Information Literacy Initiatives in India in Present Era Age
The paper describes the concept of Information literacy. It is a critical component of this information age. Information literacy is the vital process in modern changing world. Information Literacy initiatives in India was also discussed. Paper also discussed Information literacy programmes for LIS professionals. Information literacy makes person capable to recognize when information is needed and how to locate, evaluate and use effectively of the needed information.
Assessment Literacy Levels of Mathematics Teachers to Implement Classroom Assessment in Ghanaian High Schools
One key determinant of the quality of mathematics learning is the teacher’s ability to assess students adequately and effectively and make assessment an integral part of the instructional practices. If the mathematics teacher lacks the required literacy to perform classroom assessment roles, the true trajectory of learning success and attainment of curriculum expectations might be indeterminate. It is therefore important that educators and policymakers understand and seek ways to improve the literacy level of mathematics teachers to implement classroom assessments that would meet curriculum demands. This study employed a descriptive survey design to explore perceived levels of assessment literacy of mathematics teachers to implement classroom assessment with the school based assessment framework in Ghana. A 25-item classroom assessment inventory on teachers’ assessment scenarios was adopted, modified, and administered to a purposive sample of 48 mathematics teachers from eleven Senior High Schools. Seven other items were included to further collect data on their self-efficacy towards assessment literacy. Data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate correlation statistics. The result shows that, on average, 48.6% of the mathematics teachers attained standard levels of assessment literacy. Specifically, 50.0% met standard one in choosing appropriate assessment methods, 68.3% reached standard two in developing appropriate assessment tasks, 36.6% reached standard three in administering, scoring, and interpreting assessment results, 58.3% reached standard four in making appropriate assessment decisions, 41.7% reached standard five in developing valid grading procedures, 45.8% reached standard six in communicating assessment results, and 36.2 % reached standard seven by identifying unethical, illegal and inappropriate use of assessment results. Participants rated their self-efficacy belief in performing assessments high, making the relationships between participants’ assessment literacy scores and self-efficacy scores weak and statistically insignificant. The study recommends that institutions training mathematics teachers or providing professional developments should accentuate assessment literacy development to ensure standard assessment practices and quality instruction in mathematics education at senior high schools.
Literacy in First and Second Language: Implication for Language Education
One of the challenges of African states in the development of education in the past and the present is the problem of literacy. Literacy in the first language is seen as a strong base for the development of second language; they are mostly the language of education. Language development is an offshoot of language planning; so the need to develop literacy in both first and second language affects language education and predicts the extent of achievement of the entire education sector. The need to balance literacy acquisition in first language for good conditioning the acquisition of second language is paramount. Likely constraints that includes; non-standardization, underdeveloped and undeveloped first languages are among many. Solutions to some of these include the development of materials and use of the stages and levels of literacy acquisition. This is with believed that a child writes well in second language if he has literacy in the first language.
The Emergence of Information and Communication Technologies Acting as a Challenge for Media Literacy
In the recent years, the concept of media literacy is being extended from its traditional focus on print and audio-visual media to encompass the internet and other new media within academic and policy discourses. This article throws revolves around three significant queries which are to be dealt by the academia, general public and the policy-makers: What is media literacy? How is it changing? And what is the significance of media literacy? At the beginning of the article, the definition 'media literacy' is the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and create messages across a variety of contexts are given and then this is further being tested in connection with the internet and other information and communication technologies.Having advocated this skills-based approach to media literacy in relation to the internet, the article identifies some outstanding issues for new media literacy crucial to any policy of promoting media literacy among the population. The outcome is better understanding of media literacy and also the impact of ICT on media literacy by the public as well as media literate people.
Students' Perceptions of Assessment and Feedback in Higher Education
National student satisfaction data in England demonstrate that undergraduate students are less satisfied overall with assessment and feedback than other aspects of their higher education courses. Given that research findings suggest that high-quality feedback is a critical factor associated with academic achievement, it is important that feedback enables students to demonstrate improved academic achievement in their subsequent assessments. Given the growing importance of staff-student partnerships in higher education, this research examined students’ perceptions of assessment and feedback in one UK university. Students’ perceptions were elicited through the use of a university-wide survey which was completed by undergraduate students. In addition, three focus groups were used to provide qualitative student perception data across the three university Facilities. The data indicate that whilst students valued detailed feedback on their work, less detailed feedback could be compensated for by the development of pre-assessment literacy skills which are front-loaded into courses. Assessment literacy skills valued by students included the use of clear assessment criteria and assignment briefings which enabled students to fully understand the assessment task. Additionally, students valued assessment literacy pre-assessment tasks which enabled them to understand the standards which they were expected to achieve. Students valued opportunities for self and peer assessment prior to the final assessment and formative assessment feedback which matched the summative assessment feedback. Students also valued dialogic face-to-face feedback after receiving written feedback Above all, students valued feedback which was particular to their work and which gave recognition for the effort they had put into completing specific assessments. The data indicate that there is a need for higher education lecturers to receive systematic training in assessment and feedback which provides a comprehensive grounding in pre-assessment literacy skills.
Information Literacy: Concept and Importance
An information literate person is one who uses information effectively in all its forms. When presented with questions or problems, an information literate person would know what information to look for, how to search efficiently and be able to access relevant sources. In addition, an information literate person would have the ability to evaluate and select appropriate information sources and to use the information effectively and ethically to answer questions or solve problems. Information literacy has become an important element in higher education. The information literacy movement has internationally recognized standards and learning outcomes. The step-by-step process of achieving information literacy is particularly crucial in an era where knowledge could be disseminated through a variety of media. What is the relationship between information literacy as we define it in higher education and information literacy among non-academic populations? What forces will change how we think about the definition of information literacy in the future and how we will apply the definition in all environments?
Survey of Rate and Causes of Literacy Preservation in Adult Newly Learners
The main objective of this study is the survey of rate and causes of literacy preservation in adult newly learners. Statistical sample consists of 384 adults who are newly learners of literacy, at 2002, who were selected by stratified sampling method. This is a correlation cross-sectional survey research, in which authors-constructed measures were used for data collection. Results of survey showed that learners' literacy preservation rate after two years was 70%, 61% and 57%, in reading, dictation and mathematic tests, respectively.Following can be noted as factors correlated with literacy preservation; repetition of subjects and learners' subjective review, access to and using the library and publications, feeling of need to and interest in educated matters, socio cultural class of learners, and literacy level of learners' family.
Financial Literacy of Students of Finance
Financial literacy is a widely discussed topic on the national and international level by governments, organizations and academia. For this reason this study analyses financial knowledge, financial behavior and financial attitudes of students of finance. The aim of the paper is to determine whether the financial literacy of university students studying finance differs from the level of financial literacy in selected OECD countries. The research was conducted at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic. The empirical study comprises questions related to several aspects of financial literacy, as well as socio-demographic data enabling more thorough analysis. The results indicate that improvement in financial literacy of university students is still required, even though their major is finance related.
Building a Model for Information Literacy Education in School Settings
Among varied new literacies, information literacy is not only the best-known one but displays numerous models and frameworks. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of its complex theoretical model that could be applied to information literacy education in public (K12) education, which often makes use of constructivist approaches. This paper aims to present the main features of such a model. To develop a complex model, the literature and practice of phenomenographic and sociocultural theories, as well as discourse analytical approaches to information literacy, have been reviewed. Besides these constructivist and expressive based educational approaches, the new model is intended to include the innovation of coupling them with a cognitive model that takes developing informational and operational knowledge into account. The convergences between different literacies (information literacy, media literacy, media and information literacy, and data literacy) were taken into account, as well. The model will also make use of a three-country survey that examined secondary school teachers’ attitudes to information literacy. The results of this survey show that only a part of the respondents feel properly prepared to teach information literacy courses, and think that they can teach information literacy skills by themselves, while they see a librarian as an expert in educating information literacy. The use of the resulting model is not restricted to enhancing theory. It is meant to raise the level of awareness about information literacy and related literacies, and the next phase of the model’s development will be a pilot study that verifies the usefulness of the methodology for practical information literacy education in selected Hungarian secondary schools.
Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit
Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.
Role of Academic Library in/for Information Literacy
This paper presents the role of academic library in information literacy in the present time. Information is the very important aspect for the growth of any country. In this context information literacy is an essential tool in the development of various fields. Academic library is an essential part of university as well as of an institution. In Academic library we can include university library, college library as well as school library. Academic libraries are playing an important role for information literacy. Academic libraries provide excellent services for the benefit of students, teachers, researchers, and all those who are interested in education. All over the world many of the schemes, policies and services provide for information literacy.
The Impact of Household Income on Students' Financial Literacy
Financial literacy has become on focus of many research studies. Family household is found to influence students’ financial literacy. The purpose of this study is to explore whether financial literacy of Albanian students is associated with their family household. The main objectives of this research are: i) firstly, to evaluate how financial literate are Albanian university students; ii) secondly, to examine whether the financial literacy differs based on the level of students family income; and iii) finally, to draw some conclusions and recommendations in order to improve student’s financial literacy. An instrument, comprised of personal finance and personal characteristics is administered to 637 students in Albania. The constituency of the survey is tested based on the dimension reduction and factor analyzing techniques. The One Way Welch ANOVA and multiple comparison techniques are utilized to analyze the data. The results indicate that student’s financial literacy is influenced by their family income.
Patient Engagement in Healthcare and Health Literacy in China: A Survey in China
Objective: It’s increasing acknowledged that patient engagement in healthcare and health literacy both have positive impact on patient outcome. Health literacy emphasizes the ability of individuals to understand and apply health information and manage health. Patients' health literacy affected their willingness to participate in decision-making, but its impact on the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare is not clear, especially in China. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the correlation between the behavior and willingness of patient engagement and health literacy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed using the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare questionnaire, Chinese version All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale (AAHLS). A convenient sample of 443 patients was recruited from 8 general hospitals in Shanghai, Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province, from September 2016 to January 2017. Results: The mean score for the willingness was (4.41±0.45), and the mean score for the patient engagement behavior was (4.17±0.49); the mean score for the patient's health literacy was (2.36±0.29)，the average score of its three dimensions- the functional literacy, the Communicative/interactive literacy and the Critical literacy, was (2.26±0.38), (2.28±0.42), and (2.61±0.43), respectively. Patients' health literacy was positively correlated with their willingness of engagement (r = 0.367, P < 0.01), and positively correlated with patient engagement behavior (r = 0.357, P < 0.01). All dimensions of health literacy were positively correlated with the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare; the dimension of Communicative/interactive literacy (r = 0.312, P < 0.01; r = 0.357, P < 0.01) and the Critical literacy (r = 0.357, P < 0.01; r = 0.357, P < 0.01) are more relevant to the behavior and willingness than the dimension of basic/functional literacy (r=0.150, P < 0.01; r = 0.150, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare are positively correlated with health literacy and its dimensions. In clinical work, medical staff should pay attention to patients’ health literacy, especially the situation that low literacy leads to low participation and provide health information to patients through health education or communication to improve their health literacy as well as guide them to actively and rationally participate in their own health care.
ICTs Knowledge as a Way of Enhancing Literacy and Lifelong Learning in Nigeria
The study covers the topic Information Communication and Technology (ICTs) knowledge as a way of enhancing Literacy and Lifelong learning in Nigeria. This work delved into defining of ICTs. Types of ICTs and media technologies were also mentioned. It further explained how ICTs can be strengthened and the uses of ICTs in education was duly emphasized. The paper also enumerated some side effects of ICTs on learners while the role of ICTs in enhancing literacy was explained. The study carried out strategies to use ICTs meaningfully in Literacy Programs and also emphasized the word lifelong learning in Nigeria. Some recommendations were made towards acquiring ICTs knowledge, so as to enhance Literacy and Lifelong learning in Nigeria.
Assessment of Digital Literacy Skills of Librarians in Tertiary Institutions Inniger State
The exponential growth of information sources, resources and the continued Communication Technology (ICT) sophistication of libraries all over the world call for capable and ICT compliant librarians in Nigeria, this article assesses the digital literacy skills of librarians in tertiary institutions in Niger state. The survey research method was applied in the study using a random sampling technique to draw the sample. Fifty-eight copies of the questionnaire were administered while forty-nine copies were completed, returned, and used in the study, which represents 84% of the response rate. Two research questions were answered, and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The finding uncovered that the librarians lack the requisite digital literacy skills to access the wealth of digital information resources available. The study recommends some steps to turn around the situations amongst; librarians must be empowered with all necessary digital literacy skills, embark on rigorous training and retraining programs, workshops, conferences, and seminars, there should also be a coherent training policy for the librarians on a sustainable basis to increase their requisite digital literacy skills.
Electronic Resources and Information Literacy in Higher Education Library
Abstract- Information literacy aims to develop both critical understanding and active participation in scholars. It enables scholars to interpret and make informed judgments as users of information sources, and it also enables them to become producers of information in their own right, and thereby to become more powerful participants in society. Information literacy is about developing people‘s critical and creative abilities. Digital media – and particularly the Internet – significantly increase the potential for such active participation of the individual, provided scholars have the means and training to effectively access and use them. This paper provides definition, standards and importance of information literacy (IL).
Keywords: Information literacy, Digital Media, Training, Communications Technologies.
South African Students' Statistical Literacy in the Conceptual Understanding about Measures of Central Tendency after Completing Their High School Studies
In South Africa, the High School Mathematics Curriculum provides teachers with specific aims and skills to be developed which involves the understanding about the measures of central tendency. The exploration begins with the definitions of statistical literacy, measurement of central tendency and a discussion on why statistical literacy is essential today. It furthermore discusses the statistical literacy basics involved in understanding the concepts of measures of central tendency. The statistical literacy test on the measures of central tendency, was used to collect data which was administered to 78 first year students direct from high schools. The results indicated that students seemed to have forgotten about the statistical literacy in understanding the concepts of measure of central tendency after completing their high school study. The authors present inferences regarding the alignment between statistical literacy and the understanding of the concepts about the measures of central tendency, leading to the conclusion that there is a need to provide in-service and pre-service training.
The Use of Digital Stories in the Development of Critical Literacy
For Fairclough (1989) critical literacy is a tool to enable readers and writers to build up meaning in discourse. More recently other authors (Leu et al., 2004) have included the new technology context in their definition of literacy. In their view being literate nowadays means to “successfully use and adapt to the rapidly changing information and communication technologies and contexts that continuously emerge in our world and influence all areas of our personal and professional lives.” (Leu et al., 2004: 1570). In this presentation the concept of critical literacy will be related to the creation of digital stories.
In the first part of the presentation concepts such as literacy and critical literacy are examined. We consider that real social practices will help learners may improve their literacy level. Accordingly, we show some research, which was conducted at a secondary school in the north of Spain (2013-2014), to illustrate how the “writing” of digital stories may contribute to the development of critical literacy. The use of several instruments allowed the collection of data at the different stages of their creative process including watching and commenting models for digital stories, planning a storyboard, creating and selecting images, adding voices and background sounds, editing and sharing the final product. The results offer some valuable insights into learners’ literacy progress.
Comparing the Educational Effectiveness of eHealth to Deliver Health Knowledge between Higher Literacy Users and Lower Literacy Users
eHealth is undoubtedly emerging as a promising vehicle to provide information for individual self-care management. However, the accessing ability, reading strategies and navigating behavior between higher literacy users and lower literacy users are significantly different. Yet, ways to tailor audiences’ health literacy and develop appropriate eHealth to feed their need become a big challenge. The purpose of this study is to compare the educational effectiveness of eHealth to deliver health knowledge between higher literacy users and lower literacy users, thus establishing useful design strategies of eHealth for users with different level of health literacy. The study was implemented in four stages, the first of which developed a website as the testing media to introduce health care knowledge relating to children’s allergy. Secondly, a reliability and validity test was conducted to make sure that all of the questions in the questionnaire were good indicators. Thirdly, a pre-post knowledge test was conducted with 66 participants, 33 users with higher literacy and 33 users with lower literacy respectively. Finally, a usability evaluation survey was undertaken to explore the criteria used by users with different levels of health literacy to evaluate eHealth. The results demonstrated that the eHealth Intervention in both groups had a positive outcome. There was no significant difference between the effectiveness of eHealth intervention between users with higher literacy and users with lower literacy. However, the average mean of lower literacy group was marginally higher than the average mean of higher literacy group. The findings also showed that the criteria used to evaluate eHealth could be analyzed in terms of the quality of information, appearance, appeal and interaction, but the users with lower literacy have different evaluation criteria from those with higher literacy. This is an interdisciplinary research which proposes the sequential key steps that incorporate the planning, developing and accessing issues that need to be considered when designing eHealth for patients with varying degrees of health literacy.
Literacy Performance among Lower Primary School Children : A Malaysian Case Study
Numerous studies on boys’ performance relative to girls’ have been conducted around the globe. However, little has been done in relation to the literacy of primary school boys in the Malaysian context. This paper discusses the results of a study that sought to determine the literacy performance of Grades 1, 2, and 3 primary school students in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Data on approximately 85,000 students from each grade level were obtained from the Ministry of Education Malaysia, which conducts national screening on literacy and numeracy, or LINUS, in all government primary schools. Teachers’ views were also sought through focus group interviews and journal entries. The results show that although there is an overall improvement in literacy performance in the Malay language among the students as they go into Grades 2 and 3, girls are found to outperform boys in every screening for all grade levels.
Revisited: Financial Literacy and How University Students Fare
This study is conducted to investigate the level of financial literacy among students taking Financial Management and Banking in Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia. Students are asked to answer basic financial literacy questions in their first class before study commence and the similar questions were given in their final week of study (after 14 weeks of study duration). The comparison on their level of financial literacy will be examined. This study is expected to yields the following findings; firstly, comparison of the level of financial literacy 'before and after' courses in finance being introduced can be revealed. Secondly, it will provide suggestion on improving the standard of teaching and learning in financial management and banking courses and lastly it will help in identifying financial courses that are important in improving the level of financial literacy among students in Malaysia.
Perceived and Performed E-Health Literacy: Survey and Simulated Performance Test
Background: Connecting end-users to newly developed ICT technologies and channeling patients to new products requires an assessment of compatibility. End user’s assessment is conveyed in the concept of eHealth literacy. The study examined the association between perceived and performed eHealth literacy (EHL) in a heterogeneous age sample in Israel. Methods: Participants included 100 Israeli adults (mean age 43,SD 13.9) who were first phone interviewed and then tested on a computer simulation of health-related Internet tasks. Performed, perceived and evaluated EHL were assessed. Levels of successful completion of tasks represented EHL performance and evaluated EHL included observed motivation, confidence, and amount of help provided. Results: The skills of accessing, understanding, appraising, applying, and generating new information had a decreasing successful completion rate with increase in complexity of the task. Generating new information, though highly correlated with all other skills, was least correlated with the other skills. Perceived and performed EHL were correlated (r=.40, P=.001), while facets of performance (i.e, digital literacy and EHL) were highly correlated (r=.89, P
Financial Literacy and Stock Market Participation: Does Gender Matter?
Financial literacy is fundamental to every decision-making process and has received attention from researchers, regulatory bodies and policy makers in the recent past. This study is an attempt to evaluate financial literacy in an emerging economy, particularly Pakistan, and its influence on people's stock market participation. Data of this study was collected through a structured questionnaire from a sample of 300 respondents. EFA is used to check the convergent and discriminant validity. Data is analyzed using Hayes (2013) approach. A set of demographic control variables that have passed the mean difference test is used. We demonstrate that participants with financial literacy tend to invest more in the stock market. We also find that association among financial literacy and participation in stock market gets moderated by gender.
Promoting Visual Literacy from Primary to Tertiary Levels through Literature
Traditionally, literacy has been commonly defined as the ability to read and write at an adequate level of proficiency that is necessary for communication. However, as time goes by, literacy has started to refer to reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at a level that lets one understand and communicate ideas in a literate society, so as to take part in that society. Meanwhile, visual literacy is a set of abilities that enables an individual to effectively find, interpret, evaluate, use, and create images and visual media. This study aims to investigate the collaboration between visual literacy and literature, eventually to determine how visual literacy can enhance learner’s ability to comprehend literary texts such as poems and short stories and develop his intellectuality, especially critical and creative thinking skills, and also to find out the different impacts of literature in visual literacy at four levels of education: pre-school, primary and secondary schools and university. This study is based on Malaysian environment and involves a qualitative method consisting of observation and interviews. The initial findings show that people with different levels of education grasp visual literacy differently but all levels show outstanding impacts of using literature.
A Study of Financial Literacy among Undergraduates
Financial Literacy is the possession of knowledge and understanding of financial matters. Financial Literacy often entails the knowledge of properly making decisions pertaining to certain personal financial areas like real estate, insurance investing, and savings. This paper intends to identify and analyze the financial knowledge among university undergraduates by using 200 undergraduates in four faculties of University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Collected data will be analyzed by descriptive research method using SPSS package. Expected outcomes are considerable percentage of undergraduates have basic knowledge on financial matters while it has a law percentage for advanced financial literacy among undergraduates. Students from faculty of Commerce and Management and Science have good understanding about financial matters than undergraduates in other two faculties
Mental Health Literacy in the Arabic Community
Mental health literacy has become a very influential topic around the world due to the increase of mental health issues that have been reported through national research and surveys. Mental health literacy refers to the awareness, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills when dealing with mental illness. This research explores mental health literacy in the Arabic and the ways culture informs perceptions of mental health in general. Also, the impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking attitudes, relationships and community interactions. The outcomes of this research will contribute to raising mental health awareness among the Arabic community, develop and enhance mental health service provision and explore new ideas in regards to elevating mental health literacy in the Arabic community. This research aims to explore attitudes, beliefs, perspective, values and perceptions toward mental health in general among the Arabic community. It will also aim to highlight the factors contributing to theses beliefs, perspective, value and perception and accordingly the role these factors play in regards to awareness, services access, recovery and care provided from the family and the community. This thesis will aim to reflect a detailed theorisation and exploration of: (1) The impact of cultural factors on mental health literacy ie. attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills. (2) The ways culture informs perceptions of mental health literacy. (3) The impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking behaviors, and relationships and community interactions.
The Moment of Departure: Redefining Self and Space in Literacy Activism
Literacy practice is situated within the identity enactment in a particular time and space. The literacy practices in public places, ranging from city parks, urban slums to city roads are meeting places of discursive practices produced by dynamic interactions, and sometimes contestations, of social powers and capitals. The present paper examines the ways the literacy activists construct their sense of space in attempts to develop possibilities for literacy programs as they are sent to work with marginalized communities far away from their hometowns in Indonesia. In particular, this paper analyzes the activists’ reflections of identity enactment - othering, familiarity, and sense of comfort - as they are trying to make meaning of the communities’ literacy capitals and practices in the process of adapting with the communities. Data collected for this paper were travel diaries - serving as literacy narratives - obtained from a literacy residency program sponsored by the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture. The residency program itself involved 30 youths (18 to 30 years old) to work with marginalized communities in literacy activism programs. This paper analyzes the written narratives of four focal participants using Bakhtin’s chronotopes - the configurations of time and space - that figure into the youth’s meaning-making of literacy as well as their exercise of power and identity. Follow-up interviews were added to enrich the analysis. The analysis considers the youth’s ‘moment of departure’ a critical point in their reconstructions of self and space. This paper expands the discussions of literacy discourse and spatiality while lending its supports to literacy activism in highly diverse multicultural settings.
Factors Affecting eHealth Literacy among Nursing Students in Jordan
Background: with the development of information and communication technology, using the internet as a source to obtain health information is increasing. Nursing students as future health care providers should have the skills of locating, evaluating and using online health information. This will enable them to help their patients and families to make informed decisions. Aim: this study has a two-fold aim. The first is to assess the eHealth literacy among nursing students in Jordan. The second aim is to explore the factors that have an effect on the eHealth literacy. Methods: this is a descriptive cross-sectional survey that conducted in two universities in Jordan; public and private one. A number of 541 students from both universities were completed the eHEALS scale, which is an instrument designed to measure the eHealth literacy. Some additional personal and demographical variable were collected to explore its effect on eHealth literacy. Results: Students have a high perceived level of e-Health literacy (M=3.62, SD=0.58). They are aware of the available online health resources, know how to search, locate, and use these resources. But, they do not have the skills to evaluate these resources and cannot differentiate between the high and low-quality resources. The results showed as well that type of university, type of students' admission, academic level, students' skills of using the internet, and the perception of usefulness and importance of internet have an effect on the eHealth literacy. While the age, gender, GPA, and the frequency of using the internet was no significant factors. Conclusion: This study represents a baseline reference for the eHealth literacy in Jordan. Students have some skills of eHealth literacy and other skills need to be improved. Nursing educators and administrators should integrate and incorporate the skills of eHealth literacy in the curriculum.
The Importance of Mental Health Literacy: Interventions in a Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes, Portugal
Introduction: Health literacy empowers people of knowledge, motivation and skills to access, understand, evaluate and mobilize information relating to health. Although the benefits of public knowledge of physical disease are widely accepted, knowledge about mental disorder has been compatibly neglected. Nowadays there is considerably evidence that literacy is of great importance for the promotion of health and prevention of mental illness. Objective: Disclosure the concept and importance of mental health literacy and introduce the literacy program of Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes. Methodology: A search was conducted on PubMed, using keywords “literacy” and “mental health”. A description of mental health literacy interventions implemented on Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes was performed, namely, psychoeducation programs for depression and bipolar disorder. Results and discussion: Health literacy enables patient to be able to actively participate in his treatment. The improving of mental health literacy can promote early identification of mental disorders, improve treatment results, increase the use of health services and allow the community to take action to achieve better mental health. Psychoeducation is very useful in improving the course of disease and in reducing the number of episodes and hospitalizations. Bipolar patients who received psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy have no relapses during the program and last year. Conclusion: Mental health literacy is not simply a matter of having knowledge, rather, it is knowledge linked to action which can benefit mental health.
Media (Il) Literacy: An Evaluation of the Curriculum and Implementation of the Department of Education's Special Program in Journalism
This study evaluated the curriculum and implementation of the Special Program in Journalism (SPJ). By conducting surveys, focus group discussions, and interviews and by analyzing the school publication of five national high schools, the researcher found out that SPJ is ineffective in instilling media literacy to the students. Media Literacy will help the students understand how media operates, thus, they will be able to produce outputs that are socially relevant, critical, and in-depth. For one, the curriculum includes lessons and activities that are mostly technical in nature. There are no theoretical topics such as ethics, history of the press, or media ownership. Second, most of the SPJ teachers have little background on Journalism and they are not trained enough to teach the program effectively. Third, most of the students are not really inclined in Journalism and do not see themselves as media practitioners in the future. Lastly, the Department of Education’s budget for the program is far from what the curriculum needs. All of these lead to the low Media Literacy levels of the students. SPJ, therefore, has to be reevaluated and amended. In conclusion, Media Literacy should be added in the curriculum so the students will not only be equipped with technical skills but with theoretical knowledge, as well.
Children's Literature As Pedagogy: Lessons For Literacy Practice
This paper explores research and practice shared on a masters University module entitled Children's Literature as Pedagogy. Issues explored include the meaning of childhood and literature; the definition of what counts as text, textual and literacy practice for children and adolescents. A sociocultural framework is used to define literacy practice from this perspective and student voice and experience remains central. Lessons from classroom experience and the use of innovative, multi modal and non traditional texts and pedagogical approaches are offered as examples of innovative and inclusive pedagogy in the field of literacy practice.
The Impact of Financial Literacy to the Retirement Planning on Malaysian Household
Purpose: This study examines the comprehensive household retirement planning based on the level of financial literacy in Malaysia. Sufficient financial literacy is essential to make financial decision on Malaysian household retirement planning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Numerous measurements consist of present value of total retirement fund needed, future value of the expenses and inflation-adjusted interest rate are used in this paper. Therefore, we are able to identify the retirement gap that needs to be considered immediately. Findings: Our results show, firstly, adequate financial literacy is vital to achieve long term household retirement planning. Secondly, there is no retirement gap where the future value of the existing financial assets is greater than the lump sum needs during retirement phase. Thirdly, financial assets should be prepared in early age to accumulate substantial funding to support household retirement life. Practical Implications: The outcomes benefit to retiree and working adults. It highlights the importance of financial literacy to retirement planning. It is also a milestone for Malaysian to achieve developed country if Malaysian has sufficient retirement funding. Originality/Value: There is currently lack of in-depth research on financial literacy related to household retirement planning. Further, the paper also focusses on financial literacy, as a means to assist those in funding retirement resources, in order to fulfil the retirement gap.
The Management of Media Literacy Development for Thai Students
The purpose of this research was to enhance student’s media literacy. The process was divided into 4 periods: the first phase was to hold the meeting for 100 representatives from various institutions in Thailand; the second phase allowed them to design activities to be used in their institutions; the third implemented activities to reach other target groups; and the last phase was to summarize results. It was found that the participants had clear understanding on media literacy. They knew well about the media. In other words, they knew the difference between creative media and bad ones. Students could use analytical process when searching for information. Thus, the project enabled the students to use analytical thinking skills in designing new activities. Therefore, they could creatively integrate Thai folk song with short movies and cartoons. To increase students’ media literacy, there should be chances for them to gain first-hand experience.
Use of Cloud-Based Virtual Classroom in Connectivism Learning Process to Enhance Information Literacy and Self-Efficacy for Undergraduate Students
The way of learning has been changed into a new paradigm since the improvement of network and communication technology, so learners have to interact with massive amount of the information. Thus, information literacy has become a critical set of abilities required by every college and university in the world. Connectivism is considered to be an alternative way to design information literacy course in online learning environment, such as Virtual Classroom (VC). With the change of learning pedagogy, VC is employed to improve the social capability by integrating cloud-based technology. This paper aims to study the use of Cloud-based Virtual Classroom (CBVC) in Connectivism learning process to enhance information literacy and self-efficacy of twenty-one undergraduate students who registered in an e-publishing course at Chulalongkorn University. The data were gathered during 6 weeks of the study by using the following instruments: (1) Information literacy test (2) Information literacy rubrics (3) Information Literacy Self-Efficacy (ILSE) Scales and (4) Questionnaire. The result indicated that students have information literacy and self-efficacy posttest mean scores higher than pretest mean scores at .05 level of significant after using CBVC in Connectivism learning process. Additionally, the study identified that the Connectivism learning process proved useful for developing information rich environment and a sense of community, and the CBVC proved useful for developing social connection.
The Impact of Financial Literacy to the Retirement Planning on Malaysian Household
Purpose: This study examines the comprehensive household retirement planning based on the level of financial literacy in Malaysia. Sufficient financial literacy is essential to make financial decision on Malaysian household retirement planning. Design/methodology/approach: Numerous measurements consist of present value of total retirement fund needed, future value of the expenses and inflation-adjusted interest rate are used in this paper. Therefore, we are able to identify the retirement gap that needs to be considered immediately. Findings: Our results show, firstly, adequate financial literacy is vital to achieve long term household retirement planning. Secondly, there is no retirement gap where the future value of the existing financial assets is greater than the lump sum needs during retirement phase. Thirdly, financial assets should be prepared in early age to accumulate substantial funding to support household retirement life. Practical implications: The outcomes benefit to retiree and working adults. It highlights the importance of financial literacy to retirement planning. It is also a milestone for Malaysian to achieve developed country if Malaysian has sufficient retirement funding. Originality/value: There is currently lack of in-depth research on financial literacy related to household retirement planning. Further, the paper also focusses on financial literacy, as a means to assist those in funding retirement resources, in order to fulfill the retirement gap.
The Impact of Financial Literacy to the Retirement Planning on Malaysian Household
Purpose: This study examines the comprehensive household retirement planning based on the level of financial literacy in Malaysia. Sufficient financial literacy is essential to make financial decision on Malaysian household retirement planning. Design/methodology/approach: Numerous measurements consist of present value of total retirement fund needed, future value of the expenses and inflation-adjusted interest rate are used in this paper. Therefore, we are able to identify the retirement gap that needs to be considered immediately. Findings: Our results show, firstly, adequate financial literacy is vital to achieve long term household retirement planning. Secondly, there is no retirement gap where the future value of the existing financial assets is greater than the lump sum needs during retirement phase. Thirdly, financial assets should be prepared in early age to accumulate substantial funding to support household retirement life. Practical implications: The outcomes benefit to retiree and working adults. It highlights the importance of financial literacy to retirement planning. It is also a milestone for Malaysian to achieve developed country if Malaysian has sufficient retirement funding. Originality/value: There is currently lack of in-depth research on financial literacy related to household retirement planning. Further, the paper also focusses on financial literacy, as a means to assist those in funding retirement resources, in order to fulfill the retirement gap.
Study on Media Literacy and Its Role in Iranian Society (Case Study: Students of Mahmoudabad City)
This paper is about the study of media literacy and its role in Iranian society. Determine the research hypothesis by the use of James Patter theory and us stratification and also culture theory. By the use of traversal method and by the aim of the survey on 375 students in Mahmoudabad which was selected randomly, the data was gathered and analyzed by SPSS software. Coefficient alpha for Crohn Bach is used in order to reach to the justifiability of indexes. The research findings show that the variable like duration, rate and type of media use, the realization of media content, audience goal and motivation, economical and social base and the rate of education has a meaningful relation with media literacy.
Financial Literacy Testing: Results of Conducted Research and Introduction of a Project
The goal of the study is to provide results of a conducted study devoted to financial literacy in the Czech Republic and to introduce a project related to financial education in the Czech Republic. Financial education has become an important part of education in the country, yet it is still neglected on the lowest level of formal education–primary schools. The project is based on investigation of financial literacy on primary schools in the Czech Republic. Consequently, the authors aim to formulate possible amendments related to this type of education. The gained dataset is intended to be used for analysis concerning financial education in the Czech Republic. With regard to used methods, the most important one is regression analysis for disclosure of predictors causing different levels of financial literacy. Furthermore, comparison of different groups is planned, for which t-tests are intended to be used. The study also employs descriptive statistics to introduce basic relationship in the data file.
Parents' Attitudes towards a School-Based Family Program in Early Literacy in Qatari Preschool Settings
The study aimed at investigating parents’ attitudes towards a school-based family program in developing kindergarten children’s literacy skills. The study surveyed 160 parents of preschool children, gathering information about their attitudes toward the development of children’s early literacy. Results indicated that parents hold positive attitudes towards the school-based family literacy program. The results also revealed statistically significant differences among parents due to a number of study variables. The study concludes with putting forward a number of practical and theoretical recommendations for the field of study. Acknowledgment: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP 8-921-5-122) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.
Negotiating Space, Reconstructing Identity, and Community Literacy Practices: Case Study of Indonesian Domestic Workers in Hong Kong
Foreign domestic workers are arguably one of the most exploited and subordinated groups of women in the labor division under global capitalism. However, foreign domestic workers (FDWs) actively engage in activities to negotiate the prevailing structures of power in the transnational labor market. This paper seeks to understand the significance of Indonesian Domestic Workers (IDWs) cultural representations in relation to the themes of literacy and space. In particular, this paper addresses the issue of how IDWs in Hong Kong make use of the practice of suitcase libraries to make meaning of space within material limits. The term ‘suitcase libraries’ is used to refer to a literacy practice of book borrowing at outdoor public spaces in Hong Kong during IDWs’ days off. The books are displayed in open suitcases and mats, with IDWs both as administrators and consumers engaged in the practice. This paper argues that suitcase libraries can be considered representing Thirdspace in the form of a vernacular, grassroots literacy practice that creates a productive space of resistance and community empowerment. Employing participant observation and a textual analysis of IDWs’ literacy narratives, the study traced IDWs’ literacy trajectories to the period of IDWs’ permanent return to Indonesia. Through extended engagement in community literacy practices in their hometowns, former IDWs develop their literacy capital and break the stereotypes of uneducated and passive maids and change them into literate figures. In the context of literacy movement that has gained momentum in Indonesia recently, the practice of IDWs’ suitcase libraries is also useful as a reference point to further investigate how community literacy sponsors in Indonesia also create Thirdspace and develop literacy capital through community libraries (TBM, Taman Baca Masyarakat).
Enactments of Global Citizenship Education: Social Justice in Public Spheres of Education
This proposed chapter explains how civic religious literacy is a means to promote social justice in Canada. It will first present the specific conception of global citizenship education that will undergird the discussion in the chapter. Then, it will offer a conception of civic religious literacy that explains how it promotes social justice as a form of global citizenship education. To illustrate this point, I will list specific examples of social and political inequities in Canada, such as hate crime statistics from 2013-2018 across the country and in specific provinces and cities. I will also highlight different types of discrimination, such as that towards religious minorities, Indigenous peoples, and those that conflate race and religion, and other intersections of identity that civic religious literacy can address. To conclude this initial section of the chapter, I will cite international studies that discuss religious literacy as a means to promote characteristics and aims of global citizenship education.
Language Literacy Attrition: An Empirical Investigation
Our world is now operating under the auspices of globalization with its attendant language of ‘global English.' In many parts of the world, the need for English is often accepted without much thought given to native languages. Indeed, this is the current situation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with English encroaching into all areas of society, and especially forcefully into the education sector, where English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is on the rise. At the same time, Arabic literacy (i.e., the ability to read and write in Arabic) is declining among the UAE youth. Using a mixed-methods design, a study was conducted to gain insights into the use of Arabic by Emirati University students. The study examines how often Emiratis, males and females, use their native language (Arabic) in their daily lives, how they view their reading and writing skills in Arabic vis-à-vis their English literacy skills, and the extent to which they can demonstrate their literacy skills in Arabic. Clear evidence emerged showing that while Arabic as a dialect continues to be spoken on a daily basis, Arabic literacy is unquestionably losing ground. This was found to be motivated by educational, political, societal, and personal forces. These findings and their implications to language policy and existing bilingualism programs will be discussed. Suggestions for further research will also be made.
The Role of Digital Text in School and Vernacular Literacies: Students Digital Practices at Cybercafés in Mexico
Students of all educational levels participate in literacy practices that may involve print or digital media. Scholars from the New Literacy Studies distinguish practices that fulfill institutional purposes such as those established at schools from literate practices aimed at doing other kinds of activities, such as reading instructions in order to play a video game; the first are known as institutional practices while the latter are considered vernacular literacies. When students perform these kinds of activities they engage with print and digital media according to the demands of the task. In this paper, it is aimed to discuss the results of a research project focusing on literacy practices of high school students at 10 urban cybercafés in Mexico. The main objective was to analyze the literacy practices of students performing both school tasks and vernacular literacies. The methodology included a focused ethnography with online and face to face observations of 10 high school students (5 male and 5 female) and interviews after performing each task. In the results, it is presented how students treat texts as open, dynamic and relational artifacts when engaging in vernacular literacies; while texts are conceived as closed, authoritarian and fixed documents when performing school activities. Samples of each type of activity are shown followed by a discussion of the pedagogical implications for improving school literacy.
Exploring Family and Preschool Early Interactive Literacy Practices in Jordan
Background: Child's earliest experiences with books and stories during the first years of his life are strongly linked with the development of his early language and literacy skills. Interacting in routine learning activities, such as shared book reading, storytelling, and teaching about the letters of the alphabet make a critical foundation for early learning, language growth and emergent literacy. Aim: The current study explores family and preschool early interactive literacy practices in families and preschools (nursery and kindergarten) in Jordan. It highlights the importance of early interactive literacy activities on child language and literacy growth and development. Methods: This is a cross sectional study that surveyed 243 Jordanian families. The survey investigated literacy routine practices, largely shared books reading, at home and at preschool; child speech and language development; and family demographics. Results: Around 92.5% of the families read books and stories to their children, as frequently as 1-2 times weekly or monthly (75%). Only 19.6% read books on daily basis. Many families reported preferring story-telling (97%). Despite that families acknowledged the importance of early literacy activities, on language, reading and writing, cognitive, and academic development, 45% asked for education and training pertaining to specific ways and ideas to help their young children develop language and literacy skills. About 69% of the families reported reading books and stories to their children for 15 minutes a day, while 71.2% indicated having their children watch television for 3 to > 6 hours a day. At preschool, only 52.8% of the teachers were reported to read books and stories. Factors like parent education, monthly income, living inside (33.6%) or outside (66.4%) the capital city of Amman significantly (p < 0.05) affected child early literacy interactive activities whether at home or at preschool. Conclusion: Early language and literacy skills depend largely on the opportunities and experiences provided to children in the home and in preschool environment. Family literacy programs can play an important role in bridging the gap in early literacy experiences for families that need help. Also, speech therapists can work in collaboration with families and educators to ensure that young children have high quality and sufficient opportunities to participate in early literacy activities both at home and in preschool environments.
Media Literacy Development: A Methodology to Systematically Integrate Post-Contemporary Challenges in Early Childhood Education
The following text presents the ik.model, a theoretical framework that guided the pedagogical implementation of meaningful educational technology-based projects in formal education worldwide. In this paper, we will focus on how this framework has enabled the development of media literacy projects for early childhood education during the last three years. The methodology that guided educators through the challenge of systematically merging analogic and digital means in dialogic high-quality opportunities of world exploration is explained throughout these lines. The effects of this methodology on early age media literacy development are considered. Also considered is the relevance of this skill in terms of post-contemporary challenges posed to learning.
The Evaluation of Sexual Literacy Teacher Training Program in Thai Teachers
The Sexual Literacy Training Teachers Program (SLTTP) based on sexual health problems in Thai students includes sexual development, sexual hygiene, high-risk behaviors, Sexual Transmitter Infections and HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual abuse that increase among Thai students. The training aimed at providing teachers with the sexuality knowledge, sexuality information access skills, communication skill to effectively teach in their class. 28 teachers were participated from schools in Bangkok metropolitan and Nakorn Patom province. The result show the mean score of the pre-test was 8.46 (SD=1.77) and the post-test was 10.13 (SD=2.34). The post-training results were found to be higher than pre–training results but not significant. As teachers are increasing the sexual literacy is very important for Thai students.
Re-Defining Academic Literacy: An Information Literacy Approach to Helping Chinese International Students Succeed in American Colleges
With the upsurge of Chinese international students in American higher education, serious academic problems Chinese international students are suffering from are also striking. While most practices and research in higher education focus on the role of professors, writing centers, and tutoring centers to help international students succeed in college, this research study focuses on a more fundamental skill that is neglected in most conversations: information literacy, which is usually addressed by academic librarians. Transitioning from an East-Asian, developing educational system that values authority, set knowledge more than independent thinking, scholarly conversation, Chinese international students need support from academic librarians to acquire information literacy, which is crucial to understand expectations of a Western academic setting and thus to succeed in college. This research study illustrates how academic librarians can play an integral role in helping Chinese international students acclimate to the expectations of American higher education by teaching information literacy as academic literacy unique to the Western academic setting. Six keys of information literacy put forward by Association of College and Research Libraries, which are 'Authority Is Constructed and Contextual', 'Information Creation as a Process', 'Information Has Value', 'Research as Inquiry', 'Scholarship as Conversation', and 'Searching as Strategic Exploration', are analyzed through the lens of Chinese educational system and students’ backgrounds. Based on the analysis as well as results from surveys and interviews among academic librarians, professors, and international students, this research further examines current practices from a wide range of academic libraries and finally, provides evidence-based recommendations for academic librarians to use information literacy instruction to help Chinese international students succeed in American higher education.
Exploring Teachers’ Beliefs about Diagnostic Language Assessment Practices in a Large-Scale Assessment Program
In Australia, like other parts of the world, the debate on how to enhance teachers using assessment data to inform teaching and learning of English as an Additional Language (EAL, Australia) or English as a Foreign Language (EFL, United States) have occupied the centre of academic scholarship. Traditionally, this approach was conceptualised as ‘Formative Assessment’ and, in recent times, ‘Assessment for Learning (AfL)’. The central problem is that teacher-made tests are limited in providing data that can inform teaching and learning due to variability of classroom assessments, which are hindered by teachers’ characteristics and assessment literacy. To address this concern, scholars in language education and testing have proposed a uniformed large-scale computer-based assessment program to meet the needs of teachers and promote AfL in language education. In Australia, for instance, the Victoria state government commissioned a large-scale project called 'Tools to Enhance Assessment Literacy (TEAL) for Teachers of English as an additional language'. As part of the TEAL project, a tool called ‘Reading and Vocabulary assessment for English as an Additional Language (RVEAL)’, as a diagnostic language assessment (DLA), was developed by language experts at the University of New South Wales for teachers in Victorian schools to guide EAL pedagogy in the classroom. Therefore, this study aims to provide qualitative evidence for understanding beliefs about the diagnostic language assessment (DLA) among EAL teachers in primary and secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. To realize this goal, this study raises the following questions: (a) How do teachers use large-scale assessment data for diagnostic purposes? (b) What skills do language teachers think are necessary for using assessment data for instruction in the classroom? and (c) What factors, if any, contribute to teachers’ beliefs about diagnostic assessment in a large-scale assessment? Semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from at least 15 professional teachers who were selected through a purposeful sampling. The findings from the resulting data analysis (thematic analysis) provide an understanding of teachers’ beliefs about DLA in a classroom context and identify how these beliefs are crystallised in language teachers. The discussion shows how the findings can be used to inform professional development processes for language teachers as well as informing important factor of teacher cognition in the pedagogic processes of language assessment. This, hopefully, will help test developers and testing organisations to align the outcome of this study with their test development processes to design assessment that can enhance AfL in language education.
Developing English L2 Critical Reading and Thinking Skills through the PISA Reading Literacy Assessment Framework: A Case Study of EFL Learners in a Thai University
This study aimed to investigate the use of the PISA reading literacy assessment framework (PRF) to improve EFL learners’ critical reading and thinking skills. The sample group, selected by the purposive sampling technique, included 36 EFL learners from a university in Northeastern Thailand. The instruments consisted of 8 PRF-based reading lessons, a 27-item-PRF-based reading test which was used as a pre-test and a post-test, and an attitude questionnaire toward the designed lessons. The statistics used for data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results revealed that before the intervention, the students’ English reading proficiency were low as is evident from their low pre-test scores (M=14.00). They did fairly well for the access-and-retrieve questions (M=6.11), but poorly for the integrate-and-interpret questions (M=4.89) and the reflect-and-evaluate questions (M=3.00), respectively. This means that the students could comprehend the texts but they could hardly interpret or evaluate them. However, after the intervention, they could do better as their post-test scores were higher (M=18.01). They could comprehend (M=6.78), interpret (M=6.00) and evaluate (M=5.25) well. This means that after the intervention, their critical reading skills had improved. In terms of their attitude towards the designed lessons and instruction, most students were satisfied with the lessons and the instruction. It may thus be concluded that the designed lessons can help improve students’ English critical reading proficiency and may be used as a teaching model for improving EFL learners’ critical reading skills.
Innovative Teaching Learning Techniques and Learning Difficulties of Adult Learners in Literacy Education Programmes in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria
The study investigated the extent to which innovative teaching-learning techniques can influence and attenuate learning difficulties among adult learners participating in different literacy education programmes in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to collect data from a sample size of 150 participants of the programme. The sample was drawn using the simple random sampling method. As an experimental study, the 150 participants were divided into two equal groups –the first was the experimental group while the second was the control. A pre-test was administered to the two groups which were later exposed to a post-test after treatment. Two instruments were used for data collection. The first was the guide for the Literacy Learning Difficulties Inventory (LLDI). Three hypotheses were postulated and tested as .05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANOVA) test statistics. Results of the analysis firstly showed that the two groups (treatment and control) did not differ in the pre-test regarding their literacy learning difficulties. Secondly, the result showed that for each hypothesis, innovative teaching-learning techniques significantly influenced adult learners’ (participants) literacy learning difficulties. Based on these findings, the study recommends the use of innovative teaching-learning techniques in adult literacy education centres to mitigate the learning difficulties of adult learners in literacy education programmes in Calabar Metropolis.
Enhancing Experiential Education in Teacher Education Classes Through Simulated Person Methodology
This study is a narrative inquiry into the use of simulated person methodology (SPM) in teacher education classes. This methodology -often used in medical schools- has tremendous benefits in terms of enhancing experiential education in teacher education classes. Literacy education is a major focus in elementary schools. New teachers must work with parents to ensure that children learn to read and expand their literacy horizons. The classes used in this narrative inquiry research consist of one graduate class on family literacy and two pre-service teacher education classes: literacy and culture and early and family literacy. Two scenarios were devised, both of which simulated a parent-teacher interview. In the first scenario, the parent is a reluctant father who is ashamed of his lack of reading ability and does not understand why literacy is important. His seven-year-old son, wanting to emulate his father, has suddenly transformed from an eager student to one who rejects the value of reading in loyalty to his father who cannot read. In the second scenario, a father is called in by the teacher because his son has started acting out in class. The mother in this scenario is temporarily absent from the home, and the father is now the sole caregiver. In each of the scenarios, students are the teachers who are problem-solving these dilemmas in a safe environment with the 'parent' who is a specially trained simulated person. Teacher candidates enact, with the trained simulated person, their strategies for encouraging parents to engage in the literacy development of their children. Teacher candidates attempt to offer support and encouragement to parents. This simulation strategy offers both beginning and more experienced teachers the opportunity to practice an interview with two distinct and contrasting family situations with regard to the literacy of young children. The paper discusses the details of the scenarios enacted in class and the reflective discussion through which students learn from the simulation.
Active Learning Based on Science Experiments to Improve Scientific Literacy
In this study, active learning based on simple science experiments was developed in a university class of the freshman, in order to improve their scientific literacy. Through the active learning based on simple experiments of generation of cloud in a plastic bottle, students increased the interest in the global atmospheric problem and were able to discuss and find solutions about this problem positively from various viewpoints of the science technology, the politics, the economy, the diplomacy and the relations among nations. The results of their questionnaires and free descriptions of this class indicate that they improve the scientific literacy and motivations of other classroom lectures to acquire knowledge. It is thus suggested that the science experiment is strong tool to improve their intellectual curiosity rapidly and the connections that link the impression of science experiment and their interest of the social problem is very important to enhance their learning effect in this education.
The Design and Implementation of Interactive Storybook Reading to Develop the Reading Comprehension of ESL Learners
The numerous challenges South African, ESL learners experience were highlighted by the results of several literacy surveys and tests, which demonstrated that our learners’ literacy abilities are far below standard and very weak compared to other international countries. This study developed and implemented an interactive storybook intervention program to support the reading development of ESL learners. The researchers utilized an experimental pre-test/post-test research design, whereby 80 ESL learners from five participating schools, were purposively sampled to take part in this study. This paper, inter alia, discusses the key features of this intervention program whilst also reporting the results of the experimental investigation. Results are promising and show a significant improvement in the mean scores of the learners in the experimental group. Moreover, the results show the value of interactive storybook reading in creating responsive literacy environments to develop the literacy skills of ESL learners.
Using Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Teaching Early Literacy: A Case Study of Zambian Public Preschools
The education system in Zambia still bears scars of colonialism in the area of policy, curriculum and implementation. This historical context resulted in the failure by the Government of the Republic of Zambia to achieve literacy goals expected among school going children. Specifically, research shows that the use of English for initial literacy and Western based teaching methods to engage learners in literacy activities at lower levels of education including preschool has exacerbated this situation. In 2014, the Government of the Republic of Zambia implemented a new curriculum that, among others things, required preschool teachers to use local and cultural materials and familiar languages for early literacy teaching from preschool to grade 4. This paper presents findings from a study that sought to establish ways in which preschool teachers use Zambian Indigenous knowledge systems and Indigenous teaching strategies to support literacy development among preschool children. The study used Indigenous research methodology for data collection and iterative feature of Constructivist Grounded Theory (CGT) in the data collection process and analysis. This study established that, as agents of education, preschool teachers represented community adult educators because of some roles which they played beyond their academic mandate. The study further found that classrooms as venues of learning were equipped with learning corners reflecting Indigenous literacy materials and Indigenous ways of learning. Additionally, the study found that learners were more responsive to literacy lessons because of the use of familiar languages and local contextualized environments that supported their own cultural ways of learning. The study recommended that if the education system in Zambia is to be fully inclusive of Indigenous knowledge systems and cultural ways of learning, the education policy and curriculum should include conscious steps on how this should be implemented at the classroom level. The study further recommended that more diverse local literacy materials and teaching aids should be produced for use in the classroom.
Qualitative Measurement of Literacy
Literacy rate is an important indicator for measurement of human development. But this is not a good one to capture the qualitative dimension of educational attainment of an individual or a society. The overall educational level of an area is an important issue beyond the literacy rate. The overall educational level can be thought of as an outcome of the educational levels of individuals. But there is no well-defined algorithm and mathematical model available to measure the overall educational level of an area. A heuristic approach based on accumulated experience of experts is effective one. It is evident that fuzzy logic offers a natural and convenient framework in modeling various concepts in social science domain. This work suggests the implementation of fuzzy logic to develop a mathematical model for measurement of educational attainment of an area in terms of Education Index. The contribution of the study is two folds: conceptualization of “Education Profile” and proposing a new mathematical model to measure educational attainment in terms of “Education Index”.
Health Literacy and Knowledge Related to Tuberculosis among Outpatients at a Referral Hospital in Lima, Peru
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in Peru relies on passive case finding. This strategy relies on the assumption that the community is aware that a persistent cough is a possible symptom of TB and that formal health care needs to be sought. Despite its importance, health knowledge specific to TB is underexplored in Peru. This study aimed to assess health literacy and level of TB knowledge among outpatients attending a referral hospital in Lima, Peru. The goal was to ascertain knowledge gaps in key areas relating to TB, to identify and prioritize subgroups for intervention, and to provide insight for policy and community interventions considering health literacy. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey to measure sociodemographic factors, tuberculosis knowledge, and health literacy. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the associations between variables and to account for potential confounders. The study was conducted at Hospital Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru from June – August 2017. Results: 272 participants were included in the analysis. 57.7% knew someone who had had TB before, 9% had had TB in the past. Two weeks a cough was correctly identified as a symptom that could be TB by 69.1%. High TB knowledge was found among 149 (54.8%) participants. High health literacy was found among 193 (71.0%) participants. Health literacy and TB knowledge were not significantly associated (OR 0.9 (95%CI 0.5-1.5)). After controlling for sex, age, district, education, health insurance, frequency of hospital visits and previous TB diagnosis: High TB knowledge was associated with knowing someone with TB (aOR 2.7 (95%CI 1.6-4.7)) and being a public transport driver, (aOR 0.2 (95%CI 0.05-0.9)). Not being poor was the single factor associated with high health literacy (aOR 3.8 (95%CI 1.6-8.9)). Conclusions: TB knowledge was fair, though 30% did not know the most important symptom of TB. Tailoring educational strategies to risk groups may enhance passive case detection especially amongst transport workers in Lima, Peru.
Applicability of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Health Literacy in Medicine (Short Form) among Patients in Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India
Introduction: There are many tools available for the measurement of health literacy. REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine) is a very commonly used tool in advanced countries. It comes in two forms-one with 66 words and shorter version (REALM-SF) with seven words. We decided to test the applicability of shorter version of the REALM test among our patients. Methodology: REALM (SF) was tested among 200 patients in a tertiary hospital. Discussion and conclusion: From the analysis of results, when the results of pronunciation indicate adequate levels of HL skills, analysis of comprehension shows that mere reading skills is likely to be misleading. So it is proposed that in Indian population who have adequate reading skills without adequate comprehension the REALM-SF test tool in its present form may not be an ideal testing tool for assessing HL.
Assessment of E-Portfolio on Teacher Reflections on English Language Education
With the wide use of Internet, learners are exposed to the wider world. This exposure permits learners to discover new information and combine a variety of media in order to reach in-depth and broader understanding of their literacy and the world. Many paper-based teaching, learning and assessment modalities can be transferred to a digital platform. This study examines the use of e-portfolios for ESL (English as a second language) pre-service teacher. The data were collected by reviewing 100 E-portfolio from 2013 to 2015 in order to synthesize meaningful information about e-portfolios for ESL pre-service teachers. Participants were generalists, bilingual and ESL pre-service teachers. The studies were coded into two main categories: learning gains, including assessment, and technical skills. The findings showed that using e-portfolios enhanced and developed ESL pre-service teachers’ teaching and assessment skills. Also, the E-portfolio also developed the pre-service teachers’ technical stills to prepare a comprehensible portfolio to present who they are. Finally, the study and presentation suggested e-portfolios for ecological issues and educational purposes.
Usage of Internet Technology in Financial Education and Financial Inclusion by Students of Economics Universities
The paper analyses the usage of the Internet by university students in Visegrad Countries (4V Countries) who study economic fields in their formal and informal financial education and captures the areas of untapped potential of Internet in educational processes. Higher education and training, technological readiness, and the financial market development are in the group of pillars, that are key for efficiency driven economies. These three pillars have become an inspiration to the research on using the Internet in the financial education among economic university students as the group of the best educated people in finance. The financial education is a process that allows for improving the level of financial literacy. In turn, the financial literacy it is the set of financial knowledge, skills, awareness and patterns influencing the financial decisions. The level of financial literacy influences the level of financial well-being of individuals, determines the scale of saving of households and at the same time gives the greater chance for sustainable and more predictable development of the financial market with the positive impact on economy. The financial literacy is necessary for each group of society but its appropriate level is desirable especially in respect of economics students as future participants of financial markets as well as the experts and advisors in financial decision making. The low level of financial literacy is the great problem of many target groups in both developing and developed countries and the financial education is seen as the best way of improving this situation. Also the financial inclusion plays the special role in enhancing the level of financial literacy in the aspect of education by practice as well as due to interrelation between level of financial literacy and degree of financial inclusion. Despite many initiatives under financial education, the level of financial literacy is still very low. Scientists still search for new ways of solving this problem. One of the proposal is more effective usage of the new technology in financial education, especially the Internet, because of the growing popularity of e-learning and the increasing number of Internet users, especially among young people who are called the Generation Net. Due to special role of the university students studying the economics fields for the future financial markets, students of four universities from Visegrad Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) were invited to participate in the survey. The aim of the article is to present the level and ways of using the Internet technology in financial education and indicating the so far unused or underused opportunities.
The Survey of Relationship between Health Literacy and Knowledge of Heart Failure with Rehospitalization in Patients with Heart Failure Admitted to Heart Failure Clinic
Introduction: Despite the progress in new effective drugs in the treatment of heart failure, the disease still accompanied with frequent hospitalization, impaired quality of life, early mortality and significant economic burden. Patients with chronic disease and consequently patients with heart failure need the knowledge and optimal health literacy to improve the quality of life and minimize the rate of rehopitalizatio. So, considering to importance of knowledge and health literacy in this patients as well as contradictory literature, this study conducted to investigate the relationship between health literacy and Knowledge of heart failure with rehospitalization in patients with heart failure admitted to heart failure clinic in Rajai Heart center in 1394. Methods: The cross-sectional method with convenience sampling method was used in this study. After obtaining the necessary permissions from the ethics committee and the Shahid Rajai Heart center, 238 patients who were older than 18 years and had ejection fraction 35% or less with the ability to read and write and lack of psychiatric, neurological and cognitive disorders and signed the informed consent were recruited. Data collection were perfomed through demographic data questionnaire, short standard health literacy questionnaire 'Short-TOFHLA-16' and Vanderwall (2005) knowledge of heart failure questionnaire. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency method and Cronbach's alpha for both questionnaires was more than 0.7. Then data were analysed by SPSS-20 with descriptive statistic and analytical statistic such as T-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results: The majority of patients were male (66%), married (80%) and had age between 50 to 70 years old (42%). The majority of studied men and women have good health literacy and About half of them have adequate knowledge about heart failure. Fisher's exact test showed that there was a significant statistical correlation between health literacy and knowlegh about heart failure. In other words, higher health literacy associated with more knowledge about their condition. Also findings showed that there was no significant statistical correlation between health literacy and knowledge about heart failure and frequency of CCU and emergency admissions. Conclusion: The study results showed that the higher health literacy, associated with the greater knowledge about heart failure and patients' perception about caring recommendations and disease outcomes. Therefore, the knowledge about heart failure and factors which related to severity of the disease, is the important issue to problem identification and treatment and reduction of rehospitalization.
The Effects of Teacher Efficacy, Instructional Leadership and Professional Learning Communities on Student Achievement in Literacy and Numeracy: A Look at Primary Schools within
This paper discusses the factors contributing to student achievement in literacy and numeracy in primary schools within Sibu division. The study involved 694 level 1 primary schoolteachers. Using descriptive statistics, the study observed high levels of practice for teacher efficacy, instructional leadership and professional learning communities (PLCs). The differences between gender, teaching experience and academic qualification were analyzed using the t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study reported significant differences in respondent perceptions based on teaching experience vis-à-vis teacher efficacy. Here, the post hoc Tukey test revealed that efficaciousness grows with experience. A correlation test observed positive and significant correlations between all independent variables. Binary logistic regression was applied to predict the independent variables’ influence on student achievement. The findings revealed that a dimension of instructional leadership – ‘monitoring student progress’ - emerged as the best predictor of student achievement for literacy and numeracy. The result indicated the students were more than 4 times more likely to achieve the national key performance index for both literacy and numeracy when student progress was monitored. In conclusion, ‘monitoring student progress’ had a positive influence on students’ achievement for literacy and numeracy, hence making it a possible course of action for school heads. However, more comprehensive studies are needed to ascertain its consistency within the context of Malaysia.
Actual and Perceived Financial Sophistication and Wealth Accumulation: The Role of Education and Gender
This study examines the role of actual and perceived financial sophistication (i.e., financial literacy and confidence) for individuals’ wealth accumulation. Using survey data from the German SAVE initiative, we find strong gender- and education-related differences in the distribution of the two variables: Whereas financial literacy rises in formal education, confidence increases in education for men but decreases for women. As a consequence, highly-educated women become strongly underconfident, while men remain overconfident. We show that these differences influence wealth accumulation: The positive effect of financial literacy is stronger for women than for men and is increasing in women’s education but decreasing in men’s. For highly-educated men, however, overconfidence closes this gap by increasing wealth via stronger financial engagement. Interestingly, female underconfidence does not reduce current wealth levels though it weakens future-oriented financial engagement and may thus impair future wealth accumulation.
A Two-Week and Six-Month Stability of Cancer Health Literacy Classification Using the CHLT-6
Health literacy has been shown to predict a variety of health outcomes. Reliable identification of persons with limited cancer health literacy (LCHL) has been proved questionable with existing instruments using an arbitrary cut point along a continuum. The CHLT-6, however, uses a latent mixture modeling approach to identify persons with LCHL. The purpose of this study was to estimate two-week and six-month stability of identifying persons with LCHL using the CHLT-6 with a discrete latent variable approach as the underlying measurement structure. Using a test-retest design, the CHLT-6 was administered to cancer patients with two-week (N=98) and six-month (N=51) intervals. The two-week and six-month latent test-retest agreements were 89% and 88%, respectively. The chance-corrected latent agreements estimated from Dumenci’s latent kappa were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.41 – 0.82) and .47 (95% CI: 0.14 – 0.80) for the two-week and six-month intervals, respectively. High levels of latent test-retest agreement between limited and adequate categories of cancer health literacy construct, coupled with moderate to good levels of change-corrected latent agreements indicated that the CHLT-6 classification of limited versus adequate cancer health literacy is relatively stable over time. In conclusion, the measurement structure underlying the instrument allows for estimating classification errors circumventing limitations due to arbitrary approaches adopted by all other instruments. The CHLT-6 can be used to identify persons with LCHL in oncology clinics and intervention studies to accurately estimate treatment effectiveness.
Information Literacy among Faculty and Students of Medical Colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh
With the availability of diverse printed, electronic literature and web sites on medical and health related information, it is impossible for the medical professional to get the information he seeks in the shortest possible time. For all these problems information literacy is the only solution. Thus, information literacy is recognized as an important aspect of medical education. In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the information literacy skills of the faculty and students at medical colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. The scope of the study was confined to the 12 selected medical colleges of three States (Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh). The findings of the study were based on the data collected through 1018 questionnaires filled by the respondents of the medical colleges. It was found that Online Medical Websites (such as WebMD, eMedicine and Mayo Clinic etc.) were frequently used by 63.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh which is slightly more than Haryana (61%) and Punjab (55.65%). As well, 30.86% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 27.41% of Haryana and 27.05% of Punjab were familiar with the controlled vocabulary tool; 25.14% respondents of Chandigarh, 23.80% of Punjab, 23.17% of Haryana were familiar with the Boolean operators; 33.05% of the respondents of Punjab, 28.19% of Haryana and 25.14% of Chandigarh were familiar with the use and importance of the keywords while searching an electronic database; and 51.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 44.52% of Punjab and 36.29% of Haryana were able to make effective use of the retrieved information. For accessing information in electronic format, 47.74% of the respondents rated their skills high, while the majority of respondents (76.13%) were unfamiliar with the basic search technique i.e. Boolean operator used for searching information in an online database. On the basis of the findings, it was suggested that a comprehensive training program based on medical professionals information needs should be organized frequently. Furthermore, it was also suggested that information literacy may be included as a subject in the health science curriculum so as to make the medical professionals information literate and independent lifelong learners.
Improving Literacy Level Through Digital Books for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
In our contemporary world, literacy is an essential skill that enables students to increase their efficiency in managing the many assignments they receive that require understanding and knowledge of the world around them. In addition, literacy enhances student participation in society improving their ability to learn about the world and interact with others and facilitating the exchange of ideas and sharing of knowledge. Therefore, literacy needs to be studied and understood in its full range of contexts. It should be seen as social and cultural practices with historical, political, and economic implications. This study aims to rebuild and reorganize the instructional designs that have been used for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students to improve their literacy level. The most critical part of this process is the teachers; therefore, teachers will be the center focus of this study. Teachers’ main job is to increase students’ performance by fostering strategies through collaborative teamwork, higher-order thinking, and effective use of new information technologies. Teachers, as primary leaders in the learning process, should be aware of new strategies, approaches, methods, and frameworks of teaching in order to apply them to their instruction. Literacy from a wider view means acquisition of adequate and relevant reading skills that enable progression in one’s career and lifestyle while keeping up with current and emerging innovations and trends. Moreover, the nature of literacy is changing rapidly. The notion of new literacy changed the traditional meaning of literacy, which is the ability to read and write. New literacy refers to the ability to effectively and critically navigate, evaluate, and create information using a range of digital technologies. The term new literacy has received a lot of attention in the education field over the last few years. New literacy provides multiple ways of engagement, especially to those with disabilities and other diverse learning needs. For example, using a number of online tools in the classroom provides students with disabilities new ways to engage with the content, take in information, and express their understanding of this content. This study will provide teachers with the highest quality of training sessions to meet the needs of DHH students so as to increase their literacy levels. This study will build a platform between regular instructional designs and digital materials that students can interact with. The intervention that will be applied in this study will be to train teachers of DHH to base their instructional designs on the notion of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) theory. Based on the power analysis that has been done for this study, 98 teachers are needed to be included in this study. This study will choose teachers randomly to increase internal and external validity and to provide a representative sample from the population that this study aims to measure and provide the base for future and further studies. This study is still in process and the initial results are promising by showing how students have engaged with digital books.
Effects of Bilingual Education in the Teaching and Learning Practices in the Continuous Improvement and Development of k12 Program
This research focused on the effects of bilingual education as medium of instruction to the academic performance of selected intermediate students of Miriam’s Academy of Valenzuela Inc. . An experimental design was used, with language of instruction as the independent variable and the different literacy skills as dependent variables. The sample consisted of experimental students comprises of 30 students were exposed to bilingual education (Filipino and English) . They were given pretests and were divided into three groups: Monolingual Filipino, Monolingual English, and Bilingual. They were taught different literacy skills for eight weeks and were then administered the posttests. Data was analyzed and evaluated in the light of the central processing and script-dependent hypotheses. Based on the data, it can be inferred that monolingual instruction in either Filipino or English had a stronger effect on the students’ literacy skills compared to bilingual instruction. Moreover, mother tongue-based instruction, as compared to second-language instruction, had stronger effect on the preschoolers’ literacy skills. Such results have implications not only for mother tongue-based (MTB) but also for English as a second language (ESL) instruction in the country
Information Literacy among Faculty and Students of Medical Colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh
With the availability of diverse printed, electronic literature and web sites on medical and health-related information, it is impossible for the medical professional to get the information he seeks in the shortest possible time. For all these problems information literacy is the only solution. Thus, information literacy is recognized as an important aspect of medical education. In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the information literacy skills of the faculty and students of medical colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. The scope of the study was confined to the twelve medical colleges of three states (Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh). The findings of the study were based on the data collected through 1018 questionnaires filled by the respondents of the medical colleges. It was found that overall Search Engines (72.69%), Text Books (72.20%), Reference Books (63.16%) and Online Medical Websites (such as WebMD, eMedicine and Mayo Clinic etc.) (58.35%) were frequently used by the respondents. 30.86% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 27.41% of Haryana and 27.05% of Punjab were familiar with the controlled vocabulary tool. 25.14% respondents of Chandigarh, 23.80% of Punjab, 23.17% of Haryana were familiar with the Boolean operators. 33.05% of the respondents of Punjab, 28.19% of Haryana and 25.14% of Chandigarh were familiar with the use and importance of the keywords while searching an online medical database. 51.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 44.52% of Punjab and 36.29% of Haryana were able to make effective use of the retrieved information. Majority of the respondents (59.53%) rated their skills high for accessing information in print format while most of the respondents (50.69%) rated their skills average in accessing information in electronic format. On the basis of findings, it was suggested that a comprehensive training program should be organized frequently keeping in view the medical professionals' information needs. Furthermore, it was also suggested that information literacy may be included as a subject in the health science curriculum so as to make the medical professionals' information literate and independent lifelong learners.
Patients' Interpretation of Prescribed Medication Instructions: A Pilot Study among Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Makanye Clinic in Limpopo Province, South Africa
Misapprehension of medications instructions due to poor health literacy is common in diabetic patients, predominantly leading to suboptimal medication therapy caused by taking less than expected, or getting inadequate medication concentration. Globally, 50% of adults have been reported to have misunderstood medication instructions which could be the cause of not using medication as prescribed. Reading material has been found not to improve people’s knowledge to the extent where they would be informed and knowledgeable about their health. This, therefore, depicts that instructive materials alone cannot improve health literacy but further patient education is still needed to explain what the information really mean. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ interpretation of prescribed medication instructions at Makanye Clinic in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study used a mixed method approach. A non-probability purposive and simple random sampling strategies will be used to select ten (10) participants for the pilot study. Semi-structured interviews with a guide and self- administered structured questionnaires will be used to collect data. Tesch’s eight steps for qualitative data analysis and SPSS version 24 with descriptive statistics will be adopted. The preliminary findings from other studies show that: (a) poor health literacy negatively affect medication adherence, (b) general literacy influence health literacy, and (c) there are poor health outcomes and medication adverse effects due to poor medication comprehension.
Preservice Science Teachers' Understanding of Equitable Assessment
Learning is dependent on cognitive and physical differences as well as other differences such as ethnicity, language, and culture. Furthermore, these differences also influence how students show their learning. Assessment is an integral part of learning and teaching process and is essential for effective instruction. In order to provide effective instruction, teachers need to provide equal assessment opportunities for all students to see their learning difficulties and use them to modify instruction to aid learning. Successful assessment practices are dependent upon the knowledge and value of teachers. Therefore, in order to use assessment to assess and support diverse students learning, preservice and inservice teachers should hold an appropriate understanding of equitable assessment. In order to prepare teachers to help them support diverse student learning, as a first step, this study aims to explore how preservice teachers’ understand equitable assessment. 105 preservice science teachers studying at teacher preparation program in a large university located at Eastern part of Turkey participated in the current study. A questionnaire, preservice teachers’ reflection papers and interviews served as data sources for this study. All collected data qualitatively analyzed to develop themes that illustrate preservice science teachers’ understanding of equitable assessment. Results of the study showed that preservice teachers mostly emphasized fairness including fairness in grading and fairness in asking questions not out of covered concepts for equitable assessment. However, most of preservice teachers do not show an understanding of equity for providing equal opportunities for all students to display their understanding of related content. For some preservice teachers providing different opportunities (providing extra time for non-native speaking students) for some students seems to be unfair for other students and therefore, these kinds of refinements do not need to be used. The results of the study illustrated that preservice science teachers mostly understand equitable assessment as fairness and less highlight the role of using equitable assessment to support all student learning, which is more important in order to improve students’ achievement of science. Therefore, we recommend that more opportunities should be provided for preservice teachers engage in a more broad understanding of equitable assessment and learn how to use equitable assessment practices to aid and support all students learning trough classroom assessment.
Aggressive Behavior Prevention: The Effect of Peace Education and Media Literacy towards Student's Understanding about Aggression
For the last 5 years, there is the never-ending violent act and increased cases regarding aggressive behavior among high school students in Bogor, Indonesia. Those cases caused harm to many people, even death, and lead to the continuation circle of violence. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of using peace education and media literacy in enhancing student’s understanding about aggression, as an effort to prevent aggressive behavior. In terms of methodology, this research was done by quasi-experiment with one group pretest and post-test design. A number of 38 students who were at risk of aggressive behavior from 3 vocational high school were involved to receive a 10 learning session about peace and media literacy. The aggression questionnaire was used to identify participants, supported by student’s record in school. To collect data, the questionnaire for measuring understanding about aggression has been developed and was used after the validity and reliability of this questionnaire tested. Post-test was carried out after the session ended. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding result showed that the mean score of student’s understanding of aggression was increased, therefore learning session of peace education and media literacy is significantly effective to enhance student’s understanding of aggression. It also showed a meaningful difference of understanding between male and female student’s whereas female students have a better understanding of aggression.
Contributions of Non-Formal Educational Spaces for the Scientific Literacy of Deaf Students
The school is a social institution that should promote learning situations that remain throughout life. Based on this, the teaching activities promoted in museum spaces can represent an educational strategy that contributes to the learning process in a more meaningful way. This article systematizes a series of elements that guide the use of these spaces for the scientific literacy of deaf students and as experiences of this nature are favorable for the school development through the concept of the circularity. The methodology for the didactic use of these spaces of non-formal education is one of the reflections developed in this study and how such environments can contribute to the learning in the classroom. To develop in the student the idea of association making him create connections with the curricular proposal and notice how the proposed activity is articulated. It is in our interest that the experience lived in the museum be shared collaborating for the construction of a scientific literacy and cultural identity through the research.
Autonomy Supportive Coaching to Achieve Health Literacy
Health Literacy is defined as the degree to which people have the capacity to obtain and understand information to make health decisions. Illustrated are three levels of health literacy: (1) Functional literacy refers to the transmission of information about e. g. physical activity and nutrition; (2) interactive literacy implies the development of personal and social skills to adopt health-related behaviour and (3) critical health literacy indicates advanced cognitive skills connected with personal empowerment to critically analyse health information, to define self-determined goals and taking action in various situations accordingly. The achievement of the third level refers to self-determination and autonomy which should be outcomes of exercise programs for overweight children as health-related behaviour change will occur and persist if it is autonomously motivated. Method: We adopted a quasi-experimental design with group (autonomy supportive coaching, control) and session (pre-test, intervention, post-test, and follow-up-test). Overweight and obese children and adolescents at the age of 8-14 years (N=40) received a 6-month (20 sessions) exercise program with autonomy supportive coaching implemented by the coaches and sandwiched between pre-test and post-test. All participants (N=92) completed the German version of the Basic Needs Satisfaction Scale Sport and Exercise. Additionally, we assessed the engagement in the exercise program by the MVPA (Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity) and by the adherence and drop-out-rate. Results: Participants in the intervention group perceived their autonomy as moderate in the post-test and the follow-up-test. However, the psychological intervention failed to develop a high autonomy, as both groups show moderate perceived autonomy from the pre-test to the post-test. Participants in the intervention group were higher engaged in MVPA in the exercise program and they attend the program more regularly. Discussion: Young overweight and obese children and adolescents can acquire autonomy using autonomy supporting coaching. However, research identifying the extent they achieve critical health literacy is required to implement an autonomy-supportive coaching style into exercise programs for this target group.
Economic Decision Making under Cognitive Load: The Role of Numeracy and Financial Literacy
Financial literacy and numeracy have been regarded as paramount for rational household decision making in the increasing complexity of financial markets. However, financial decisions are often made under sub-optimal circumstances, including cognitive overload. The present study aims to clarify how financial literacy and numeracy, taken as relevant expert knowledge for financial decision-making, modulate possible effects of cognitive load. Participants were required to perform a choice between a sure loss or a gambling pertaining a financial investment, either with or without a competing memory task. Two experiments were conducted varying only the content of the competing task. In the first, the financial choice task was made while maintaining on working memory a list of five random letters. In the second, cognitive load was based upon the retention of six random digits. In both experiments, one of the items in the list had to be recalled given its serial position. Outcomes of the first experiment revealed no significant main effect or interactions involving cognitive load manipulation and numeracy and financial literacy skills, strongly suggesting that retaining a list of random letters did not interfere with the cognitive abilities required for financial decision making. Conversely, and in the second experiment, a significant interaction between the competing mnesic task and level of financial literacy (but not numeracy) was found for the frequency of choice of a gambling option. Overall, and in the control condition, both participants with high financial literacy and high numeracy were more prone to choose the gambling option. However, and when under cognitive load, participants with high financial literacy were as likely as their illiterate counterparts to choose the gambling option. This outcome is interpreted as evidence that financial literacy prevents intuitive risk-aversion reasoning only under highly favourable conditions, as is the case when no other task is competing for cognitive resources. In contrast, participants with higher levels of numeracy were consistently more prone to choose the gambling option in both experimental conditions. These results are discussed in the light of the opposition between classical dual-process theories and fuzzy-trace theories for intuitive decision making, suggesting that while some instances of expertise (as numeracy) are prone to support easily accessible gist representations, other expert skills (as financial literacy) depend upon deliberative processes. It is furthermore suggested that this dissociation between types of expert knowledge might depend on the degree to which they are generalizable across disparate settings. Finally, applied implications of the present study are discussed with a focus on how it informs financial regulators and the importance and limits of promoting financial literacy and general numeracy.
Information Overload, Information Literacy and Use of Technology by Students
The development of web technologies and mobile devices makes creating, accessing, using and sharing information or communicating with each other simpler every day. However, while the amount of information constantly increasing it is becoming harder to effectively organize and find quality information despite the availability of web search engines, filtering and indexing tools. Although digital technologies have overall positive impact on students’ lives, frequent use of these technologies and digital media enriched with dynamic hypertext and hypermedia content, as well as multitasking, distractions caused by notifications, calls or messages; can decrease the attention span, make thinking, memorizing and learning more difficult, which can lead to stress and mental exhaustion. This is referred to as “information overload”, “information glut” or “information anxiety”. Objective of this study is to determine whether students show signs of information overload and to identify the possible predictors. Research was conducted using a questionnaire developed for the purpose of this study. The results show that students frequently use technology (computers, gadgets and digital media), while they show moderate level of information literacy. They have sometimes experienced symptoms of information overload. According to the statistical analysis, higher frequency of technology use and lower level of information literacy are correlated with larger information overload. The multiple regression analysis has confirmed that the combination of these two independent variables has statistically significant predictive capacity for information overload. Therefore, the information science teachers should pay attention to improving the level of students’ information literacy and educate them about the risks of excessive technology use.
The Contemporary Visual Spectacle: Critical Visual Literacy
In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.
Comics as an Intermediary for Media Literacy Education
The value of using comics in the literacy classroom has been explored since the 1930s. At that point in time researchers had begun to implement comics into daily lesson plans and, in some instances, had started the development process for comics-supported curriculum. In the mid-1950s, this type of research was cut short due to the work of psychiatrist Frederic Wertham whose research seemingly discovered a correlation between comic readership and juvenile delinquency. Since Wertham’s allegations the comics medium has had a hard time finding its way back to education. Now, over fifty years later, the definition of literacy is in mid-transition as the world has become more visually-oriented and students require the ability to interpret images as often as words. Through this transition, comics has found a place in the field of literacy education research as the shift focuses from traditional print to multimodal and media literacies. Comics are now believed to be an effective resource in bridging the gap between these different types of literacies. This paper seeks to better understand what students learn from the process of reading comics and how those skills line up with the core principles of media literacy education in the United States. In the first section, comics are defined to determine the exact medium that is being examined. The different conventions that the medium utilizes are also discussed. In the second section, the comics reading process is explored through a dissection of the ways a reader interacts with the page, panel, gutter, and different comic conventions found within a traditional graphic narrative. The concepts of intersubjective acts and visualization are attributed to the comics reading process as readers draw in real world knowledge to decode meaning. In the next section, the learning processes that comics encourage are explored parallel to the core principles of media literacy education. Each principle is explained and the extent to which comics can act as an intermediary for this type of education is theorized. In the final section, the author examines comics use in his computer science and technology classroom. He lays out different theories he utilizes from Scott McCloud’s text Understanding Comics and how he uses them to break down media literacy strategies with his students. The article concludes with examples of how comics has positively impacted classrooms around the United States. It is stated that integrating comics into the classroom will not solve all issues related to literacy education but, rather, that comics can be a powerful multimodal resource for educators looking for new mediums to explore with their students.
Teacher Agency in Media Literacy: A Qualitative Study of Bolivian Teachers and Their Room to Manoeuvre
Critical media literacy teaches people to think analytically about the information they receive through the media. It is heavily influenced by Paulo Freire’s critical pedagogy and the necessity of becoming conscious of one’s reality in order to transform it. This qualitative research examines the case of Bolivia, which experienced dramatic political change after the first indigenous president, Evo Morales, was elected in 2006. In 2010, the government passed an education reform — the Avelino Siñani Elizardo Pérez (ASEP) —that draws heavily on decolonial thought and the Freirean notion of critical consciousness. The extent to which these theories were implemented in practice is evaluated in context of a media literacy project, run by an NGO, that trains secondary school teachers from public schools across Bolivia through yearly workshops ranging from producing media to identifying fake news. This context is examined against the backdrop of the highly contested general elections in October 2019. While there is plenty of literature that outlines the benefits of teaching media literacy in the classroom and different ways to apply it, little research has been done analysing implementation at an institutional level and how to best enable teachers who are motivated to teach the subject.
Through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and naturalistic observations, this study aims to identify the struggles faced by teachers who are dedicated to teaching critical media literacy in their classrooms and how they navigate educational spaces while being subject to a demanding national curriculum that supposedly also seeks to promote critical thinking. The interplay between the aspirations of teachers and NGOs in contrast to the top-down discourse and policy of governmental institutions provides for a very enlightening case. By exploring these institutional, cultural, sociopolitical and economic barriers the teachers face, this research attempts to contribute to the debate in media literacy theories concerned with implementing the practice in schools.
Financial Planning Framework: A Perspective of Wealth Accumulation and Retirement Planning
Purpose: The paper shows the framework of financial planning in a different paradigm. It highlights the results from a focus group on retirement planning in the aspect of financial literacy and wealth accumulation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group consisted of thirty individuals and divided into six different clusters amongst 25 to 55 years old. The selection of focus group members is pertaining to retirement planning behavior and saving profile from the different level of educations. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the focus group reflects individual capacity on saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness towards financial products. Secondly, availability, accessibility and affordability which are the significant factors that influence saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness on personal retirement planning behavior. Practical implications: The participants express the concerns of retirement planning during their golden years and the current financial products in the Malaysian financial market. Originality/value: This study is a different approach that recognizes the needs of the consumers in the context of retirement planning and wealth accumulation. Therefore, customers should obtain financial services and products from financial providers to achieve financial independence.
Cluster Randomized Trial of 'Ready to Learn': An After-School Literacy Program for Children Starting School
Background: Despite improvements in recent years, almost one in six children in Northern Ireland (NI) leaves primary school without achieving the expected level in English and Maths. By early adolescence, this ratio is one in five. In 2010-11, around 9000 pupils in NI had failed to achieve the required standard in literacy and numeracy by the time they left full-time education. This paper reports the findings of an experimental evaluation of a programmed designed to improve educational outcomes of a cohort of children starting primary school in areas of high social disadvantage in Northern Ireland. The intervention: ‘Ready to Learn’ comprised two key components: a literacy-rich After School programme (one hour after school, three days per week), and a range of activities and support to promote the engagement of parents with their children’s learning, in school and at home. The intervention was delivered between September 2010 and August 2013. Study aims and objectives: The primary aim was to assess whether, and to what extent, ‘Ready to Learn’ improved the literacy of socially disadvantaged children entering primary schools compared with children in schools without access to the programme. Secondary aims included assessing the programme’s impact on children’s social, emotional and behavioural regulation, and parents’ engagement with their children’s learning. In total, 505 children (almost all) participated in the baseline assessment for the study, with good retention over seven sweeps of data collection. Study design: The intervention was evaluated by means of a cluster randomized trial, with schools as the unit of randomization and analysis. It included a qualitative component designed to examine process and implementation, and to explore the concept of parental engagement. Sixteen schools participated, with nine randomized to the experimental group. As well as outcome data relating to children, 134 semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents over the three years of the study, together with 88 interviews with school staff. Results: Given the children’s ages, not all measures used were direct measures of reading. Findings point to a positive impact of “Ready to Learn” on children’s reading achievement (comprehension and fluency), as assessed by the York Assessment of Reading Comprehension (YARC) and decoding, assessed using the Word Recognition and Phonic Skills (WRaPS3). Effects were not large, but evidence suggests that it is unusual for an after school programme to clearly to demonstrate effects on reading skills. No differences were found on three other measures of literacy-related skills: British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS-II), Naming Speed and Non-word Reading Tests from the Phonological Assessment Battery (PhAB) or Concepts about Print (CAP) – the last due to an age-related ceiling effect). No differences were found between the two groups on measures of social, emotional and behavioural regulation, and due to low levels of participation, it was not possible directly to assess the contribution of the parent component to children’s outcomes. The qualitative data highlighted conflicting concepts of engagement between parents and school staff. Ready to Learn is a promising intervention that merits further support and evaluation.
Health Literacy for Self-Care by Female Patients Diagnosed with Diabetes at a Selected Hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa
Inadequate health literacy can cause difficulties in understanding and compliance to treatment plan. With diabetic condition, self-care activities include behaviours of following a diet plan, avoiding high fat foods, increased exercise, self-glucose monitoring, and foot care. Patients with poor health literacy have difficulty interpreting medication warning labels, following directions on a prescription label and identifying their medications. Difficulties in understanding and performing self-care and health-related activities may ultimately lead to poor health outcomes. The study explored and described factors affecting health literacy and self-care to diabetic regimen by female patients at selected hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Qualitative and explorative research design was used. Female patients who were admitted and diagnosed with diabetes in female medical ward constituted the study population. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select 20 female patients diagnosed with diabetes, who were above 18 years and admitted during April–November 2014. An in-depth face-to-face, unstructured interview was used to collect data. Data were analysed using open coding method. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Findings revealed factors affecting health literacy for diabetic self-care activities amongst patients were; patient, family, disease and facility related. Proposed recommendations were; to strengthen diabetes education and patient-provider partnership. This is important and must be transferred to strengthen self-care activities to fully benefit the patient.
Development of an Artificial Neural Network to Measure Science Literacy Leveraging Neuroscience
Faster growth in science and technology of other nations may make staying globally competitive more difficult without shifting focus on how science is taught in US classes. An integral part of learning science involves visual and spatial thinking since complex, and real-world phenomena are often expressed in visual, symbolic, and concrete modes. The primary barrier to spatial thinking and visual literacy in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields is representational competence, which includes the ability to generate, transform, analyze and explain representations, as opposed to generic spatial ability. Although the relationship is known between the foundational visual literacy and the domain-specific science literacy, science literacy as a function of science learning is still not well understood. Moreover, the need for a more reliable measure is necessary to design resources which enhance the fundamental visuospatial cognitive processes behind scientific literacy. To support the improvement of students’ representational competence, first visualization skills necessary to process these science representations needed to be identified, which necessitates the development of an instrument to quantitatively measure visual literacy. With such a measure, schools, teachers, and curriculum designers can target the individual skills necessary to improve students’ visual literacy, thereby increasing science achievement. This project details the development of an artificial neural network capable of measuring science literacy using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIR) data. This data was previously collected by Project LENS standing for Leveraging Expertise in Neurotechnologies, a Science of Learning Collaborative Network (SL-CN) of scholars of STEM Education from three US universities (NSF award 1540888), utilizing mental rotation tasks, to assess student visual literacy. Hemodynamic response data from fNIRsoft was exported as an Excel file, with 80 of both 2D Wedge and Dash models (dash) and 3D Stick and Ball models (BL). Complexity data were in an Excel workbook separated by the participant (ID), containing information for both types of tasks. After changing strings to numbers for analysis, spreadsheets with measurement data and complexity data were uploaded to RapidMiner’s TurboPrep and merged. Using RapidMiner Studio, a Gradient Boosted Trees artificial neural network (ANN) consisting of 140 trees with a maximum depth of 7 branches was developed, and 99.7% of the ANN predictions are accurate. The ANN determined the biggest predictors to a successful mental rotation are the individual problem number, the response time and fNIR optode #16, located along the right prefrontal cortex important in processing visuospatial working memory and episodic memory retrieval; both vital for science literacy. With an unbiased measurement of science literacy provided by psychophysiological measurements with an ANN for analysis, educators and curriculum designers will be able to create targeted classroom resources to help improve student visuospatial literacy, therefore improving science literacy.
Financial Planning Framework: A Perspective of Wealth Accumulation and Retirement Planning
Purpose: The paper shows the framework of financial planning in a different paradigm. It highlights the results from a focus group on retirement planning in the aspect of financial literacy and wealth accumulation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group consisted of thirty individuals and divided into six different clusters amongst 25 to 55 years old. The selection of focus group members is pertaining to retirement planning behavior and saving profile from the different level of educations. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the focus group reflects individual capacity on saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness towards financial products. Secondly, availability, accessibility and affordability which are the significant factors that influence saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness on personal retirement planning behavior. Practical implications: The participants express the concerns of retirement planning during their golden years and the current financial products in the Malaysian financial market. Originality/value: This study is a different approach that recognizes the needs of the consumers in the context of retirement planning and wealth accumulation. Therefore, customers should obtain financial services and products from financial providers to achieve financial independence.
Harnessing the Opportunities of E-Learning and Education in Promoting Literacy in Nigeria
The paper aimed at presenting an overview on the concept of e-learning as it relates to higher education and how it provides opportunities for students, instructors and the government in developing the educational sector. It also touched on the benefits and challenges attached to e-learning as a new medium of reaching more students especially in the Nigerian context. The opportunities attributed to e-learning in the paper includes breaking boundaries barriers, reaching a larger number of students, provision of jobs for ICT experts, etc. In contrary, poor power supply, cost of implementation, poor computer literacy, technophobia (fear of technology), computer crime and system failure were some of the challenges of e-learning discussed in the paper. The paper proffered that the government can help the people gain more from e-learning through its financing. Also, it was stated that instructors/lecturers and students need to undergo training on computer application in order for e-learning to be more effective in developing higher education in Nigeria.
Development of Elementary Literacy in the Czech Republic
There is great attention being paid in the field of development of first reading, thus early literacy skills in the Czech Republic. Yet inconclusive results of PISA and PIRLS force us to think over the teacher´s work, his/her roles in the education process and methods and forms used in lessons. There is also a significant importance to monitor the family environment and the pupil, themselves. The aim of the publishing output is to focus on one side dealing with methods of practicing reading technique and their results in the process of comprehension. In the first part of the contribution there are the goals of development of reading literacy and the methods used in reading practice in some EU countries and a follow-up comparison of research implemented by the help of modern technology of an eye tracker device in the year 2015 and a research conducted at the Institute of Education and Psychological Counselling of the Czech Republic in the year 2011/12. These are the results of a diagnostic test of reading in first classes of primary schools, taught by the genetic method and analytic-synthetic method. The results show that in the first stage of practice there are no statistically significant differences between any researched subjects taught by different methods of reading practice (with the use of several diagnostic texts focused on reading technique and its comprehension). Different results are shown at the end of Grade One and during Grade Two of primary school.
Factors Determining the Purchasing Intentions towards Online Shopping: An Evidence from Twin Cities of Pakistan
Technology in the recent times is available for everyone in the world that no one is left behind. After getting technology into our daily routine, there is a need to study the different factors regarding online shopping. This study examines the impact of online reviews, mobile shopping and computer literacy on online purchasing intention. The sample size was 200 from which 167 complete questionnaires were collected from students and employees of twin cities. SPSS programming software was used to analyze the impact of different factors on purchasing intention. The results of this study showed that those websites which have good ratings and have online shopping application will attract more customers towards them whereas the results showed that the computer literacy has no impact on online purchasing intention. Findings may help for those who want to increase their sales or to start a new online business. Future research, limitations, and implications are discussed.
Digital Literacy, Assessment and Higher Education
Recent evidence suggests that academic staff face difficulties in applying new technologies as a means of assessing higher order assessment outcomes such as critical thinking, problem solving and creativity. Although higher education institutional mission statements and course unit outlines purport the value of these higher order skills there is still some question about how well academics are equipped to design curricula and, in particular, assessment strategies accordingly. Despite a rhetoric avowing the benefits of these higher order skills, it has been suggested that academics set assessment tasks up in such a way as to inadvertently lead students on the path towards lower order outcomes. This is a controversial claim, and one that this papers seeks to explore and critique in terms of challenging the conceptual basis of assessing higher order skills through new technologies. It is argued that the use of digital media in higher education is leading to a focus on students’ ability to use and manipulate of these products as an index of their flexibility and adaptability to the demands of the knowledge economy. This focus mirrors market flexibility and encourages programmes and courses of study to be rhetorically packaged as such. Curricular content has become a means to procure more or less elaborate aggregates of attributes. Higher education is now charged with producing graduates who are entrepreneurial and creative in order to drive forward economic sustainability. It is argued that critical independent learning can take place through the democratisation afforded by cultural and knowledge digitization and that assessment needs to acknowledge the changing relations between audience and author, expert and amateur, creator and consumer.
Using Health Literacy and Medico-Legal Guidance to Improve Restorative Dentistry Patient Information Leaflets
Introduction: Within dentistry, the process for gaining informed consent has become more complex. To consent for treatment, patients must understand all reasonable treatment options and associated risks and benefits. Consenting is therefore deeply embedded in health literacy. Patients attending for dental consultation are often presented with an array of information and choices, yet studies show patients recall less than half of the information provided immediately after. Appropriate and comprehensible patient information leaflets (PILs) may be useful aid memories. In 2016 the World Health Organisation set improving health literacy as a global priority. Soon after, Scotland’s 2017-2025 Making it Easier: A Health Literacy Action Plan followed. This project involved the review of Restorative PILs used within Dundee Dental Hospital to assess the Content and Readability. Method: The current PIL on Root Canal Treatment (RCT) was created in 2011. This predates the Montgomery vs. NHS Lanarkshire case, a ruling which significantly impacted dental consenting processes, as well as General Dental Council’s (GDC’s) Standards for the Dental Team and Faculty of General Dental Practice’s Good Practice Guidance on Clinical Examination and Record-Keeping. Current evidence-based guidance, including that stipulated by the GDC, was reviewed. A 20-point Essential Content Checklist was designed to conform to best practice guidance for valid consenting processes. The RCT leaflet was scored against this to ascertain if the content was satisfactory. Having ensured the content satisfied medicolegal requirements, health literacy considerations were reviewed regarding readability. This was assessed using McLaughlin’s Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula, which identifies school stages that would have to be achieved to comprehend the PIL. The sensitivity of the results to alternative readability methods were assessed. Results: The PIL was not sufficient for modern consenting processes and reflected a suboptimal level of health literacy. Evaluation of the leaflet revealed key content was missing, including information pertaining to risks and benefits. Only five points out of the 20-point checklist were present. The readability score was 16, equivalent to a level 2 in National Adult Literacy Standards/Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework Level 5; 62% of Scottish adults are able to read to this standard. Discussion: Assessment of the leaflet showed it was no longer fit for purpose. Reasons include a lack of pertinent information, a text-heavy leaflet lacking flow, and content errors. The SMOG score indicates a high level of comprehension is required to understand this PIL, which many patients may not possess. A new PIL, compliant with medicolegal and health literacy guidance, was designed with patient-driven checklists, notes spaces for annotations/ questions and areas for clinicians to highlight important case-specific information. It has been tested using the SMOG formula. Conclusion: PILs can be extremely useful. Studies show that interactive use can enhance their effectiveness. PILs should reflect best practice guidance and be understood by patients. The 2020 leaflet designed and implemented aims to fulfill the needs of a modern healthcare system and its service users. It embraces and embeds Scotland’s Health Literacy Action Plan within the consenting process. A review of further leaflets using this model is ongoing.
Nutriscience Project: A Web-Based Intervention to Improve Nutritional Literacy among Families and Educators of Pre-School Children
Recent evidence shows a positive association between nutritional literacy and healthy eating. Traditional nutrition education strategies for childhood obesity prevention have shown weak effect. The Nutriscience project aims to create and evaluate an innovative and multidisciplinary strategy for promoting effective and accessible nutritional information to children, their families, and educators. Nutriscience is a one-year prospective follow-up evaluation study including pre-school children (3-5 y), who attend national schools’ network (29). The project is structured around a web-based intervention, using an on-line interactive platform, and focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and reducing sugar and salt intake. The platform acts as a social network where educational materials, games, and nutritional challenges are proposed in a gamification approach that promotes family and community social ties. A nutrition Massive Online Open Course is developed for educators, and a national healthy culinary contest will be promoted on TV channel. A parental self-reported questionnaire assessing sociodemographic and nutritional literacy (knowledge, attitudes, skills) is administered (baseline and end of the intervention). We expect that results on nutritional literacy from the presented strategy intervention will give us important information about the best practices for health intervention with kindergarten families. This intervention program using a digital interactive platform could be an educational tool easily adapted and disseminated for childhood obesity prevention.
Encouraging the Development of Scientific Literacy in Early Childhood Institutions: Croatian Experience
There is a widespread belief in everyday discourse that science subjects (physics, chemistry and biology) are, along with math, the most difficult school subjects in the education of an individual. This assumption is usually justified by the following facts: low GPA in these subjects, the number of pupils who fail these subjects is high in comparison to other subjects, and the number of pupils interested in continuing their studies in the fields with a focus on science subjects is lower compared to non-science-oriented fields. From that perspective, the project: "Could it be different? How do children explore it?" becomes extremely interesting because it is focused on young children and on the introduction of new methods, with aim of arousing interest in scientific literacy development in 10 kindergartens by applying the methodology of an action research, with an ethnographic approach. We define scientific literacy as a process of encouraging and nurturing the research and explorative spirit in children, as well as their natural potential and abilities that represent an object of scientific research: to learn about exploration by conducting exploration. Upon project completion, an evaluation questionnaire was created for the parents of the children who had participated in the project, as well as for those whose children had not been involved in the project. The purpose of the first questionnaire was to examine the level of satisfaction with the project implementation and its outcomes among those parents whose children had been involved in the project (N=142), while the aim of the second questionnaire was to find out how much the parents of the children not involved (N=154) in this activity were interested in this topic.
Tourist Cultural Literacy: Scale Development and Validation
The cultural interactions between tourists and destination communities have received increased attention. Tourists play an important role in constructing a rewarding intercultural experience and cultural understanding. Cultural literacy is the ability for tourists to negotiate different cultures, this research aimed to develop a measurement of Tourist Cultural Literacy (TCL), the result provides a theoretical framework to assess how tourists interact with different cultural destinations. A pilot qualitative research was conducted in order to generate the initial items. In this study, the procedure of developing the TCL scale was divided into two parts. First, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted, a 25-item TCL scale was developed and six factors were identified: cultural sensitivity, appreciation of the culture, respect for the culture, knowledge of the culture, participate in the culture, and empathy for the culture. Second, confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling were employed, the six-factor model was verified, and was proven to have good fit, reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity. The study provides managerial implications for tourist management and education, the popularization of TCL might increase the respect and understanding between tourists and local societies as well as decrease the cultural shocks and negative social-cultural impacts derived from tourism activities, thereby reducing the maintenance cost of management and allowing tourists to obtain a better cultural experience. Future research suggestions are also provided.
Developing Writing Skills of Learners with Persistent Literacy Difficulties through the Explicit Teaching of Grammar in Context: Action Research in a Welsh Secondary School
Background: The benefits of grammar instruction in the teaching of writing is contested in most English speaking countries. A majority of Anglophone countries abandoned the teaching of grammar in the 1950s based on the conclusions that it had no positive impact on learners’ development of reading, writing, and language. Although the decontextualised teaching of grammar is not helpful in improving writing, a curriculum with a focus on grammar in an embedded and meaningful way can help learners develop their understanding of the mechanisms of language. Although British learners are generally not taught grammar rules explicitly, learners in schools in France, the Netherlands, and Germany are taught explicitly about the structure of their own language. Exposing learners to grammatical analysis can help them develop their understanding of language. Indeed, if learners are taught that each part of speech has an identified role in the sentence. This means that rather than have to memorise lists of words or spelling patterns, they can focus on determining each word or phrase’s task in the sentence. These processes of categorisation and deduction are higher order thinking skills. When considering definitions of dyslexia available in Great Britain, the explicit teaching of grammar in context could help learners with persistent literacy difficulties. Indeed, learners with dyslexia often develop strengths in problem solving; the teaching of grammar could, therefore, help them develop their understanding of language by using analytical and logical thinking. Aims: This study aims at gaining a further understanding of how the explicit teaching of grammar in context can benefit learners with persistent literacy difficulties. The project is designed to identify ways of adapting existing grammar focussed teaching materials so that learners with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia can use them to further develop their writing skills. It intends to improve educational practice through action, analysis and reflection. Research Design/Methods: The project, therefore, uses an action research design and multiple sources of evidence. The data collection tools used were standardised test data, teacher assessment data, semi-structured interviews, learners’ before and after attempts at a writing task at the beginning and end of the cycle, documentary data and lesson observation carried out by a specialist teacher. Existing teaching materials were adapted for use with five Year 9 learners who had experienced persistent literacy difficulties from primary school onwards. The initial adaptations included reducing the amount of content to be taught in each lesson, and pre teaching some of the metalanguage needed. Findings: Learners’ before and after attempts at the writing task were scored by a colleague who did not know the order of the attempts. All five learners’ scores were higher on the second writing task. Learners reported that they had enjoyed the teaching approach. They also made suggestions to be included in the second cycle, as did the colleague who carried out observations. Conclusions: Although this is a very small exploratory study, these results suggest that adapting grammar focused teaching materials shows promise for helping learners with persistent literacy difficulties develop their writing skills.
Investigating the Relationship of Age, Annual Income, and Education on Women's Investment Behavior in the Arab Region
This study aims to investigate the investment behavior of Arab women (in regards to their herding behavior, risk tolerance, confidence and investment literacy levels). This study aims to investigate the relationship between three demographic factors (age, income, education) and the investment behavior of Arab women. On average, women in the Arab region face several obstacles that limit them from fully participating in stocks investments. In the context, this study focuses on extending the existing literature to include Arab women individuals and their investment behaviors. To achieve the study’s objective, the researcher distributed 600 close-ended online questionnaires to a sample of Arab male and female individual investors in both Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The researcher used quantitative statistical methods (frequency distribution along with the Kruskal-Wallis H Test and the Mann-Whitney U Test) to analyze the 550 questionnaire respondents. The findings indicated that only age, educational level, and annual income level are associated with the investment behavior of Arab women, where age is only negatively associated with their financial risk tolerance levels. Additionally, income level is positively associated with Arab women‘s confidence and investment literacy levels, while educational level is only associated positively with their investment confidence levels. According to annual income, Arab women with lower incomes have lower confidence and investment literacy levels. The limited income level might prevent the sample Arab women from investing in the financial information and advisors that may help in improving their investment literacy levels. Furthermore, Arab women with lower educational levels have lower investment literacy levels and thus, this may limit their stock investments. Overall, the study contributes to the existing literature by focusing directly on examining the investment behavior of Arab women and its association with age, annual income, and education. Generally, there are scarce existing studies that investigate the association of demographic factors with the investment behavior of women only in regards to their herding behavior, risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels (combined), especially Arab women investors.
Campus Signage and Wayfinding Design Guidelines: Challenges of Visual Literacy in University of Port Harcourt
The study of signage and wayfinding design guidelines is to provide consistent, coherent, and comprehensive guidelines for all type of signage design that may be applied to guide persons from the freeway into campus, and to specific building. As the world becomes more complex and the population increases, people increasingly rely on signage and wayfinding systems to navigate their way in built environment such as university campus. This paper will demonstrate and discuss signage and wayfinding, and the importance of visual literacy in university campuses. It discusses the process of wayfinding and signage, how poor signage and wayfinding systems affect people when navigating, and why wayfinding is more than just signage. Hence, this paper tries to examine the design guideline that primarily addresses the signage and wayfinding system that improves visual literacy within University of Port Harcourt multi-campuses. In doing this, the paper explore the environmental graphic design senori-emotional values and communicative information theories that takes the subjectivity of the observer in account. By making these connections, the paper will also determine what University of Port Harcourt need to focus on to be counted in the global trends, using developed visual communication guidelines based on previous studies or concept from professional. In conclusion, information about why physical structures (buildings and waypaths) on University of Port Harcourt multiple campuses need to be branded in self-communicative manner using signage and wayfinding design as integral part of its physical planning policy is recommended.
Using Computerized Analogical Reasoning Tasks as a Way to Improve Literacy Skills in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability
The ability to read is crucial for a successful path in school and in a social and professional context. Children with mild intellectual disability are confronted to serious difficulties in literacy. A lot of them do not read or are illiterate. Only one child out of five is able to acquire basic reading skills, which increases the likelihood to misfit in society, especially when these children grow up and cannot manage themselves in situations requiring higher reading levels. One way to help these children acquiring basic reading skills is to use analogical reasoning, as some researchers demonstrated that this mechanism is fundamental for any reading process. For this purpose, we developed computerized analogies displayed on a touch screen tablet. Analogies are comparisons that give children a framework they can use to understand new information. They work by comparing one thing to another in order to emphasize some mutual quality. If one of the items is unfamiliar, that mutual quality can help make it understandable, or it can cause the children to consider something familiar in some new way, such as transferring what they know about familiar words to help them identify unfamiliar words. In addition, using touch screen tablets represents several advantages: the ease of use, the relevance to this specific population and the appeal of a self-directed activity gives individuals and practitioners a modern tool that differs from the traditional paper-and-pencil material. In addition, the touch screen dimension is especially appropriate for children as assistive technology has been found to be more motivating that any other types of devices and improves the children’ attention span.
Mental Health Literacy in Ghana: Consequences of Religiosity, Education, and Stigmatization
Although research on the concept of Mental Health Literacy (MHL) is growing internationally, to the authors’ best of knowledge, the beliefs and knowledge of Ghanaians on specific mental disorders have not yet been explored. This vignette study was conducted to explore the relationships between religiosity, education, stigmatization, and MHL among Ghanaians using a sample of laypeople (N = 409). The adapted questionnaire presented two vignettes (depression and schizophrenia) about a hypothetical person. The results revealed that more participants were able to recognize depression (47.4%) than schizophrenia (15.9%). Religiosity was not significantly associated with recognition of mental disorders (MHL) but was positively related with both social and personal stigma for depression and negatively associated with personal and perceived stigma for schizophrenia. Moreover, education was found to relate positively with MHL and negatively with perceived stigma. Finally, perceived stigma was positively associated with MHL, whereas personal stigma for schizophrenia related negatively to MHL. In conclusion, education but not religiosity predicted identification accuracy, but both predictors were associated with various forms of stigma. Findings from this study have implications for MHL and anti-stigma campaigns in Ghana and other developing countries in the region.
Developing a Health Literacy Questionnaire in Breast Cancer
Objective: The main objective of this study was designing a breast cancer health literacy questionnaire and assess its psychometric properties. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to develop a primary questionnaire consisting of five domains. Qualitative and quantitative content validity were assessed by relevant experts, and after some modifications, the content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative face validity were evaluated by a number of patients, and the impact score for each item was calculated. 225 women with breast cancer were asked to fill out the questionnaire and construct validity was determined by using exploratory factor analysis. The reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: A 36-item questionnaire with five domains of reading, having access, understanding, assessing/judgment, and decision making/behavior was designed. 2 items were omitted in the qualitative content validity process. All items achieved optimum values in CVI, CVR and impact scores. Content and face validity of the questionnaire were confirmed too. According to the exploratory factor analysis, the five-factor solution accounted for 64.98 percent of the observed variance. Conclusion: Due to the obtained satisfactory validity and reliability, this tool can be used to assess health literacy in women with breast cancer. Health policy makers can use these findings for improving health-related behaviors in breast cancer patients.
Environmental Literacy of Teacher Educators in Colleges of Teacher Education in Israel
The importance of environmental education as part of a national strategy to promote the environment is recognized around the world. Lecturers at colleges of teacher education have considerable responsibility, directly and indirectly, for the environmental literacy of students who will end up teaching in the school system. This study examined whether lecturers in colleges of teacher education and teacher training in Israel, are able and willing to develop among the students, environmental literacy. Capability and readiness is assessed by evaluating the level of environmental literacy dimensions that include knowledge on environmental issues, positions related to the environmental agenda and "green" patterns of behavior in everyday life. The survey included 230 lecturers from 22 state colleges coming from various sectors (secular, religious, and Arab), from different academic fields and different personal backgrounds. Firstly, the results show that the higher the commitment to environmental issues, the lower the satisfaction with the current situation. In general, the respondents show positive environmental attitudes in all categories examined, they feel that they can personally influence responsible environmental behavior of others and are able to internalize environmental education in schools and colleges; they also report positive environmental behavior. There are no significant differences between teachers of different background characteristics when it comes to behavior patterns that generate personal income funds (e.g. returning bottles for deposit). Women show a more responsible environmental behavior than men. Jewish lecturers, in most categories, show more responsible behavior than Druze and Arab lecturers; however, when referring to positions, Arabs and Druze have a better sense in their ability to influence the environmental agenda. The Knowledge test, which included 15 questions, was mostly based on basic environmental issues. The average score was adequate - 83.6. Science lecturers' environmental literacy is higher than the other lecturers significantly. The larger the environmental knowledge base is, they are more environmental in their attitudes, and they feel more responsible toward the environment. It can be concluded from the research findings, that knowledge is a fundamental basis for developing environmental literacy. Environmental knowledge has a positive effect on the development of environmental commitment that is reflected in attitudes and behavior. This conclusion is probably also true of the general public. Hence, there is a great importance to the expansion of knowledge among the general public and teacher educators in particular on environmental. From the open questions in the survey, it is evident that most of the lecturers are interested in the subject and understand the need to integrate environmental issues in the colleges, either directly by teaching courses on the environment or indirectly by integrating environmental issues in different professions as well as asking the students to set an example (such as, avoid unnecessary printing, keeping the environment clean). The curriculum at colleges should include a variety of options for the development and enhancement of environmental literacy of student teachers, but first there must be a focus on bringing their teachers to a high literacy level so they can meet the difficult and important task they face.
A Study of Status of Women by Incorporating Literacy and Employment in India and Some Selected States
Gender equality and women’s empowerment is one of the components of eight Millennium Development Goal (MDG).Literacy and employment are the parameters which reflect the empowerment of women. But in a developing country like India, literacy and working status among the females are not satisfactory. Both literacy and employment technically can be measured by Literate Life Expectancy (LLE) and Working Life Expectancy (WLE).One can also combine both the factors literacy and working to get a better new measure. The proposed indicator can be called literate-working life expectancy (LWLE). LLE gives an average number of years a person lives in a literate state under current mortality and literacy conditions while WLE defined as average number of years a person lives in a working state if current mortality and working condition prevails. Similarly, LWLE gives number of expected years by a person living under both literate and working state. The situation of females cannot be figured out without comparing both the sexes. In the present paper an attempt has been made to estimate LLE and WLE in India along with some selected states from various zones of India namely Assam from the North-East, Gujarat from the West, Kerala from the South, Rajasthan from the North, Uttar Pradesh from the Central and West Bengal from the East respectively for both the sexes based on 2011 census. Furthermore, we have also developed a formula for a new indicator namely Literate-Working Life Expectancy (LWLE) and the proposed index has been applied in India and the selected states mentioned above for both males and females. Data has been extracted from SRS(Sample Registration System) based Abridged Life Table and Census of India. The computation of LLE follows the method developed by Lutz while WLE has followed the method developed by Saw Swee Hock. By combining both the factors literacy and employment, the new indicator LWLE also follows the method like LLE and WLE. Contrasted results have been found in different parts of India. The result shows that LLE at birth is highest(lowest) in the state Kerala(Uttar Pradesh) with 61.66 (39.51) years among the males. A similar situation is also observed among the females with 62.58 years and 25.11 years respectively. But male WLE at birth is highest (lowest) in Rajasthan(Kerala) with 37.11 (32.64) years. Highest female WLE at birth is also observed in Rajasthan with 23.51 years and the lowest is concentrated in Uttar Pradesh with 11.76 years. It is also found that Kerala’s performance is exceptionally good in terms of LWLE at birth while the lowest LWLE at birth prevails in the state Uttar Pradesh among the males. Female LWLE at birth is highest(lowest) in Kerala(Uttar Pradesh) with 19.73(4.77)years. The corresponding value of the index increases as the number of factors involved in the life expectancy decrease. It is found that women are lagging behind in terms of both literacy and employment. Findings of the study will help the planners to take necessary steps to improve the position of women.
Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers’ Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning
Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student’s learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students’ learning. Thus, reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers’ practices of formative assessment will be crucial for guiding educators to support prospective teachers in using formative assessment and also eliminate limiting factors to let practicing teachers to engage in formative assessment practices during their instruction. The study, by using teacher’s change environment framework, reviews literature on formative assessment and presents a tentative model that illustrates the factors impacting teachers’ adoption of formative assessment in their teaching. The results showed that there are four main factors consisting personal, contextual, resource-related and external factors that influence teachers’ practices of formative assessment.
Web-Based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI): A Theoretical-and-Pedagogical e-Framework for Language Development
Web-based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI)’s contribution towards language development can be divided into linguistic and non-linguistic perspectives. In linguistic perspective, WeCWI focuses on the literacy and language discoveries, while the cognitive and psychological discoveries are the hubs in non-linguistic perspective. In linguistic perspective, WeCWI draws attention to free reading and enterprises, which are supported by the language acquisition theories. Besides, the adoption of process genre approach as a hybrid guided writing approach fosters literacy development. Literacy and language developments are interconnected in the communication process; hence, WeCWI encourages meaningful discussion based on the interactionist theory that involves input, negotiation, output, and interactional feedback. Rooted in the e-learning interaction-based model, WeCWI promotes online discussion via synchronous and asynchronous communications, which allows interactions happened among the learners, instructor, and digital content. In non-linguistic perspective, WeCWI highlights on the contribution of reading, discussion, and writing towards cognitive development. Based on the inquiry models, learners’ critical thinking is fostered during information exploration process through interaction and questioning. Lastly, to lower writing anxiety, WeCWI develops the instructional tool with supportive features to facilitate the writing process. To bring a positive user experience to the learner, WeCWI aims to create the instructional tool with different interface designs based on two different types of perceptual learning style.
Epidemiology, Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among Patients of Stroke
Stigmatized psycho-social perception poses a serious challenge and source of discrimination which impedes stroke patients from attaining a satisfactory quality of life. The present study was aimed to obtain information on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of stroke patients in the institute. We included 1000 people in our random sampling survey. Demographic details and responses to a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices were recorded. Although the majority of the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata, the literacy rate was reasonably high (96.3%). A large majority (91.3%) of people had heard about stroke and (85.2%) knew that stroke can be treated with modern drugs. However, a negative attitude was reflected in the belief that stroke happens due to supernatural powers (hawa lagne se) (50.6%). Analysis of the data revealed regional differences in KAP which could be attributed to local Factors, such as literacy, awareness about stroke, and practice of different systems of medicine. Some of the differences can also be attributed to a category of study population whether it included patients or non-stroke individuals since the former are likely to have less negative attitudes than the public. There is a need to create awareness about stroke on a nation-wide basis to dispel the misconceptions and stigma through effective and robust programs with the aim to lessen the disease burden.
Multivariate Assessment of Mathematics Test Scores of Students in Qatar
Data on various aspects of education are collected at the institutional and government level regularly. In Australia, for example, students at various levels of schooling undertake examinations in numeracy and literacy as part of NAPLAN testing, enabling longitudinal assessment of such data as well as comparisons between schools and states within Australia. Another source of educational data collected internationally is via the PISA study which collects data from several countries when students are approximately 15 years of age and enables comparisons in the performance of science, mathematics and English between countries as well as ranking of countries based on performance in these standardised tests. As well as student and school outcomes based on the tests taken as part of the PISA study, there is a wealth of other data collected in the study including parental demographics data and data related to teaching strategies used by educators. Overall, an abundance of educational data is available which has the potential to be used to help improve educational attainment and teaching of content in order to improve learning outcomes. A multivariate assessment of such data enables multiple variables to be considered simultaneously and will be used in the present study to help develop profiles of students based on performance in mathematics using data obtained from the PISA study.
Digital Metroliteracies: Space, Diversity and Identity
This paper looks at the relationship between online space, urban space and digital literacies. The everyday digital literacy practices of Facebook users (with a particular focus on young urban Mongolians) can be understood as ‘metrolingual’ because of the varied ways in which linguistic and cultural resources, spatial repertoires, and online activities are bound together to make meaning. Whereas the initial development of the term metrolingualism was dependent on a notion of physical urban space, we here argue that the digital practices of these Facebook users perform a range of social and cultural identities (sexual, ethnic, and class-based identities) that are both parts of but also adjacent to the metrolingual fabric.
Needs for Primary Prevention in Families with Mentally Ill Parents
Children of mentally ill parents are a large high risk group for mental disorders which is hardly reached by preventive programs. The children inherit a heightened risk to develop a mental disorder themselves during their lifetime, but they and their parents are often rejecting to seek help. To elicit the factors determining this prevention dilemma, an explorative qualitative interview study is conducted in 25 families with mentally ill parents and yet unaffected children. Inclusion criteria are the children’s age (7 to 14 years old) and that these children live together with the affected parent. With regard to the concept of Mental Health Literacy the following research questions are leading the Qualitative Content Analysis: What are the needs of families with mentally ill parents? How can their help-seeking behaviour be described? What are their subjective illness theories? And which influences do gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status have on needs, help-seeking and illness theories? Mental Health Literacy relates to the knowledge and attitudes towards mental disorders influencing the recognition, management or prevention of these disorders. The concept seems to be an interesting starting point for our analysis with the aim to understand antecedences and processes in the families more deeply. Results of an extensive literature review serve as deductive framework for our analysis, first findings from the interviews will be available up to the time of the conference and can be presented. They hopefully will give inside in the families’ living environment and help to adapt/develop interventions and in the long term reduce health inequalities. The project at hand is part of the Health Literacy in Childhood and Adolescence (HLCA) Research Consortium financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).
Multivariate Assessment of Mathematics Test Scores of Students in Qatar
Data on various aspects of education are collected at institutional and government level regularly. In Australia, for example, students at various levels of schooling undertake examinations in numeracy and literacy as part of NAPLAN testing at various years of schooling, enabling longitudinal assessment of such data as well as comparisons between schools and states within Australia. Another source of educational data internationally is via the PISA study which collects data from several countries when the student is approximately fifteen years of age which further enables comparisons in the performance of science, mathematics and English between countries and further enables ranking of countries based on the performance in the standardised tests. An abundance of educational data is available which can be used to help improve educational attainment and teaching of content in order to improve learning outcomes. As well as outcomes on the tests taken as part of the PISA study, there is a wealth of other data collected as part of the PISA study including parental demographics and teaching strategies used by educators. A multivariate assessment of such data enables multiple variables to be considered simultaneously and will be used in the present study to help develop profiles of students based on performance in mathematics using data obtained from the PISA study.
Identifying Understanding Expectations of School Administrators Regarding School Assessment
This study aims to identify the understanding expectations of school administrators concerning school assessment. The researcher utilized a qualitative descriptive study on 19 administrators from three secondary schools in the North Kinta district. The respondents had been interviewed on their understanding expectations of school assessment using the focus group discussion method. Overall findings showed that the administrators’ understanding expectations of school assessment was weak; especially in terms of content focus, articulation across age and grade, transparency and fairness, as well as the pedagogical implications. Findings from interviews indicated that administrators explained their understanding expectations of school assessment from the aspect of school management, and not from the aspect of instructional leadership or specifically as assessment leaders. The study implications from the administrators’ understanding expectations may hint at the difficulty of the administrators to function as assessment leaders, in order to reduce their focus as manager, and move towards their primary role in the process of teaching and learning. The administrator, as assessment leaders, would be able to reach assessment goals via collaboration in identifying and listing teacher assessment competencies, how to construct assessment capacity, how to interpret assessment correctly, the use of assessment and how to use assessment information to communicate confidently and effectively to the public.
Design of Mobile Teaching for Students Collaborative Learning in Distance Higher Education
The aim of the study is to describe and analyze the design of mobile teaching for students collaborative learning in distance higher education with a focus on mobile technologies as online webinars (web-based seminars or conferencing) by using laptops, smart phones, or tablets. These multimedia tools can provide face-to-face interactions, recorded flipped classroom videos and parallel chat communications. The data collection consists of interviews with 22 students and observations of online face-to-face webinars, as well two surveys. Theoretically, the study joins the research tradition of Computer Supported Collaborative learning, CSCL, as well as Computer Self-Efficacy, CSE concerned with individuals’ media and information literacy. Important conclusions from the study demonstrated mobile interactions increased student centered learning. As the students were appreciating the working methods, they became more engaged and motivated. The mobile technology using among student also contributes to increased flexibility between space and place, as well as media and information literacy.
The Impact of Financial Literacy, Perception of Debt, and Perception of Risk Toward Student Willingness to Use Online Student Loan
One of the impacts of the rapid advancement of technology is the rise of digital finance, including peer-to-peer lending (P2P). P2P lending has been widely marketed, including an online student loan that used the P2P platform. This study aims to analyze the effect of financial literacy, perception of debt, and perception of risk toward student willingness to use the online student loan (P2P lending). Using a cross-sectional study design, in collecting the data this study employed an online survey method, with a total sample of 280 undergraduate students of IPB university, Indonesia. This study found that financial literacy, perception of debt, perception of risk, and interest in using online student loans are categorized as low level. While the level of knowledge is found to be the lowest, the first-year students showed a higher level in terms of willingness to use the online student loan. In addition, the second year students recorded a positive perception toward debt. This study showed that level of study, attendance in personal finance course, and student’ GPA is positively related to financial knowledge. While debt perception is negatively related to financial attitudes. Similarly, the negative relationship is found between risk perception and the willingness to use the online student loan. The determinant factor of the willingness to use online student loans is the level of study, debt perception, financial risk perception, and time risk perception. Students with a higher level of study are more likely to have a lower interest in using online student loans. Moreover, students who perceived debt as a financial stimulator, as well as those with higher level of financial risk perceptions and time risk perceptions, tend to show more interest to use the loan.
There Is Nothing "BASIC" about Numeracy in Higher Education-a Case Study from an Accounting Programme
Numeracy, like Literacy is considered to be a core value of modern societies. Most higher education institutions in South Africa include being numerate as an important graduate attribute. It is argued that a suitability numerate society contributes to social justice, empowerment, financial and environmental sustainability and a lack of numeracy practices can contribute to disempowerment. Numeracy is commonly misconstrued as a basic and simple practice, similar in nature to basic arithmetic. This study highlights the complexities of higher education numeracy practices by analyzing a programme in a higher education institution in South Africa using the New Literacies Studies perspective.
Exploring Critical Thinking Skill Development in the 21st Century College Classroom: A Multi-Case Study
Employers today expect college graduates to not only develop and demonstrate content-specific knowledge but also 21st century skillsets such as critical thinking. International assessments suggest students enrolled in United States (U.S.) educational institutions are underperforming in comparison to their global peers in areas such as critical thinking and technology. This multi-case study examined how undergraduate digital literacy courses at a four-year university in the U.S., as implemented by instructors, fostered students’ development of critical thinking skills. The conceptual framework for this study presumed that as students engaged in complex thinking within the context of a digital literacy course, their ability to deploy critical thinking was contingent upon whether the course was designed with the expectation for students to use critical thinking skills as well as the instructor’s approach to implementing the course. Qualitative data collected from instructor interviews, classroom observations, and course documents were analyzed with an emphasis on exploring the course design and instructional methods that provided opportunities to foster critical thinking skill development. Findings from the cross-case analysis revealed that although the digital literacy courses were designed and implemented with the expectation students would deploy critical thinking; there was no explicit support for students to develop these skills. The absence of intentional skill development resulted in inequitable opportunities for all students to engage in complex thinking. The implications of this study suggest that if critical thinking is to remain a priority, then universities must expand their support of pedagogical and instructional training for faculty regarding how to support students’ critical thinking skill development.
ePA-Coach: Design of the Intelligent Virtual Learning Coach for Senior Learners in Support of Digital Literacy in the Context of Electronic Patient Record
Over the last few years, the call for the support of senior learners in the development of their digital literacy has become prevalent, mainly due to the progression towards ageing societies paired with advances in digitalisation in all spheres of life, including e-health and electronic patient record (EPA). While major research efforts in supporting senior learners in developing digital literacy have been invested so far in e-learning focusing on knowledge acquisition and cognitive tasks, little research exists in learning models which target virtual mentoring and coaching with the help of pedagogical agents and address the social dimensions of learning. Research from studies with students in the context of formal education has already provided methods for designing intelligent virtual agents in support of personalised learning. However, this research has mostly focused on cognitive skills and has not yet been applied to the context of mentoring/coaching of senior learners, who have different characteristics and learn in different contexts. In this paper, we describe how insights from previous research can be used to develop an intelligent virtual learning coach (agent) for senior learners with a focus on building the social relationship between the agent and the learner and the key task of the agent to socialize learners to the larger context of digital literacy with a focus on electronic health records. Following current approaches to mentoring and coaching, the agent is designed not to enhance and monitor the cognitive performance of the learner but to serve as a trusted friend and advisor, whose role is to provide one-to-one guidance and support sharing of experiences among learners (peers). Based on literature review and synopsis of research on virtual agents and current coaching/mentoring models under consideration of the specific characteristics and requirements of senior learners, we describe the design framework which was applied to design an intelligent virtual learning coach as part of the e-learning system for digital literacy of senior learners in the ePA-Coach project founded by the German Ministry of Education and Research. This paper also presents the results from the evaluation study, which compared the use of the first prototype of the virtual learning coach designed according to the design framework with a voice narration in a multimedia learning environment with senior learners. The focus of the study was to validate the agent design in the context of the persona effect (Lester et al., 1997). Since the persona effect is related to the hypothesis that animated agents are perceived as more socially engaging, the study evaluated possible impacts of agent coaching in comparison with voice coaching on motivation, engagement, experience, and digital literacy.
OER on Academic English, Educational Research and ICT Literacy, Promoting International Graduate Programs in Thailand
The 2015 Kasetsart University Research Plan, which was funded by the National Research Institutes: TRF – NRCT, comprises four sub-research projects on the development of three OER websites and on their usage study by students in international programs. The goals were to develop the open educational resources (OER) in the form of websites that will promote three key skills of quality learning and achievement: Academic English, Educational Research, and ICT Literacy, to graduate students in international programs of Thailand. The statistics from the Office of Higher Education showed that the number of foreign students who come to study in international higher education of Thailand has increased respectively by 25 percent per year, proving that the international education system and institutes of Thailand have been already recognized regionally and globally as meeting the standards. The output of the plan: the OER websites and their materials, and the outcome: students’ learning improvement due to lecturers’ readiness for open educational media, will ultimately lead the country to higher business capabilities for international education services in ASEAN Community in the future. The OER innovation is aimed at sharing quality knowledge to the world, with the adoption of Creative Commons Licenses that makes sharing be able to do freely (5Rs openness), without charge and leading to self and life-long learning. The research has brought the problems on the low usage of existing OER in the English language to develop the OER on three specific skills and try them out with the sample of 100 students randomly selected from the international graduate programs of top 10 Thai universities, according to QS Asia University Rankings 2014. The R&D process was used for product evaluation in 2 stages: the development stage and the usage study stage. The research tools were the questionnaires for content and OER experts, the questionnaires for the sample group and the open-ended interviews for the focus group discussions. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and SD. The findings revealed that the developed websites were fully qualified as OERs by the experts. The students’ opinions and satisfaction were at the highest levels for both the content and the technology used for presentation. The usage manual and self-assessment guide were finalized during the focus group discussions. The direct participation according to the concept of 5Rs Openness Activities through the provided tools of OER models like MERLOT and OER COMMONS, as well as the development of usage manual and self-assessment guide, were revealed as a key approach to further extend the output widely and sustainably to the network of users in various higher education institutions.
Development of Instructional Material Using Scientific Approach to Make the Nature of Science (NOS) and Critical Thinking Explicit on Chemical Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Topics
Chemistry education tends to change from triplet representation among macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic to tetrahedron shape. This change set the aspect of human element on the top of learning. Meaning that students are expected to solve the problems involving the ethic, morality, and humanity through the class. Ability to solve the problems connecting either theories or applications is called scientific literacy which have been implemented in curriculum 2013 implicitly. Scientific literacy has an aspect of nature science and critical thinking. Both can be integrated to learning using scientific approach and scientific inquiry. Unfortunately, students’ ability of scientific literacy in Indonesia is far from expectation. A survey from PISA had proven it. Scientific literacy of Indonesian students is always at bottom five position from 2002 till 2012. Improving a scientific literacy needs many efforts against them. Developing an instructional material based on scientific approach is one kind of that efforts. Instructional material contains both aspect of nature of science and critical thinking which is instructed explicitly to improve the students’ understanding about science. Developing goal is to produce a prototype and an instructional material using scientific approach whose chapter is chemical bonding and intermolecular forces for high school students grade ten. As usual, the material is subjected to get either quantitative mark or suggestion through validation process using validation sheet instrument. Development model is adapted from 4D model containing four steps. They are define, design, develop, and disseminate. Nevertheless, development of instructional material had only done until third step. The final step wasn’t done because of time, cost, and energy limitations. Developed instructional material had been validated by four validators. They are coming from chemistry lecture and high school’s teacher which two at each. The result of this development research shown the average of quantitative mark of students’ book is 92.75% with very proper in criteria. Given at same validation process, teacher’s guiding book got the average mark by 96.98%, similar criteria with students’ book. Qualitative mark including both comments and suggestions resulted from validation process were used as consideration for the revision. The result concluded us how the instructional materials using scientific approach to explicit nature of science and critical thinking on the topic of chemical bonding and intermolecular forces are very proper if they are used at learning activity.
An Assessment of Radio-Based Education about Female Genital Cutting and Health and Human Rights Issues in Douentza, Mali
Introduction: After a multidisciplinary assessment of health and human rights issues in central Mali, a musical album was created in 2014 in Douentza, Mali to provide health information on female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), malaria, HIV/AIDS, girls’ education, breastfeeding, and sanitation. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of this album. Methods: A mixed-methods assessment was conducted with 149 individuals across 10 villages in Douentza Cercle. Analyses focused on the association of radio listening habits, age, sex, ethnicity and education with a public health knowledge score. Results: Over 90% of respondents reported daily radio listening, many listening five or more hours per day. Potential risks of FGM/C cited by participants included death (59%), difficulty in childbirth (48%), sterility (34%), and fistula (33%); when asked about their level of control over FGM/C, 28% stated they would never cut their daughters. Being a listener for 1-5 hours per day was associated with a 11.5% higher score of 'public health knowledge' compared to those listening only a little or not at all (p < 0.01). Education (marginal versus no formal education) was associated with 7.6% increased score (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Radio appears to be a significant part of community members’ daily routines and may be a valuable medium for transmitting information, particularly for lower literacy individuals.
A Propose of Personnel Assessment Method Including a Two-Way Assessment for Evaluating Evaluators and Employees
In this paper, we suggest a mechanism of assessment that rater and Ratee (or employees) to convince. There are many problems exist in the personnel assessment. In particular, we were focusing on the three. (1) Raters are not sufficiently recognized assessment point. (2) Ratee are not convinced by the mechanism of assessment. (3) Raters (or Evaluators) and ratees have empathy. We suggest 1: Setting of "understanding of the assessment points." 2: Setting of "relative assessment ability." 3: Proposal of two-way assessment mechanism to solve these problems. As a prerequisite, it is assumed that there are multiple raters. This is because has been a growing importance of multi-faceted assessment. In this model, it determines the weight of each assessment point evaluators by the degree of understanding and assessment ability of raters and ratee. We used the ANP (Analytic Network Process) is a theory that an extension of the decision-making technique AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). ANP can be to address the problem of forming a network and assessment of Two-Way is possible. We apply this technique personnel assessment, the weights of rater of each point can be reasonably determined. We suggest absolute assessment for Two-Way assessment by ANP. We have verified that the consent of the two approaches is higher than conventional mechanism. Also, human resources consultant we got a comment about the application of the practice.
Interest Rate of Managers and Tourism Officials over E-Tourism Development: Case Study of Lenjan City
E-tourism is among the issues that have recently been entered into the field of tourism. In order to achieve this type of tourism, Information and Communications Technology (or ICT) infrastructures as well as Co-governmental organizations and tourism resources are important. In this study, the opinions of managers and tourism officials about the e-tourism in Lenjan city were measured; it also surveyed the impact of level of digital literacy of managers and tourism officials on attracting tourists in Lenjan city. This study was conducted in Lenjan, one of the environs of the Esfahan province. This study is a documentary – survey and the sources include library resources and also questionnaires. The results obtained indicate that if managers use ICT, it may help e-tourism to be developed in the region, and increasing managers’ beliefs on e-tourism and upgrading their level of digital literacy may affect e-tourism development.
Toward a Risk Assessment Model Based on Multi-Agent System for Cloud Consumer
The cloud computing is an innovative paradigm that introduces several changes in technology that have resulted a new ways for cloud providers to deliver their services to cloud consumers mainly in term of security risk assessment, thus, adapting a current risk assessment tools to cloud computing is a very difficult task due to its several characteristics that challenge the effectiveness of risk assessment approaches. As consequence, there is a need of risk assessment model adapted to cloud computing. This paper requires a new risk assessment model based on multi-agent system and AHP model as fundamental steps towards the development of flexible risk assessment approach regarding cloud consumers.
Wellbeing Effects from Family Literacy Education: An Ecological Study
Background and significance: This paper describes the first use of community psychology theories to investigate family-focused literacy education programmes, enabling a wide range of wellbeing effects of such programmes to be identified for the first time. Evaluations of family literacy programmes usually focus on the economic advantage of gains in literacy skills. By identifying other effects on aspects of participants’ lives that are important to them, and how they occur, understanding of how such programmes contribute to wellbeing and social justice is augmented. Drawn from community psychology, an ecological systems-based, culturally adaptive framework for personal, relational and collective wellbeing illuminated outcomes of family literacy programmes that enhanced wellbeing and quality of life for adult participants, their families and their communities. All programmes, irrespective of their institutional location, could be similarly scrutinized. Methodology: The study traced the experiences of nineteen adult participants in four family-focused literacy programmes located in geographically and culturally different communities throughout New Zealand. A critical social constructionist paradigm framed this interpretive study. Participants were mainly Māori, Pacific islands, or European New Zealanders. Seventy-nine repeated conversational interviews were conducted over 18 months with the adult participants, programme staff and people who knew the participants well. Twelve participant observations of programme sessions were conducted, and programme documentation was reviewed. Latent theoretical thematic analysis of data drew on broad perspectives of literacy and ecological systems theory, network theory and holistic, integrative theories of wellbeing. Steps taken to co-construct meaning with participants included the repeated conversational interviews and participant checking of interview transcripts and section drafts. The researcher (this paper’s first author) followed methodological guidelines developed by indigenous peoples for non-indigenous researchers. Findings: The study found that the four family literacy programmes, differing in structure, content, aims and foci, nevertheless shared common principles and practices that reflected programme staff’s overarching concern for people’s wellbeing along with their desire to enhance literacy abilities. A human rights and strengths-based based view of people based on respect for diverse culturally based values and practices were evident in staff expression of their values and beliefs and in their practices. This enacted stance influenced the outcomes of programme participation for the adult participants, their families and their communities. Alongside the literacy and learning gains identified, participants experienced positive social and relational events and changes, affirmation and strengthening of their culturally based values, and affirmation and building of positive identity. Systemically, interconnectedness of programme effects with participants’ personal histories and circumstances; the flow on of effects to other aspects of people’s lives and to their families and communities; and the personalised character of the pathways people journeyed towards enhanced wellbeing were identified. Concluding statement: This paper demonstrates the critical contribution of community psychology to a fuller understanding of family-focused educational programme outcomes than has been previously attainable, the meaning of these broader outcomes to people in their lives, and their role in wellbeing and social justice.
Assessment of Psychomotor Development of Preschool Children: A Review of Eight Psychomotor Developmental Tools
The assessment of psychomotor development allows us to identify children with motor delays, helps us to monitor progress in time and prepare suitable intervention programs. The foundation of psychomotor development lies in pre-school age and is crucial for child´s further cognitive and social development. Many assessment tools of psychomotor development have been developed over the years. Some of them are easy screening tools; others are more complex and sophisticated. The purpose of this review is to describe the history of psychomotor assessment, specify preschool children´s psychomotor evaluation and review eight psychomotor development assessment tools for preschool children (Denver II., DEMOST-PRE, TGMD -2/3, BOT-2, MABC-2, PDMS-2, KTK, MOT 4-6). The selection of test depends on purpose and context in which is the assessment planned.
Academic Skills Enhancement in Secondary School Students Undertaking Tertiary Studies
The University of the Sunshine Coast (USC) offers secondary school students in the final two years of school (Years 11 and 12, 16 – 18 years of age) an opportunity to participate in a program which provides an accelerated pathway to tertiary studies. Whilst still at secondary school, the students undertake two first year university subjects that are required subjects in USC undergraduate degree programs. The program is called Integrated Learning Pathway (ILP) and offers a range of disciplines, including business, design, drama, education, and engineering. Between 2010 and 2014, 38% of secondary students who participated in an ILP program commenced undergraduate studies at USC following completion of secondary school studies. The research reported here considers “before and after” literacy and numeracy competencies of students to determine what impact participation in the ILP program has had on their academic skills. Qualitative and quantitative data has been gathered via numeracy and literacy testing of the students, and a survey asking the students to self-evaluate their numeracy and literacy skills, and reflect on their views of these academic skills. The research will enable improved targeting of teaching strategies so that students will acquire not only course-specific learning outcomes but also collateral academic skills. This enhancement of academic skills will improve undergraduate experience and improve student retention.
Language Maintenance and Literacy of Madurese in Probolinggo City
Madurese is known as Malayo-Sumbawan Austronesian language which is used by Madurese people in Madura Island, Indonesia. However, there was a massive migration of Madurese people due to Dutch colonization. The Madurese people were brought by force for cultivation system to the eastern salient north coast or called as Tapal Kuda that spread in region covers the regencies of Probolinggo, Lumajang, Jember, Situbondo, Bondowoso, and Banyuwangi, the eastern part of the Pasuruan Regency, as well as the city of Probolinggo. The city of Probolinggo has unique characteristic regarding the ethnic and language variation. Several ethnics can be found in this city, such as Madurese, Javanese, Tengger, Arabic, Mandhalungan, Osing, and Chinese. Hence, the hybrid culture happens in Probolinggo, they called the culture as Pendhalungan which is the combination of culture among Madurese and Javanese. Among those ethnics, Madurese is the strongest ethnic that still maintains their identity, such as their ethnic language. The massive growth of Madurese in Probolinggo city, East Java is interesting to be analyzed. The object of this study is to discover language ideology and literacy of Madurese to maintain their ethnic language in Probolinggo city, East Java. The researchers used the theory of language maintenance practice based on three types of practices social language, social literacy, and peripheral ritualized practices. The approach of this study was qualitative research with ethnography method. In order to collect the data, researchers used observation and interview techniques. The amount of informants were 20 families which consist of mother, father and children in 5 sub-districts in Probolinggo city and they were interviewed regarding language ideology and literacy of Madurese. In supporting the data, researchers employed the Madurese speakers outside family scope like in school, office, and market. The result of the study revealed that Madurese has been preserved heritably to young generations by ethnics of Madura in Probolinggo city. Primarily the language is being taught in the earlier age of their children as L1 and used as ethnic identity. The parents teach them with simple sentences that grammatically correct. This language literacy is applied to maintain ethnic language as their ethnicity marker since they inhabit in Javanese ethnic area. In fact, it is not the only ideology of Madurese ethnic but also the influence of economic situation like in trading communication. The usage of Madurese in the trading scope is very beneficial since people can bargain the goods cheaper and easier because most of the traders are from Madurese ethnic. In this situation, linguistic phenomena such as code mixing and code switching between Madurese and Javanese are emerged as the trading communication. From the result, it can be concluded that solidarity exists among Madurese people in many scopes.
Abandoning 'One-Time' Optional Information Literacy Workshops for Year 1 Medical Students and Gearing towards an 'Embedded Librarianship' Approach
This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 'one-time' optional Information Literacy (IL) workshop to enhance Year 1 medical students' literature search, writing, and citation management skills as directed by a customized five-year IL framework developed for LKC Medicine students. At the end of the IL workshop, the overall rated 'somewhat difficult' when finding, citing, and using information from sources. The study method is experimental using a standardized IL test to study the cohort effect of a 'one-time' optional IL workshop on Year 1 students; experimental group in comparison to Year 2 students; control group. Test scores from both groups were compared and analyzed using mean scores and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Unexpectedly, there were no statistically significant differences between group means as determined by One-Way ANOVA (F₁,₁₉₃ = 3.37, p = 0.068, ηp² = 0.017). Challenges and shortfalls posed by 'one-time' interventions raised a rich discussion to adopt an 'embedded librarianship' approach, which shifts the medial librarians' role into the curriculum and uses Team Based Learning to teach IL skills to medical students. The customized five-year IL framework developed for LKC Medicine students becomes a useful librarian-faculty model for embedding and bringing IL into the classroom.
Using Reading to Learn Pedagogy to Promote Chinese Written Vocabulary Acquisition: An Evaluative Study
Based on the available evidence, Chinese heritage language learners have a basic level of Chinese language proficiency with lower capability in literacy compared to speaking. Low levels of literacy are likely related to the lack of reading activities in current textbook-based pedagogy used in Chinese community schools. The present study aims to use Reading to Learn pedagogy which is a top-down language learning model and test the effectiveness of Reading to Learn on Chinese heritage learners’ written vocabulary acquisition. A quasi-experiment with the pre-test/post-test non-equivalent group design was conducted. The experimental group received Reading to Learn instructions and the control group had traditional textbook-based instructions. Participants were given Chinese characters tasks (a recognize-and-read task and a listen-and-point task), vocabulary tasks (a receptive vocabulary task and a productive vocabulary task) and a sentence cloze test in pre-tests and post-tests. Data collection is in progress and results will be available shortly. If the results show more improvement of Chinese written vocabulary in the experimental group than in the control group, it will be recommended that Reading to Learn pedagogy is valuable to be used to maintain and develop Chinese heritage language literacy.
Analysis of Suitability of Online Assessment by Maintaining Critical Thinking
The purpose of this study is to determine Whether paper assessment especially in the subject mathematics will ever be completely replaced by online assessment using Learning Management System and Content Management System such as blackboard. In the subject mathematics, the assessment is the exercise of judgment on the quality of students’ work, as a way of supporting student learning and appraising its outcomes. Testing students has moved from the traditional scribbling and sketching on paper towards working online on a screen and keyboard.
Sustainable Landscape Development Assessment Tools
A dynamic landscape development is important for providing healthy ecosystem which supports all life. Nowadays, many initiatives towards sustainable development have been published. They lead to better living and more efficient use of natural resources in sustaining long-term ecological, economics and social benefits. To date, many assessment tools related to built environment have been established and practiced in this region, which mostly has the purpose assessing the environment performance of buildings. Hence, an assessment tool focusing on the sustainable landscape development itself is a necessity. This paper reviews the assessment criteria and indicators that are suitable for sustainable landscape development practices. The local and global assessment tools for landscape development are investigated, analyzed and discussed critically. Consideration also is given to the integration of the assessment tools with the surrounding environmental, social, and economical aspects. In addition, the assessment criteria and indicators for assessing the landscape development in Malaysia are also reviewed and discussed. In conclusion, this paper reviews, analyzes and discusses on available local and global landscape development assessment tools for sustainability.
Academic Literacy: Semantic-Discursive Resource and the Relationship with the Constitution of Genre for the Development of Writing
The present study focuses on academic literacy and addresses the impact of semantic-discursive resources on the constitution of genres that are produced in such context. The research considers the development of writing in the academic context in Portuguese. Researches that address academic literacy and the characteristics of the texts produced in this context are rare, mainly with focus on the development of writing, considering three variables: the constitution of the writer, the perception of the reader/interlocutor and the organization of the informational text flow. The research aims to map the semantic-discursive resources of the written register in texts of several genres and produced by students in the first semester of the undergraduate course in letters. The hypothesis raised is that writing in the academic environment is not a recurrent literacy practice for these learners and can be explained by the ontogenetic and phylogenetic nature of language development. Qualitative in nature, the present research has as empirical data texts produced in a half-yearly course of Reading and Textual Production; these data result from the proposition of four different writing proposals, in a total of 600 texts. The corpus is analyzed based on semantic-discursive resources, seeking to contemplate relevant aspects of language (grammar, discourse and social context) that reveal the choices made in the reader/writer interrelationship and the organizational flow of the text. Among the semantic-discursive resources, the analysis includes three resources, including (a) appraisal and negotiation to understand the attitudes negotiated (roles of the participants of the discourse and their relationship with the other); (b) ideation to explain the construction of the experience (activities performed and participants); and (c) periodicity to outline the flow of information in the organization of the text according to the genre it instantiates. The results indicate the organizational difficulties of the flow of the text information. Cartography contributes to the understanding of the way writers use language in an effort to present themselves, evaluate someone else’s work, and communicate with readers.
Mental Health Promotion for Children of Mentally Ill Parents in Schools. Assessment and Promotion of Teacher Mental Health Literacy in Order to Promote Child Related Mental Health (Teacher-MHL)
Introduction: Over 3 million children, about one quarter of all students, experience at least one parent with mental disorder in Germany every year. Children of mentally-ill parents are at considerably higher risk of developing serious mental health problems. The different burden patterns and coping attempts often become manifest in children's school lives. In this context, schools can have an important protective function, but can also create risk potentials. In reference to Jorm, pupil-related teachers’ mental health literacy (Teacher-MHL) includes the ability to recognize change behaviour, the knowledge of risk factors, the implementation of first aid intervention, and seeking professional help (teacher as gatekeeper). Although teachers’ knowledge and increased awareness of this topic is essential, the literature provides little information on the extent of teachers' abilities. As part of a German-wide research consortium on health literacy, this project, launched in March for 3 years, will conduct evidence-based mental health literacy research. The primary objective is to measure Teacher-MHL in the context of pupil-related psychosocial factors at primary and secondary schools (grades 5 & 6), while also focussing on children’s social living conditions. Methods: (1) A systematic literature review in different databases to identify papers with regard to Teacher-MHL (completed). (2) Based on these results, an interview guide was developed. This research step includes a qualitative pre-study to inductively survey the general profiles of teachers (n=24). The evaluation will be presented on the conference. (3) These findings will be translated into a quantitative teacher survey (n=2500) in order to assess the extent of socio-analytical skills of teachers as well as in relation to institutional and individual characteristics. (4) Based on results 1 – 3, developing a training program for teachers. Results: The review highlights a lack of information for Teacher-MHL and their skills, especially related to high-risk-groups like children of mentally ill parents. The literature is limited to a few studies only. According to these, teacher are not good at identifying burdened children and if they identify those children they do not know how to handle the situations in school. They are not sufficiently trained to deal with these children, especially there are great uncertainties in dealing with the teaching situation. Institutional means and resources are missing as well. Such a mismatch can result in insufficient support and use of opportunities for children at risk. First impressions from the interviews confirm these results and allow a greater insight in the everyday school-life according to critical life events in families. Conclusions: For the first time schools will be addressed as a setting where children are especially "accessible" for measures of health promotion. Addressing Teacher-MHL gives reason to expect high effectiveness. Targeting professionals' abilities for dealing with this high-risk-group leads to a discharge for teacher themselves to handle those situations and increases school health promotion. In view of the fact that only 10-30% of such high-risk families accept offers of therapy and assistance, this will be the first primary preventive and health-promoting approach to protect the health of a yet unaffected, but particularly burdened, high-risk group.
Developing Creativity as a Scientific Literacy among IT Engineers towards Sustainability
The growing issues of sustainability have increased the discussions on how to foster “green engineers” from diverse perspectives in both contexts of education and organizations. As creativity has been considered as the first stage of innovation process that can also be regarded as a path to sustainability, this paper will particularly propose creativity as a scientific literacy meaning a collection of awareness, ability, and skills about sustainability. From this sense, creativity should be an element in IT engineering education and organizational learning programmes, since IT engineers are one group of key actors in designing, researching and developing social media products that are most important channels of improving public awareness of sustainability. This further leads this paper to discuss by which pedagogical strategies and by which training methods in organizations, creativity and sustainability can be integrated into IT engineering education and IT enterprise innovation process in order to meeting the needs of ‘creative engineers’ in the society changes towards sustainability. Accordingly, this paper contributes to future work on the links between creativity, innovation, sustainability, and IT engineering development both theoretically and practically.
Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Academic Success among Third Year College Students of PIT
College students are expected to engage in an on-the-job training or internship for completion of a course requirement prior to graduation. In this scenario, they are exposed to the real world of work outside their training institution. To find out their readiness both emotionally and academically, this study has been conducted. A descriptive-correlational research design was employed and random sampling technique method was utilized among 265 randomly selected third year college students of PIT, SY 2014-15. A questionnaire on Emotional Intelligence (bearing the four components namely; emotional literacy, emotional quotient competence, values and beliefs and emotional quotient outcomes) was fielded to the respondents and GWA was extracted from the school automate. Data collected were statistically treated using percentage, weighted mean and Pearson-r for correlation.
Results revealed that respondents’ emotional intelligence level is moderately high while their academic performance is good. A high significant relationship was found between the EI component; Emotional Literacy and their academic performance while only significant relationship was found between Emotional Quotient Outcomes and their academic performance. Therefore, if EI influences academic performance significantly when correlated, a possibility that their OJT performance can also be affected either positively or negatively. Thus, EI can be considered predictor of their academic and academic-related performance. Based on the result, it is then recommended that the institution would try to look deeply into the consideration of embedding emotional intelligence as part of the (especially on Emotional Literacy and Emotional Quotient Outcomes of the students) college curriculum. It can be done if the school shall have an effective Emotional Intelligence framework or program manned by qualified and competent teachers, guidance counselors in different colleges in its implementation.
Formation of Science Literations Based on Indigenous Science Mbaru Niang Manggarai
The learning praxis that is proposed by 2013 Curriculum (K-13) is no longer school-oriented as a supply-driven, but now a demand-driven provider. This vision is connected with Jokowi-Kalla Nawacita program to create a competitive nation in the global era. Competition is a social fact that must be faced. Therefore the curriculum will design a process to be the innovators and entrepreneurs.To get this goal, K-13 implements the character education. This aims at creating the innovators and entrepreneurs from an early age (primary school). One part of strengthening it is literacy formations (reading, numeracy, science, ICT, finance, and culture). Thus, science literacy is an integral part of character education. The above outputs are only formed through the innovative process through intra-curricular (blended learning), co-curriculer (hands-on learning) and extra-curricular (personalized learning). Unlike the curriculums before that child cram with the theories dominating the intellectual process, new breakthroughs make natural, social, and cultural phenomena as learning sources. For example, Science in primary schoolsplaceBiology as the platform. And Science places natural, social, and cultural phenomena as a learning field so that students can learn, discover, solve concrete problems, and the prospects of development and application in their everyday lives. Science education not only learns about facts collection or natural phenomena but also methods and scientific attitudes. In turn, Science will form the science literacy. Science literacy have critical, creative, logical, and initiative competences in responding to the issues of culture, science and technology. This is linked with science nature which includes hands-on and minds-on. To sustain the effectiveness of science learning, K-13 opens a new way of viewing a contextual learning model in which facts or natural phenomena are drawn closer to the child's learning environment to be studied and analyzed scientifically. Thus, the topic of elementary science discussion is the practical and contextual things that students encounter. This research is about to contextualize Science in primary schools at Manggarai, NTT, by placing local wisdom as a learning source and media to form the science literacy. Explicitly, this study discovers the concept of science and mathematics in Mbaru Niang. Mbaru Niang is a forgotten potentials of the centralistic-theoretical mainstream curriculum so far. In fact, the traditional Manggarai community stores and inherits much of the science-mathematical indigenous sciences. In the traditional house structures are full of science and mathematics knowledge. Every details have style, sound and mathematical symbols. Learning this, students are able to collaborate and synergize the content and learning resources in student learning activities. This is constructivist contextual learning that will be applied in meaningful learning. Meaningful learning allows students to learn by doing. Students then connect topics to the context, and science literacy is constructed from their factual experiences. The research location will be conducted in Manggarai through observation, interview, and literature study.
An E-Assessment Website to Implement Hierarchical Aggregate Assessment
This paper describes a Web server implementation of the hierarchical aggregate assessment process in the field of education. This process describes itself as a field of teamwork assessment where teams can have multiple levels of hierarchy and supervision. This process is applied everywhere and is part of the management, education, assessment and computer science fields. The E-Assessment website named “Cluster” records in its database the students, the course material, the teams and the hierarchical relationships between the students. For the present research, the hierarchical relationships are team member, team leader and group administrator appointments. The group administrators have the responsibility to supervise team leaders. The experimentation of the application has been performed by high school students in geology courses and Canadian army cadets for navigation patrols in teams. This research extends the work of Nance that uses a hierarchical aggregation process similar as the one implemented in the “Cluster” application.
The Application of ICT in E-Assessment and E-Learning in Language Learning and Teaching
The advent of computer and ICT thereafter has introduced many irrevocable changes in learning and teaching. There is substantially growing need for the use of IT and ICT in language learning and teaching. In other words, the integration of Information Technology (IT) into online teaching is of vital importance for education and assessment. Considering the fact that the image of education is undergone drastic changes by the advent of technology, education systems and teachers move beyond the walls of traditional classes and methods in order to join with other educational centers to revitalize education. Given the advent of distance learning, online courses and virtual universities, e-assessment has taken a prominent place in effective teaching and meeting the learners' educational needs. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, scrutinizing e-learning, it discusses how and why e-assessment is becoming widely used by educationalists and administrators worldwide. As a second purpose, a couple of effective strategies for online assessment will be enumerated.
The Impact of Teachers’ Beliefs and Perceptions about Formative Assessment in the University ESL Class Assistant Lecturer: Barzan Hadi Hama Karim University of Halabja
The topic of formative assessment and its implementation in Iraqi Kurdistan have not attracted the attention of researchers and educators. Teachers’ beliefs about formative assessment as well as their assessment roles have remained unexplored. This paper reports on the research results of our survey which is conducted in 20014 to examine issues relating to formative assessment in the university ESL classroom settings. The paper portrays the findings of a qualitative study on the formative assessment role and beliefs of a group of teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in the departments of English Languages in Iraqi Kurdistan universities. Participants of the study are 25 Kurdish EFL teachers from different departments of English languages. Close-ended and open-ended questionnaire is used to collect teacher’s beliefs and perceptions about the importance of formative assessment to improve the process of teaching and learning English language. The result of the study shows that teachers do not play a significant role in the assessment process because of top-down managerial approaches and educational system. The results prove that the teachers’ assessment beliefs and their key role in assessment should not be neglected. Our research papers pursued the following questions: What is the nature of formative assessment in a second language classroom setting? Do the teacher’s assessment practices reflect what she thinks about formative assessment? What are the teachers’ perceptions regarding the benefits of formative assessment for teaching and learning English language at the university level?
Model of Monitoring and Evaluation of Student’s Learning Achievement: Application of Value-Added Assessment
Value-added assessment has been used for developing the model of monitoring and evaluation of student's learning achievement. The steps of model development consist of 1) study and analyisis of the school and the district report system of student achievement and progress, 2) collecting the data of student achievement to develop the value added indicator, 3) developing the system of value-added assessment by participatory action research approach, 4) putting the system of value-added assessment into the educational district of secondary school, 5) determining the quality of the developed system of value-added assessment. The components of the developed model consist of 1) the database of value-added assessment of student's learning achievement, 2) the process of monitoring and evaluation the student's learning achievement, and 3) the reporting system of value-added assessment of student's learning achievement.
Enabling Quantitative Urban Sustainability Assessment with Big Data
Sustainable urban development has been widely accepted a common sense in the modern urban planning and design. However, the measurement and assessment of urban sustainability, especially the quantitative assessment have been always an issue obsessing planning and design professionals. This paper will present an on-going research on the principles and technologies to develop a quantitative urban sustainability assessment principles and techniques which aim to integrate indicators, geospatial and geo-reference data, and assessment techniques together into a mechanism. It is based on the principles and techniques of geospatial analysis with GIS and statistical analysis methods. The decision-making technologies and methods such as AHP and SMART are also adopted to address overall assessment conclusions. The possible interfaces and presentation of data and quantitative assessment results are also described. This research is based on the knowledge, situations and data sources of UK, but it is potentially adaptable to other countries or regions. The implementation potentials of the mechanism are also discussed.
Patients' Understanding of Their Treatment Plans and Diagnosis during Discharge in Emergency Ward at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences
Background: Understanding the diagnosis and the treatment plan is very important for the patient which reflects the effectiveness of the patient care as well as counseling. Large groups of patients do not understand their emergency care plan or their discharge instructions. With only a little more than 2/3ʳᵈ of the adult population is literate and poorly distributed health service institutions in Nepal, exploring the current status of patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment would help identify interventions to improve patient compliance with the provided care and the treatment outcomes. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify and describe the areas of patients’ understanding and confusion regarding emergency care and discharge instructions at the Emergency ward of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences teaching hospital, Dharan, Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 426 patients discharged from the emergency unit of BPKIHS. Cases who are leaving against medical advice absconded cases and those patients who came just for vaccination are excluded from the study. Patients’ understanding of the treatment plan and diagnosis was measured. Results: There were 60% men in this study. More than half of the participants reported not being able to read English. More than 90% of the respondents reported they could not read their prescription at all. While patient could point out their understanding of their diagnosis at discharge, most of them could not tell the names and the dosage of all the drugs prescribed to them at discharge. More than 95% of the patients could not tell the most common side effects of the drugs that they are prescribed. Conclusions: There is a need to further explore the factors influencing the understanding of the patients regarding their treatment plan. Interventions to understand the health literacy needs and ways to improve the health literacy of the patients are needed.
Analysis of Employed and Unemployed Mother’s Perspectives Towards Story Narration in Typically Developing Children between 2 to 5 Years
The dyadic interaction between the parent and child during story narration facilitates the emergence of early literacy skills. Early shared reading experiences positively predict better reading and language outcomes in children who experience rich communicative and effective interactions during shared book reading. However, research is yet to systematically explore mother’s perspective towards story narration and how employment may influence their perspectives. The study analysed the perspectives of employed and unemployed mothers of typically developing children between the age ranges of 2 to 5 years through a questionnaire which covered domains on story narration exposure and parental attitudes & beliefs. The results indicate no statistical difference between employed mothers (M=8.5, SD=3.4) and unemployed mothers (M=10.1, SD=1.06). Whereas, post-hoc comparisons using the scheffe test, revealed a significant difference in scores. An increasing score was obtained as the age of the child increased. This change could be attributed due to the integration of children in preschools which could have contributed to the change of perception towards story narration. Older children’s mother perceive story narration to be an important part of their curriculum, which could facilitate rich vocabulary and language output. Younger children’s parents are however not realising the significance of story narration and its impact on the emergent literacy skills. Parent-child interaction is a significant contributor to a healthy social and cultural development. The study emphasises on the need of mothers to engage in preliteracy based activities which contribute to better academic performance in later stages.
Concept-Based Assessment in Curriculum
This paper proposes a concept-based assessment to track the performance of the students. The idea behind this approach is to map the exam questions with the concepts learned in the course. So at the end of the course, each student will know how well he learned each concept. This system will give a self assessment for the students as well as instructor. By analyzing the score of all students, instructor can decide some concepts need to be teaching again or not. The system’s efficiency is proved using three courses from M-tech program in E-Learning technologies and results show that the concept-wise assessment improved the score in final exam of majority students on various courses.
Strategies for Achieving Application of Science in National Development
In a world filled with the products of scientific inquiry, scientific literacy has become a necessity for everyone because it is indispensable to achieving technological development of any nation. Everyone needs to use scientific information to make choices that arise every day. Everyone needs to be able to engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about important issues that involves science and technology. And everyone deserves to share in the excitement and personal fulfillment that can come from -understanding and learning about the natural world. No doubt that industrialized countries have, through their control of science and technology education, developed the potential to increase production, and to improve the standard of living of their people. The main thrust of this paper therefore, is to present an overview of science education, strategies for achieving application of science in national development, such as teaching science with the right spirit of inquiry. Also, the paper discussed three research models that can help in national development and suggests the best out of the three which is more realistic for a developing country like ours (Nigeria) to follow for a sustainable national development and finally suggests some key ways of solving problems of development.
Influencing Factors and Mechanism of Patient Engagement in Healthcare: A Survey in China
Objective: It is increasingly recognized that patients’ rational and meaningful engagement in healthcare could make important contributions to their health care and safety management. However, recent evidence indicated that patients' actual roles in healthcare didn’t match their desired roles, and many patients reported a less active role than desired, which suggested that patient engagement in healthcare may be influenced by various factors. This study aimed to analyze influencing factors on patient engagement and explore the influence mechanism, which will be expected to contribute to the strategy development of patient engagement in healthcare. Methods: On the basis of analyzing the literature and theory study, the research framework was developed. According to the research framework, a cross-sectional survey was employed using the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare questionnaire, Chinese version All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale, Facilitation of Patient Involvement Scale and Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale, and other influencing factor related scales. A convenience sample of 580 patients was recruited from 8 general hospitals in Shanghai, Jiangsu Province, and Zhejiang Province. Results: The results of the cross-sectional survey indicated that the mean score for the patient engagement behavior was (4.146 ± 0.496), and the mean score for the willingness was (4.387 ± 0.459). The level of patient engagement behavior was inferior to their willingness to be involved in healthcare (t = 14.928, P ＜ 0.01). The influencing mechanism model of patient engagement in healthcare was constructed by the path analysis. The path analysis revealed that patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation of patient engagement and health literacy played direct prediction on the patients’ willingness of engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.341, 0.199, 0.291, respectively. Patients’ trust in physician and the willingness of engagement played direct prediction on the patient engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.211, 0.641, respectively. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation and health literacy played indirect prediction on patient engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.219, 0.128, 0.187, respectively. Conclusions: Patients engagement behavior did not match their willingness to be involved in healthcare. The influencing mechanism model of patient engagement in healthcare was constructed. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation of engagement and health literacy posed indirect positive influence on patient engagement through the patients’ willingness of engagement. Patients’ trust in physician and the willingness of engagement had direct positive influence on the patient engagement. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of physician facilitation of engagement and health literacy were the factors influencing the patients’ willingness of engagement. The results of this study provided valuable evidence on guiding the development of strategies for promoting patient rational and meaningful engagement in healthcare.
Learning, Teaching and Assessing Students’ ESP Skills via Exe and Hot Potatoes Software Programs
In knowledge society the content of the studies, the methods used and the requirements for an educator’s professionalism regularly undergo certain changes. It follows that in knowledge society the aim of education is not only to educate professionals for a certain field but also to help students to be aware of cultural values, form human mutual relationship, collaborate, be open, adapt to the new situation, creatively express their ideas, accept responsibility and challenge. In this viewpoint, the development of communicative language competence requires a through coordinated approach to ensure proper comprehension and memorization of subject-specific words starting from high school level. On the other hand, ESP (English for Specific Purposes) teachers and practitioners are increasingly faced with the task of developing and exploiting new ways of assessing their learners’ literacy while learning and teaching ESP. The presentation will highlight the latest achievements in this field. The author will present some practical methodological issues and principles associated with learning, teaching and assessing ESP skills of the learners, using the two software programs of EXE 2.0 and Hot Potatoes 6. On the one hand the author will display the advantages of the two programs as self-learning and self-assessment interactive tools in the course of academic study and professional development of the CLIL learners, on the other hand, she will comprehensively shed light upon some methodological aspects of working out appropriate ways of selection, introduction, consolidation of subject specific materials via EXE 2.0 and Hot Potatoes 6. Then the author will go further to distinguish ESP courses by the general nature of the learners’ specialty identifying three large categories of EST (English for Science and Technology), EBE (English for Business and Economics) and ESS (English for the Social Sciences). The cornerstone of the presentation will be the introduction of the subject titled “The methodology of teaching ESP in non-linguistic institutions”, where a unique case of teaching ESP on Architecture and Construction via EXE 2.0 and Hot Potatoes 6 will be introduced, exemplifying how the introduction, consolidation and assessment can be used as a basis for feedback to the ESP learners in a particular professional field.
Beliefs, Practices and Identity about Bilingualism: Korean-australian Immigrant Parents and Family Language Policies
This study explores the relationships between immigrant parents’ beliefs about bilingualism, family literacy practices, and their children’s identity development in Sydney, Australia. This project examines how these parents’ ideological beliefs and knowledge are related to their provision of family literacy practices and management of the environment for their bilingual children based on family language policy (FLP). This is a follow-up study of the author’s prior thesis that presented Korean immigrant mothers’ beliefs and decision-making in support of their children’s bilingualism. It includes fathers’ perspectives within the participating families as a whole by foregrounding their perceptions of bilingual and identity development. It adopts a qualitative approach with twelve immigrant mothers and fathers living in a Korean-Australian community whose child attends one of the communities Korean language programs. This time, it includes introspective and self-evocative auto-ethnographic data. The initial data set collected from the first part of this study demonstrated the mothers provided rich, diverse, and specific family literacy activities for their children. These mothers selected specific practices to facilitate their child’s bilingual development at home. The second part of data has been collected over a three month period: 1) a focus group interview with mothers; 2) a brief self-report of fathers; 3) the researcher’s reflective diary. To analyze these multiple data, thematic analysis and coding were used to reveal the parents’ ideologies surrounding bilingualism and bilingual identities. It will highlight the complexity of language and literacy practices in the family domain interrelated with sociocultural factors. This project makes an original contribution to the field of bilingualism and FLP and a methodological contribution by introducing auto-ethnographic input of this community’s lived practices. This project will empower Korean-Australian immigrant families and other multilingual communities to reflect their beliefs and practices for their emerging bilingual children. It will also enable educators and policymakers to access authentic information about how bilingualism is practiced within these immigrant families in multiple ways and to help build the culturally appropriate partnership between home and school community.
Comprehensive Risk Assessment Model in Agile Construction Environment
The article focuses on a developed comprehensive model to be used in an agile environment for the risk assessment and selection based on multi-attribute methods. The model is based on a multi-attribute evaluation of risk in construction, and the determination of their optimality criterion values are calculated using complex Multiple Criteria Decision-Making methods. The model may be further applied to risk assessment in an agile construction environment. The attributes of risk in a construction project are selected by applying the risk assessment condition to the construction sector, and the construction process efficiency in the construction industry accounts for the agile environment. The paper presents the comprehensive risk assessment model in an agile construction environment. It provides a background and a description of the proposed model and the developed analysis of the comprehensive risk assessment model in an agile construction environment with the criteria.
Internal Factors that Prevent Using Assessment for Learning Strategies: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia
To assess the students, there are different strategies adopted by teachers and all are important while taking their scope into consideration. Teachers may face some obstacles that prevent them using the assessment for learning. These obstacles can be internal or external. The present study has been collected from two regions (Riyadh and Hotat Bani Tamim) of Saudi Arabia, with sample size of 174 teachers. The results of the study have shown that the significant factors that can prevent teachers using assessment for learning are; the way of introducing the new form of assessment, lack of teachers' training, clarity of the regulations and size of students in the class. Additionally, other elements have also shown in this paper.
Early Childhood Developmental Delay in 63 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Prevalence and Inequalities Estimated from National Health Surveys
Background: The sustainable development goals call for inclusive, equitable, and quality learning opportunities for all. This is especially important for children, to ensure they all develop to their full potential. We studied the prevalence and inequalities of suspected delay in child development in 63 low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings: We used the early child development module from national health surveys, which covers four developmental domains (physical, social-emotional, learning, literacy-numeracy) and provides a combined indicator (early child development index, ECDI) of whether children are on track. We calculated the age-adjusted prevalence of suspected delay at the country level and stratifying by wealth, urban/rural residence, sex of the child, and maternal education. We also calculated measures of absolute and relative inequality. We studied 330.613 children from 63 countries. The prevalence of suspected delay for the ECDI ranged from 3% in Barbados to 67% in Chad. For all countries together, 25% of the children were suspected of developmental delay. At regional level, the prevalence of delay ranged from 10% in Europe and Central Asia to 42% in West and Central Africa. The literacy-numeracy domain was by far the most challenging, with the highest proportions of delay. We observed very large inequalities, and most markedly for the literacy-numeracy domain. Conclusions: To date, our study presents the most comprehensive analysis of child development using an instrument especially developed for national health surveys. With a quarter of the children globally suspected of developmental delay, we face an immense challenge. The multifactorial aspect of early child development and the large gaps we found only add to the challenge of not leaving these children behind.
Effects of the Age, Education, and Mental Illness Experience on Depressive Disorder Stigmatization
Motivation: The stigma of mental illness has been studied in many disciplines, including social psychology, counseling psychology, sociology, psychiatry, public health care, and related areas, because individuals labeled as ‘mentally ill’ are often deprived of their rights and their life opportunities. To understand the factors that deepen the stigma of mental illness, it is important to understand the influencing factors of the stigma. Problem statement: Depression is a common disorder in adults, but the incidence of help-seeking is low. Researchers have believed that this poor help-seeking behavior is related to the stigma of mental illness, which results from low mental health literacy. However, it is uncertain that increasing mental health literacy decreases mental health stigmatization. Furthermore, even though decreasing stigmatization is important, the stigma of mental illness is still a stable and long-lasting phenomenon. Thus, factors other than knowledge about mental disorders have the power to maintain the stigma. Investigating the influencing factors that facilitate the stigma of psychiatric disease could help lower the social stigmatization. Approach: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a multi-clustering sample. A total of 700 Korean participants (38% male), ranging in age from 18 to 78 (M(SD)age= 48.5(15.7)) answered demographical questions, Korean version of Link’s Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD) scale for the assessment of social stigmatization against depression, and the Korean version of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview for the assessment of mental disorders. Multiple-regression was conducted to find the predicting factors of social stigmatization against depression. Ages, sex, years of education, income, living location, and experience of mental illness were used as the predictors. Results: Predictors accounted for 14% of the variance in the stigma of depressive disorders (F(6, 693) = 20.27, p < .001). Among those, only age, years of education, and experience of mental illness significantly predicted social stigmatization against depression. The standardized regression coefficient of age had a negative association with stigmatization (β = -.20, p < .001), but years of education (β = .20, p < .001) and experience of mental illness (β = .08, p < .05) positively predicted depression stigmatization. Conclusions: The present study clearly demonstrates the association between personal factors and depressive disorder stigmatization. Younger age, more education, and self-stigma appeared to increase the stigmatization. Young, highly educated, and mentally ill people tend to reject patients with depressive disorder as friends, teachers, or babysitters; they also tend to think that those patients have lower intelligence and abilities. These results suggest the possibility that people from a high social class, or highly educated people, who have the power to make decisions, help maintain the social stigma against mental illness patients. To increase the awareness that people from high social classes have more stigmatization against depressive disorders will help decrease the biased attitudes against mentally ill patients.
The Acceptance of E-Assessment Considering Security Perspective: Work in Progress
The implementation of e-assessment as tool to support the process of teaching and learning in university has become a popular technological means in universities. E-Assessment provides many advantages to the users especially the flexibility in teaching and learning. The e-assessment system has the capability to improve its quality of delivering education. However, there still exists a drawback in terms of security which limits the user acceptance of the online learning system. Even though there are studies providing solutions for identified security threats in e-learning usage, there is no particular model which addresses the factors that influences the acceptance of e-assessment system by lecturers from security perspective. The aim of this study is to explore security aspects of e-assessment in regard to the acceptance of the technology. As a result a conceptual model of secure acceptance of e-assessment is proposed. Both human and security factors are considered in formulation of this conceptual model. In order to increase understanding of critical issues related to the subject of this study, interpretive approach involving convergent mixed method research method is proposed to be used to execute the research. This study will be useful in providing more insightful understanding regarding the factors that influence the user acceptance of e-assessment system from security perspective.
Reading Literacy and Methods of Improving Reading
The paper presents results of a research team from Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic. It introduces with the most reading methods used in the 1st classes of a primary school and presents results of a pilot research focused on mastering reading techniques and the quality of reading comprehension of pupils in the first half of a school year during training in teaching reading by an analytic-synthetic method and by a genetic method. These methods of practicing reading skills are the most used ones in the Czech Republic. During the school year 2015/16 there has been a measurement made of two groups of pupils of the 1st year and monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of reading pupils’ outputs by several methods. Both of these methods are based on different theoretical basis and each of them has a specific educational and methodical procedure. This contribution represents results during a piloting project and draws pilot conclusions which will be verified in the subsequent broader research at the end of the school year of the first class of primary school.
Efficacy of Self-Assessment in Written Production among High School Students
The purpose of the present study is to find the efficacy of high school student self-assessment of written production. It aimed to explore the following two research questions: 1)How is topic development of their written production improved after student self-assessment and teacher feedback? 2)Does the consistency between student self-assessment and teacher assessment develop after student self-assessment and teacher feedback? The data came from the written production of 82 Japanese high school students aged from 16 to 18 years old, an American English teacher and one Japanese English teacher. Students were asked to write English compositions, about 150 words, for thirty minutes without using dictionaries. It was conducted twice at intervals of two months. Students were supposed to assess their own compositions by themselves. Teachers also assessed students’ compositions using the same assessment sheet. The results showed that both teachers and students assessed the second compositions higher than the first compositions. However, there was not the development of the consistency in coherence.
A Good Start for Digital Transformation of the Companies: A Literature and Experience-Based Predefined Roadmap
Nowadays digital transformation is a hot topic both in service and production business. For the companies who want to stay alive in the following years, they should change how they do their business. Industry leaders started to improve their ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) like backbone technologies to digital advances such as analytics, mobility, sensor-embedded smart devices, AI (Artificial Intelligence) and more. Selecting the appropriate technology for the related business problem also is a hot topic. Besides this, to operate in the modern environment and fulfill rapidly changing customer expectations, a digital transformation of the business is required and change the way the business runs, affect how they do their business. Even the digital transformation term is trendy the literature is limited and covers just the philosophy instead of a solid implementation plan. Current studies urge firms to start their digital transformation, but few tell us how to do. The huge investments scare companies with blur definitions and concepts. The aim of this paper to solidify the steps of the digital transformation and offer a roadmap for the companies and academicians. The proposed roadmap is developed based upon insights from the literature review, semi-structured interviews, and expert views to explore and identify crucial steps. We introduced our roadmap in the form of 8 main steps: Awareness; Planning; Operations; Implementation; Go-live; Optimization; Autonomation; Business Transformation; including a total of 11 sub-steps with examples. This study also emphasizes four dimensions of the digital transformation mainly: Readiness assessment; Building organizational infrastructure; Building technical infrastructure; Maturity assessment. Finally, roadmap corresponds the steps with three main terms used in digital transformation literacy as Digitization; Digitalization; and Digital Transformation. The resulted model shows that 'business process' and 'organizational issues' should be resolved before technology decisions and 'digitization'. Companies can start their journey with the solid steps, using the proposed roadmap to increase the success of their project implementation. Our roadmap is also adaptable for relevant Industry 4.0 and enterprise application projects. This roadmap will be useful for companies to persuade their top management for investments. Our results can be used as a baseline for further researches related to readiness assessment and maturity assessment studies.
A Systematic Review on Lifelong Learning Programs for Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Background and Objective: The increase in life expectancy and emphasis on self-reliance for the older adults are global phenomena. As such, lifelong learning in the community is considered a viable means of promoting successful and active aging. This systematic review aims to examine various lifelong learning programs for community-dwelling older adults and to synthesize the contents and outcomes of these lifelong learning programs. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in July to December 2016. Two reviewers were engaged in the process to ensure creditability of the selection process. Narrative description and analysis were applied with the support of a tabulation of key data including study design, interventions, and outcomes. Results: Eleven articles, which consisted of five randomized controlled trials and six quasi-experimental studies, were included in this review. Interventions included e-health literacy programs with the aid of computers and the Internet (n=4), computer and Internet training (n=3), physical fitness programs (n=2), music program (n=1), and intergenerational program (n=1). All studies used objective measurement tools to evaluate the outcomes of the study. Conclusion: The systematic review indicated lifelong learning programs resulted in positive outcomes in terms of physical health, mental health, social behavior, social support, self-efficacy and confidence in computer usage, and increased e-health literacy efficacy. However, the lifelong learning programs face challenges such as funding shortages, program cuts, and increasing costs. A comprehensive lifelong learning program could be developed to enhance the well-being of the older adults at a more holistic level. Empirical research can be done to explore the effectiveness of this comprehensive lifelong learning program.
Information Technology Service Management System Measurement Using ISO20000-1 and ISO15504-8
Process assessments can improve IT service management system (IT SMS) processes but the assessment method is not always transparent. This paper outlines a project to develop a solution- mediated process assessment tool to enable transparent and objective SMS process assessment. Using the international standards for SMS and process assessment, the tool is being developed following the International standard approach in collaboration and evaluate by expert judgment from committee members and ITSM practitioners.
Applying Simulation-Based Digital Teaching Plans and Designs in Operating Medical Equipment
Background: The Emergency Care Research Institute released a list for the top 10 medical technology hazards in 2017, with the following hazard topping the list: ‘infusion errors can be deadly if simple safety steps are overlooked.’ In addition, hospitals use various assessment items to evaluate the safety of their medical equipment, confirming the importance of medical equipment safety. In recent years, the topic of patient safety has garnered increasing attention. Accordingly, various agencies have established patient safety-related committees to coordinate, collect, and analyze information regarding abnormal events associated with medical practice. Activities to promote and improve employee training have been introduced to diminish the recurrence of medical malpractice. Objective: To allow nursing personnel to acquire the skills needed to operate common medical equipment and update and review such skills whenever necessary to elevate medical care quality and reduce patient injuries caused by medical equipment operation errors. Method: In this study, a quasi-experimental design was adopted and nurses from a regional teaching hospital were selected as the study sample. Online videos instructing the operation method of common medical equipment were made and quick response codes were designed for the nursing personnel to quickly access the videos when necessary. Senior nursing supervisors and equipment experts were invited to formulate a ‘Scale-based Questionnaire for Assessing Nursing Personnel’s Operational Knowledge of Common Medical Equipment’ to evaluate the nursing personnel’s literacy regarding the operation of the medical equipment. From March to October 2017, an employee training on medical equipment operation and a practice course (simulation course) were implemented, after which the effectiveness of the training and practice course were assessed. Results: Prior to and after the training and practice course, the 66 participating nurses scored 58 and 87 on ‘operational knowledge of common medical equipment,’ respectively (showing a significant statistical difference; t = -9.407, p < .001); 53.5 and 86.3 on ‘operational knowledge of 12-lead electrocardiography’ (z = -2.087, p < .01), respectively; 40 and 79.5 on ‘operational knowledge of cardiac defibrillators’ (z = -3.849, p < .001), respectively; 90 and 98 on ‘operational knowledge of Abbott pumps’ (z = -1.841, p = 0.066), respectively; and 8.7 and 13.7 on ‘perceived competence’ (showing a significant statistical difference; t = -2.77, p < .05). In the participating hospital, medical equipment operation errors were observed in both 2016 and 2017. However, since the implementation of the intervention, medical equipment operation errors have not yet been observed up to October 2017, which can be regarded as the secondary outcome of this study. Conclusion: In this study, innovative teaching strategies were adopted to effectively enhance the professional literacy and skills of nursing personnel in operating medical equipment. The training and practice course also elevated the nursing personnel’s related literacy and perceived competence of operating medical equipment. The nursing personnel was thus able to accurately operate the medical equipment and avoid operational errors that might jeopardize patient safety.
Factors Related to Teachers’ Analysis of Classroom Assessments
Analysing classroom assessments is one of the responsibilities of the teacher. It aims improving teacher’s instruction and assessment as well as student learning. The present study investigated factors that might explain variation in teachers’ practices regarding analysis of classroom assessments. The factors considered in the investigation included gender, in-service assessment training, teaching load, teaching experience, knowledge in assessment, attitude towards quantitative aspects of assessment, and self-perceived competence in analysing assessments. Participants were 246 in-service teachers in Oman. Results of a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-perceived competence was the only significant factor explaining the variance in teachers’ analysis of assessments. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Alignment between Understanding and Assessment Practice among Secondary School Teachers
This study aimed to identify the alignment of understanding and assessment practices among secondary school teachers. The study was carried out using quantitative descriptive study. The sample consisted of 164 teachers who taught Form 1 and 2 from 11 secondary schools in the district of North Kinta, Perak, Malaysia. Data were obtained from 164 respondents who answered Expectation Alignment Understanding and Practices of School Assessment (PEKDAPS) questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0 +. The Cronbach alpha value obtained through PEKDAPS questionnaire pilot study was 0.86. The results showed that teachers' performance in PEKDAPS based on the mean value was less than 3, which means that perfect alignment does not occur between the understanding and practices of school assessment. Two major PEKDAPS sub-constructs of articulation across grade and age and usability of the system were higher than the moderate alignment of the understanding and practices of school assessment (Min=2.0). The content was focused on PEKDAPs sub-constructs which showed lower than the moderate alignment of the understanding and practices of school assessment (Min=2.0). Another two PEKDAPS sub-constructs of transparency and fairness and the pedagogical implications showed moderate alignment (2.0). The implications of the study is that teachers need to fully understand the importance of alignment among components of assessment, learning and teaching and learning objectives as strategies to achieve quality assessment process.
Mainstreaming Environmentally-Friendly Household Management Practice through Indonesian Women Social Gathering
While Islam teaches its’ followers to be mindful of God’s creation, including the environment, Indonesia as one of the world’s largest Muslim country, is now also world’s second-largest plastic waste contributor. The problem of waste is a complicated matter in Indonesia and is worsening because many landfills are now on verge of overcapacity. The causes of this problem are at least due to two things. First is Indonesia’s bad waste management. Second, people’s low of eco-literacy, as can be seen in massive use of non-degradable materials, low rate of waste separation, low rate of recycling and up cycling, whereas households are the largest source of waste in Indonesia. Mostly dealing with patriarchal culture, women in Indonesia play big and important role in their households, from family matter to household management (including waste management), to economic matter. Uniquely, the majority of Muslim women in Indonesia are engaged in -arisan- women social gathering or in -majelis ta’lim- women community in Islamic prayer, which serves as a social mechanism. As many NGOs are working on tackling environmental issues by raising awareness in order for the people to adapt a more environmentally-friendly household management practices, the problem of waste in Indonesia is meeting a bright light. Using qualitative data and descriptive analysis, the following is a proposal for a program intended to spread eco-literacy for waste management to women in Indonesia through their social gathering in order for them to gain awareness and start implementing eco-actions in their households. We attempt Waste4Change, a social company which provides environmentally-friendly waste management services, to reach women with modules that consist of environmental education, trainings, and workshops. We will then monitor and counsel the women to make sure if the lesson is going to be fully applied in their houses. The program will take place nearby University of Indonesia, Depok, West Java.
The Assessment of Bilingual Students: How Bilingual Can It Really Be?
The proposed study looks at the psychoeducational assessment of bilingual students, in English and French in this case. It will be the opportunity to look at language of assessment and specifically how certain tests can be administered in one language and others in another language. It is also a look into the questioning of the validity of the test scores that are obtained as well as the quality and generalizability of the conclusions that can be drawn. Bilingualism and multiculturalism, although in constant expansion, is not considered in norms development and remains a poorly understood factor when it is at play in the context of a psychoeducational assessment. Student placement, diagnoses, accurate measures of intelligence and achievement are all impacted by the quality of the assessment procedure. The same is true for questionnaires administered to parents and self-reports completed by bilingual students who, more often than not, are assessed in a language that is not their primary one or are compared to monolinguals not dealing with the same challenges or the same skills. Results show that students, when offered to work in a bilingual fashion, chooses to do so in a significant proportion. Recommendations will be offered to support educators aiming at expanding their skills when confronted with multilingual students in an assessment context.
Autonomy in Teaching and Learning Subject-Specific Academic Literacy
In this paper, the notion of autonomy in language teaching and learning is explored with a view to designing particular subject-specific academic literacy at higher education level, for mostly English second or third language learners at the Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. These courses that are contextualized in subject-specific fields studied by students in Arts, Education and Social Science Faculties aim to facilitate learners in the manipulation of cognitively demanding academic texts. However, classroom contact time for these courses is limited to one ninety sessions per week. Thus, learners need to be autonomously responsible for developing their own skills when manipulating and negotiating appropriate academic textual conventions. Thus, a model was designed to allow for gradual learner independence in language learning skills. Learners experience of the model was investigated using the Phenomenological Research Approach. Data in the form of individual written reflections and transcripts of unstructured group interviews were analyzed for themes and sub-themes. These findings are discussed in the article with a view to addressing the practical concerns of the learners in this case study.
Big Data’s Mechanistic View of Human Behavior May Displace Traditional Library Missions That Empower Users
The very concept of information seeking behavior, and the means by which librarians teach users to gain information, that is information literacy, are at the heart of how libraries deliver information, but big data will forever change human interaction with information and the way such behavior is both studied and taught. Just as importantly, big data will orient the study of behavior towards commercial ends because of a tendency towards instrumentalist views of human behavior, something one might also call a trend towards behaviorism. This oral presentation seeks to explore how the impact of big data on understandings of human behavior might impact a library information science (LIS) view of human behavior and information literacy, and what this might mean for social justice aims and concomitant community action normally at the center of librarianship. The methodology employed here is a non-empirical examination of current understandings of LIS in regards to social justice alongside an examination of the benefits and dangers foreseen with the growth of big data analysis. The rise of big data within the ever-changing information environment encapsulates a shift to a more mechanistic view of human behavior, one that can easily encompass information seeking behavior and information use. As commercial aims displace the important political and ethical aims that are often central to the missions espoused by libraries and the social sciences, the very altruism and power relations found in LIS are at risk. In this oral presentation, an examination of the social justice impulses of librarians regarding power and information demonstrates how such impulses can be challenged by big data, particularly as librarians understand user behavior and promote information literacy. The creeping behaviorist impulse inherent in the emphasis big data places on specific solutions, that is answers to question that ask how, as opposed to larger questions that hint at an understanding of why people learn or use information threaten library information science ideals. Together with the commercial nature of most big data, this existential threat can harm the social justice nature of librarianship.
Simple Assessments to Demystify Complementary Feeding: Leveraging a Successful Literacy Initiative Assessment Approach in Gujarat, India
Age approporiate complementary feeding has been stressed upon for sound young child nutrition and appropriate growth. National Infant and Young Child Feeding guidelines, policies and programs indicate cognizance of the issue taken by the country’s government, policy makers and technical experts. However, it is important that ordinary people, the caregivers of young children too understand the importance of appropriate feeding. For this, an interface might be required where ordinary people could participate in assessing the gaps in IYCF as a first step to take subsequent action. In this context an attempt was made to extrapolate a citizen led learning level survey that has been involving around 25000 ordinary citizens to reach out to 600,000 children annually for over a decade in India. Based on this philosophy of involving ordinary people in simple assessments to produce understandable actionable evidence, a rapid diet assessment tool was developed and collected from caregivers of 90 < 3year children from two urban clusters in Ahmedabad and Baroda, Gujarat. Target sample for pilot was selected after cluster census. Around half the mothers reported that they had not yet introduced water or other fluids to their < 6 month babies. However, about a third were already feeding them food other than mother’s milk. Although complementary feeding was initiated in almost all (95%) children more than 6 months old, frequency was suboptimal in 60%; in 80% cases no measure was taken to either improve energy or nutrient density; only 33% were fed protective foods; Green Leafy Vegetables consumption was negligible (1.4%). Anganwadi food was not consumed. By engaging ordinary people to generate evidence and understand the gaps, such assessments have the potential to be used to generate useful evidence for action at scale as well as locally.
The Continuing Professional Development of the Assessment through Research-Based Learning in Higher Education of Thailand
Research-based learning is the key for the national research universities of Thailand. The indicator reflects the success of the study in assessing the learning outcomes of students. The development of the lecturers is the most important mechanism in driving. Nowadays the lecturers lack the knowledge and skills of assessment for learning. Therefore, this study aims to develop the knowledge and skills for lecturer’s assessment through research-based learning in higher education. The target group were lecturers who teach in higher education from Khon Kaen University of Thailand. This study was a research and development involved the concept of continuing professional development. Research was conducted in 3 phases: 1) to inspire one’s thought, to accomplish both knowledge and skill, 2) to focus on changes, and 3) to reflect the changes as well as suggest the guidelines for development. The results showed that the lecturers enhanced their knowledge and skill in assessment and emphasized on assessment for learning rather than assessment of learning.
A Programming Assessment Software Artefact Enhanced with the Help of Learners
The demands of an ever changing and complex higher education environment, along with the profile of modern learners challenge current approaches to assessment and feedback. More learners enter the education system every year. The younger generation expects immediate feedback. At the same time, feedback should be meaningful. The assessment of practical activities in programming poses a particular problem, since both lecturers and learners in the information and computer science discipline acknowledge that paper-based assessment for programming subjects lacks meaningful real-life testing. At the same time, feedback lacks promptness, consistency, comprehensiveness and individualisation. Most of these aspects may be addressed by modern, technology-assisted assessment. The focus of this paper is the continuous development of an artefact that is used to assist the lecturer in the assessment and feedback of practical programming activities in a senior database programming class. The artefact was developed using three Design Science Research cycles. The first implementation allowed one programming activity submission per assessment intervention. This pilot provided valuable insight into the obstacles regarding the implementation of this type of assessment tool. A second implementation improved the initial version to allow multiple programming activity submissions per assessment. The focus of this version is on providing scaffold feedback to the learner – allowing improvement with each subsequent submission. It also has a built-in capability to provide the lecturer with information regarding the key problem areas of each assessment intervention.
Review of Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in Organisation
The assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organisation is an important initiative to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the success status of their investment in IS integration efforts. However, without a proper assessment, an organisation will not know its IIS status, which may affect their judgment on what action should be taken onwards. Current research on IIS assessment is lacking and those related literature on IIS assessment focus more on assessing the technical aspect of IIS. It is argued that assessing technical aspect alone is inadequate since organisational and strategic aspects in IIS should also be considered. Current methods, techniques and tools used by vendors for IIS assessment also are lack of comprehensive measures to fully assess the Integrated Information System in term of technical, organisational and strategic domains. The purpose of this study is to establish critical success factors for measuring success of an Integrated Information System. These factors are used as the basis for constructing an approach to comprehensively assess IIS in an organisation. A comprehensive list of success factors for IIS assessment, established from literature, was initially presented. An expert surveys using both manual and online methods were conducted to verify the factors. Based on the factors, an instrument for IIS assessment was constructed. The results from a case study indicate that through comprehensive assessment approach, not only the level of success been known, but also reveals the contributing factors. This research contributes to the field of Information Systems specifically in the area of Integrated Information System assessment.
Temperament as a Success Determinant in Formative Assessment
Assessment is a vital part of the educational process, and formative assessment is a way of ensuring that higher education achieves the desired effects. Different factors influence how students perform in assessments in general, and formative assessment in particular and temperament is one of such determining factors. This paper which is a qualitative case study of four universities in four different countries examines how the temperamental make up of students either empowers them to perform excellently in formative assessment or incapacitates their performance. These four universities were chosen from Cameroon, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States of America and three students were chosen from each institution, six of which were undergraduate student and six postgraduate students. Data in this paper was generated through qualitative interviews and document analyses which was preceded by a temperament test. From the data generated, it was discovered that cholerics who are natural leaders, hence do not struggle to express themselves often perform excellently in formative assessment while sanguines on the other hand who are also extroverts like cholerics perform relatively well. Phlegmatics and melancholics performed averagely and poorly respectively in formative assessment because they are naturally prone to fear and hate such activities because they like keeping to themselves. The paper, therefore, suggest that temperament is a success determinant in formative assessment. It also proposes that lecturers need and understanding of temperaments to be able to fully administer formative assessment in the lecturer room. It also suggests that assessment should be balance in the classroom so that some students because of their temperamental make-up are not naturally disadvantaged while others are performing excellently. Lastly, the paper suggests that since formative assessment is a process of generating data, it should be contextualised or given and individualised approach so as to ensure that trustworthy data is generated.
Removing Barriers in Assessment and Feedback for Blind Students in Open Distance Learning
This paper addresses two questions: (1) what barriers do the blind students face with assessment and feedback in open distance learning contexts? And (2) How can these barriers be removed? The paper focuses on the distance education through which most students with disabilities elevate their chances of accessing higher education. Lack of genuine inclusion is also evident in the challenges the blind students face during the assessment. These barriers are experienced at both formative and summative stages. The insights in this paper emanate from a case study that was carried out through qualitative approaches. The data was collected through in-depth interview, life stories, and telephonic interviews. The paper provides a review of local, continental and international views on how best assessment barriers can be removed. A group of five blind students, comprising of two honours students, two master's students and one doctoral student participated in this study. The data analysis was done through thematic analysis. The findings revealed that (a) feedback to the assignment is often inaccessible; (b) the software used is incompatible; (c) learning and assessment are designed in exclusionary approaches; (d) assessment facilities are not conducive; and (e) lack of proactive innovative assessment strategies. The article concludes by recommending ways in which barriers to assessment can be removed. These include addressing inclusive assessment and feedback strategies in professional development initiatives.
Role of Special Training Centers (STC) in Right to Education Act Challenges And Remedies
As per the Right to Education Act (RTE), 2009, every child in the age group of 6-14 years shall be admitted in a neighborhood school. All the Out of School Children identified have to be enrolled / mainstreamed in to age appropriate class and there-after be provided special training. This paper addresses issues emerging from provisions in the RTE Act that specifically refer to the enrolment of out-of school children into age appropriate classes and the requirement to provide special trainings that will enable this to take place. In the context of RTE Act, the Out-of-School Children are first enrolled in the formal school and then they are provided with Special Training through NRSTCs (Long Term / Short term basis). These centers are functioning in formal school campus itself. This paper specifies the role of special training centers (STC). It presents a re-envisioning of assessment that recognizes two principal functions of assessment, assessment for learning and assessment of learning, instead of the more familiar categories of formative, diagnostic, summative, and evaluative assessment. The use of these two functions of assessment highlights and emphasizes the role of special training centers (STC) to assess their level for giving them appropriate special training and to evaluate their improvement in learning level. Challenge of problem faced by teachers to do diagnostic assessment, including its place in the sequence of assessment procedures appropriate in identifying and addressing individual children’s learning difficulties are solved by special training centers (STC). It is important that assessment is used to identify children with learning difficulties at the earliest possible stage so that appropriate support and intervention can be put in place. So appropriate challenges with tools are presented here for their assessment at entry level and at completion level of primary children by special training centers (STC).
Health Risk Assessment of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water
Trihalogenmethanes (THMs) are disinfection byproducts with non-carcinogenic and genotoxic effects. The contamination of 6 sites close to the water treatment plant has been monitored in second largest city of the Czech Republic. Health risk assessment including both non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risk for long term exposition was realized using the critical concentrations. Concentrations of trihalogenmethanes met national standards in all samples. Risk assessment proved that health risks from trihalogenmethanes are acceptable on each site.
Examining the Investment Behavior of Arab Women in the Stock Market
Gender plays a vital role in the stock markets because men and women differ in their behavior when investing in stocks. Accordingly, the role of gender differences in investment behavior is an increasingly important strand in the field of behavioral finance research. The investment behaviors of women relative to men have been examined in the behavioral finance literature, mainly for comparison purposes. Women's roles in the stock market have not been examined in the behavioral finance literature, however, particularly with respect to the Arab region. This study aims to contribute towards a better understanding of the investment behavior of Arab women (in regards to their risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels) relative to Arab men; using a sample from Arab women and men investors living in Saudi Arabia and Jordan. In order to achieve the study's main aim, the researcher used non-parametric tests, as Mann-Whitney U test, along with frequency distribution analysis to analyze the study’s primary data. The researcher distributed close-ended online questionnaires to a sample of 550 Arab male and female individuals investing in stocks in both Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The results confirm that the sample Arab women invest less in stocks compared to Arab men due to their risk-averse behaviors and limited confidence levels. The results also reveal that due to Arab women’s very low investment literacy levels, they fear from taking the risk and invest often in stocks relative to Arab men. Overall, the study’s main variables (risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels) have a combined effect on the investment behavior of Arab women and their limited participation in the stock market. Hence, this study is one of the very first studies that indicate the combined effect of the three main variables (which are usually studied separately in the existing literature) on the investment behavior of women, particularly Arab women. This study makes three important contributions to the growing literature on gender differences in investment behavior. First, while the behavioral finance literature documents evidence on gender differences in investment behaviors in many developed countries, there are very limited studies that investigate such differences in Arab countries. Arab women investors, generally, are ignored from the behavioral finance literature due probably to cultural barriers and data collection difficulties. Thus, this study extends the literature to include Arab women and their investment behaviors when trading stock relative to Arab men. Moreover, the study associates women investment literacy and confidence levels with their financial risk behaviors and participation in the stock market. This study provides direct evidence on Arab women's investment behaviors when trading stocks. Overall, studying Arab women investors is important to investigate whether the investment behavior identified for Western women investors are also found in Arab women investors.
Development & Standardization of a Literacy Free Cognitive Rehabilitation Program for Patients Post Traumatic Brain Injury
Background: Cognitive rehabilitation aims to retrain brain injured individuals with cognitive deficits to restore or compensate lost functions. As illiterates or people with low literacy levels represent a significant proportion of the world, specific rehabilitation modules for such populations are indispensable. Literacy is significantly associated with all neuropsychological measures and retraining programs widely use written or spoken techniques which essentially require the patient to read or write. So, the aim of the study was to develop and standardize a literacy free neuropsychological rehabilitation program for improving cognitive functioning in patients with mild and moderate Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Several studies have pointed out to the impairments seen in memory, executive functioning, and attention and concentration post-TBI, so the rehabilitation program focussed on these domains. Visual item memorization, stick constructions, symbol cancellations, and colouring techniques were used to construct the retraining program. Methodology: The development of the program consisted of planning, preparing, analyzing, and revising the different modules. The construction focussed on areas of retraining immediate and delayed visual memory, planning ability, focused and divided attention, concentration, and response inhibition (to control irritability and aggression). A total of 98 home based retraining modules were prepared in the 4 domains (42 for memory, 42 for executive functioning, 7 for attention and concentration, and 7 for response inhibition). The standardization was done on 20 healthy controls to review, select and edit items. For each module, the time, errors made and errors per second were noted down, to establish the difficulty level of each module and were arranged in increasing level of difficulty over a period of 6 weeks. The retraining tasks were then administered on 11 brain injured individuals (5 after Mild TBI and 6 after Moderate TBI). These patients were referred from the Trauma Centre to Clinical Neuropsychology OPD, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Results: The time was taken, errors made and errors per second were analysed for all domains. Education levels were divided into illiterates, up to 10 years, 10 years to graduation and graduation and above. Mean and standard deviations were calculated. Between group and within group analysis was done using the t-test. The performance of 20 healthy controls was analyzed and only a significant difference was observed on the time taken for the attention tasks and all other domains had non-significant differences in performance between different education levels. Comparing the errors, time taken between patient and control group, there was a significant difference in all the domains at the 0.01 level except the errors made on executive functioning, indicating that the tool can successfully differentiate between healthy controls and patient groups. Conclusions: Apart from the time taken for symbol cancellations, the entire cognitive rehabilitation program is literacy free. As it taps the major areas of impairment post-TBI, it could be a useful tool to rehabilitate the patient population with low literacy levels across the world. The next step is already underway to test its efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in a randomized clinical controlled trial.
The Use of Videos: Effects on Children's Language and Literacy Skills
Previous research has shown that young children can learn from educational television programmes, videos or other technological media. However, the blending of any of these with traditional printed-based text appears to be omitted. Repeated viewing is an important factor in children's ability to comprehend the content or plot. The present study combined videos with traditional printed-based text and required repeated viewing and is original and distinctive. The first study was a pilot study to explore whether the intervention is implementable in ordinary classrooms. The second study explored whether the curricular embedding is important or whether the video with curricular embedding is effective. The third study explored the effect of “dosage”, i.e. whether a longer/ more intense intervention has a proportionately greater effect on outcomes. Both measured outcomes (comprehension, word sounds, and early word recognition) and unmeasured outcomes (engagement to reading traditional printed-based texts or/and multimodal texts) were obtained from this study. Observation indicated degree of engagement in reading. The theoretical framework was multimodality theory combined with Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s learning theories. An experimental design was used with 4-5-year-old children in nursery schools and primary schools. Six links to video clips exploring non-fiction science content were provided to teachers. The first session is whole-class and subsequent sessions small-group. The teacher then engaged the children in dialogue using supplementary materials. About half of each class was selected randomly for pre-post assessments. Two assessments were used the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVSIII) and the York Assessment of Reading for Comprehension (YARC): Early Reading. Different programme fidelity means were deployed- observations, teacher self-reports attendance logs and post-delivery interviews. Data collection is in progress and results will be available shortly. If this multiphase study show effectiveness in one or other application, then teachers will have other tools which they can use to enhance vocabulary, letter knowledge and word reading. This would be a valuable addition to their repertoire.
Assessing Basic Computer Applications’ Skills of College-Level Students in Saudi Arabia
This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted at the Institute of Public Administration (IPA) in Saudi Arabia. The paper applied both qualitative and quantitative research methods to assess the levels of basic computer applications’ skills among students enrolled in the preparatory programs of the institution. qualitative data have been collected from semi-structured interviews with the instructors who have previously been assigned to teach Introduction to information technology courses. Quantitative data were collected by executing a self-report questionnaire and a written statistical test. 380 enrolled students responded to the questionnaire and 142 accomplished the statistical test. The results indicate the lack of necessary skills to deal with computer applications among most of the students who are enrolled in the IPA’s preparatory programs.
The Effectiveness of Summative Assessment in Practice Learning
Assessment enables students to focus on their learning, assessment. It engages them to work hard and motivates them in devoting time to their studies. Student learning is directly influenced by the type of assessment involved in the programme. Summative Assessment aims at providing measurement of student understanding. In fact, it is argued that summative assessment is used for reporting and reviewing, besides providing an overall judgement of achievement. While summative assessment is a well defined process for learning that takes place in the classroom environment, its application within the practice environment is still being researched. This paper discusses findings from a mixed-method study for exploring the effectiveness of summative assessment in practice learning. A survey questionnaire was designed for exploring the perceptions of mentors and students about summative assessment in practice learning. The questionnaire was administered to the University of Mauritius students and mentors who supervised students for their Work-Based Learning (WBL) practice at the respective placement settings. Some students, having undertaken their WBL practice, were interviewed, for capturing their views and experiences about the application of summative assessment in practice learning. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with three experienced mentors who have assessed students on practice learning. The findings reveal that though learning in the workplace is entirely different from learning at the University, most students had positive experiences about their summative assessments in practice learning. They felt comfortable and confident to be assessed by their mentors in their placement settings and wished that the effort and time that they devoted to their learning be recognised and valued. Mentors on their side confirmed that the summative assessment is valid and reliable, enabling them to better monitor and coach students to achieve the expected learning outcomes.
Diagnostic Assessment for Mastery Learning of Engineering Students with a Bayesian Network Model
In this study, a diagnostic assessment model for Mastery Engineering Learning was established based on a group of undergraduate students who studied in an engineering course. A diagnostic assessment model can examine both students' learning process and report achievement results. One very unique characteristic is that the diagnostic assessment model can recognize the errors and anything blocking students in their learning processes. The feedback is provided to help students to know how to solve the learning problems with alternative strategies and help the instructor to find alternative pedagogical strategies in the instructional designs. Dynamics is a core course in which is a common course being shared by several engineering programs. This course is a very challenging for engineering students to solve the problems. Thus knowledge acquisition and problem-solving skills are crucial for student success. Therefore, developing an effective and valid assessment model for student learning are of great importance. Diagnostic assessment is such a model which can provide effective feedback for both students and instructor in the mastery of engineering learning.
Reception Class Practitioners' Understandings on the Role of Teaching Assistants, in Particular Supporting Children in Mathematics
The purpose of this study is to investigate the roles of teaching assistants (TAs) working in reception classes through practitioners’ perspectives. The study has two major purposes; firstly to explore the general roles of TAs, and secondly to identify their roles in supporting children for mathematics. A small-scale case study approach was adopted for this study. The research was carried out in two reception classes within a primary school in London. The qualitative data were gathered through observations and semi-structured interviews with four reception class practitioners, comprising two teachers and two TAs. The results show that TAs consider their role to be more like a teacher, whereas classroom teachers do not corroborate this and they generally believe that the role of TAs depends on their personal characteristics and skills. In regard to the general role of TAs, the study suggests that reception class TAs are deployed both at the classroom level to provide academic support for children’s learning and development, and at the school level they are deployed as support staff such as Midday Meal Supervisor or assistants. In terms of the pedagogical roles of TAs, it was found that TAs have a strong teaching role in literacy development, with notable autonomy if conducting their own phonics sessions without teacher direction, but a negligible influence in numeracy/ math’s. In addition, the results show that the TA role is perceived to be quite limited in planning and assessment processes. Linked to their limited roles in such processes, all participants agree that all the responsibility regarding the children’s learning and development, planning and assessment lies with the teacher. Therefore, data suggest that TAs’ roles in these areas depend on TAs’ their own initiatives.
Teachers' Assessment Practices in Lower Secondary Schools in Tanzania: The Potential and Opportunities for Formative Assessment Practice Implementation
The implementation of education assessment reforms in developing countries has been claimed to be problematic and difficult. The socio-economic teaching and learning environment has pointed to constraints in the education reform process. Nevertheless, there are existing assessment practices that if enhanced, can have potential to foster formative assessment practices in those contexts. The present study used the sociocultural perspective to explore teachers’ assessment practices and factors influencing them in Tanzania. Specifically, the sociocultural perspective helped to trace social, economic and political histories imparted to teachers’ assessment practices. The ethnographic oriented methods like interviews, observations and document reviews was used in this exploration. Teachers used assessment practices, such as questioning and answering, tests, assignments and examinations, for evaluating, monitoring and diagnosing students’ understanding, achievement and performance and standards and quality of instruction practices. The obtained assessment information functioned as feedback for improving students’ understanding, performance, and the standard and quality of teaching instruction and materials. For example, teachers acknowledged, praised, approved, disapproved, denied, graded, or marked students’ responses to give students feedback and aid learning. Moreover, teachers clarified and corrected or repeated students’ responses with worded/added words to improve students’ mastery of the subject content. Teachers’ assessment practices were influenced by the high demands of passing marks in the high stakes examinations and the contexts of the social economic teaching environment. There is a need to ally education assessment reforms with existing socio-economic teaching environments and society and institutional demands of assessment to make assessment reforms meaningful and sustainable. This presentation ought to contribute on ongoing strategies for contextualizing assessment practices for formative uses.
Beyond Recognition: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking for Depression and Schizophrenia in Ghana
Background: There is a paucity of mental health research in Ghana. Little is known about the beliefs and attitudes regarding specific mental disorders in Ghana. Method: A vignette study was conducted to examine the relationship between causal attributions, help-seeking, and stigma towards depression and schizophrenia using lay Ghanaians (N = 410). This adapted questionnaire presented two unlabelled vignettes about a hypothetical person with the above disorders for participants to provide their impressions. Next, participants answered questions on beliefs and attitudes regarding this person. Results: The results showed that causal beliefs about mental disorders were related to treatment options and stigma: spiritual causal attributions associated positively with spiritual help-seeking and perceived stigma for the mental disorders, whilst biological and psychosocial causal attribution of the mental disorders was positively related with professional help-seeking. Finally, contrary to previous literature, belonging to a particular religious group did not negatively associate with professional help-seeking for mental disorders. Conclusion: In conclusion, results suggest that Ghanaians may benefit from exposure to corrective information about depression and schizophrenia. Our findings have implications for mental health literacy and anti-stigma campaigns in Ghana and other developing countries in the region.
Qualitative Case Studies in Reading Specialist Education
This presentation focuses on the analysis qualitative case studies in the graduate education of reading specialists. The presentation describes the development and application of an integrated conceptual framework for reading specialist education, drawing on Robert Stake’s work on case study research, Kenneth Zeichner’s work on professional learning, and various tools for reading assessment (e.g. the Qualitative Reading Inventory). Social constructivist theory is used to provide intersecting links between the various influences on the processes used to assess and teaching reading within the case study framework. Illustrative examples are described to show the application of the framework in reading specialist education in a teaching clinic at a large urban university. Central to education of reading specialists in this teaching clinic is the collection, analysis and interpretation of data for the design and implementation of reading and writing programs for struggling readers and writers. The case study process involves the integrated interpretation of data, which is central to qualitative case study inquiry. An emerging theme in this approach to graduate education is the ambiguity and uncertainty that governs work with the adults and children who attend the clinic for assistance. Tensions and contradictions are explored insofar as they reveal overlapping but intersecting frameworks for case study analysis in the area of literacy education. An additional theme is the interplay of multiple layers of data with a resulting depth that goes beyond the practical need of the client and toward the deeper pedagogical growth of the reading specialist. The presentation makes a case for the value of qualitative case studies in reading specialist education. Further, the use of social constructivism as a unifying paradigm provides a robustness to the conceptual framework as a tool for understanding the pedagogy that is involved.
Creation of a Care Robot Impact Assessment
This paper pioneers Care Robot Impact Assessment (CRIA), a methodology used to identify, analyze, mitigate and eliminate the risks posed by the insertion of non-medical personal care robots (PCR) in medical care facilities. Its precedent instruments (Privacy and Surveillance Impact Assessment (PIA and SIA)) fall behind in coping with robots. Indeed, personal care robots change dramatically how care is delivered. The paper presents a specific risk-sector methodology, identifies which robots are under its scope and presents some of the challenges introduced by these robots.
Employee Assessment Systems in the Structures of Corporate Groups
The process of human resources management in the structures of corporate groups demonstrates certain specificity, resulting from the division of decision-making and executive competencies, which occurs within these structures between a parent company and its subsidiaries. The subprocess of employee assessment is considered crucial, since it provides information for the implementation of personnel function. The empirical studies conducted in corporate groups, within which at least one company is located in Poland, confirmed the critical significance of employee assessment systems in the process of human resources management in corporate groups. Parent companies, most often, retain their decision-making authority within the framework of the discussed process and introduce uniform employee assessment and personnel controlling systems to subsidiary companies. However, the instruments for employee assessment applied in corporate groups do not present such specificity.
Using Technology to Enhance the Student Assessment Experience
The use of information tools is a common activity for students of any educational stage when they encounter online learning activities. Finding the relevant information for particular learning tasks is the topic of this paper as it investigates the use of information tools for a group of student participants. The paper describes and discusses the results with particular implications for use in higher education, and the findings suggest that improvement in assessment design and subsequent student learning may be achieved by structuring the purposefulness of information tools usage and online reading behaviors of university students.
Measuring Ecological Footprint: Life Cycle Assessment Approach
In the recent time, an increasing interest in the analysis and efforts to reduce the environmental impacts generated by man-made activities has been seen widely being discussed and implemented by the society. The industrial processes are expressing their concern and showing keen interest in redesigning and amending the operation process leading to better environmental performance by upgrading technologies and adjusting the financial inputs. There are various tools available for the assessment of process and production of goods on the environment. Most methods look at a particular impact on the ecosystem. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the most widely accepted and scientifically founded methodologies to assess the overall environmental impacts of products and processes. This paper looks at the tools used in India for environmental impact assessment.
The Oral Production of University EFL Students: An Analysis of Tasks, Format, and Quality in Foreign Language Development
The present study focuses on academic literacy and addresses the impact of semantic-discursive resources on the constitution of genres that are produced in such context. The research considers the development of writing in the academic context in Portuguese. Researches that address academic literacy and the characteristics of the texts produced in this context are rare, mainly with focus on the development of writing, considering three variables: the constitution of the writer, the perception of the reader/interlocutor and the organization of the informational text flow. The research aims to map the semantic-discursive resources of the written register in texts of several genres and produced by students in the first semester of the undergraduate course in Letters. The hypothesis raised is that writing in the academic environment is not a recurrent literacy practice for these learners and can be explained by the ontogenetic and phylogenetic nature of language development. Qualitative in nature, the present research has as empirical data texts produced in a half-yearly course of Reading and Textual Production; these data result from the proposition of four different writing proposals, in a total of 600 texts. The corpus is analyzed based on semantic-discursive resources, seeking to contemplate relevant aspects of language (grammar, discourse and social context) that reveal the choices made in the reader/writer interrelationship and the organizational flow of the Text. Among the semantic-discursive resources, the analysis includes three resources, including (a) appraisal and negotiation to understand the attitudes negotiated (roles of the participants of the discourse and their relationship with the other); (b) ideation to explain the construction of the experience (activities performed and participants); and (c) periodicity to outline the flow of information in the organization of the text according to the genre it instantiates. The results indicate the organizational difficulties of the flow of the text information. Cartography contributes to the understanding of the way writers use language in an effort to present themselves, evaluate someone else’s work, and communicate with readers.
Patient Understanding of Health Information: Implications for Organizational Health Literacy in Germany
Introduction: The quality of patient-doctor communication and of written health information is central to organizational health literacy (HL). Whether patients understand their doctors’ explanations and textual material on health, however, is understudied. This study identifies the overall levels of patient understanding of health information and its associations with patients’ social characteristics in outpatient health care in Germany. Materials & Methods: This analysis draws on data collected via a 2017 national health survey with a sample of 6,105 adults. Quality of communication was measured for consultations with general practitioners (GPs) and specialists (SPs) via the Ask Me 3 program questions, and through a question on written health material. Correlations with social characteristics were explored employing bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Over 90% of all respondents reported that they had understood their doctors’ explanations during the last consultation. Failed understanding was strongly correlated with patients’ very poor health (Odds Ratio [OR]: 5.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.23–12.10; ref. excellent/very good health), current health problem (OR: 6.54, CI: 1.70–25.12; ref. preventive examination) and age 65 years and above (OR: 2.97, CI: 1.10–8.00; ref. 18 to 34 years). Fewer patients answered they understood written material well (86.7% for las visit at GP, 89.7% at SP). Understanding written material poorly was highly associated with basic education (OR: 4.20, CI: 2.76–6.39; ref. higher education) and 65 years old and above (OR: 2.66, CI: 1.43–4.96). Discussion: Overall ratings of oral patient-doctor communication and written communication of health information are high. Yet, a considerable share of patients reports not-understanding their doctors and poor understanding of the written health-related material. Interventions that can contribute to improving organizational HL in outpatient care in Germany include HL training for doctors, reducing system barriers to easily-accessible health information for patients and combining oral and written health communication means. Conclusion: This work adds to the study of organizational HL in Germany. To increase patient understanding of health-relevant information and thereby possibly reduce health disparities, meeting the communication needs especially of persons in different age groups, with basic education and in very poor health is suggested.
Reading Literacy, Storytelling and Cognitive Learning: an Effective Connection in Sustainability Education
The connection between education and sustainability has been posited to have benefit for realizing a social development compatible with environmental protection. However, an educational paradigm based on the passage of information or on the fear of a catastrophe might not favor the acquisition of eco-identity. To build a sustainable world, it is necessary to "become people" in harmony with other human beings, being aware of belonging to the same human community that is part of the natural world. This can only be achieved within an authentic educating community and the most effective tools for building educating communities are reading literacy and storytelling.
This paper is the report of a research-action carried out in this direction, in agreement with the sociology department of the University of Salerno, which involved four hundred children and their teachers in a path based on the combination of reading literacy, storytelling, autobiographical writing and outdoor education. The goal of the research was to create an authentic educational community within the school, capable to encourage the acquisition of an eco-identity by the pupils, that is, personal and relational growth in the full realization of the Self, in harmony with the social and natural environment, with a view to an authentic education for sustainability.
To ensure reasonable validity and reliability of findings, the inquiry started with participant observation and a process of triangulation has been used including: semi-structured interview, socio-semiotic analysis of the conversation and time budget. Basically, a multiple independent sources of data was used to answer the questions. Observing the phenomenon through multiple "windows" helped to comparing data through a variety of lenses. All teachers had the experience of implementing a socio-didactic strategy called "Fiabadiario" and they had the possibility to use it with approaches that fit their students. The data being collected come from the very students and teachers who are engaged with this strategy.
The educational path tested during the research has produced sustainable relationships and conflict resolution within the school system and between school and families, creating an authentic and sustainable learning community.
Regional Disparities in Microfinance Distribution: Evidence from Indian States
Over the last few decades, Indian banking system has achieved remarkable growth in its credit volume. However, one of the most disturbing facts about this growth is the uneven distribution of financial services across regions. Having witnessed limited success from all the earlier efforts towards financial inclusion targeting the rural poor and the underprivileged, provision of microfinance, of late, has emerged as a supplementary mechanism. There are two prominent modes of microfinance distribution in India namely Bank-SHG linkage (SBLP) and private Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). Ironically, such efforts also seem to have failed to achieve the desired targets as the microfinance services have witnessed skewed distribution across the states of the country. This study attempts to make a comparative analysis of the geographical skew of the SBLP and MFI in India and examine the factors influencing their regional distribution. The results indicate that microfinance services are largely concentrated in the southern region, accounting for about 50% of all microfinance clients and 49% of all microfinance loan portfolios. This is distantly followed by an eastern region where client outreach is close to 25% only. The north-eastern, northern, central, and western regions lag far behind in microfinance sectors, accounting for only 4%, 4%, 10%, and 7 % client outreach respectively. The penetration of SHGs is equally skewed, with the southern region accounting for 46% of client outreach and 70% of loan portfolios followed by an eastern region with 21% of client outreach and 13% of the loan portfolio. Contrarily, north-eastern, northern, central, western and eastern regions account for 5%, 5%, 10%, and 13% of client outreach and 3%, 3%, 7%, and 4% of loan portfolios respectively. The study examines the impact of literacy rate, rural poverty, population density, primary sector share, non-farm activities, loan default behavior and bank penetration on the microfinance penetration. The study is limited to 17 major states of the country over the period 2008-2014. The results of the GMM estimation indicate the significant positive impact of literacy rate, non-farm activities and population density on microfinance penetration across the states, while the rise in loan default seems to deter it. Rural poverty shows the significant negative impact on the spread of SBLP, while it has a positive impact on MFI penetration, hence indicating the policy of exclusion being adhered to by the formal financial system especially towards the poor. However, MFIs seem to be working as substitute mechanisms to banks to fill the gap. The findings of the study are a pointer towards enhancing financial literacy, non-farm activities, rural bank penetration and containing loan default for achieving greater microfinance prevalence.
Efficacy of a Social-Emotional Learning Curriculum for Kindergarten and First Grade Students to Improve Social Adjustment within the School Culture
Background and Significance: Researchers emphasize the role that motivation, self-esteem, and self-regulation play in children’s early adjustment to the school culture, including skills such as identifying their own feelings and understanding the feelings of others. As social-emotional growth, academic learning, and successful integration within culture and society are inextricably connected, the Social-Emotional Learning Foundations (SELF) curriculum was designed to integrate social-emotional learning (SEL) instruction within early literacy instruction (specifically, reading) for Kindergarten and first-grade students at risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. Storybook reading is a typically occurring activity in the primary grades; thus SELF provides an intervention that is both theoretically and practically sound.
Methodology: The researchers will report on findings from the first two years of a three-year study funded by the US Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences to evaluate the effects of the SELF curriculum versus “business as usual” (BAU). SELF promotes the development of self-regulation by incorporating instructional strategies that support children’s use of SEL related vocabulary, self-talk, and critical thinking. The curriculum consists of a carefully coordinated set of materials and pedagogy designed specifically for primary grade children at early risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. SELF lessons (approximately 50 at each grade level) are organized around 17 SEL topics within five critical competencies. SELF combines whole-group (the first in each topic) and small-group lessons (the 2nd and 3rd in each topic) to maximize opportunities for teacher modeling and language interactions. The researchers hypothesize that SELF offers a feasible and substantial opportunity within the classroom setting to provide a small-group social-emotional learning intervention integrated with K-1 literacy-related instruction. Participating target students (N = 876) were identified by their teachers as potentially at risk for emotional or behavioral issues. These students were selected from 122 Kindergarten and 100 first grade classrooms across diverse school districts in a southern state in the US. To measure the effectiveness of the SELF intervention, the researchers asked teachers to complete assessments related to social-emotional learning and adjustment to the school culture. A social-emotional learning related vocabulary assessment was administered directly to target students receiving small-group instruction. Data were analyzed using a 3-level MANOVA model with full information maximum likelihood to estimate coefficients and test hypotheses.
Major Findings: SELF had significant positive effects on vocabulary, knowledge, and skills associated with social-emotional competencies, as evidenced by results from the measures administered. Effect sizes ranged from 0.41 for group (SELF vs. BAU) differences in vocabulary development to 0.68 for group differences in SEL related knowledge.
Conclusion: Findings from two years of data collection indicate that SELF improved outcomes related to social-emotional learning and adjustment to the school culture. This study thus supports the integration of SEL with literacy instruction as a feasible and effective strategy to improve outcomes for K-1 students at risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties.
School Based Assessment Issues in Selected Malaysian Primary Schools
Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning in any syllabus in the world. Recently, a new assessment system, School-Based Assessment (SBA) was introduced and implemented in the Malaysian education system to promote a more holistic, integrated and balanced assessment system. This effort is part of the reformation made in the Government Transformation Plan (GTP) to produce a world-class human capital as we are reaching and achieving the Vision 2020 in the near future. However, this new change has raised awareness and concerns from teachers, students, parents and non-profit organizations on how the new assessment is to be implemented and how it is affecting the students and teachers particularly. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the issues that teachers face in implementing SBA in primary schools, the measures taken to address the issues and to propose ways of managing school-based assessment. Five national primary schools focusing in the urban areas in the Selangor state are chosen for this study to carry out. Data for the study will be gathered from interviews with teachers from each school, surveys and classrooms observation will be conducted in each school, and relevant documents are collected from the selected schools. The findings of this study will present the current issues that teachers from various types of national primary schools are facing and what actions they took to overcome the problems in carrying out SBA. Suggestions on how to better manage school-based assessment for teachers are also provided in this paper.
Dental Students’ Self-Assessment of Their Performance in a Preclinical Endodontic Practice
Dental education consists of both theoretical and practical learning for students. When dental students encounter practical courses as a new educational experience, they must also learn to evaluate themselves. The aim of this study was to investigate the self-assessment scores of third-year dental students and compare with the scores graded by the faculty in preclinical endodontic practice in a dental school in Korea. Faculty- and student-assigned scores were calculated from preclinical endodontic practice performed on phantom patients. The students were formally instructed on grading procedures for endodontic treatment. After each step, each item was assessed by the student. The students’ self-assessment score was then compared to the score by the faculty. The students were divided into 4 groups by analyzing the scores of self-assessment and faculty-assessment and statistically analyzed by summing the theoretical and practical examination scores. In the theoretical exam score, the group who over-estimated their performance (H group) was lower than the group with lower evaluation (L group). When comparing the first and last score determined by the faculty, H groups didn’t show any improvement, while the other group did. In H group, the less improvement of the self-assessment, the higher the theoretical exam score. In L group, the higher improvement of the self-assessment, the better the theoretical exam score. The results point to the need to develop students’ self-insight with more exercises and practical training.
Teaching Techno-Criticism to Digital Natives: Participatory Journalism as Pedagogical Practice
Teaching media and digital literacy to “digital natives” presents a unique set of pedagogical obstacles, especially when critique is involved, as these early-adopters tend to deify most technological and/or digital advancements and inventions. Knowing no other way of being, these natives are often reluctant to hear criticisms of the way they receive information, educate themselves, communicate with others, and even become enculturated because critique often connotes generational gaps and/or clandestine efforts to produce neo-Luddites. To digital natives, techno-criticism is more the result of an antiquated, out-of-touch agenda rather than a constructive, progressive praxis. However, the need to cultivate a techno-critical perspective among technology’s premier users has, perhaps, never been more pressing. In an effort to sidestep reluctance and encourage critical thought about where we are in terms of digital technology and where exactly it may be taking us, this essay outlines a new model for teaching techno-criticism to digital natives. Specifically, it recasts the techniques of participatory journalism—helping writers and readers understand subjects outside of their specific historical context—as progressive, interdisciplinary pedagogy. The model arises out of a review of relevant literature and data gathered via literary analysis and participant observation. Given the tenuous relationships between novel digital advancements, individual identity, collective engagement, and, indeed, Truth/fact, shepherding digital natives toward routine practice of “techno-realism” seems of utter importance.
Promoting Non-Formal Learning Mobility in the Field of Youth
The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for the assessment of research and development projects. The assessment map is developed in this study based on the strategy map of the balanced scorecard approach. The assessment map is applied in a project that aims to reduce the inequality and risk of exclusion of young people from disadvantaged social groups. The assessment map denotes that not only funding but also necessary skills and qualifications should be carefully assessed in the implementation of the project plans so as to achieve the objectives of projects and the desired impact. The results of this study are useful for those who want to develop the implementation of the Erasmus+ Programme and the project teams of research and development projects.
The Effectiveness of Computerized Dynamic Listening Assessment Informed by Attribute-Based Mediation Model
The study contributes to the small but growing literature around computerized approaches to dynamic assessment (C-DA), wherein individual items are accompanied by mediating prompts. Mediation in the current computerized dynamic listening assessment (CDLA) was informed by an attribute-based mediation model (AMM) that identified the underlying L2 listening cognitive abilities and associated descriptors. The AMM served to focus mediation during C-DA on particular cognitive abilities with a goal of specifying areas of learner difficulty. 86 low-intermediate L2 English learners from a university in China completed three listening assessments, with an experimental group receiving the CLDA system and a control group a non-dynamic assessment. As an assessment, the use of the AMM in C-DA generated detailed diagnoses for each learner. In addition, both within- and between-group repeated ANOVA found greater gains at the level of specific attributes among C-DA learners over the course of a 5-week study. Directions for future research are discussed.
Motivation and Self-Concept in Language Learning: An Exploratory Study of English Language Learners
Despite numerous efforts to increase the literacy level of South African learners, for example, through the implementation of educational policies such as the Revised National Curriculum statement, advocating mother-tongue instruction (during a child's formative years), in reality, the majority of South African children are still being educated in a second language (in most cases English). Moreover, despite the fact that a significant percentage of our country's budget is spent on the education sector and that both policy makers and educationalists have emphasized the importance of learning English in this globalized world, the poor overall academic performance and English literacy level of a large number of school leavers are still a major concern. As we move forward in an attempt to comprehend the nuances of English language and literacy development in our country, it is imperative to explore both extrinsic and intrinsic factors that contribute or impede the effective development of English as a second language. In the present study, the researchers set out to investigate how intrinsic factors such as motivation and self-concept contribute to or affect English language learning amongst high school learners in South Africa. Emanating from the above the main research question that guided this research is the following: Is there a significant relationship between high school learners' self-concept, motivation, and English second language performances? In order to investigate this hypothesis, this study utilized quantitative research methodology to investigate the interplay of self-concept and motivation in English language learning. For this purpose, we sampled 201 high school learners from various schools in South Africa. Methods of data gathering inter alia included the following: A biographical questionnaire; the Academic Motivational Scale and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyses yielded significant correlations between L2 learners' motivation and their English language proficiency, including demonstrating positive correlations between L2 learners' self-concept and their achievements in English. Accordingly, researchers have argued that the learning context, in which students learn English as a second language, has a crucial influence on students' motivational levels. This emphasizes the important role the teacher has to play in creating learning environments that will enhance L2 learners' motivation and improve their self-concepts.
Developing Critical-Process Skills Integrated Assessment Instrument as Alternative Assessment on Electrolyte Solution Matter in Senior High School
The demanding of the asessment in learning process was impact by policy changes. Nowadays, the assessment not only emphasizes knowledge, but also skills and attitude. However, in reality there are many obstacles in measuring them. This paper aimed to describe how to develop instrument of integrated assessment as alternative assessment to measure critical thinking skills and science process skills in electrolyte solution and to describe instrument’s characteristic such as logic validity and construct validity. This instrument development used test development model by McIntire. Development process data was acquired based on development test step and was analyzed by qualitative analysis. Initial product was observed by three peer reviewer and six expert judgment (two subject matter expert, two evaluation expert and two chemistry teacher) to acquire logic validity test. Logic validity test was analyzed using Aiken’s formula. The estimation of construct validity was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Result showed that integrated assessment instrument has 0,90 of Aiken’s Value and all item in integrated assessment asserted valid according to construct validity.
Exploring the Experiences of Transnational TESOL Professionals about Their Writing Assessment Practices: A Critical Ethnography in the Saudi EFL Context
This study aims to explore the assessment practices of transnational western teachers in Saudi EFL writing classrooms. The study adopts a critical ethnographic approach to understand the views and the experiences of four transnational TESOL professionals about how they navigate and negotiate their writing assessment practices in the Saudi EFL context. The qualitative data were collected through classroom observations and video recordings of the classroom teaching, which were followed by semi-structured interviews with the four TESOL teachers from Australia, England, USA, and Ireland. The data were analyzed from three perspectives of these transnational TESOL teachers in the Saudi EFL context: as a transnational teacher in monolingual context, as a transitional teacher abides by the prescribed curriculum and assessment instructions, and as a transnational teacher’s vision for monolingual students. The results of the study revealed that owing to the transnational teachers’ lack of understanding of the Saudi monolingual culture, bureaucratic structures, and top-down assessment policies in the institute where they work, their teaching and assessment of writing and other language skills are negatively affected and consequently had to be modified. Also, the Saudi learners’ lack of interest and their lower level of English proficiency pose serious challenges to those transnational teachers’ writing assessment practices. More often, the teachers find the prescribed writing curriculum and assessment tools ineffective in the Saudi EFL context. Because of these experiences, the transnational teachers in this study have exhibited their awareness of their monolingual/monoculture background, Saudi’s cultural and religious values, and institutional structures, which have helped them customize or supplement the writing assessment practices accordingly.
The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale: A Tool for Planning Interventions for Children on the Autism Spectrum
The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale is a useful tool for obtaining information about the developmental capacities of children on the autism spectrum. The assessment, made up of 19 tasks in the areas of: body organization, contact with surroundings, expressive and receptive communication, representation, and social-emotional development, has been used with much success over the past 40 years. While many assessments are difficult to administer to children on the autism spectrum, the simplicity of the MUAS reveals key strengths and challenges for both low and high functioning children on the spectrum. The results guide parents and clinicians in providing a curriculum and/or home program that moves children up the developmental ladder.
Remote Training with Self-Assessment in Electrical Engineering
The paper focuses on the distance laboratory organisation for training the electrical engineering staff and students in the fields of electrical drive and power electronics. To support online knowledge acquisition and professional enhancement, new challenges in remote education based on an active learning approach with self-assessment have been emerged by the authors. Following the literature review and explanation of the improved assessment methodology, the concept and technological basis of the labs arrangement are presented. To decrease the gap between the distance study of the up-to-date equipment and other educational activities in electrical engineering, the improvements in the following-up the learners’ progress and feedback composition are introduced. An authoring methodology that helps to personalise knowledge acquisition and enlarge Web-based possibilities is described. Educational management based on self-assessment is discussed.
Rendering of Indian History: A Study Based on Select Graphic Novels
In the postmodern society, visual narratives became an emerging genre in the field of literature. Graphic literature focuses on the literal and symbolic layer of interpretation. The most salient feature of graphic literature is its exploration of the public history of events and life narratives. The Indian graphic literature re-interprets the canon, style and the form of texts in Indian Writing in English and it demands a new literacy and the structure of the English literature. With the help of visual-verbal language, the graphic narratives discuss various facets of contemporary India. Graphic novels have firmly identified itself with the art of storytelling because of its capability of expressing human experiences to the most. In the textual novels, the author usually deserts the imagination of the readers, but in the case of graphic narratives, due to the presence of visual elements, the interpretation becomes simpler. India is the second most populous country in the world with a long tradition of history and culture. Indian literature always tries to reconstruct Indian history in various modes of representation. The present paper focuses on the fictional articulation of Indian history through the graphic narratives and analyses how some historical events in India portrays. The paper also traces the differences in rendering the history in graphic novels with that of textual novels. The paper discusses how much the blending of words and images helps in represent the Indian history by analyzing the graphic novels like Kashmir Pending by Naseer Ahmed, Delhi Calm by Vishwajyoti Ghosh and Munnu by Malik Sajad.
Investigating Online Literacy among Undergraduates in Malaysia
Today we live in a scenario in which letters share space with images on screens that vary in size, shape, and style. The popularization of television, then the computer and now the e-readers, tablets, and smartphones made the electronic assume the role that previously was restricted to printed materials. Since the extensive use of new technologies to produce, disseminate, collect and access electronic publications began, the changes to reading has been intensified. To be able to read online, it involves more than just utilizing specific skills, strategies, and practices, but also in negotiating multiple information sources. In this study, different perspectives of digital reading are being explored in order to define the key aspects of the term. The focus is to explore how new technologies affect how undergraduates’ reading behavior, which in turn, gives readers different reading levels and engagement with the text and other support materials in the same media. There is also the importance of the relationship between reading platforms, reading levels and formats of electronic publications. The study looks at the online reading practices of about 100 undergraduates from a local university. The data collected using the survey and interviews with the respondents are analyzed thematically. Findings from this study found that both digital and traditional reading are interrelated, and should not be viewed as separate, but complementary to each other. However, reading online complicates some of the skills required by traditional reading. Consequently, in order to successfully read and comprehend multiple sources of information online, undergraduates need regular opportunities to practice and develop their skills as part of their natural reading practices.
Challenges Faced by the Teachers Regarding Student Assessment at Distant and Online Learning Mode
Purpose: The paper aimed to explore the problems faced by the faculty in a distant and online learning environment. It proposes the remedies of the problems faced by the teachers. In distant and online learning mode, the methods of student assessment are different than traditional learning mode. In this paper, the assessment strategies of these learning modes are identified, and the challenges faced by the teachers regarding these assessment methods are explored. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study is qualitative and opted for an exploratory study, including eight interviews with faculty of distant and online universities. The data for this small scale study was gathered using semi-structured interviews. Findings: Findings of the study revealed that assignment and tests are the most effective way of assessment in these modes. It further showed that less student-teacher interaction, plagiarized assignments, passive students, less time for marking are the main challenges faced by the teachers in these modes. Research Limitations: Because of the chosen research approach, the study might not be able to provide generalizable results. That’s why it is recommended to do further studies on this topic. Practical Implications: The paper includes implications for the better assessment system in online and distant learning mode. Originality/Value: This paper fulfills an identified need to study the challenges and problems faced by the teachers regarding student assessment.
The Influence of Mathematic Learning Outcomes towards Physics Ability in Senior High School through Authentic Assessment System
Physics is science, which in its learning there are some product such as theory, fact, concept, law and formula. So that to understand physics lesson students not only need a theory or concept but also mathematical calculation to solve physics problem through formula or equation. This is can be taken from mathematics lesson which obtained by students. This research is to know the influence of mathematics learning outcomes towards physics ability in Senior High School through authentic assessment system. Based on the researches have been discussed, is obtained that mathematic lesson have an important role in physics learning but it according to one aspect only, namely cognitive aspect. In Indonesia, curriculum of 2013 reinforces displacement in the assessment, from assessment through test (measuring the competence of knowledge based on the result) toward authentic assessment (measuring the competence of attitudes, skills, and knowledge based on the process and results). In other researches are mentioned that authentic assessment system give positive responses for students to improve their motivation and increase the physics learning in the school.