are highly potent to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via either intrinsic or extrinsic mitochondrial pathway.
Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam
In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.
Using Different Methods of Nanofabrication as a New Way to Activate Cement Replacement Materials in Concrete Industry
One of the most important industries and building operations causing carbon dioxide emission is the cement and concrete related industries so that cement production (including direct fuel for mining and transporting raw material) consumes approximately 6 million Btus per metric-ton, and releases about 1 metric-ton of CO2. Reducing the consumption of cement with simultaneous utilizing waste materials as cement replacement is preferred for reasons of environmental protection. Blended cements consist of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), limestone, natural pozzolans, etc. these materials should be chemically activated to show effective cementitious properties. The present review article reports three different methods of nanofabrication that were used for activation of two types of SCMs.
Solar Energy: The Alternative Electric Power Resource in Tropical Nigeria
More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man has greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discuses solar energy the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting and recommends same as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power supersedes supply.
Use of Radiation Chemistry Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases
Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux * 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, INDIA, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.
Energy Management Techniques in Mobile Robots
Today, the developing features of technological tools with limited energy resources have made it necessary to use energy efficiently. Energy management techniques have emerged for this purpose. As with every field, energy management is vital for robots that are being used in many areas from industry to daily life and that are thought to take up more spaces in the future. Particularly, effective power management in autonomous and multi robots, which are getting more complicated and increasing day by day, will improve the performance and success. In this study, robot management algorithms, usage of renewable and hybrid energy sources, robot motion patterns, robot designs, sharing strategies of workloads in multiple robots, road and mission planning algorithms are discussed for efficient use of energy resources by mobile robots. These techniques have been evaluated in terms of efficient use of existing energy resources and energy management in robots.
Energy Efficiency Analysis of Crossover Technologies in Industrial Applications
Industry accounts for one-third of global final energy demand. Crossover technologies (e.g. motors, pumps, process heat, and air conditioning) play an important role in improving energy efficiency. These technologies are used in many applications independent of the production branch. Especially electrical power is used by drives, pumps, compressors, and lightning. The paper demonstrates the algorithm of the energy analysis by some selected case studies for typical industrial processes. The energy analysis represents an essential part of energy management systems (EMS). Generally, process control system (PCS) can support EMS. They provide information about the production process, and they organize the maintenance actions. Combining these tools into an integrated process allows the development of an energy critical equipment strategy. Thus, asset and energy management can use the same common data to improve the energy efficiency.
Prediction-Based Midterm Operation Planning for Energy Management of Exhibition Hall
Large exhibition halls require a lot of energy to maintain comfortable atmosphere for the visitors viewing inside. One way of reducing the energy cost is to have thermal energy storage systems installed so that the thermal energy can be stored in the middle of night when the energy price is low and then used later when the price is high. To minimize the overall energy cost, however, we should be able to decide how much energy to save during which time period exactly. If we can foresee future energy load and the corresponding cost, we will be able to make such decisions reasonably. In this paper, we use machine learning technique to obtain models for predicting weather conditions and the number of visitors on hourly basis for the next day. Based on the energy load thus predicted, we build a cost-optimal daily operation plan for the thermal energy storage systems and cooling and heating facilities through simulation-based optimization.
Mutagenic in vitro Activity and Genotoxic Effect of Zygophyllum Cornutun Methanolic Extract
The methanolic extract of Zygophyllum cornutun coss, an Algerian medicinal plant, was screened to the presence of mutagenic activity and genotoxic effect using the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome) and the micronucleus assay respectively. Positive results were obtained with both tests. The Ames test showed mutagenic activity in the presence of microsomal activation, while negative result was observed without microsomal activation. In the micronucleus test, two parameters were evaluated: the frequency of the micronucleus that increased in a dose dependent way and the proliferation index that decreased according to the micronucleus frequency. Even that further studies must be carried out, the mutagenic activity and the genotoxic effect of Zygophyllum cornutum should be taken in consideration when used as therapeutic plant.
Development of Mobile Application for Energy Consumption Assessment of University Buildings
With an increase in the interest in the energy conservation for buildings, and the emergence of many methods and easily-understandable approaches to it, energy conservation has now become the public’s main interest, as compared to in the past when it was only focused upon by experts. This study aims to help the occupants of a building to understand the energy efficiency and consumption of the building by providing them information on the building’s energy efficiency through a mobile application. The energy performance assessment models are proposed on the basis of the actual energy usage and building characteristics such as the architectural scheme and the building equipment. The university buildings in Korea are used as a case to demonstrate the mobile application.
Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products
Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.
MicroRNA Expression Distinguishes Neutrophil Subtypes
Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cells to against invading microorganisms. Numerous data shown neutrophils have plasticity in response to physiological and pathological conditions. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) exist in distinct types of tumor and play an important role in cancer biology. Different transcriptomic profiles of neutrophils in tumor and non-tumor samples have been identified. Several miRNAs have been recognized as regulators of gene expression in neutrophil, which may have key roles in neutrophil activation. However, the miRNAs expression patterns in TAN are not well known. To address this question, magnetic bead isolated neutrophils from tumor-bearing mice were used in this study. We analyzed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The expression of miRNAs targeting NADPH oxidase, ROS generation and autophagy was explored using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our data suggest that tumor environment influence neutrophil develop to differential states of activation via miRNAs regulation.
The Effect of Seated Distance on Muscle Activation and Joint Kinematics during Seated Strengthening in Patients with Stroke with Extensor Synergy Pattern in the Lower Limbs
Task-specific training with intense practice of functional tasks has been emphasized for the approaches in motor rehabilitation in patients with hemiplegic strokes. Although reciprocal actions which may increase demands on motor control during seated stepping exercise, motor control is not explicitly trained with emphasis and instruction focused on traditional strengthening. Apart from cycling and treadmill, various forms of seated exerciser are becoming available for the lower extremity exercise. The benefit of seated exerciser has been focused on the effect on the cardiopulmonary system. Thus, the aim of current study is to investigate the effect of seated distance on muscle activation during seated strengthening in patients with stroke with extensor synergy pattern in the lower extremities. Electrodes were placed on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the muscles were obtained to normalize the EMG amplitude obtained during dynamic trials with analog raw data digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz, fully rectified and the linear enveloped. Movement cycle was separated into two phases by pushing (PP) and Return (RP). Integral EMG (iEMG) is then used to quantify level of activation during each of the phases. Subjects performed strengthening with moderate resistance with speed of 60 rpm in two different distances (D1, short) and (D2, long). The results showed greater iEMG in RF and smaller iEMG in VL and BF with obvious increase range of motion of hip flexion in D1 condition. On the contrary, no significant involvement of RF while greater level of muscular activation in VL and BF during RP was found during PP in D2 condition. In addition, greater hip internal rotation was observed in D2 condition. In patients with stroke with abnormal tone revealed by extensor synergy in the lower extremities, shorter seated distance is suggested to facilitate hip flexor muscle activation while avoid inducing hyper extensor tone which may prevent a smooth repetitive motion. Repetitive muscular contraction exercise of hip flexor may be helpful for further gait training as it may assist hip flexion during swing phase of the walking.
Biomimetic Building Envelopes to Reduce Energy Consumption in Hot and Dry Climates
Energy shortage became a worldwide major problem since the 1970s, due to high energy consumption. Buildings are the primary energy users which consume 40% of global energy consumption, in which, 40%-50% of building’s energy usage is consumed due to its envelope. In hot and dry climates, 40% of energy is consumed only for cooling purpose, which implies major portion of energy savings can be worked through the envelopes. Biomimicry can be one solution for extracting efficient thermoregulation strategies found in nature. This paper aims to identify different biomimetic building envelopes which shall offer a higher potential to reduce energy consumption in hot and dry climates. It focuses on investigating the scope for reducing energy consumption through biomimetic approach in terms of envelopes. An in-depth research on different biomimetic building envelopes will be presented and analyzed in terms of heat absorption, in addition to, the impact it had on reducing the buildings energy consumption. This helps to understand feasible biomimetic building envelopes to mitigate heat absorption in hot and dry climates.
The Mechanism Study on the Difference between High and Low Voltage Performance of Li3V2(PO4)3
As one of most popular polyanionic compounds in lithium-ion cathode materials, Li3V2(PO4)3 has always suffered from the low rate capability especially during 3~4.8V, which is considered to be related with the ion diffusion resistance and structural transformation during the Li+ de/intercalation. Here, as the change of cut-off voltages, cycling numbers and current densities, the process of SEI interfacial film’s formation-growing- destruction-repair on the surface of the cathode, the structural transformation during the charge and discharge, the de/intercalation kinetics reflected by the electrochemical impedance and the diffusion coefficient, have been investigated in detail. Current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage impacting on interfacial film and structure was studied specifically. Firstly, the matching between electrolyte and material was investigated, it turned out that the batteries with high voltage electrolyte showed the best electrochemical performance and high voltage electrolyte would be the best electrolyte. Secondly, AC impedance technology was used to study the changes of interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient, the results showed that current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage influenced the interfacial film together and the one who changed the interfacial properties most was the key factor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that the attenuation of discharge specific capacity was associated with the destruction and repair process of the SEI film. Thirdly, the X-ray diffraction was used to study the changes of structure, which was also impacted by current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage. The results indicated that the cell volume of Li3V2 (PO4 )3 increased as the current density increased; cycle numbers merely influenced the structure of material; the cell volume decreased first and moved back gradually after two Li-ion had been deintercalated as the charging cut-off voltage increased, and increased as the intercalation number of Li-ion increased during the discharging process. Then, the results which studied the changes of interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient turned out that the interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient increased when the cut-off voltage passed the voltage platforms and decreased when the cut-off voltage was between voltage platforms. Finally, three-electrode system was first adopted to test the activation energy of the system, the results indicated that the activation energy of the three-electrode system (22.385 KJ /mol) was much smaller than that of two-electrode system (40.064 KJ /mol).
A Comparative Case Study of the Impact of Square and Yurt-Shape Buildings on Energy Efficiency
Regions with extreme climate conditions such as Astana city require energy saving measures to increase the energy performance of buildings which are responsible for more than 40% of total energy consumption. Identification of optimal building geometry is one of the key factors to be considered. The architectural form of a building has the impact on space heating and cooling energy use, however, the interrelationship between the geometry and resultant energy use is not always readily apparent. This paper presents a comparative case study of two prototypical buildings with compact building shape to assess its impact on energy performance.
Performance of Environmental Efficiency of Energy Consumption in OPEC Countries
Global awareness on energy security and climate change has created much interest in assessing energy efficiency performance. A number of previous studies have contributed to evaluate energy efficiency performance using different analytical techniques among which data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently received increasing attention. Most of DEA-related energy efficiency studies do not consider undesirable outputs such as CO2 emissions in their modeling framework, which may lead to biased energy efficiency values. Within a joint production frame work of desirable and undesirable outputs, in this paper we construct energy efficiency performance index for measuring energy efficiency performance by using environmental DEA model with CO2 emissions. We finally apply the index proposed to assess the energy efficiency performance in OPEC over time.
Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation
The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.
Cross Section Measurement for Formation of Metastable State of ¹¹¹ᵐCd through ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd Reaction Induced by Bremsstrahlung Generated through 6 MeV Electrons
Photon induced average reaction cross section of ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd reaction was experimentally determined for the bremsstrahlung energy spectrum of 6 MeV by utilizing the activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric techniques. The 6 MeV electron accelerator Racetrack Microtron of Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune was used for the experimental work. The bremsstrahlung spectrum generated by bombarding 6 MeV electrons on lead target was theoretically estimated by FLUKA code. Bremsstrahlung radiation can have energies exceeding the threshold of the particle emission, which is normally above 6 MeV. Photons of energies below the particle emission threshold undergo absorption into discrete energy levels, with possibility of exciting nuclei to excited state including metastable state. The ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd reaction cross sections were calculated at different energies of bombarding Photon by using the TALYS 1.8 computer code with a default parameter. The focus of the present work was to study the (γ,γ’) reaction for exciting ¹¹¹Cd nuclei to metastable states which have threshold energy below 3 MeV. The flux weighted average cross section was obtained from the theoretical values of TALYS 1.8 and TENDL 2017 and is found to be in good agreement with the present experimental cross section.
Environment Problems of Energy Exploitation and Utilization in Nigeria
The problems placed on the environment as a result of energy generation and usage in Nigeria is: potential damage to the environment health by CO, CO2, SOx, and NOx, effluent gas emissions and global warming. For instance in the year 2004 in Nigeria energy consumption was 58% oil and 34% natural gas but about 94 million metric tons of CO2 was emitted out of which 64% came from fossil fuels while about 35% came from fuel wood. The findings from this research on how to alleviate these problems are that long term sustainable development solutions should be enhanced globally; energy should be used more rationally renewable energy resources should be exploited and the existing emissions should be controlled to tolerate limits because the increase in energy demand in Nigeria places enormous strain on current energy facilities.
Structural Fluxionality of Luminescent Coordination Compounds with Lanthanide Ions
Complexes with lanthanide ions have been extensively studied due to their applications as luminescent, magnetic and catalytic materials as molecular or extended crystals, thin films, glasses, polymeric matrices, ionic liquids, and in solution. NMR chemical shift data in solution have been reported and suggest fluxional structures in a wide range of coordination compounds with rare earth ions. However, the fluxional mechanisms for these compounds are still not established. This structural fluxionality may affect the photophysical, catalytic and magnetic properties in solution. Thus, understanding the structural interconversion mechanisms may aid the design of coordination compounds with, for instance, improved (electro)luminescence, catalytic and magnetic behaviors. The [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, where btfa= 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedionate and bipy= 2,2’-bipiridyl, has a well-defined X-ray crystallographic structure and preliminary 1H NMR data suggested a structural fluxionality. Thus, we have investigated a series of coordination compounds with lanthanide ions [Ln(btfa)₃L], where Ln = La, Eu, Gd or Yb and L= bipy or phen (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) using a combined theoretical-experimental approach. These complexes were synthesized and fully characterized, and detailed NMR measurements were obtained. They were also studied by quantum chemical computational methods (DFT-PBE0). The aim was to determine the relevant factors in the structure of these compounds that favor or not the fluxional behavior. Measurements of the 1H NMR signals at variable temperature in CD₂Cl₂ of the [Eu(btfa)₃L] complexes suggest that these compounds have a fluxional structure, because the crystal structure has non-equivalent btfa ligands that should lead to non-equivalent hydrogen atoms and thus to more signals in the NMR spectra than those obtained at room temperature, where all hydrogen atoms of the btfa ligands are equivalent, and phen ligand has an effective vertical symmetry plane. For the [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, the broadening of the signals at –70°C provides a lower bound for the coalescence temperature, which indicates the energy barriers involved in the structural interconversion mechanisms are quite small. These barriers and, consequently, the coalescence temperature are dependent upon the radii of the lanthanide ion as well as to their paramagnetic effects. The PBE0 calculated structures are in very good agreement with the crystallographic data and, for the [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, this method provided several distinct structures with almost the same energy. However, the energy barrier for structural interconversion via dissociative pathways were found to be quite high and could not explain the experimental observations. Whereas the pseudo-rotation pathways, involving the btfa and bipy ligands, have very small activation barriers, in excellent agreement with the NMR data. The results also showed an increase in the activation barrier along the lanthanide series due to the decrease of the ionic radii and consequent increase of the steric effects. TD-DFT calculations showed a dependence of the ligand donor state energy with different structures of the complex [Eu(btfa)₃phen], which can affect the energy transfer rates and the luminescence. The energy required to promote the structural fluxionality may also enhance the luminescence quenching in solution. These results can aid in the design of more luminescent compounds and more efficient devices.
Nearly Zero Energy Building: Analysis on How End-Users Affect Energy Savings Targets
One of the most important energy challenge of the European policies is the transition to a Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) model. A NZEB is a new concept of building that has the aim of reducing both the energy consumption and the carbon emissions to nearly zero of the course of a year. To achieve this nearly zero consumption, apart from being buildings with high efficiency levels, the energy consumed by the building has to be produced on-site. This paper is focused on presenting the results of the analysis developed on basis of real projects’ data in order to quantify the impact of end-users behavior. The analysis is focused on how the behavior of building’s occupants can vary the achievement of the energy savings targets and how they can be limited. The results obtained show that on this kind of project, with very high energy performance, is required to limit the end-users interaction with the system operation to be able to reach the targets fixed.
Adsorption Cooling Using Hybrid Energy Resources
HVAC represents a significant part of energy needs in buildings. Integrating renewable energy in cooling processes contributes to reducing primary energy consumption. Sorption refrigeration allows cold production through the use of solar/biomass/geothermal energy or even valuation of waste heat. This work presents an analysis of an experimental bench incorporating an adsorption chiller driven by hybrid energy resources associating solar thermal collectors with a cogeneration gas engine and a geothermal heat pump.
Smart Grid Simulator
The Smart Grid Simulator is a computer software based on advanced algorithms which has as the main purpose to lower the energy bill in the most optimized price efficient way as possible for private households, companies or energy providers. It combines the energy provided by a number of solar modules and wind turbines with the consumption of one household or a cluster of nearby households and information regarding weather conditions and energy prices in order to predict the amount of energy that can be produced by renewable energy sources and the amount of energy that will be bought from the distributor for the following day. The user of the system will not only be able to minimize his expenditures on energy fractures, but also he will be informed about his hourly consumption, electricity prices fluctuation and money spent for energy bought as well as how much money he saved each day and since he installed the system. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Smart Grid Simulator idea and presents preliminary test results that support the discussion and implementation of the system.
Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Potential for HVAC System in Commercial Buildings Sector in India
In order to reduce energy consumption for sustainable development, continuous energy consumption tracking of building energy systems are essential. In this paper an assessment study has been done to identify the energy consumption & energy conservation potential for commercial buildings sector in Karnataka state, India. There are a total of 326 commercial buildings in the state of Karnataka who has qualified as designated consumers (i.e., having a Contract Demand ≥ 600 KVA), was consider for the study. It has estimated that the annual electricity sale to commercial sector is 3.62 Billion Units (BU) in alone Karnataka State, India, which is an account for 9.57 % of the total electricity sold. The commercial sector constitutes Government & private establishments, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, educational institutions, malls etc. Total 326 commercial buildings in the state accounting for annual energy consumption of 1295.72 Million Units (MU) which works out to about 35% of the sectoral consumption. The annual energy savings potential for 326 commercial buildings is assessed to be 0.25 BU.
Production and Evaluation of Activated Carbon from Oil Palm Kernel Shell in the Removal of Paraquat Diluted in Water
Oil Palm Kernel Shell (OPKS) is a residue of the palm oil extraction process, which has good characteristics for the production of activated carbon (AC). Colombia ranks fourth in the world in palm oil production, and it is estimated that in 2018, the amount of produced OPKS was approximately 350,000 tons per year. Within the contaminants of surface waters, the pesticide Paraquat is identified as one of the most dangerous for human health and most used in agriculture in Colombia. Oil palm kernel shells were first carbonized in a horizontal oven under N₂ atmosphere until 850 °C for 30 min. After that, three batches, each of 300 g of the carbonized OPKS (C- OPKS), were activated in the same horizontal reactor by means of partial gasification using H₂O as reaction agent. The activation process starts with a heating stage by raising the temperature from 20 °C to 850 °C in approximately 280 minutes under a flow of 0.481 l/min N₂ at standard conditions. Subsequently, in the activation stage, the flow of N₂ is suspended and replaced by a flow of 4 ml/min steam (measurement in liquid state before going through the evaporation system) while maintaining the temperature at 850 ± 10 °C for another 310 minutes. Finally, the flow of steam is changed to N₂ and the oven is cooled down until ambient temperature. As a result of the activation process (partial gasification), an activated carbon (AC-OPKS) with approximately 50 % degree of activation and a surface area of 1200 m²/g were obtained. The activated carbon is characterized by means of determination of pH, soluble water content, extractable acid content, iodine number, methylene blue index, phenol adsorption, BET surface area from N₂ adsorption and density. The adsorption capacity of the AC-OPKS towards Paraquat is studied by measuring breakthrough curves in an adsorption column using initial concentrations of Paraquat between 600 µg/l and 5000 µg/l. A comparison is performed by using a commercial activated carbon CO-AC from the company Donau Carbon ref. Hydraffin. The determination of the concentration of Paraquat in water is made by voltammetry. This technique provides the necessary sensitivity and is economical and accessible.
Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide
Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.
Combined Use of FMRI and Voxel-Based Morphometry in Assessment of Memory Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Patients
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Different brain regions are involved to the pathological process of AD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate brain activation by visual memory task in patients with Alzheimer's disease and determine correlation between memory impairment and atrophy of memory specific brain regions of frontal and medial temporal lobes. To investigate the organization of memory and localize cortical areas activated by visual memory task we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and to evaluate brain atrophy of patients with Alzheimer's disease we used voxel-based morphometry. FMRI was performed on 1.5 T MR-scanner Siemens Magnetom Symphony with BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) technique, based on distinctions of magnetic properties of hemoglobin. For test stimuli we used series of 12 not related images for "Baseline" and 12 images with 6 presented before for "Active". Stimuli were presented 3 times with reduction of repeated images to 4 and 2. Patients with Alzheimer's disease showed less activation in hippocampal formation (HF) region and parahippocampal gyrus then healthy persons of control group (p< 0.05). The study also showed reduced activation in posterior cingulate cortex (p< 0.001). Voxel-based morphometry showed significant atrophy of grey matter in Alzheimer’s disease patients, especially of both temporal lobes (fusiform and parahippocampal gyri); frontal lobes (posterior cingulate and superior frontal gyri). The study showed correlation between memory impairment and atrophy of memory specific brain regions of frontal and medial temporal lobes. Thus, reduced activation in hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyri, in posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with Alzheimer's disease correlates to significant atrophy of these regions, detected by voxel-based morphometry, and to deterioration of specific cognitive functions.
Contribution to the Success of the Energy Audit in the Industrial Environment: A Case Study about Audit of Interior Lighting for an Industrial Site in Morocco
The energy audit is the essential initial step to ensure a good definition of energy control actions. The in-depth study of the various energy-consuming equipments makes it possible to determine the actions and investments with best cost for the company. The analysis focuses on the energy consumption of production equipment and utilities (lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation, transport). Successful implementation of this approach requires, however, to take into account a number of prerequisites. This paper proposes a number of useful recommendations concerning the energy audit in order to achieve better results, and a case study concerning the lighting audit of a Moroccan company by showing the gains that can be made through this audit.
Measuring Environmental Efficiency of Energy in OPEC Countries
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently gained popularity in energy efficiency analysis. A common feature of the previously proposed DEA models for measuring energy efficiency performance is that they treat energy consumption as an input within a production framework without considering undesirable outputs. However, energy use results in the generation of undesirable outputs as byproducts of producing desirable outputs. Within a joint production framework of both desirable and undesirable outputs, this paper presents several DEA-type linear programming models for measuring energy efficiency performance. In addition to considering undesirable outputs, our models treat different energy sources as different inputs so that changes in energy mix could be accounted for in evaluating energy efficiency. The proposed models are applied to measure the energy efficiency performances of 12 OPEC countries and the results obtained are presented.
Synergy Effect of Energy and Water Saving in China's Energy Sectors: A Multi-Objective Optimization Analysis
The ‘11th five-year’ and ‘12th five-year’ plans have clearly put forward to strictly control the total amount and intensity of energy and water consumption. The synergy effect of energy and water has rarely been considered in the process of energy and water saving in China, where its contribution cannot be maximized. Energy sectors consume large amounts of energy and water when producing massive energy, which makes them both energy and water intensive. Therefore, the synergy effect in these sectors is significant. This paper assesses and optimizes the synergy effect in three energy sectors under the background of promoting energy and water saving. Results show that: From the perspective of critical path, chemical industry, mining and processing of non-metal ores and smelting and pressing of metals are coupling points in the process of energy and water flowing to energy sectors, in which the implementation of energy and water saving policies can bring significant synergy effect. Multi-objective optimization shows that increasing efforts on input restructuring can effectively improve synergy effects; relatively large synergetic energy saving and little water saving are obtained after solely reducing the energy and water intensity of coupling sectors. By optimizing the input structure of sectors, especially the coupling sectors, the synergy effect of energy and water saving can be improved in energy sectors under the premise of keeping economy running stably.
The MCNP Simulation of Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis at TRR-1/M1
The prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis system (PGNAA) has been constructed and installed at a 6 inch diameter neutron beam port of the Thai Research Reactor-1/ Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) since 1989. It was designed for the reactor operating power at 1.2 MW. The purpose of the system is for an elemental and isotopic analytical. In 2016, the PGNAA facility will be developed to reduce the leakage and background of neutrons and gamma radiation at the sample and detector position. In this work, the designed condition of these facilities is carried out based on the Monte Carlo method using MCNP5 computer code. The conditions with different modification materials, thicknesses and structure of the PGNAA facility, including gamma collimator and radiation shields of the detector, are simulated, and then the optimal structure parameters with a significantly improved performance of the facility are obtained.
Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Some Amino Acids by Peroxodisulphate
In this study two amino acids were chosen (DL.alanine,DL.serine) to determine their effect on dissociation of S2O8-2 ino. As the reaction was very slow, Ag+ ino was used as a catalyst. The kinetics measurement showed that the reactions in both cases were found in the first order with respect to S2O8-2, half order with respect to Ag+ and zero order with respect to substrates. Mechanisms were proposed for these reactions according to the determined orders. The energy of activation (AE) was determined for each reaction, and was found to by 30.50 k JmoI-1 in case of DL. Serine and 24.40 k JmoI-1 in case of DL.alanine.
Microwave Assisted Solvent-free Catalytic Transesterification of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate
As a by-product of the biodiesel industries, glycerol has been vastly generated which surpasses the market demand. It is imperative to develop an efficient glycerol valorization processes in minimizing the net energy requirement and intensifying the biodiesel production. In this study, base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate using microwave irradiation as heating method to produce glycerol carbonate was conducted by varing grades of glycerol i.e. 70%, 86% and 99% purity that obtained from biodiesel plant. Metal oxide catalysts were used with varying operating parameters including reaction time, DMC/glycerol molar ratio, catalyst weight %, temperature and stirring speed. From the study on the effect of different operating parameters; it was found that the type of catalyst used has the most significant effect on the transesterification reaction. Admist the metal oxide catalysts examined, CaO gave the best performance. This study indicates the feasibility of producing glycerol carbonate using different grade of glycerol in both conventional thermal activation and microwave irradiation with CaO as catalyst. Microwave assisted transesterification (MAT) of glycerol into glycerol carbonate has demostrated itself as an energy efficient route by achieving 94.3% yield of GC at 65°C, 5 minutes reaction time, 1 wt% CaO and DMC/glycerol molar ratio of 2. The advantages of MAT transesterification route has made the direct utilization of bioglycerol from biodiesel production without the need of purification. This has marked a more economical and less-energy intensive glycerol carbonate synthesis route.
Renewable Energy in Morocco: Photovoltaic Water Pumping System
Renewable energies have a major importance of Morocco's new energy strategy. The geographical location of the Kingdom promotes the development of the use of solar energy. The use of this energy reduces the dependence on imports of primary energy, meets the growing demand for water and electricity in remote areas encourages the deployment of a local industry in the renewable energy sector and Minimize carbon emissions. Indeed, given the importance of the radiation intensity received and the duration of the sunshine, the country can cover some of its solar energy needs. The use of solar energy to pump water is one of the most promising application, this technique represents a solution wherever the grid does not exist. In this paper, we will present a presentation of photovoltaic pumping system components, and the important solar pumping projects installed in Morocco to supply water from remote area.
Technical and Economic Environment in the Polish Power System as the Basis for Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy Sources Development
The article raises the issue of the development of local renewable energy sources and the production of distributed energy in context of improving the reliability of the Polish Power System and the beneficial impact on local and national energy security. The paper refers to the current problems of local governments in the process of investment in the area of distributed energy projects, and discusses the issues of the future role and cooperation within the local power plants and distributed energy. Attention is paid to the local communities the chance to raise their own resources and management of energy fuels (biomass, wind, gas mining) and improving the local energy balance. The material presented takes the issue of the development of the energy potential of municipalities and future cooperation with professional energy. As an example, practical solutions used in one of the communes in Silesia.
An Efficient Activated Carbon for Copper (II) Adsorption Synthesized from Indian Gooseberry Seed Shells
Removal of metal pollutants by efficient activated carbon is challenging research in the present-day scenario. In the present study, the characteristic features of an efficient activated carbon (AC) synthesized from Indian gooseberry seed shells for the copper (II) adsorption are reported. A three-step chemical activation method consisting of the impregnation, carbonization and subsequent activation is used to produce the activated carbon. The copper adsorption kinetics and isotherms onto the activated carbon were analyzed. As per present investigation, Indian gooseberry seed shells showed the BET surface area of 1359 m²/g. The maximum adsorptivity of the activated carbon at a pH value of 9.52 was found to be 44.84 mg/g at 30°C. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model along with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This AC could be used as a favorable and cost-effective copper (II) adsorbent in wastewater treatment to remove the metal contaminants.
Disperse Innovation in the Turning German Energy Market
German energy market is under historical change. Turning-off the nuclear power plants and intensive subsidization of the renewable energies causes a paradigm change from big central energy production and distribution to more local structures, bringing the energy production near to the consumption. The formerly big energy market with only a few big energy plants and grid operating companies is changing into a disperse market with growing numbers of small and medium size companies (SME) generating new value-added products and services. This change in then energy market, in Germany called the “Energiewende”, inverts also the previous innovation system. Big power plants and large grids required also big operating companies. Innovations in the energy market focused mainly on big projects and complex energy technologies. Innovation in the new energy market structure is much more dispersed. Increasing number of SME is now able to develop energy production and storage technologies, smart technologies to control the grids, and numerous new energy related services. Innovation is now regional distributed, which is a remarkable problem for the old big energy companies. The paper will explain the change in the German energy market and the paradigm change as well as the consequences for the innovation structure in the German energy market. It will show examples how SME participate from this change and how innovation systems, as well for the big companies and for SME, can be adapted.
A Paradigm Shift in Energy Policy and Use: Exergy and Hybrid Renewable Energy Technologies
Sustainable energy use is exploiting energy resources within acceptable levels of global resource depletion without destroying the ecological balance of an area. In the context of sustainability, the rush to quell the energy crisis of the fossil fuels of the 1970's by embarking on nuclear energy technology has now been seen as a disaster. In the circumstance, action (policy) suggested in this study to avoid future occurrence is exergy maximization/entropy generation minimization and the use is renewable energy technologies that are hybrid based. Thirty-two (32) selected hybrid renewable energy technologies were assessed with respect to their energetic efficiencies and entropy generation. The results indicated that determining which of the hybrid technologies is the most efficient process and sustainable is a matter of defining efficiency and knowing which of them possesses the minimum entropy generation.
An Electromechanical Device to Use in Road Pavements to Convert Vehicles Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy
With the growing need for alternative energy sources, research into energy harvesting technologies has increased considerably in recent years. The particular case of energy harvesting on road pavements is a very recent area of research, with different technologies having been developed in recent years. However, none of them have presented high conversion efficiencies nor technical or economic viability. This paper deals with the development of a mechanical system to implement on a road pavement energy harvesting electromechanical device, to transmit energy from the device surface to an electrical generator. The main goal is to quantify the energy harvesting, transmission and conversion efficiency of the proposed system and compare it with existing systems. Conclusions about the system’s efficiency are presented.
Identifying the Factors affecting on the Success of Energy Usage Saving in Municipality of Tehran
For the purpose of optimizing and developing energy efficiency in building, it is required to recognize key elements of success in optimization of energy consumption before performing any actions. Surveying Principal Components is one of the most valuable result of Linear Algebra because the simple and non-parametric methods are become confusing. So that energy management system implemented according to energy management system international standard ISO50001:2011 and all energy parameters in building to be measured through performing energy auditing. In this essay by simulating used of data mining, the key impressive elements on energy saving in buildings to be determined. This approach is based on data mining statistical techniques using feature selection method and fuzzy logic and convert data from massive to compressed type and used to increase the selected feature. On the other side, influence portion and amount of each energy consumption elements in energy dissipation in percent are recognized as separated norm while using obtained results from energy auditing and after measurement of all energy consuming parameters and identified variables. Accordingly, energy saving solution divided into 3 categories, low, medium and high expense solutions.
Characterization of Calcium-Signalling Mediated by Human GPR55 Expressed in HEK293 Cells
The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was recently identified as a novel ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and an inducer of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i release. This study attempts to characterize Ca2+ signals provoked by LPI in HEK293 cells engineered to stably express human GPR55 and to test cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55. The study shows that treatment with LPI stimulates a sustained, oscillatory Ca2+ release. The response is characterized by an initial rapid rise, which is mediated by the Gαq-PLC-IP3 pathway, and this is followed by prolonged oscillations that require RhoA activation. Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by intracellular mechanisms and extracellular Ca2+ is only required to replenish Ca2+ lost from the cytoplasm. Analysis of cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55 revealed no clear effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide, however, rimonabant and the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 evoked GPR55-mediated [Ca2+]i. Thus, LPI is likely to be a key plasma membrane mediator of signaling events and changes in gene expression through GPR55 activation.
Realization of Sustainable Urban Society by Personal Electric Transporter and Natural Energy
In regards to the energy sector in the modern period, two points were raised. First is a vast and growing energy demand, and second is an environmental impact associated with it. The enormous consumption of fossil fuel to the mobile unit is leading to its rapid depletion. Nuclear power is not the only problem. A modal shift that utilizes personal transporters and independent power, in order to realize a sustainable society, is very effective. The paper proposes that the world will continue to work on this. Energy of the future society, innovation in battery technology and the use of natural energy is a big key. And it is also necessary in order to save on energy consumption.
miR-200c as a Biomarker for 5-FU Chemosensitivity in Colorectal Cancer
5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that has been used in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, it is usually associated with the acquired resistance, which decreases the therapeutic effects of 5-FU. miR-200c is involved in chemotherapeutic drug resistance, but its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of inhibition of miR-200c in sensitivity of HCT-116 CRC cells to 5-FU was evaluated. HCT-116 cells were transfected with LNA-anti- miR-200c for 48 h. mRNA expression of miR-200c was evaluated using quantitative real- time PCR. The protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and E-cadherin were analyzed by western blotting. Annexin V and propidium iodide staining assay were applied for apoptosis detection. The caspase-3 activation was evaluated by an enzymatic assay. The results showed LNA-anti-miR-200c inhibited the expression of PTEN and E-cadherin protein, apoptosis and activation of caspase 3 compared with control cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that miR-200c as a prognostic marker can overcome to 5-FU chemoresistance in CRC.
The Micro-Activated Organic Regeneration in Rural Construction: A Case Study of Yangdun Village in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province
With the strategy of Rural Rejuvenation proposed in China, the rural has become the focus of all works today. In addition to the support of industry and policy, the rural planning and construction which is the space dependence of Rural Rejuvenation are also very crucial. Based on an analysis of the case of Yangdun Village in Deqing County, this paper summarizes village existing resources and construction status quo. It tries to illuminate the micro-activated organic renewal strategies and methods, based on ecological landscape, history context, industry development and living life requirements. It takes advantage of industrial linkage and then asks for the coordination of both spatial and industrial planning, the revival and remodeling of the rural image can be achieved through shaping the of architectural and landscape nodes as well as the activation of street space.
Optimal Planning and Design of Hybrid Energy System for Taxila University
Renewable energy resources are being realized as suitable options in hybrid energy planning for on-grid and micro grid. In this paper, operation, planning and optimal design of on-grid distributed energy resources based hybrid system are investigated. The aim is to minimize the cost of the overall energy system keeping in view the environmental emission and minimum penetration of conventional energy resources. Seven grid connected different case studies including diesel only, diesel-renewable based, and renewable based only are designed to perform economic analysis, operational planning and emission. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to investigate the impact of different parameters on the performance of energy resources.
Energy Consumption in China’s Urban Water Supply System
In a water supply system, a great deal of care goes into sourcing, treating and delivering water to consumers, but less thought is given to the energy consumed during these processes. This study uses 2011 data to quantify energy use for urban water supply in China and investigates population density as a possible influencing factor. The objective is to provide information that can be used to develop energy-conscious water infrastructure policy, calculate the energy co-benefits of water conservation and compare energy use between China and other countries. The average electrical energy intensity and per capita electrical energy consumption for urban water supply in China in 2011 were 0.29 kWh/m3 and 33.2 kWh/cap•yr, respectively. Comparison between provinces revealed a direct correlation between energy intensity of urban water supply and population served per unit length of pipe. This could imply energy intensity is lower when more densely populated areas are supplied by relatively dense networks of pipes. This study also found that whereas the percentage of energy used for urban water supply tends to increase with the percentage of population served this increase is slower where water supply is more energy efficient and where a larger percentage of population is already supplied.
A System Dynamics Model for Assessment of Alternative Energy Policy Measures: A Case of Energy Management System as an Energy Efficiency Policy Tool
European Union Energy Efficiency Directive provides a set of binding energy efficiency measures to reach. Each of the member states can use either energy efficiency obligation scheme or alternative policy measures or combination of both. Latvian government has decided to divide savings among obligation scheme (65%) and alternative measures (35%). This decision might lead to significant energy tariff increase hence impact on the national economy. To assess impact of alternative policy measures focusing on energy management scheme based on ISO 50001 and ability to decrease share of obligation scheme a System Dynamics modeling was used. Simulation results show that energy efficiency goal can be met with alternative policy measure to large energy consumers in industrial, tertiary and public sectors by applying the energy tax exemption for implementers of energy management system. A delay in applying alternative policy measures plays very important role in reaching the energy efficiency goal. One year delay in implementation of this policy measure reduces cumulative energy savings from 2016 to 2017 from 5200 GWh to 3000 GWh in 2020.
Investigation in Gassy Ozone Influence on Flaxes Made from Biologically Activated Whole Wheat Grains Quality Parameters
The aim of the current research was to investigate the gassy ozone effect on quality parameters of flaxes made form whole biologically activated wheat grains. The research was accomplished on in year 2012 harvested wheat grains variety ′Zentos′. Grains were washed, wetted; grain biological activation was performed in the climatic chamber up to 24 hours. After biological activation grains was compressed; than flaxes was dried in convective drier till constant moisture content 9±1%. For grain treatment gassy ozone concentration as 0.0002% and treatment time – 6 min was used. In the processed flaxes the content of A and G tocopherol decrease by 23% and by 9%; content of B2 and B6 vitamins – by 11% and by 10%; elaidic acid – by 46%, oleic acid – by 29%; arginine (by 80%), glutamine (by 74%), asparagine and serine (by 68%), valine (by 62%), cysteine (by 54%) and tyrosine (by 47%).
Effect of Ramp Rate on the Preparation of Activated Carbon from Saudi Date Tree Fronds (Agro Waste) by Physical Activation Method
Saudi Arabia is the major date producer in the world. In order to maximize the production from date tree, pruning of the date trees is required annually. Large amount of this agriculture waste material (palm tree fronds) is available in Saudi Arabia and considered as an ideal source as a precursor for production of activated carbon (AC). The single step procedure for the preparation of micro porous activated carbon (AC) from Saudi date tree fronds using mixture of gases (N2 and CO2) is carried out at carbonization/activation temperature at 850°C and at different ramp rates of 10, 20 and 30 degree per minute. Alloy 330 horizontal reactor is used for tube furnace. Flow rate of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases are kept at 150 ml/min and 50 ml/min respectively during the preparation. Characterization results reveal that the BET surface area, pore volume, and average pore diameter of the resulting activated carbon generally decreases with the increase in ramp rate. The activated carbon prepared at a ramp rate of 10 degrees/minute attains larger surface area and can offer higher potential to produce activated carbon of greater adsorption capacity from agriculture wastes such as date fronds. The BET surface areas of the activated carbons prepared at a ramp rate of 10, 20 and 30 degree/minute after 30 minutes activation time are 1094, 1020 and 515 m2/g, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology, and FTIR for functional groups was carried out that also verified the same trend. Moreover, by increasing the ramp rate from 10 and 20 degrees/min the yield remains same, i.e. 18%, whereas at a ramp rate of 30 degrees/min the yield increases from 18 to 20%. Thus, it is feasible to produce high-quality micro porous activated carbon from date frond agro waste using N2 carbonization followed by physical activation with CO2 and N2 mixture. This micro porous activated carbon can be used as adsorbent of heavy metals from wastewater, NOx SOx emission adsorption from ambient air and electricity generation plants, purification of gases, sewage treatment and many other applications.
Technical and Practical Aspects of Sizing a Autonomous PV System
The use of photovoltaic energy offers an inexhaustible supply of energy but also a clean and non-polluting energy, which is a definite advantage. The geographical location of Algeria promotes the development of the use of this energy. Indeed, given the importance of the intensity of the radiation received and the duration of sunshine. For this reason, the objective of our work is to develop a data-processing tool (software) of calculation and optimization of dimensioning of the photovoltaic installations. Our approach of optimization is basing on mathematical models, which amongst other things describe the operation of each part of the installation, the energy production, the storage and the consumption of energy.
Acute Effects of Local Vibration on Muscle Activation, Metabolic and Hormone Responses
The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of local vibration on muscle activation, metabolic and hormone responses. Totally 12 healthy, physically inactive, male adults participated in this study and completed LV exercise session. During LV exercise session, four custom-made vibrations (diameter: 20 mm; thickness: 8 mm; weight: 0.022 g) were locally placed over the belly of the thigh of each subject’s non-dominant leg in supine lying position, and subjects received 10 sets for 1 min at the frequency of 35-40Hz, with 1–2 min of rest between sets. The surface electromyography (EMG) were obtained from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris, and the subjects’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were measured. EMG data, RPE values as well as HR were obtained by averaging the results of 10 sets of each exercise session. Blood samples were drawn before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15min and 30min after exercise in each session for analysis of lactic acid (LA), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). The results indicated that the HR did not increase after LV (63.18±3.5 to 63.25±2.58 beat/min, p > 0.05). The average RPE values during the LV exposure were at 2.86±0.39. The root mean square % EMG values from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris were 19.02±2.19 and 8.25±2.20 respectively. There were no significant differences after acute LV exercise among LA, GH and T values as compared with baseline values (LA: 0.68±0.11 to 0.7±0.1 mmol/L; GH: 0.06±0.05 to 0.57±0.27 ng/mL; T: 551.33±46.62 to 520.42±43.78 ng/dL, p>0.05). However, the LV treatment caused a significant decrease in C values after exercise (16.56±1.05 to 11.64±1.85 nmol/L, p< 0.05). In conclusion, acute LV exercise only slightly increase muscle activation which may not cause effective exercise response. However, acute LV exercise reduces C level, which may reduce the catabolic response. The probable reason might partly due to the vibration rhythmically which massage on muscles.
Recent Progress in the Uncooled Mid-Infrared Lead Selenide Polycrystalline Photodetector
Currently, the uncooled PbSe photodetectors in the mid-infrared range (2-5μm) with sensitization technology extract more photoelectric response than traditional ones, and enable the room temperature (300K) photo-detection with high detectivity, which have attracted wide attentions in many fields. This technology generally contains the film fabrication with vapor phase deposition (VPD) and a sensitizing process with doping of oxygen and iodine. Many works presented in the recent years almost provide and high temperature activation method with oxygen/iodine vapor diffusion, which reveals that oxygen or iodine plays an important role in the sensitization of PbSe material. In this paper, we provide our latest experimental results and discussions in the stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine and its influence on the polycrystalline structure and photo-response. The experimental results revealed that crystal orientation was transformed from (200) to (420) by sensitization, and the responsivity of 5.42 A/W was gained by the optimal stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine with molecular density of I2 of ~1.51×1012 mm-3 and oxygen pressure of ~1Mpa. We verified that I2 plays a role in transporting oxygen into the lattice of crystal, which is actually not its major role. It is revealed that samples sensitized with iodine transform atomic proportion of Pb from 34.5% to 25.0% compared with samples without iodine from XPS data, which result in the proportion of about 1:1 between Pb and Se atoms by sublimation of PbI2 during sensitization process, and Pb/Se atomic proportion is controlled by I/O atomic proportion in the polycrystalline grains, which is very an important factor for improving responsivity of uncooled PbSe photodetector. Moreover, a novel sensitization and dopant activation method is proposed using oxygen ion implantation with low ion energy of < 500eV and beam current of ~120μA/cm2. These results may be helpful to understanding the sensitization mechanism of polycrystalline lead salt materials.
Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) and the Response of Indigenous Bacteria in Highly Contaminated Aged Soil after Persulfate Oxidation
Integrated chemical-biological treatment is an attractive alternative to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil; wherein indigenous bacteria is the key factor for the biodegradation of residual PAHs concentrations after the application of chemical oxidation. However, the systematical study on the impact of persulfate (PS) oxidation on indigenous bacteria as well as PAHs removal is still scarce. In this study, the influences of different PS dosages (1%, 3%, 6%, and 10% [w/w]), as well as various activation methods (native iron, H2O2, alkaline, ferrous iron, and heat) on PAHs removal and indigenous bacteria in highly contaminated aged soil were investigated. Apparent degradation of PAHs in the soil treated with PS oxidation was observed, and the removal efficiency of total PAHs in the soil ranged from 38.28% to 79.97%. The removal efficiency of total PAHs in the soil increased with increasing consumption of PS. However, the bacterial abundance in soil was negatively affected following oxidation for all of the treatments added with PS, with bacterial abundance in the soil decreased by 0.89~2.88 orders of magnitude compared to the untreated soil. Moreover, the number of total bacteria in the soil decreased as PS consumption increased. Different PS activation methods and PS dosages exhibited different influences on the bacterial community composition. Bacteria capable of degrading PAHs under anoxic conditions were composed predominantly by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The total amount of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes also decreased with increasing consumption of PS. The results of this study provide important insight into the design of PAHs contaminated soil remediation projects.
Optimization of Urea Water Solution Injector for NH3 Uniformity Improvement in Urea-SCR System
The Urea-SCR is one of the most efficient technologies to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. In the present work, the computational prediction of internal flow and spray characteristics in the Urea-SCR system was carried out by using 3D-CFD simulation to evaluate NH3 uniformity index (NH3 UI) and its activation time according to the official New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The number of nozzle and its diameter, two types of injection directions, and penetration length were chosen as the design variables. The optimal solutions were obtained by coupling the CFD analysis with Taguchi method. The L16 orthogonal array and small-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method were used, and the optimal values were confirmed to be valid with 95% confidence and 5% significance level through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the optimal solutions for the NH3 UI and activation time (NH3 UI 0.22) are obtained by 0.41 and 0,125 second, respectively, and their values are improved by 85.0% and 10.7%, respectively, compared with those of the base model.
The Eco-Efficient Construction: A Review of Embodied Energy in Building Materials
The building construction industry consumes a large amount of resources and energy, both during construction (embodied energy) and during the operational phase (operating energy). This paper presents a review of the literature on low carbon and low embodied energy materials in buildings. The embodied energy comprises the energy consumed during the extraction, processing, transportation, construction, and demolition of building materials. While designing a nearly zero energy building, it is necessary to choose and use materials, components, and technologies that allow to reduce the consumption of energy and also to reduce the emissions in the atmosphere during all the Life Cycle Assessment phases. The appropriate choice of building materials can contribute decisively to reduce the energy consumption of the building sector. The increasing worries for the environmental impact of construction materials are witnessed by a lot of studies. The mentioned worries have brought again the attention towards natural materials. The use of more sustainable construction materials and construction techniques represent a major contribution to the eco-efficiency of the construction industry and thus to a more sustainable development.
Evaluation of Research in the Field of Energy Efficiency and MCA Methods Using Publications Databases
Energy is a fundamental component in sustainability, the access and use of this resource is related with economic growth, social improvements, and environmental impacts. In this sense, energy efficiency has been studied as a factor that enhances the positive impacts of energy in communities; however, the implementation of efficiency requires strong policy and strategies that usually rely on individual measures focused in independent dimensions. In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency as a multi-objective problem is studied, using scientometric analysis to discover trends and patterns that allow to identify the main variables and study approximations related with a further development of models to integrate energy efficiency and MCA into policy making for small communities.
Overview of Smart Grid Applications in Turkey
Electrical energy has become indispensable for people's lives and with rapidly developing technology and continuously changing living standards the need for the electrical energy has been on the rise. Therefore, both energy generation and efficient use of energy are very important topics. Smart grid concept has been introduced to provide monitoring, energy efficiency, reliability and energy quality. Under smart grid concept, smart homes, which can be considered as key component in smart grid operation, have appeared as another research area. In this study, first, smart grid research in the world will be reviewed. Then, overview of smart grid applications in Turkey will be given.
Uncertainty in Building Energy Performance Analysis at Different Stages of the Building’s Lifecycle
Over the last 15 years, prediction of energy consumption has become a common practice and necessity at different stages of the building’s lifecycle, particularly, at the design and post-occupancy stages for planning and maintenance purposes. This is due to the ever-growing response of governments to address sustainability and reduction of CO₂ emission in the building sector. However, there is a level of uncertainty in the estimation of energy consumption in buildings. The accuracy of energy consumption predictions is directly related to the precision of the initial inputs used in the energy assessment process. In this study, multiple cases of large non-residential buildings at design, construction, and post-occupancy stages are investigated. The energy consumption process and inputs, and the actual and predicted energy consumption of the cases are analysed. The findings of this study have pointed out and evidenced various parameters that cause uncertainty in the prediction of energy consumption in buildings such as modelling, location data, and occupant behaviour. In addition, unavailability and insufficiency of energy-consumption-related inputs at different stages of the building’s lifecycle are classified and categorized. Understanding the roots of uncertainty in building energy analysis will help energy modellers and energy simulation software developers reach more accurate energy consumption predictions in buildings.
An Acyclic Zincgermylene: Rapid H₂ Activation
Probably no other field of inorganic chemistry has undergone such a rapid development in the past two decades than the low oxidation state chemistry of main group elements. This rapid development has only been possible by the development of new bulky ligands. In case of our research group, super-bulky monodentate amido ligands and β-diketiminate ligands have been used to a great success. We first synthesized the unprecedented magnesium(I) dimer [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ (ᴹᵉˢNacnac = [(ᴹᵉˢNCMe)₂CH]-; Mes = mesityl, which has since been used both as reducing agent and also for the synthesis of new metal-magnesium bonds. In case of the zinc bromide precursor [L*ZnBr] (L*=(N(Ar*)(SiPri₃); (Ar* = C₆H₂{C(H)Ph₂}₂Me-2,6,4, the reduction with [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ led to such a metal-magnesium bond. This [L*ZnMg(ᴹᵉˢNacnac)] compound can be seen as an ‘inorganic Grignard reagent’, which can be used to transfer the metal fragment onto other functional groups or other metal centers; just like the conventional Grignard reagent. By simple addition of (TBoN)GeCl (TBoN = N(SiMe₃){B(DipNCH)₂) to the aforesaid compound, we were able to transfer the amido-zinc fragment to the Ge center of the germylene starting material and to synthesize the first example of a germanium(II)-zinc bond: [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)]. While these reactions typically led to complex product mixture, [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] could be isolated as dark blue crystals in a good yield. This new compound shows interesting reactivity towards small molecules, especially dihydrogen gas. This is of special interest as dihydrogen is one of the more difficult small molecules to activate, due to its strong (BDE = 108 kcal/mol) and non-polar bond. In this context, the interaction between H₂ σ-bond with the tetrelylene p-Orbital (LUMO), with concomitant donation of the tetrelylene lone pair (HOMO) into the H₂ σ* orbital are responsible for the activation of dihydrogen gas. Accordingly, the narrower the HOMO-LUMO gap of tertelylene, the more reactivity towards H₂ it typically is. The aim of a narrow HOMO-LUMO gap was reached by transferring electropositive substituents respectively metal substituents with relatively low Pauling electronegativity (zinc: 1.65) onto the Ge center (here: the zinc-amido fragment). In consideration of the unprecedented reactivity of [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)], a computational examination of its frontier orbital energies was undertaken. The energy separation between the HOMO, which has significant Ge lone pair character, and the LUMO, which has predominantly Ge p-orbital character, is narrow (40.8 kcal/mol; cf.∆S-T= 24.8 kcal/mol), and comparable to the HOMO-LUMO gaps calculated for other literature known complexes). The calculated very narrow HOMO-LUMO gap for the [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] complex is consistent with its high reactivity, and is remarkable considering that it incorporates a π-basic amide ligand, which are known to raise the LUMO of germylenes considerably.
Feasibility Study of the Quadcopter Propeller Vibrations for the Energy Production
The concept of converting the kinetic energy of quadcopter propellers into electrical energy is considered in this contribution following the feasibility study of the propeller vibrations, theoretical energy conversion, and simulation techniques. Analysis of the propeller vibration performance is presented via graphical representation of calculated and simulated parameters, in order to demonstrate the possibility of recovering the harvested energy from the propeller vibrations of the quadcopter while the quadcopter is in operation. Consideration of using piezoelectric materials in such concept, converting the mechanical energy of the propeller into the electrical energy, is given. Photographic evidence of the propeller in operation is presented and discussed together with experimental results to validate the theoretical concept.
Status Check: Journey of India’s Energy Sustainability through Renewable Sources
India, akin to the rest of the world today, is grappling with balancing act between ever increasing demand for energy and alarmingly high level of green house gas emission, which is inevitable corollary of energy production in the conventional way. Researchers and energy policy makers around the world are now focusing on renewable energy (RE) technologies to find solution to this crisis. In India various agencies at both national and state level has been set up and bestowed with responsibility of development of renewable energy technologies, viz. Ministry of New Renewable Energy (MNRE), National Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd. (NVVNL), Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) and RE Development Agencies in respective states. In the present work, the preparedness of India in terms of forming institutional and policy frame work briefly discussed. Status of implementation of RE technologies state wise and of India as a whole, critically reviewed.
Evaluation of Chemopreventive Activity of Medicinal Plant, Gromwell Seed against Tumor Promoting Stage
In our continuous search for anti-tumor promoting, chemopreventive active potency from natural source material, a kind of healthy tea, Gromwell seed (Coix lachryma-jobi) ext., and including compounds Monoolein and Trilinolein have been screened using the in vitro synergistic assay indicated by inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by TPA. In assay, Gromwell seed aqueous extract and hot aqueous extract exhibited the potential inhibitory effects on EBV-EA activation without strong cytotoxicity on Raji cells. In our experimental system, the inhibitory effects of both Gromwell extracts and compounds were greater than that of beta-carotene, which is known anti-tumor promoting agent and/or chemopreventive agent. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effect on EBV-EA activation induced by TPA. The percentages of the inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA activation for these materials were 60% and 30% at concentration 100 μg. Based on the results obtained in vitro, we studied the inhibitory effect of compounds, in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin papilloma using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a potential promoter. The control animals showed a 100% incidence of papilloma at 20 weeks after DMBA-TPA tumor promotion, while treatment with compounds reduced the percentage of number of tumor to 60 % after 20 weeks. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies showing chemopreventive activity against TPA promoting stage and these data support the effective potency of carcinogenic stage in clinical evaluation of integrative oncology.
Preparation and Chemical Characterization of Eco-Friendly Activated Carbon Produced from Apricot Stones
Activated carbon is one of the most used and tested adsorbents in the removal of industrial organic compounds, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and dyes. Different types of lignocellulosic materials were used as potential precursors in the production of low cost activated carbon. There are, two different processes for the preparation and production of activated carbon: physical and chemical. Chemical activation includes impregnating the lignocellulosic raw materials with chemical agents (H3PO4, HNO3, H2SO4 and NaOH). After impregnation, the materials are carbonized and washed to eliminate the residues. The chemical activation, which was used in this study, has two important advantages when compared to the physical activation. The first advantage is the lower temperature at which the process is conducted, and the second is that the yield (mass efficiency of activation) of the chemical activation tends to be greater. Preparation of activated carbon included the following steps: apricot stones were crushed in a mill and washed with distilled water. Later, the fruit stones were impregnated with a solution of 50% H3PO4. After impregnation, the solution was filtered to remove the residual acid. Subsequently impregnated samples were air dried at room temperature. The samples were placed in a furnace and heated (10 °C/min) to the final carbonization temperature of 500 °C for 2 h without the use of nitrogen. After cooling, the adsorbent was washed with distilled water to achieve acid free conditions and its pH was monitored until the filtrate pH value exceeded 4. Chemical characterizations of the prepared activated carbon were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra were recorded with a (Thermo Nicolet Nexus 670 FTIR) spectrometer, from 400 to 4000 cm-1 wavenumbers, identifying the functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon. The FTIR spectra of adsorbent showed a broad band at 3405.91 cm-1 due to O–H stretching vibration and a peak at 489.00 cm-1 due to O–H bending vibration. Peaks between the range of 3700 and 3200 cm−1 represent the overlapping peaks of stretching vibrations of O–H and N–H groups. The distinct absorption peaks at 2919.86 cm−1 and 2848.24 cm−1 could be assigned to -CH stretching vibrations of –CH2 and –CH3 functional groups. The adsorption peak at 1566.38 cm−1 could be characterized by primary and secondary amide bands. The sharp bond within 1164.76 – 987.86 cm−1 is attributed to the C–O groups, which confirms the lignin structure of the activated carbon. The present study has shown that the activated carbons prepared from apricot stone have a functional group on their surface, which can positively affect the adsorption characteristics with this material.
Mechanical Activation of a Waste Material Used as Cement Replacement in Soft Soil Stabilisation
Waste materials or sometimes called by-product materials have been increasingly used as construction material to reduce the usage of cement in different construction projects. In the field of soil stabilisation, waste materials such as pulverised fuel ash (PFA), biomass fly ash (BFA), sewage sludge ash (SSA), etc., have been used since 1960s in last century. In this study, a particular type of a waste material (WM) was used in soft soil stabilisation as a cement replacement, as well as, the effect of mechanical activation, using grinding, on the performance of this WM was also investigated. The WM used in this study is a by-product resulted from the incineration processes between 1000 and 1200oc in domestic power generation plant using a fluidized bed combustion system. The stabilised soil in this study was an intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content. The experimental works were conducted first to find the optimum content of WM by carrying out Atterberg limits and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests on soil samples contained (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15%) of WM by the dry weight of soil. The UCS test was carried out on specimens provided to different curing periods (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days). Moreover, the optimum percentage of the WM was subject to different periods of grinding (10, 20, 30, 40mins) using mortar and pestle grinder to find the effect of grinding and its optimum time by conducting UCS test. The results indicated that the WM used in this study improved the physical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly from 21 to 13.10 with 15% of WM. Meanwhile, the results of UCS test indicated that 12% of WM was the optimum and this percentage developed the UCS value from 202kPa to 700kPa for 28 days cured samples. Along with the time of grinding, the results revealed that 10 minutes of grinding was the best for mechanical activation for the WM used in this study.
The Environmental Challenges of Energy Generation and Usage in Nigeria
The problems placed on the environment as a result of energy generation and usage in Nigeria are: Potential damage to the environment health by Co, Co2, Sox and Nox effluent gas emissions and global warming. For instance in the year 2004 in Nigeria energy consumption was 58% oil and 34% natural gas but about 94 million metric tons of Co2 was emitted out of which 64% came from fossil fuels while about 35% came from fuel wood. The findings from this research on how to alleviate these problems are that long term sustainable development solutions should be enhanced globally; energy should be used more rationally renewable energy resources should be exploited and the existing emissions should be controlled to tolerate limits because the increase in energy demand in Nigeria places enormous strain on current energy facilities.
The Analysis of Solar Radiation Exergy in Hakkari
According to the Solar Energy Potential Atlas (GEPA) prepared by Turkish Ministry of Energy, Hakkari is ranked first in terms of sunshine duration and it is ranked eighth in terms of solar radiation energy. Accordingly, Hakkari has a rich potential of investment with regard to solar radiation energy. The part of the solar radiation energy arriving on the surface of the earth which is transposable to useful work is determined by means of exergy analysis. In this study, the radiation exergy values for Hakkari have been calculated and evaluated by making use of the monthly average solar radiation energy and temperature values measured by General Directorate of State Meteorology.
Induction of G1 Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Panaxydol
In this study, we focused on the anti-proliferative effects of panaxydol, a C17 polyacetylenic compound derived from Panax ginseng roots, against various human cancer cells. We treated with panaxydol to various cancer cells and panaxydol treatment was found to significantly inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549) and human pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2), of which AsPC-1 cells were most sensitive to its treatment. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that panaxydol blocked cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in A549 cells, which accompanied by a parallel reduction of protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and cyclin E. CDK inhibitors (CDKIs), such as p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIP1, were gradually upregulated after panaxydol treatment at the protein levels. Furthermore, panaxydol induced the activation of p53 in A549 cells. In addition, panaxydol also induced apoptosis of AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, as shown by accumulation of subG1 and apoptotic cell populations. Panaxydol triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by panaxydol was determined by staining with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, panaxydol suppressed the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-2, and increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bax and Bad. In addition, panaxydol inhibited the activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPK). Our results suggest that panaxydol is an anti-tumor compound that causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in various cancer cells.
A Perspective on Emergency Care of Gunshot Injuries in Northern Taiwan
Firearm injuries are high-energy injuries. The ballistic pathways could cause severe burns or chemical damages to vessels, musculoskeletal or other major organs. The high mortality rate is accompanied by complications such as sepsis. As laws prohibit gun possession, civilian gunshot wounds (GSW) are relatively rare in Taiwan. Our hospital, Mackay Memorial Hospital, located at the center of Taipei city is surrounded by nightclubs and red-light districts. Due to this unique location, our hospital becomes the first-line trauma center managing gunshot victims in Taiwan. To author’s best knowledge, there are few published research articles regarding this unique situation. We hereby analyze the distinct characteristics and length of stay (LOS) of GSW patients in the emergency room (ER) at Mackay Memorial Hospital. A 6-year retrospective analysis of 27 patients treated for GSW injuries from January 2012 to December 2017 was performed. The patients’ records were reviewed for the following analyses, 1) wound position and the correlated clinical presentations; 2) the LOS in ED of patients receiving emergency surgery for major organ or vascular injuries. We found males (96.3%) were injured by guns more often than females (3.7%) in all age groups. The most common injured site was in the extremities. With regards to the ER LOS, the average time were 72.2 ± 34.5 minutes for patients with triage I and 207.4 ± 143.9 minutes for patients with triage II. The ED LOS of patients whose ISS score were more than 15 was 59.9 ± 25.6 minutes, and 179.4 ± 119.8 minutes for patients whose ISS score were between 9 to 15, respectively. Among these 27 patients, 10 patients had emergency surgery and their average ED stay time was 104.5 ± 33.3 minutes. Even more, the average ED stay time could be shortened to 88.8 ± 32.3 minutes in the 5 patients with trauma team activation. In conclusion, trauma team activation in severe GSW patients indeed shortens the ED LOS and might initially improve the quality of patient care. This is the result of better trauma systems, including advances in care from emergency medical services and acute care surgical management.
Assessment of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Two Portuguese Slaughterhouses
With the objective of characterizing the profile and performance of energy use by slaughterhouses, surveys and audits were performed in two different facilities located in the northeastern region of Portugal. Energy consumption from multiple energy sources was assessed monthly, along with production and costs, for the same reference year. Gathered data was analyzed to identify and quantify the main consuming processes and to estimate energy efficiency indicators for benchmarking purposes. Main results show differences between the two slaughterhouses concerning energy sources, consumption by source and sector, and global energy efficiency. Electricity is the most used source in both slaughterhouses with a contribution of around 50%, being essentially used for meat processing and refrigeration. Natural gas, in slaughterhouse A, and pellets, in slaughterhouse B, used for heating water take the second place, with a mean contribution of about 45%. On average, a 62 kgoe/t specific energy consumption (SEC) was found, although with differences between slaughterhouses. A prominent negative correlation between SEC and carcass production was found specially in slaughterhouse A. Estimated Specific Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gases Intensity (GHGI) show mean values of about 50 €/t and 1.8 tCO2e/toe, respectively. Main results show that there is a significant margin for improving energy efficiency and therefore lowering costs in this type of non-energy intensive industries.
Neutronic Calculations for Central Test Loop in Heavy Water Research Reactor
One of the experimental facilities of the heavy water research reactor is the central test loop (C.T.L). It is located along the central axial line of the vessel, and therefore will highly affect the neutronic parameters of the reactor, so from the neutronics point of view, C.T.L is the most important facility. It is mainly designed for fuel testing, thought other applications such as radioisotope production and neutron activation, can be imagine for it. All of the simulations were performed by MCNPX2.6. As a first step towards C.T.L analysis, the effect of D2O-filled, H2O-filled, and He-filled C.T.L on the effective multiplication factor (Keff.), have been evaluated. According to results, H2O-filled C.T.L has a higher thermal neutron, while He-filled C.T.L includes more resonance neutrons. In the next step thermal and total axial neutron fluxes, were calculated and used as the comparison parameters. The core without C.T.L (C.T.L replaced by heavy water) is selected as the reference case, and the effect of all other cases is calculated according to that.
Beneficiation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell as Energy Saving from Apple Skin with TiO2 Electrolysis
In Indonesian climates that have the tropic climate, one of the potential energy sources is coming from solar energy. From the solar energy, we can convert it into the others energy, such as electrical energy. In this topic, we want to do the research about Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The materials that we use as sensitizer is anthocyanin that we extract from apple skin, because the anthocyanin is one of the most effective as a sensitizer for DSSC. The variable in this research is pH. The pH that we used are pH 0,5; pH 1; pH 1,5; pH 2; pH 2,5. The method is electrolysis, and we use TiO2 as sensitized material. The hypothesis from this research is the smaller pH can make higher the efficiency of the absorbent of the solar energy.
Independent Village Planning Based Eco Village and Save Energy in Region of Maritime Tourism
Eco-village is an ecosystem where the countryside or urban communities that are inside trying to integrate the social environment with low impact way of life to achieve this, they integrate the various aspects of ecological design, agriculture permanent, ecological building and the alternative energy. Eco-village in question is eco-village conducted on of marine tourism areas, where natural resources are very good, without ignoring the global issue of climate change. Desperately needed a source of energy, which can support the fulfillment of energy needs in a sustainable. Fulfillment of energy sources that offer is the use or application of environmentally friendly technologies of usage is still very low in Indonesia, the technology namely the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), OTEC is expected to be a source of the alternative energy, which can support the goal of eco-village of the region's of marine tourism.
Effect of Aging Condition on Semisolid Cast 2024 Aluminum Alloy
2024 Aluminium alloy was squeezed cast by the Gas Induced Semi Solid (GISS) process. Effect of artificial aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was studied in the present work. The solutionized specimens were aged hardened at temperatures of 175°C, 200°C, and 225°C under various time durations. The highest hardness of about 77.7 HRE was attained from specimen aged at the temperature of 175 °C for 36 h. Upon investigation the microstructure by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the phase was mainly attributed to the strengthening effect in the aged alloy. The apparent activation energy for precipitation hardening of the alloy was calculated as 133,805 J/mol.
Energy Consumption Forecast Procedure for an Industrial Facility
We regard forecasting of energy consumption by private production areas of a large industrial facility as well as by the facility itself. As for production areas the forecast is made based on empirical dependencies of the specific energy consumption and the production output. As for the facility itself implementation of the task to minimize the energy consumption forecasting error is based on adjustment of the facility’s actual energy consumption values evaluated with the metering device and the total design energy consumption of separate production areas of the facility. The suggested procedure of optimal energy consumption was tested based on the actual data of core product output and energy consumption by a group of workshops and power plants of the large iron and steel facility. Test results show that implementation of this procedure gives the mean accuracy of energy consumption forecasting for winter 2014 of 0.11% for the group of workshops and 0.137% for the power plants.
Meeting India's Energy Demand: U.S.-India Energy Cooperation under Trump
India's total share of global population is nearly 18%; however, its per capita energy consumption is only one-third of global average. The demand and supply of electricity are uneven in the country; around 240 million of the population have no access to electricity. However, with India's trajectory for modernisation and economic growth, the demand for energy is only expected to increase. India is at a crossroad, on the one hand facing the increasing demand for energy and on the other hand meeting the Paris climate policy commitments, and further the struggle to provide efficient energy. This paper analyses the policies to meet India’s need for energy, as the per capita energy consumption is likely to be double in 6-7 years period. Simultaneously, India's Paris commitment requires curbing of carbon emission from fossil fuels. There is an increasing need for renewables to be cheaply and efficiently available in the market and for clean technology to extract fossil fuels to meet climate policy goals. Fossil fuels are the most significant generator of energy in India; with the Paris agreement, the demand for clean energy technology is increasing. Finally, the U.S. decided to withdraw from the Paris Agreement; however, the two countries plan to continue engaging bilaterally on energy issues. The U.S. energy cooperation under Trump administration is significantly vital for greater energy security, transfer of technology and efficiency in energy supply and demand.
The Microstructural Evolution of X45CrNiW189 Valve Steel during Hot Deformation
In this paper, the hot compression tests were carried on X45CrNiW189 valve steel (X45) in the temperature range of 1000–1200°C and the strain rate range of 0.004–0.5 s^(-1) in order to study the high temperature softening behavior of the steel. For the exact prediction of flow stress, the effective stress - effective strain curves were obtained from experiments under various conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the dynamic recrystallization fraction (DRX), AGS, hot deformation and activation energy behavior were investigated. It was found that the calculated results were in a good agreement with the experimental flow stress and microstructure of the steel for different conditions of hot deformation.
Influence of Vacuum Pressure on the Thermal Bonding Energy of Water in Wood
This paper takes into consideration the influence of bonding energy of water on energy demand of vacuum wood drying using the specific method of obtaining sorption isotherms. The experiment was carried out on oak wood at vacuum pressures of: 0.7 bar, 0.5bar and 0.3bar. The experimental work was done to determine a mathematical equation between the moisture content and energy of water-bonding. This equation helps in finding the average amount of energy of water-bonding necessary in calculation of energy consumption by use of the equation of heat balance in real drying chambers. It is concluded that the energy of water-bonding is large enough to be included into consideration. This energy increases at lower values of moisture content, when drying process approaches to the end, and its average values are lower on lower pressure.
C₅₉Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalytic Material for Heck Coupling Reaction
Density functional theory calculations were carried out for identification of an active heterogeneous catalyst to carry out Heck coupling reaction which is of pharmaceutical importance. One of the carbonaceous nanomaterials, heterofullerene, was designed for the reaction. Stability and reactivity of the proposed heterofullerenes (C59M, M = Pd/Ni) were established with insights into the metal-carbon bond, electron affinity and chemical potential. Adsorbent potentials of both the heterofullerenes were examined from the adsorption study of four halobenzenes (C6H5F, C6H5Cl, C6H5Br and C6H5I). Oxidative addition activities of all four halobenzenes were investigated by developing free energy landscapes over both the heterofullerenes for rate determining step (oxidative addition). C6H5I showed a good catalytic activity for the rate determining step. Thus, C6H5I was proposed as a suitable halobenzene and complete free energy landscapes for Heck coupling reaction were developed over C59Pd and C59Ni. Smaller activation barriers observed over C59Pd in comparison with C59Ni put us in a position to propose C59Pd to be an efficient heterofullerene for carrying Heck coupling reaction.
The Second Generation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Afatinib Controls Inflammation by Regulating NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation
Background: Chronic inflammation might lead to many malignancies, and inadequate resolution could play a crucial role in tumor invasion, progression, and metastases. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial shows that IL-1β inhibition with canakinumab could reduce incident lung cancer and lung cancer mortality in patients with atherosclerosis. The process and secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β are controlled by the inflammasome. Here we showed the correlation of the innate immune system and afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Murine Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and THP-1 were used to check the effect of afatinib on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome was check by co-immunoprecipitation of NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS)-cross link of ASC. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis and Alum-induced peritonitis were conducted to confirm that afatinib could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients before or after taking afatinib were used to check that afatinib inhibits inflammation in NSCLC therapy. Results: Our data showed that afatinib could inhibit the secretion of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner in macrophage. Moreover, afatinib could inhibit the maturation of IL-1β and caspase-1 without affecting the precursors of IL-1β and caspase-1. Next, we found that afatinib could block the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and the ASC speck by blocking the interaction of the sensor protein NLRP3 and the adaptor protein ASC. We also found that afatinib was able to alleviate the LPS-induced sepsis in vivo. Conclusion: Our study found that afatinib could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophage, providing new evidence that afatinib could target the innate immune system to control chronic inflammation. These investigations will provide significant experimental evidence in afatinib as therapeutic drug for non-small cell lung cancer or other tumors and NLRP3-related diseases and will explore new targets for afatinib.
Energy Efficiency Retrofitting of Residential Buildings Case Study: Multi-Family Apartment Building in Tripoli, Lebanon
Energy efficiency retrofitting of existing buildings was long ignored by public authorities who favored energy efficiency policies in new buildings, which are easier to implement. Indeed, retrofitting is more complex and difficult to organize because of the extreme diversity in existing buildings, administrative situations and occupation. Energy efficiency retrofitting of existing buildings has now become indispensable in all economies—even emerging countries—given the constraints imposed by energy security and climate change, and because it represents considerable potential energy savings. Addressing energy efficiency in the existing building stock has been acknowledged as one of the most critical yet challenging aspects of reducing our environmental footprint on the ecosystem. Tripoli, Lebanon chosen as case study area is a typical Mediterranean metropolis in the North Lebanon, where multifamily residential buildings are all around the city. This generally implies that the density of energy demand is extremely high, even the renewable energy facilities are involved, they can just play as a minor energy provider at the current technology level in the single family house. It seems only the low energy design for buildings can be made possible, not the zero energy certainly in developing country. This study reviews the latest research and experience and provides recommendations for deep energy retrofits that aim to save more than 50% of the energy used in a typical Tripoli apartment building.
Organic Contaminant Degradation Using H₂O₂ Activated Biochar with Enhanced Persistent Free Radicals
Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is one of the most efficient and commonly used oxidants in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants. In the present study, we investigated the activation of H₂O₂ by heavy metal (nickel and lead metal ions) loaded biochar for phenol degradation in an aqueous solution (concentration = 100 mg/L). It was found that H₂O₂ can be effectively activated by biochar, which produces hydroxyl (•OH) radicals owing to an increase in the formation of persistent free radicals (PFRs) on biochar surface. Ultrasound treated (30s duration) biochar, chemically activated by 30% phosphoric acid and functionalized by diethanolamine (DEA) was used for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It was found that modified biochar could remove almost 60% of nickel in eight hours; however, for lead, the removal efficiency reached up to 95% for the same time duration. The heavy metal loaded biochar was further used for the degradation of phenol in the absence and presence of H₂O₂ (20 mM), within 4 hours of reaction time. The removal efficiency values for phenol in the presence of H₂O₂ were 80.3% and 61.9%, respectively, by modified biochar loaded with nickel and lead metal ions. These results suggested that the biochar loaded with nickel exhibits a better removal capacity towards phenol than the lead loaded biochar when used in H₂O₂ based oxidation systems. Meanwhile, control experiments were set in the absence of any activating biochar, and the removal efficiency was found to be 19.1% when only H₂O₂ was added in the reaction solution. Overall, the proposed approach serves a dual purpose of using biochar for heavy metal ion removal and treatment of organic contaminants by further using the metal loaded biochar for H₂O₂ activation in ISCO processes.
Increased Energy Efficiency and Improved Product Quality in Processing of Lithium Bearing Ores by Applying Fluidized-Bed Calcination Systems
For the production of lithium carbonate or hydroxide out of lithium bearing ores, a thermal activation (calcination/decrepitation) is required for the phase transition in the mineral to enable an acid respectively soda leaching in the downstream hydrometallurgical section. In this paper, traditional processing in Lithium industry is reviewed, and opportunities to reduce energy consumption and improve product quality and recovery rate will be discussed. The conventional process approach is still based on rotary kiln calcination, a technology in use since the early days of lithium ore processing, albeit not significantly further developed since. A new technology, at least for the Lithium industry, is fluidized bed calcination. Decrepitation of lithium ore was investigated at Outotec’s Frankfurt Research Centre. Focusing on fluidized bed technology, a study of major process parameters (temperature and residence time) was performed at laboratory and larger bench scale aiming for optimal product quality for subsequent processing. The technical feasibility was confirmed for optimal process conditions on pilot scale (400 kg/h feed input) providing the basis for industrial process design. Based on experimental results, a comprehensive Aspen Plus flow sheet simulation was developed to quantify mass and energy flow for the rotary kiln and fluidized bed system. Results show a significant reduction in energy consumption and improved process performance in terms of temperature profile, product quality and plant footprint. The major conclusion is that a substantial reduction of energy consumption can be achieved in processing Lithium bearing ores by using fluidized bed based systems. At the same time and different from rotary kiln process, an accurate temperature and residence time control is ensured in fluidized-bed systems leading to a homogenous temperature profile in the reactor which prevents overheating and sintering of the solids and results in uniform product quality.
Research on Energy-Related Occupant Behavior of Residential Air Conditioning Based on Zigbee Intelligent Electronic Equipment
Split-type air conditioners is widely used for indoor temperature regulation in urban residential buildings in summer in China. The energy-related occupant behavior has a great impact on building energy consumption. Obtaining the energy-related occupant behavior data of air conditioners is the research basis for the energy consumption prediction and simulation. Relying on the development of sensing and control technology, this paper selects Zigbee intelligent electronic equipment to monitor the energy-related occupant behavior of 20 households for 3 months in summer. Through analysis of data, it is found that people of different ages in the region have significant difference in the time, duration, frequency, and energy consumption of air conditioners, and form a data model of three basic energy-related occupant behavior patterns to provide an accurate simulation of energy.
Lithium Ion Supported on TiO2 Mixed Metal Oxides as a Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil
Considering the environmental issues and the shortage in the conventional fossil fuel sources, biodiesel has gained a promising solution to shift away from fossil based fuel as one of the sustainable and renewable energy. It is synthesized by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with alcohol (methanol or ethanol) in the presence of a catalyst. This study focuses on synthesizing a high efficient Li/TiO2 heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from canola oil. In this work, lithium immobilized onto TiO2 by the simple impregnation method. The catalyst was evaluated by transesterification reaction in a batch reactor under moderate reaction conditions. To study the effect of Li concentrations, a series of LiNO3 concentrations (20, 30, 40 wt. %) at different calcination temperatures (450, 600, 750 ºC) were evaluated. The Li/TiO2 catalysts are characterized by several spectroscopic and analytical techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, BET, TG-DSC and FESEM. The optimum values of impregnated Lithium nitrate on TiO2 and calcination temperature are 30 wt. % and 600 ºC, respectively, along with a high conversion to be 98 %. The XRD study revealed that the insertion of Li improved the catalyst efficiency without any alteration in structure of TiO2 The best performance of the catalyst was achieved when using a methanol to oil ratio of 24:1, 5 wt. % of catalyst loading, at 65◦C reaction temperature for 3 hours of reaction time. Moreover, the experimental kinetic data were compatible with the pseudo-first order model and the activation energy was (39.366) kJ/mol. The synthesized catalyst Li/TiO2 was applied to trans- esterify used cooking oil and exhibited a 91.73% conversion. The prepared catalyst has shown a high catalytic activity to produce biodiesel from fresh and used oil within mild reaction conditions.
Fracture Energy Corresponding to the Puncture/Cutting of Nitrile Rubber by Pointed Blades
Resistance to combined puncture/cutting by pointed blades is an important property of gloves materials. The purpose of this study is to propose an approach derived from the fracture mechanics theory to calculate the fracture energy associated to the puncture/cutting of nitrile rubber. The proposed approach is also based on the application of a sample pre-strained during the puncture/cutting test in order to remove the contribution of friction. It was validated with two different pointed blade angles of 22.5° and 35°. Results show that the applied total fracture energy corresponding to puncture/cutting is controlled by three energies, one is the fracture energy or the intrinsic strength of the material, the other reflects the friction energy between a pointed blade and the material. For an applied pre-strain energy (or tearing energy) of high value, the friction energy is completely removed. Without friction, the total fracture energy is constant. In that case, the fracture contribution of the tearing energy is marginal. Growth of the crack is thus completely caused by the puncture/cutting by a pointed blade. Finally, results suggest that the value of the fracture energy corresponding to puncture/cutting by pointed blades is obtained at a frictional contribution of zero.
An Analysis of Energy Use and Input Level for Tomato Production in Turkey
The purpose of this study was to determine energy equivalents of inputs and output in tomato production in Bursa province. The data in this study were collected from tomato farms in Bursa province, Karacabey and Mustafakemalpasa district. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interview in 2011-2012. The results of the study show that diesel have the highest rate of energy equivalency of all the inputs used in tomato production at 60,07%. The energy equivalent rate of electricity is 4,26% and the energy equivalent rate of water is 0,87%. The energy equivalent rates for human power, machinery, chemicals and water for irrigation were determined to be low in tomato production. According to the output/input ratio calculated, the energy ratio is 1,50 in tomato production in the research area. This ratio implies that the inputs used in tomato production have not been used effectively. Ineffective use of these resources also causes environmental problems.
Preparation of Chemically Activated Carbon from Waste Tire Char for Lead Ions Adsorption and Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology
The use of tires in automobiles is very important in the automobile industry. However, there is a serious environmental problem concerning the disposal of these rubber tires once they become worn out. The main aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon from waste tire pyrolysis char by impregnating KOH on pyrolytic char. Adsorption studies on lead onto chemically activated carbon was carried out using response surface methodology. The effect of process parameters such as temperature (°C), adsorbent dosage (g/1000ml), pH, contact time (minutes) and initial lead concentration (mg/l) on the adsorption capacity were investigated. It was found that the adsorption capacity increases with an increase in contact time, pH, temperature and decreases with an increase in lead concentration. Optimization of the process variables was done using a numerical optimization method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis, XRay diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon char before and after activation. The optimum points 1g/ 100 ml for adsorbent dosage, 7 for pH value of the solution, 115.2 min for contact time, 100 mg/l for initial metal concentration, and 25°C for temperature were obtained to achieve the highest adsorption capacity of 93.176 mg/g with a desirability of 0.994. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon produced and that the weight loss taking place during the activation step is small.
Perspective and Challenge of Tidal Power in Bangladesh
Tidal power can play a vital role in integrating as new source of renewable energy to the off-grid power connection in isolated areas, namely Sandwip, in Bangladesh. It can reduce the present energy crisis and improve the social, environmental and economic perspective of Bangladesh. Tidal energy is becoming popular around the world due to its own facilities. The development of any country largely depends on energy sector improvement. Lack of energy sector is because of hampering progress of any country development, and the energy sector will be stable by only depend on sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy having environmental friendly is the only sustainable solution of secure energy system. Bangladesh has a huge potential of tidal power at different locations, but effective measures on this issue have not been considered sincerely. This paper summarizes the current energy scenario, and Bangladesh can produce power approximately 53.19 MW across the country to reduce the growing energy demand utilizing tidal energy as well as it is shown that Sandwip is highly potential place to produce tidal power, which is estimated approximately 16.49 MW by investing only US $10.37 million. Besides this, cost management for tidal power plant has been also discussed.
Performance Variation of the TEES According to the Changes in Cold-Side Storage Temperature
Surplus electricity can be converted into potential energy via pumped hydroelectric storage for future usage. Similarly, thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) uses heat pumps equipped with thermal storage to convert electrical energy into thermal energy; the stored energy is then converted back into electrical energy when necessary using a heat engine. The greatest advantage of this method is that, unlike pumped hydroelectric storage and compressed air energy storage, TEES is not restricted by geographical constraints. In this study, performance variation of the TEES according to the changes in cold-side storage temperature was investigated by simulation method.
Increased Cytolytic Activity of Effector T-Cells against Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Self-Differentiated Dendritic Cells with Down-Regulation of Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptors
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive malignancy of bile duct epithelial cells in which the standard treatments, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy are partially effective. Many solid tumors including CCA escape host immune responses by creating tumor microenvironment and generating immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). These cytokines can inhibit dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and function, leading to decreased activation and response of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for cancer cell elimination. To overcome the effects of these immunosuppressive cytokines and to increase ability of DC to activate effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, we generated self-differentiated DCs (SD-DCs) with down-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors for activation of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were initially transduced with lentiviral particles containing the genes encoding GM-CSF and IL-4 and then secondly transduced with lentiviral particles containing short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to knock-down mRNAs of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors. The generated SD-DCs showed up-regulation of MHC class II (HLA-DR) and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86), comparable to those of DCs generated by convention method. Suppression of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors on SD-DCs by specific shRNAs significantly increased levels of IFN-γ and also increased cytolytic activity of DC-activated effector T cells against CCA cell lines (KKU-213 and KKU-100), but it had little effect to immortalized cholangiocytes (MMNK-1). Thus, SD-DCs with down-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors increased activation of effector T cells, which is a recommended method to improve DC function for the preparation of DC-activated effector T cells for adoptive T-cell therapy.