Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 60776

200
17719
Effect of Edta in the Phytoextraction of Copper by Terminalia catappa (Talisay) Linnaeus
Abstract:
Phytoextraction capability of T. catappa in contaminated soils was done in the improvised greenhouse. The plant samples were planted to the soil which contained different concentrations of copper. Chelating agent EDTA was added to observe the uptake and translocation of copper in the plant samples. Results showed a significant increase of copper accumulation with the addition of EDTA at 250 and 1250 mgˑkg-1 concentration of copper in the contaminated soils (p< 0.05). While translocation of copper was observed in all treatments, translocation of copper is not significantly enhanced by the addition of EDTA (p>0.05). Uptake and translocation were not directly affected the presence of EDTA. Furthermore, this study suggests that the T. catappa is not a hyperaccumulator of copper, and there is no relationship observed between the length of the plant and the copper uptake in all treatments.
199
46878
Copper Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by a Novel Fluidized-bed Homogeneous Crystallization (FBHC) Technology
Abstract:
This research developed a fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization (FBHC) process to remove copper from synthetic wastewater in terms of recovery of highly pure malachite (Cu2(OH)2CO3) pellets. The experimental parameters of FBHC which included pH, molar ratio of copper to carbonate, copper loading, upper flowrate and bed height were tested in the absence of seed particles. Under optimized conditions, both the total copper removal (TR) and crystallization ratio (CR) reached 99%. The malachite crystals were characterized by XRD and SEM. FBHC was capable of treating concentrated copper (1600 ppm) wastewater and minimizing the sludge production.
198
3276
Synthesis of Bimetallic Fe/Cu Nanoparticles with Different Copper Loading Ratios
Abstract:
Nanotechnology has multiple and enormous advantages for all application. Therefore, this research is carried out to synthesize and characterize bimetallic iron with copper nano-particles. After synthesizing nano zero valent iron by reduction of ferric chloride by sodium borohydride under nitrogen purging environment, bimetallic iron with copper nanoparticles are synthesized by varying different loads of copper chloride. Due to different standard potential (E0) values of copper and iron, copper is coupled with iron at (Cu to Fe ratio of 1:5, 1:6.7, 1:10, 1:20). It is found that the resulted bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles are composing phases of iron and copper. According to the diffraction patterns indicating the state of chemical combination of the bimetallic nanoparticles, the particles are well-combined and crystalline sizes are less than 1000 Ao (or 100 nm). Specifically, particle sizes of synthesized bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles are ranging from 44.583 nm to 85.149 nm.
Keywords:
197
16418
The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates
Abstract:
In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are selected as 80°C reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the end of the experiments, synthesized copper borate is matched with the powder diffraction file of “00-001-0472” [Cu(BO2)2] and characteristic vibrations between B and O atoms are seen. The proper crystals are obtained at the mole ratio of 3:1. This study showed that simplified synthesis process is suitable for the production of copper borate minerals.
196
6486
Polyacrylate Modified Copper Nanoparticles with Controlled Size
Abstract:
The preparation of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) through the reduction of copper ions by sodium borohydride in the presence of sodium polyacrylate with a molecular weight of 1200 is reported. Cu NPs were synthesized at a concentration of copper salt equal to 2.5, 5, and 10 mM, and at a molar ratio of copper ions and monomeric unit of polyacrylate equal to 1:2. The as-prepared Cu NPs have diameters of about 2.5–3 nm for copper concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mM, and 6 nm for copper concentration of 10 mM. Depending on the copper salt concentration and concentration of additionally added polyacrylate to Cu particle dispersion, primarily formed NPs grow through the process of aggregation and/or coalescence into clusters and/or particles with a diameter between 20–100 nm. The amount of additionally added sodium polyacrylate influences the stability of Cu particles against air oxidation. The catalytic efficiency of the prepared Cu particles for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol is discussed.
195
109027
Electro-Winning of Dilute Solution of Copper Metal from Sepon Mine, Lao PDR
Abstract:
Electro-winning of copper metal from dilute sulfate solution (13.7 g/L) was performed in a lab electrolytic cell with stainless-steel cathode and lead-alloy anode. The effects of various parameters including cell voltage, electro-winning temperature and time were studied in order to acquire an appropriate current efficiency of copper deposition. The highest efficiency is about 95% obtaining from electro-winning condition of 3V, 55°C and 3,600 s correspondingly. The cathode copper with 95.5% Cu analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry can be obtained from this single-winning condition. In order to increase the copper grade, solvent extraction should be used to increase the sulfate concentration, say 50 g/L, prior to winning the cathode copper effectively.
194
13100
Parameters Affecting the Removal of Copper and Cobalt from Aqueous Solution onto Clinoptilolite by Ion-Exchange Process
Abstract:
Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.
193
58525
Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films
Abstract:
Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.
192
2009
Characterization of Copper Slag and Jarofix Waste Materials for Road Construction
Abstract:
Copper slag and Jarofix are waste materials, generated during the manufacture of copper and zinc respectively, which have potential for utility in embankment and road construction. Accordingly, a research project was carried out to study the characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix to utilize in the construction of road. In this study, copper slag and Jarofix were collected from Tuticorin, State of Tamil Nadu and Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Chittorgarh, Rajasthan state, India respectively. These materials were investigated for their physical, chemical, and geotechnical characteristics. The materials were collected from the disposal area and laboratory investigations were carried out to study its feasibility for use in the construction of embankment and sub grade layers of road pavement. This paper presents the results of physical, chemical and geotechnical characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix. It was concluded that copper slag and Jarofix may be utilized in the construction of road.
191
30539
Potential Biosorption of Rhodococcus erythropolis, an Isolated Strain from Sossego Copper Mine, Brazil
Abstract:
In this work, bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples from a copper mine and three of them presented potential for bioremediation of copper. All the strains were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-Biotyper) and grown in three diferent media supplemented with 100 ppm of copper chloride in flasks of 500mL and it was incubated at 28 °C and 180 rpm. Periodically, samples were taken and monitored for cellular growth and copper biosorption by spectrophotometer UV-Vis (600 nm) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. At the end of exponential phase of cellular growth, the biomass was utilized to construct a correlation curve between absorbance and dry mass of the cells. Among the three isolates with potential for biorremediation, 1 strain exhibit capacity the most for bioremediation of effluents contaminated by copper being identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis.
190
22113
Leaching of Copper from Copper Ore Using Sulphuric Acid in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidizing Agent: An Optimized Process
Authors:
Abstract:
Leaching with acids are the most commonly reagents used to remove copper ions from its copper ores. It is important that the process conditions are optimized to improve the leaching efficiency. In the present study the effects of pH, oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide), stirring speed, solid to liquid ratio and acid concentration on the leaching of copper ions from it ore were investigated using a pH Stat apparatus. Copper ions were analyzed at the end of each experiment using Atomic Absorption (AAS) machine. Results showed that leaching efficiency improved with an increase in acid concentration, stirring speed, oxidizing agent, pH and decreased with an increase in the solid to liquid ratio.
189
70671
Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications
Abstract:
Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known, but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.
188
71056
Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications
Abstract:
Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known, but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.
187
71057
Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications
Abstract:
Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known, but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.
186
59323
In Situ Laser-Induced Synthesis of Copper Microstructures with High Catalytic Properties and Sensory Characteristics
Abstract:
The continuous in situ laser-induced catalysis proceeding via generation and growth of nano-sized copper particles was discussed. Also, the simple and lost-cost method for manufacturing of microstructural copper electrodes was proposed. The electrochemical properties of these electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The surface of the deposited copper structures (electrodes) was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. These microstructures are highly conductive and porous with a dispersion of pore size ranging from 50 nm to 50 μm. An analytical response of the fabricated copper electrode is 30 times higher than those observed for a pure bulk copper with similar geometric parameters. A study of sensory characteristics for hydrogen peroxide determination showed that the value of Faraday current at the fabricated copper electrode is 2-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than for etalon one.
185
28414
Investigation of Parameters Affecting Copper Recovery from Brass Melting Dross
Abstract:
Metal amounts of copper based compounds in the various wastes have been recovered successfully by hydrometallurgical treatment methods in the literature. X-ray diffraction pattern of the brass melting slag demonstrates that it contains sufficient amount of recoverable copper. Recovery of copper from brass melting dross by sulfuric acid leaching and the effect of temperature and acid and oxidant concentration on recovery rate of copper have been investigated in this study. Experiments were performed in a temperature-controlled reactor in sulfuric acid solution in different molarities using solid liquid ratio of 100 g/L, with leaching time of 300 min. Temperature was changed between 25 °C and 80 °C and molarity was between 0.5 and 3M. The results obtained showed that temperature has important positive effect on recovery whereas it decreases with time. Also copper was recovered in larger amounts from brass dross in the presence of H2O2 as an oxidant according to the case that oxidant was not used.
184
56496
Influence of Nano Copper Slag in Strength Behavior of Lime Stabilized Soil
Abstract:
Nanotechnology has been widely used in many applications such as medical, electronics, robotics and also in geotechnical engineering area through stabilization of bore holes, grouting etc. In this paper, an attempt is made for understanding the influence of nano copper slag (1%, 2% & 3%) on the index, compaction and UCC strength properties of natural soil (CH type) with and without lime stabilization for immediate and 7 days curing period. Results indicated that upto 1% of Nano copper slag, there is an increment in UC strength of virgin soil and lime stabilised soil. Beyond 1% nano copper slag, there is a steep reduction in UC strength and increase of plasticity both in lime stabilised soil and virgin soil. The effect of lime is found to show more influence on large surface area of nano copper slag in natural soil. For both immediate and curing effect, with 1% of Nano copper slag, the maximum unconfined compressive strength was 38% and 106% higher than that of the virgin soil strength.
183
21902
Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria
Abstract:
For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing inEscherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference inloss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.
182
31568
Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects Coating
Abstract:
The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcinations is described herein. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the as-prepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the 2 ratio results in the formation of desired copper spinel single phase at both calcinations temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decomposes to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react to each other to form copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were obtained 2 S.cm-1 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.
181
52071
The Investigation of Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul’s Salt
Abstract:
In this study, the precipitation conditions of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt were evaluated. The structure of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt was examined by considering the previous studies. Thermodynamically, the most important precipitation parameters were pH, temperature, and sulphite-copper(II) ratio. The amount of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt increased with increasing the temperature and sulphite-copper(II) ratio at the certain range, while it increased with decreasing the pH value at the chosen range. The best solution medium for recovery of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt is sulphur dioxide gas-water system. Moreover, the soluble sulphite salts are used as efficient precipitating reagents. Chevreul&rsquo;s salt is generally used to produce the highly pure copper powders from synthetic copper sulphate solutions and impure leach solutions. When the pH of the initial ammoniacal solution is greater than 8.5, ammonia in the medium is not free, and Chevreul&rsquo;s salt from solution does not precipitate. In contrast, copper ammonium sulphide is precipitated. The pH of the initial solution containing ammonia for precipitating of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt must be less than 8.5.
180
36338
CuO Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Precursor Solution Properties
Abstract:
CuO thin films were deposited by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis with different precursor solution. Two staring solution slats were used namely: Copper acetate and copper chloride. The influence of these solutions on CuO thin films proprieties of is instigated. The X rays diffraction (XDR) analysis indicated that the films deposed with copper acetate are amorphous however the films elaborated with copper chloride have monoclinic structure. UV- Visible transmission spectra showed a strong absorbance of the deposited CuO thin films in the visible region. Electrical characterization has shown that CuO thin films prepared with copper acetate have a higher electrical conductivity.
179
92797
Recovery of Selenium from Scrubber Sludge in Copper Process
Abstract:
The sulphur dioxide gases generated as a by-product of smelting and converting operations of copper concentrate contain selenium apart from zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, bismuth, antimony, and arsenic. The gaseous stream is treated in waste heat boiler, electrostatic precipitator and scrubbers to remove coarse particulate matter in order to produce commercial grade sulfuric acid. The gas cleaning section of the acid plant uses water to scrub the smelting gases. After scrubbing, the sludge settled at the bottom of the scrubber, was analyzed in present investigation. It was found to contain 30 to 40 wt% copper and selenium up to 40 wt% selenium. The sludge collected during blow-down is directly recycled to the smelter for copper recovery. However, the selenium is expected to again vaporize due to high oxidation potential during smelting and converting, causing accumulation of selenium in sludge. In present investigation, a roasting process has been developed to recover the selenium before the copper recovery from the sludge at smelter. Selenium is associated with copper in sludge as copper selenide, as determined by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The thermodynamic and thermos-gravimetry study revealed that the copper selenide phase present in the sludge was amenable to oxidation at 600°C forming oxides of copper and selenium (Cu-Se-O). However, the dissociation of selenium from the copper oxide was made possible by sulfatation using sulfur dioxide between 450 to 600°C, resulting into the formation of CuSO₄ (s) and SeO₂ (g). Lab scale trials were carried out in vertical tubular furnace to determine the optimum roasting conditions with respect to roasting time, temperature and molar ratio of O₂:SO₂. Using these optimum conditions, selenium up to 90 wt% in the form of SeO₂ vapors could be recovered from the sludge in a large-scale commercial roaster. Roasted sludge free from the selenium and containing oxides and sulfates of copper could now be recycled in the smelter for copper recovery.
178
24596
Investigation on Corrosion Behavior of Copper Brazed Joints
Abstract:
DHP (Deoxidized High Phosphorus )copper is widely used in various heat transfer units such as, air conditioners refrigerators, evaporators and condensers. Copper sheets and tubes (ISODHP) were brazed with four different brazing alloys. Corrosion resistances of the joints were examined by polarization and salt spray tests. The selected fillers consisted of three silver-based brazing alloys (hard solder); AWS-BCu5 BAg8, DINLAg30, and a copper-based filler AWS BCuP2. All the joints were brazed utilizing four different brazing processes including furnace brazing under argon, vacuum, air atmosphere and torch brazing. All of the fillers were used with and without flux. The microstructure of the brazed sheets was examined using both optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness and leak tests were carried out on all the brazed tubes. In all three silver brazing alloys selective and galvanic corrosion were observed in filler metals, but in copper phosphor alloys the copper adjacent to the joints were noticeably corroded by pitting method. Microstructure of damaged area showed selective attack of copper lamellae as well. Interfacial attack was observed along boundaries as well as copper attack within the filler metal itself. It was found that the samples brazed with BAg5 filler metal using vacuum furnace show a higher resistance to corrosion. They also have a good ductility in the brazed zone.
177
59859
Optimization of Leaching Properties of a Low-Grade Copper Ore Using Central Composite Design (CCD)
Abstract:
Worldwide demand for copper has led to intensive search for methods of extraction and recovery of copper from different sources. The study investigates the leaching properties of a low-grade copper ore by optimizing the leaching variables using response surface methodology. The effects of key parameters, i.e., temperature, solid to liquid ratio, stirring speed and pH, on the leaching rate constant was investigated using a pH stat apparatus. A Central Composite Design (CCD) of experiments was used to develop a quadratic model which specifically correlates the leaching variables and the rate constant. The results indicated that the model is in good agreement with the experimental data with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.93. The temperature and solid to liquid ratio were found to have the most substantial influence on the leaching rate constant. The optimum operating conditions for copper leaching from the ore were identified as temperature at 65C, solid to liquid ratio at 1.625 and stirring speed of 325 rpm which yielded an average leaching efficiency of 93.16%.
176
3786
Copper Content in Daily Food Rations Planned and Served to Students from Selected Military Academies and Soldiers Doing Compulsory Military Service in the Polish Army
Abstract:
The aim of the work was estimation of copper intake with the daily food rations used for alimentation of students of military high schools and soldiers doing compulsory military service in the Polish Army. An average planned copper content in daily food rations used for alimentation of students and soldiers amounted to 2.49±0.35 mg, and 2.44±0.25 mg respectively. The copper content in the daily food ration given for consumption to students amounted from 1.81±0.14 mg to 2.58±0.44 mg while daily food rations served to soldiers delivered from 2.06±0.45 mg to 2.13±0.33 mg. The copper content in the rations planned for students and soldiers’ alimentation was within the limits of the norms obligatory in Poland. Daily food rations given for consumption, except rations served for students, were within the limits of the recommended norms, but food rations really eaten by examined men didn’t cover the requirements for copper.
175
51802
Correlation between Copper Uptake and Decrease of Copper (Hypocupremia) in Burn Patients-Infected Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Abstract:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillusthuringiensis strain Israelisas well as Gram-negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while the control strains B. thuringiensis and Enterobacter aerogenes had copper uptake of 350 and 383 ppm/g biomass, respectively. However, the lowest copper uptake (60 ppm/g biomass) was observed with another control the saprophytic strain Pseudomonas (Shewanella) putrefaciens. A further investigation regarding the effect of copper toxicity on bacterial growth, gave an MIC score of 600 ppm for P. aeruginosa strain compared to 460 and 300 ppm for the two Gram positive and Gram negative control strains, respectively. In tandem with these in vitro findings, blood analysis on burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa has indicated a selective decrease of copper (hypocupremia) and ceruloplasmin plasma levels. The iron metabolism was also affected by this copper deprivation leading to a similar decrease in plasma levels of PCV, iron, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin. All these hematological changes were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the matched group of non-infected burn patients. The observed hypocupremia in infected burn patients was attributed to demanding scavenger ability by P. aeruginosa strain for the copper of plasma.
174
73466
Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Thermal Studies of Copper(I) Chlorido Complexes of Thioureas
Abstract:
The study of the coordination behavior of thiones is of considerable interest due to the similarity of their binding sites to those in living systems. The complexation of thiones towards Copper(I) has also received considerable attraction in view of their variable bonding modes, structural diversity and promising biological implications. Copper (I) complexes of thioureas of the general formula: CuLCl, CuL2Cl and CuL3Cl [where L= Thiourea and its N- and N, N/- mono and di alkyl and phenyl derivatives] have been prepared using Cu(I)CN in the presence of HCl. The complexes have been characterized by thermal, IR and NMR(1H and 13C) spectroscopy. An upfield shift in 13C NMR and downfield shifts in 1H NMR are consistent with the sulfur coordination to Copper(I). The disappearance of a band around 2200 cm⁻¹ in IR and a resonance around 146 ppm in 13C NMR indicates that during the course of reaction the cyanide group of the Copper(I) salt has been replaced by chloride leading to the formation of chlorido complexes.
173
13800
The Effects of Copper and Cadmium on Germination and Seedling Growth of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Seeds
Abstract:
The toxic effects of copper and cadmium on seed germination, seedling, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was evaluated under laboratory conditions compared to control values. Copper and cadmium treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l affect seed germination and seedling growth of oriental beech as compared to control. Copper treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l concentrations produced significant (p < 0.01) effects on seed germination and seedling length of oriental beech while copper treatment at 150 mg/l significantly affected root growth and seedling dry biomass as compared to control. Similarly, cadmium treatments from 50 to 200 mg/l affected the seed germination, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech as compared to control. Cadmium treatments showed an adverse effect on seedlings of oriental beech as compared to copper, copper and cadmium treatments at 200mg/l exhibited the lowest percentage of tolerance in seedlings of oriental beech as compared to control.
172
18685
Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Smelted Low-Grade WEEE
Authors:
Abstract:
Poster shows a comparison of hydrometallurgical routes of copper recovery from low-grade e-waste. Electronic scrap was smelted to produce Cu–Zn–Ag alloy. The alloy was then treated in the following ways: (a) anodic dissolution with simultaneous metal electrodeposition using ammoniacal and sulfuric acid solutions. This resulted in the separation of metals, where lead, silver and tin accumulated mainly in the slimes, while copper was transferred to the electrolyte and then recovered on the cathode. The best conditions of the alloy treatment were obtained in the sulfuric acid, where the final product was metal of high purity (99% Cu) at the current efficiency of 90%. (b) leaching in ammoniacal solutions of various compositions and then copper electrowinning. Alloy was leached in chloride, carbonate, sulfate and thiosulfate baths. This resulted in the separation of the metals, wherein copper and zinc were transferred to the electrolyte, while metallic tin and silver as well as lead salts remained in the slimes. Copper was selectively recovered from the ammoniacal solutions by the electrolysis, leaving zinc ions in the electrolyte. The best conditions of the alloy treatment were obtained in the ammonia-carbonate system, where the final product was copper of high purity (99.9%) at the current efficiency of 60%. Thiosulfate solution was not applicable for the leaching of the copper alloy due to secondary reactions of the formation of copper (I) thiosulfate complexes and precipitation of copper (I) sulfide.
171
30562
Uptake of Copper by Dead Biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia Isolated from a Metal Mine in Pará, Brazil
Abstract:
In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process. In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process.
170
17981
Parallel Magnetic Field Effect on Copper Cementation onto Rotating Iron Rod
Abstract:
The rate of copper cementation on iron rod was investigated. The study was mainly dedicated to illustrate the effect of application of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the rate of cementation. The magnetic flux was placed parallel to the iron rod and different magnetic field strength was studied. The results showed that without EMF, the rate of mass transfer was correlated by the equation: Sh= 1.36 Re0. 098 Sc0.33. The application of EMF enhanced the time required to reach high percentage copper cementation by 50%. The rate of mass transfer was correlated by the equation: Sh= 2.29 Re0. 95 Sc0.33, with applying EMF. This work illustrates that the enhancement of copper recovery in presence of EMF is due to the induced motion of Fe+n in the solution which is limited in the range of rod rotation speed of 300~900 rpm. The calculation of power consumption of EMF showed that although the application of EMF partially reduced the cementation time, the reduction of power consumption due to utilization of magnetic field is comparable to the increase in power consumed by introducing magnetic field of 2462 A T/m.
169
58177
Coumestrol Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells via Redox Cycling of Copper and ROS Generation: Implications of Copper Chelation Strategy in Cancer Treatment
Abstract:
Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in women worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Therefore, there is a need to identify new chemotherapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells contain elevated copper levels which play an integral role in angiogenesis. Copper is an important metal ion associated with the chromatin DNA, particularly with guanine. Thus, targeting copper via copper-specific chelators in cancer cells can serve as effective anticancer strategy. Keeping in view these facts, we evaluated the anticancer activity and copper-dependent cytotoxic effect of coumestrol (phytoestrogen in soybean products) in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Coumestrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which was prevented by copper chelator neocuproine and ROS scavengers. Coumestrol treatment induced ROS generation coupled to DNA fragmentation, up-regulation of p53/p21, cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspases 9/3 activation. All these effects were suppressed by ROS scavengers and neocuproine. These results suggest that coumestrol targets elevated copper for redox cycling to generate ROS leading to DNA fragmentation. DNA damage leads to p53 up-regulation which directs the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, coumestrol induces pro-oxidant cell death by chelating cellular copper to produce copper-coumestrol complexes that engages in redox cycling in breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting elevated copper levels might be a potential therapeutic strategy for selective cytotoxic action against malignant cells.
168
16954
The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Extraction of Copper(II) from Perchlorate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform
Authors:
Abstract:
The liquid-liquid extraction of copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. The ionic strength effect of the aqueous phase shows that the extraction of copper(II) increases with the increase in ionic strength. with different ionic strengths 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.1M in the aqueous phase. Cu (II) is extracted as the complex CuL2(ClO4).
167
51304
Association between Copper Uptake and Decrease of Copper (hypocupremia) in Burn Patients-Infected Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Abstract:
In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of Gram positive bacteria Bacillusthuringiensis strain Israelisas well as Gram negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while the control strains B. thuringiensis andEnterobacter aerogenes had copper uptake of 350 and 383 ppm/g biomass, respectively. However, the lowest copper uptake (60 ppm/g biomass) was observed with another control the saprophytic strain Pseudomonas (Shewanella) putrefaciens. A further investigation regarding the effect of copper toxicity on bacterial growth, gave an MIC score of 600 ppm for P. aeruginosa strain compared to 460 and 300 ppm for the two Gram positive and Gram negative control strains, respectively. In tandem with these in vitro findings, blood analysis on burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa has indicated a selective decrease of copper (hypocupremia) and ceruloplasmin plasma levels. The iron metabolism was also affected by this copper deprivation leading to a similar decrease in plasma levels of PCV, iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin. All these hematological changes were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the matched group of non-infected burn patients. The observed hypocupremia in infected burn patients was attributed to demanding scavenger ability by P. aeruginosa strain for the copper of plasma.
166
87828
Fluorescent Analysis of Gold Nanoclusters-Wool Keratin Addition to Copper Ions
Abstract:
With the increase of global population, it is of importance for the safe water supply, while, the water-monitoring method with the capability of rapidness, low-cost, green and robustness remains unsolved. In this paper, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin is added into copper ions measured by fluorescent method in order to probe copper ions in aqueous solution. The fluorescent results show that gold nanoclusters-wool keratin exhibits high stability of pHs, while it is sensitive to temperature and time. Based on Gauss fitting method, the results exhibit that the slope of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin with pH resolution under acidic condition is higher compared to it under alkaline solutions. Besides, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin added into copper ions shows a fluorescence turn-off response transferring from red to blue under UV light, leading to the dramatically decreased fluorescent intensity of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin solution located at 690 nm. Moreover, the limited concentration of copper ions tested by gold nanoclusters-wool keratin system is around 1 µmol/L, which meets the need of detection standards. The fitting slope of Stern-Volmer plot at low concentration of copper ions is larger than it at high concentrations, which indicates that aggregated gold nanoclusters are from small amounts to large numbers with the increasing concentration of copper ions. It is expected to provide novel method and materials for copper ions testing with low cost, high efficiency, and easy operability.
165
27656
Removal Cobalt (II) and Copper (II) by Solvent Extraction from Sulfate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform
Authors:
Abstract:
Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most useful techniques for selective removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions, applied in purification processes in numerous chemical and metallurgical industries. In this work, The liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. Our interest in this paper is to study the effect of concentration of capric acid on the extraction of Co(II) and Cu(II) to see the complexes could be formed in the organic phase using various concentration of capric acid. The extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) is extracted as the complex CoL2 (HL )2, CuL2 (HL)2.
164
39924
Synthesis of Nano Iron Copper Core-Shell by Using K-M Reactor
Abstract:
In this study, Nano iron-copper core-shell was synthesized by using Kinetic energy micro reactor ( K-M reactor). The reaction between nano-pure iron with copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) beside NaCMC as a stabilizer at K-M reactor gives many advantages in comparison with the traditional chemical method for production of nano iron-Copper core-shell in batch reactor. Many factors were investigated for its effect on the process performance such as initial concentrations of nano iron and copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. Different techniques were used for investigation and characterization of the produced nano iron particles such as SEM, XRD, UV-Vis, XPS, TEM and PSD. The produced Nano iron-copper core-shell particle using micro mixer showed better characteristics than those produced using batch reactor in different aspects such as homogeneity of the produced particles, particle size distribution and size, as core diameter 10nm particle size were obtained. The results showed that 10 nm core diameter were obtained using Micro mixer as compared to 80 nm core diameter in one-fourth the time required by using traditional batch reactor and high thickness of copper shell and good stability.
163
77305
Determination of Optimum Conditions for the Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ores with Ammonium Nitrate
Abstract:
The most common lixiviant in the leaching process of copper minerals is H₂SO₄, however, the current situation requires more environmentally friendly reagents and in certain situations that have a lower consumption due to the presence of undesirable gangue as muscovite or kaolinite that can make the process unfeasible. The present work studied the leaching of an oxidized copper mineral in an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, in order to obtain the optimum leaching conditions of the copper contained in the malachite mineral from Peru. The copper ore studied comes from a deposit in southern Peru and was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, inductively coupled-plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The experiments were developed in batch reactor of 600 mL where the parameters as; temperature, pH, ammonium nitrate concentration, particle size and stirring speed were controlled according to experimental planning. The sample solution was analyzed for copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). A simulation in the HSC Chemistry 6.0 program showed that the predominance of the copper compounds of a Cu-H₂O aqueous system is altered by the presence in the system of ammonium complexes, the compound being thermodynamically more stable Cu(NH3)₄²⁺, which predominates in pH ranges from 8.5 to 10 at a temperature of 25 °C. The optimum conditions for copper leaching of the malachite mineral were a stirring speed of 600 rpm, an ammonium nitrate concentration of 4M, a particle diameter of 53 um and temperature of 62 °C. These results showed that the leaching of copper increases with increasing concentration of the ammonium solution, increasing the stirring rate, increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle diameter. Finally, the recovery of copper in optimum conditions was above 80%.
162
61647
Copper Doping for Enhancing Photocatalytic Efficiency of Barium Ferrite in Degradation of Atrazine under Visible Light
Abstract:
The citrate manner (Pechini method) was utilized in elaboration of a novel Nano-sized BaFe(1-x)CuxO3 (x=0.01, 0.05 and 0.10). The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance, TEM and the surface area. The prepared samples have a mixture of cubic perovskite structure (main) and orthorhombic phases. The effect of different loads of copper as dopant on the structural properties as well as the photocatalytic activity was demonstrated. The lattice parameter and the unit cell volume of the prepared materials are given. Doping with copper increased the photocatalytic activity of BaFeO3 several times in abstraction of hazardous atrazine that causes acute problems in drinking water treatment facilities. This may be reasoned to low band gap energy of copper doped BaFe(1-x)CuxO3 attributed to oxygen vacancies formation.
161
44353
Synthesis and D.C. Conductivity Measurements of Polyaniline/CopperOxide Nanocomposites
Abstract:
The Polyaniline / Copper Oxide(PANI / CuO) nanocomposite was prepared by solution mixing of prepared Polyaniline and copper Oxide in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The synthesis involved the formation of dark green colored Polyaniline-Copper Oxide nanocomposite. The synthesized polymer nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in XRD, FTIR and UV-Visible spectra confirmed the presence of CuO in the polymer structure. SEM analysis revealed formation of PANI/CuO nano composite The D.C. conductivity measurements were performed using two probe method for various temperatures.
160
86594
Non-Waste Utilization of Copper Smelting Slags for Production of Demanded Products
Abstract:
Smelting of copper matte is followed by production of a large amount of slag. This slag mostly contains silicates and can be utilized in a construction industry. In addition to silicates it also contains Fe; if the Fe content is high, the density of the silicate phases increases and such a slag cannot be used as an additive for the concrete. Furthermore, slags obtained during copper matte production contain copper, sulphur, zinc and some other elements. Fe is the element with the highest price in these slags. An extraction of Fe is possible even using the conventional methods, e.g., the addition of slag to the charge materials during production of sinter for the blast furnace smelting. However, in this case, the blast furnace hot metal would accumulate sulphur and copper which is very harmful impurity for the steelmaking. An accumulation of copper by the blast furnace hot metal is unacceptable, as copper cannot be removed during further steelmaking operations having a critical effect on the properties of steel. In present work, the technological scheme for non-waste utilization of the copper smelting slags has been suggested and experimentally confirmed. This scheme includes a solid state reduction of Fe and smelting for the separation of cast iron and slag. During solid state reduction, the zinc vapor was trapped. After the reduction and smelting operations, the cast iron containing copper was used for the production of metal balls with increased mechanical properties allowing their utilization for milling of ore minerals. Such a cast iron could also be applied in the production of special types of steel with copper. The silicate slag freed from Fe might be used as a propping agent in the oil industry, or granulated for application as an additive for concrete in a construction industry. Thereby, the suggested products for a Mini Mill plant with non-waste utilization of the copper smelting slags are cast iron grinding balls for the ore minerals, special types of steel with copper, silicate slag utilized as an additive for the concrete and propping agents for the oil industry.
159
88311
Copper Related Toxicity of 1-Hydroxy-2-Thiopyridines
Abstract:
With the emergence of primary resistance to the current drugs and wide distribution of latent tuberculosis infection, a need for new compounds with a novel mode of action is growing steadily. Copper-mediated innate immunity and antibacterial toxicity propose novel strategies in TB drug discovery and development. Transcriptome of M. tuberculosis was obtained by RNA-seq, intracellular copper content was measured by ISP MS and complexes of 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines with copper were detected by HPLC.1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridine derivatives were found to be highly active in vitro against both actively growing and dormant non-culturable M. tuberculosis. Transcriptome response to 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines revealed signs of copper toxicity in M. tuberculosis bacilli. Indeed, Cu was found to accumulate inside cells treated with 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines. These compounds were found to form stable charged lipophylic complexes with Cu²⁺ ions which transport into mycobacterial cell. Subsequent metabolic destruction of the complex led to transformation of 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines into 2-methylmercapto-2-ethoxycarbonylpyridines, which did not possess antitubercular activity and releasing of free Cu²⁺ in the cytoplasm. 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines are a potent class of Cu-dependent inhibitors of M. tuberculosis which may control M. tuberculosis infection by impairment of copper homeostasis. Acknowledgment: This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the RussianFederation (Agreement No 14.616.21.0065; unique identifier RFMEFI61616X0065).
158
81655
Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide
Abstract:
The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.
157
18708
Polymerization: An Alternative Technology for Heavy Metal Removal
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, the adsorption performance of a novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate gel beads as a non-conventional technique for the successful removal of copper ions from aqueous solution are reported on. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity and process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosages, initial metal ion concentrations, stirring rates and contact times. It was observed that the optimum pH for maximum copper ions adsorption was at pH 5.0. For all contact times, an increase in copper ions concentration resulted in decrease in the percent of copper ions removal. Langmuir and Freundlich's isothermal models were used to describe the experimental adsorption. Adsorbent was characterization using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
156
108978
Leaching of Flotation Concentrate of Oxide Copper Ore from Sepon Mine, Lao PDR
Abstract:
Acid leaching of flotation concentrate of oxide copper ore containing mainly of malachite was performed in a standard agitation tank with various parameters. The effects of solid to liquid ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, agitation speed, leaching temperature and time were examined to get proper conditions. The best conditions are 1:8 ratio, 10% concentration by weight, 250 rev/min, 300C and 5-min leaching time in respect. About 20% Cu grade assayed by atomic absorption technique with 98% copper recovery was obtained from these combined optimum conditions. Dissolution kinetics of the concentrate was approximated as a logarithmic function. As a result, the first-order reaction rate is suggested from this leaching study.
155
36340
Batch Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies of Copper (II) Removal from Wastewater Using HDL as Adsorbent
Abstract:
This study aims the removal of copper Cu (II) contained in wastewater by adsorption on a perfect synthesized mud. It is the materials Hydroxides Double Lamellar, HDL, prepared and synthesized by co-precipitation method at constant pH, which requires a simple titration assembly, with an inexpensive and available material in the laboratory, and also allows us better control of the composition of the reaction medium, and gives well crystallized products. A characterization of the adsorbent proved essential. Thus a range of physic-chemical analysis was performed including: FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction… The adsorption of copper ions was investigated in dispersed medium (batch). A systematic study of various parameters (amount of support, contact time, initial copper concentration, temperature, pH…) was performed. Adsorption kinetic data were tested using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Bangham's equation and intra-particle diffusion models. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and other isotherm models at different doses of HDL. The thermodynamics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures. The results have established good potentiality for the HDL to be used as a sorbent for the removal of Copper from wastewater.
154
61411
Copper Chelation by 3-(Bromoacetyl) Coumarin Derivative Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells: Influence of Copper Chelation Strategy in Cancer Treatment
Abstract:
Copper is an essential trace element required for pro-angiogenic co-factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Elevated levels of copper are found in various types of cancer including prostrate, colon, breast, lung and liver for angiogensis and metastasis. Therefore, targeting copper via copper-specific chelators in cancer cells can be developed as effective anticancer treatment strategy. In continuation of our pursuit to design and synthesize copper chelators, herein we opted for a reaction to incorporate di-(2-picolyl) amine in 3-(bromoacetyl) coumarin (parent backbone) for the synthesis of complex 1. We evaluated lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, ROS generation, DNA damage and consequent apoptosis by complex 1 in exogenously added Cu(II) in human peripheral lymphocytes (simulate malignancy condition). Results showed that Cu(II)-complex 1 interaction leads to cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, ROS generation and DNA damage in human lymphocytes, and these effects were abrogated by cuprous chelator neocuproine and ROS scavengers (thiourea, catalase, SOD). This indicates that complex 1 cytotoxicity is due to redox cycling of copper to generate ROS which leads to pro-oxidant cell death in cancer cells. To further confirm our hypothesis, using the rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma; we showed that complex 1 mediates DNA breakage and cell death in isolated carcinoma cells. Membrane permeant copper chelator, neocuproine, and ROS scavengers inhibited the complex 1-mediated cellular DNA degradation and apoptosis. In summary, complex 1 anticancer activity is due to its copper chelation capability. These results will provide copper chelation as an effective targeted cancer treatment strategy for selective cytotoxic action against malignant cells without affecting normal cells.
153
6941
Biosorption Kinetics, Isotherms, and Thermodynamic Studies of Copper (II) on Spirogyra sp.
Authors:
Abstract:
The ability of non-living Spirogyra sp. biomass for biosorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions was explored. The effect of contact time, pH, initial copper ion concentration, biosorbent dosage and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir Isotherms were found applicable on the experimental data (R2>0.98). Qmax obtained from the Langmuir Isotherms was found to be 28.7 mg/g of biomass. The values of Gibbs free energy (ΔGº) and enthalpy change (ΔHº) suggest that the sorption is spontaneous and endothermic at 20ºC-40ºC.
152
15673
XANES Studies on the Oxidation States of Copper Ion in Silicate Glass
Abstract:
The silicate glass was prepared using rice husk as the source of silica. The base composition of glass sample is composed of SiO2 (from rice husk ash), Na2CO3, K2CO3, ZnO, H3BO3, CaO, Al2O3 or Al, and CuO. Aluminum is used in place of Al2O3 in order to reduce Cu2+ to Cu+. The red color of Cu2O in the glass matrix was observed when the Al was added into the glass mixture. The expansion coefficients of the copper doped glass are in the range of 1.2 x 10-5-1.4x10-5 (ºC -1) which is common for the silicate glass. The finger prints of the bond vibrations were studied using IR spectroscopy. While the oxidation state and the coordination information of the copper ion in the glass matrix were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the data, Cu+ and Cu2+ exist in the glass matrix. The red particles of Cu2O can be formed in the glass matrix when enough aluminum was added.
151
23030
Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide
Abstract:
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.
150
15710
Hydrometallurgical Processing of a Nigerian Chalcopyrite Ore
Abstract:
Due to increasing demands and diverse applications of copper oxide as pigment in ceramics, cuprammonium hydroxide solution for rayon, p-type semi-conductor, dry cell batteries production and as safety disposal of hazardous materials, a study on the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of copper for producing high grade copper oxide from a Nigerian chalcopyrite ore in chloride media has been examined. At a particular set of experimental parameter with respect to acid concentration, reaction temperature and particle size, the leaching investigation showed that the ore dissolution increases with increasing acid concentration, temperature and decreasing particle diameter at a moderate stirring. The kinetics data has been analyzed and was found to follow diffusion control mechanism. At optimal conditions, the extent of ore dissolution reached 94.3%. The recovery of the total copper from the hydrochloric acid-leached chalcopyrite ore was undertaken by solvent extraction and precipitation techniques, prior to the beneficiation of the purified solution as copper oxide. The purification of the leach liquor was firstly done by precipitation of total iron and manganese using Ca(OH)2 and H2O2 as oxidizer at pH 3.5 and 4.25, respectively. An extraction efficiency of 97.3% total copper was obtained by 0.2 mol/L Dithizone in kerosene at 25±2ºC within 40 minutes, from which ≈98% Cu from loaded organic phase was successfully stripped by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution. The beneficiation of the recovered pure copper solution was carried out by crystallization through alkali addition followed by calcination at 600ºC to obtain high grade copper oxide (Tenorite, CuO: 05-0661). Finally, a simple hydrometallurgical scheme for the operational extraction procedure amenable for industrial utilization and economic sustainability was provided.
149
72875
The Curse of Natural Resources: An Empirical Analysis Applied to the Case of Copper Mining in Zambia
Abstract:
Many developing countries have a rich endowment of natural resources. Yet, amidst that wealth, living standards remain poor. At the same time, international markets have been surged with an increase in copper prices in the last twenty years. This is a presentation of the findings on the causal economic impact of Zambia’s copper mines, a country located in sub-Saharan Africa endowed with vast copper deposits on living standards using household data from 1996 to 2010, exploiting an episode where the copper prices on the international market were rising. Using an Instrumental Variable approach and controlling for constituency-level and microeconomic factors, the results show a significant impact of copper production on living standards. After splitting the constituencies close to and far away from the nearest mine, the results document that constituencies close to the mines benefited significantly from the increase in copper production, compared to their counterparts through increased levels of employment. Finally, the results are not consistent with the natural resource curse hypothesis; findings show a positive causal relationship between the presence of natural resources and socioeconomic outcomes in less developed countries, particularly for constituencies close to the mines in Zambia. Some key policy implications follow from the findings. The finding that increased copper production led to an increase in employment suggests that, in Zambias’ context, policies that promote local employment may be more beneficial to residents. Meaning that it is government policies that can help improve the living standards were government needs to work towards making this impact more substantial.
148
46642
A Set of Microsatellite Markers for Population Genetics of Copper-Winged Bat (Myotis rufoniger) Using Saliva DNA
Abstract:
The copper-winged bat (Myotis rufoniger) is the widely distributed medium body-sized bat in Asia, including Korea. This bat population has been decreasing because of habitat loss. This study reported the isolation and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci in endangered M. rufoniger. To do genetic studies, we use saliva DNA of bats during winter sleep period. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.750 and from 0.063 to 0.865, respectively. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was 0.37. Two loci of M. rufoniger showed departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(HWE). This demonstrated that the ten microsatellite loci can be used as genetic markers for further investigation of the copper-winged bat.
147
3050
Relation between Copper, Lipid Profile, and Cognition in Elderly Jordanians
Abstract:
The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of plasma copper and lipid concentrations with changes in cognitive function in elderly Jordanian individuals. The study population consisted of two groups; 52 subjects with dementia, and 50 controls. All individuals were screened with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock drawing test (CDT).Serum copper and lipid profile were assessed in all subjects, and the results were statistically evaluated at P < 0.05 level of significance. Dementia group had 10.1 % higher copper levels than controls however the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences could be found between the two groups in lipid profile levels. There was no significant correlation between serum copper, lipid profile and cognitive decline in elderly Jordanians. Demographic variables indicate that educational level less than 12 years and illiterate demonstrated a 3.29 fold (p=0.026) and 6.29 fold (p=0.002) increase in risk of developing dementia, respectively. While coffee intake showed a protective effect against cognitive decline with 6.25 fold lower risk with increased coffee intake.
146
88995
The Formation of Thin Copper Films on Graphite Surface Using Magnetron Sputtering Method
Abstract:
The magnetron sputtering deposition method is often used to obtain thin film coatings. The main advantage of magnetron vaporization compared to other deposition methods is the high rate erosion of the cathode material (e.g., copper, aluminum, etc.) and the ability to operate under low-pressure conditions. The structure of the formed coatings depends on the working parameters of the magnetron deposition system, which is why it is possible to influence the properties of the growing film, such as morphology, crystal orientation, and dimensions, stresses, adhesion, etc. The properties of these coatings depend on the distance between the substrate and the magnetron surface, the vacuum depth, the gas used, etc. Using this deposition technology, substrates are most often placed near the anode. The magnetic trap of the magnetrons for localization of electrons in the cathode region is formed using a permanent magnet system that is on the side of the cathode. The scientific literature suggests that, after insertion of a small amount of copper into graphite, the electronic conductivity of graphite increase. The aim of this work is to create thin (up to 300 nm) layers on a graphite surface using a magnetron evaporation method, to investigate the formation peculiarities and microstructure of thin films, as well as the mechanism of copper diffusion into graphite inner layers at different thermal treatment temperatures. The electron scanning microscope was used to investigate the microrelief of the coating surface. The chemical composition is determined using the EDS method, which shows that, with an increase of the thermal treatment of the copper-carbon layer from 200 °C to 400 °C, the copper content is reduced from 8 to 4 % in atomic mass units. This is because the EDS method captures only the amount of copper on the graphite surface, while the temperature of the heat treatment increases part of the copper because of the diffusion processes penetrates into the inner layers of the graphite. The XRD method shows that the crystalline copper structure is not affected by thermal treatment.
145
29117
New Restoration Reagent for Development of Erased Serial Number on Copper Metal Surface
Abstract:
A serial number is a unique code assigned for identification of a single unit. Serial number are present on many objects. In an attempt to hide the identity of the numbered item, the numbers are often obliterated or removed by mechanical methods. The present work was carried out with an objective to develop less toxic, less time consuming, more result oriented chemical etching reagent for restoration of serial number on the copper metal plate. Around nine different reagents were prepared using different combination of reagent along with standard reagent and it was applied over 50 erased samples of copper metal and compared it with the standard reagent for restoration of erased marks. After experiment, it was found that the prepared Etching reagent no. 3 (10 g FeCl3 + 20 ml glacial acetic acid + 100 ml distilled H2O) showed the best result for restoration of erased serial number on the copper metal plate .The reagent was also less toxic and less time consuming as compared to standard reagent (19 g FeCl3 + 6 ml cans. HCl + 100 ml distilled H2O).
144
48532
Khaya Cellulose Supported Copper Nanoparticles for Chemo Selective Aza-Michael Reactions
Abstract:
We prepared a highly active Khaya cellulose supported poly(hydroxamic acid) copper nanoparticles by the surface modification of Khaya cellulose through graft co-polymerization and subsequently amidoximation. The Cu-nanoparticle (0.05 mol% to 50 mol ppm) was selectively promoted Aza-Michael reaction of aliphatic amines to give the corresponding alkylated products at room temperature in methanol. The supported nanoparticle was easy to recover and reused seven times without significance loss of its activity.
143
16789
Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole-Coated Non-Conducting Cellulosic Substrate and Modified by Copper Oxide
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to synthesize modified Polypyrrole films (PPy) containing nanoparticles of copper oxides onto a non conducting cellulosic substrate. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is carried out using FeCl3 as an oxidant and Pyrrole as monomer. Different parameters were optimized (monomer concentration, duration of the experiment, nature of supporting electrolyte, temperature, etc.) in order to obtain films with different thickness and different morphologies. Thickness and topography of different PPy deposits were estimated by a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Secondly, the modification of the PPy film surface by incorporation of copper oxide nanonoparticles is conducted by applying a galvanostatic procedure from CuCl2 solution. Surface characterization has been carried out using scanning microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis showed the presence of the copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) in the polymer films with dimensions less than 50 nm.
142
2846
ISSR-PCR Based Genetic Diversity Analysis on Copper Tolerant versus Wild Type Strains of Unicellular alga Chlorella Vulgaris
Abstract:
The unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from Al-Asfar Lake, which is located in the Al-Ahsa province of Saudi Arabia. Two different isolates were sub-cultured under laboratory conditions. The wild type was grown under a regular concentration of copper, whereas the other isolate was grown under a progressively increasing copper concentration. An Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) analysis was performed using DNA isolated from the wild type and tolerant strains. The sum of the scored bands of the wild type was 155, with 100 (64.5%) considered to be polymorphic bands, whereas the resistant strain displayed 147 bands, with 92 (62.6%) considered to be polymorphic bands. The sum of the scored bands of a mixed sample was 117 bands, of which only 4 (3.4%) were considered to be polymorphic. The average Nei's genetic diversity (h) and Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (I) were 0.3891 and 0.5394, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the adaptation to a high level of copper in Chlorella vulgaris is not merely physiological but rather driven by modifications at the genomic level.
141
11381
SEM and FTIR Study of Adsorption Characteristics Using Xanthate (KIBX) Synthesized Collectors on Sphalerite
Abstract:
Thiols such as alkyl xanthates are commonly used as collectors in the froth flotation of sulfide minerals. Under the concen-tration, pH and Eh conditions relevant to flotation, the thermodynamically favoured reaction between a thiol and a sulfide mineral surface is charge transfechemisorption in which the collector becomes bonded to metal atoms in the outermost layer of the sulfide lattice. The adsorption of potassium isobutyl xanthate (KIBX 3.10-3M) on sphalerite has been also studied using electrochemical potential, FTIR technique and SEM. Non activated minerals and minerals activated with copper sulfate (10-4 M) and copper nitrate (10-4 M) have been investigated at pH = 7.5. Surface species have been identified by FTIR and correlated with SEM. After copper sulfate activation, copper xanthate exists on all of the minerals studied. Neutral pH is most favorable for potassium isobutyl xanthate adsorption on sphalerite.
140
25091
Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate
Abstract:
Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.
139
36283
Corrosion Inhibition of Copper in 1M HNO3 Solution by Oleic Acid
Abstract:
The inhibition of the corrosion of copper in 1 M HNO3 solution by oleic acid was investigated by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies. The experimental results have showed that this compound revealed a good corrosion inhibition and the inhibition efficiency is increased with the inhibitor concentration to reach 98%. The results obtained revealed that the adsorption of the inhibitor molecule onto metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The temperature effect on the corrosion behavior of copper in 1 M HNO3 without and with inhibitor at different concentration was studied in the temperature range from 303 to 333 K and the kinetic parameters activation such as Ea, ∆Ha and ∆Sa were evaluated. Tafel plot analysis revealed that oleic acid acts as a mixed type inhibitor. SEM analysis substantiated the formation of protective layer over the copper surface.
138
84522
Optimization of Process Parameters for Copper Extraction from Wastewater Treatment Sludge by Sulfuric Acid
Abstract:
In this study, sludge samples that were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of a printed circuit board manufacturing industry in Thailand were subjected to acid extraction using sulfuric acid as the chemical extracting agent. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration (A), the ratio of a volume of acid to a quantity of sludge (B) and extraction time (C) on the efficiency of copper extraction were investigated with the aim of finding the optimal conditions for maximum removal of copper from the wastewater treatment sludge. Factorial experimental design was employed to model the copper extraction process. The results were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance to identify the process variables that were significantly affected the copper extraction efficiency. Results showed that all linear terms and an interaction term between volume of acid to quantity of sludge ratio and extraction time (BC), had statistically significant influence on the efficiency of copper extraction under tested conditions in which the most significant effect was ascribed to volume of acid to quantity of sludge ratio (B), followed by sulfuric acid concentration (A), extraction time (C) and interaction term of BC, respectively. The remaining two-way interaction terms, (AB, AC) and the three-way interaction term (ABC) is not statistically significant at the significance level of 0.05. The model equation was derived for the copper extraction process and the optimization of the process was performed using a multiple response method called desirability (D) function to optimize the extraction parameters by targeting maximum removal. The optimum extraction conditions of 99% of copper were found to be sulfuric acid concentration: 0.9 M, ratio of the volume of acid (mL) to the quantity of sludge (g) at 100:1 with an extraction time of 80 min. Experiments under the optimized conditions have been carried out to validate the accuracy of the Model.
137
18219
Study of the Behavior of Copper Immersed in Sea Water of the Bay of Large Agadir by Electrochemical Methods
Abstract:
Seawater has chemical and biological characteristics making it particularly aggressive in relation to the corrosion of many materials including copper and steels low or moderate allies. Note that these materials are widely used in the manufacture of port infrastructure in the marine environment. These structures are exposed to two types of corrosion including: general corrosion and localized corrosion caused by the presence of sulfite-reducing micro-organisms. This work contributes to the study of the problematic related to bacterial contamination of the marine environment of large Agadir and evaluating the impact of this pollution on the corrosion resistance of copper. For the realization of this work, we conducted monthly periodic draws between (October 2012 February 2013) of seawater from the Anza area of the Bay of Agadir. Thus, after each sampling, a study of the electro chemical corrosion behavior of copper was carried out. Electro chemical corrosion parameters such as the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity were evaluated. The electro chemical techniques used in this work are: the route potentiodynamic polarization curves and electro chemical impedance.
136
47950
Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper
Abstract:
Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 &deg;C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec. &nbsp;Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.
135
74838
Heat Transfer Performance of a Small Cold Plate with Uni-Directional Porous Copper for Cooling Power Electronics
Abstract:
A small cold plate with uni-directional porous copper is proposed for cooling power electronics such as an on-vehicle inverter with the heat generation of approximately 500 W/cm2. The uni-directional porous copper with the pore perpendicularly orienting the heat transfer surface is soldered to a grooved heat transfer surface. This structure enables the cooling liquid to evaporate in the pore of the porous copper and then the vapor to discharge through the grooves. In order to minimize the cold plate, a double flow channel concept is introduced for the design of the cold plate. The cold plate consists of a base plate, a spacer, and a vapor discharging plate, totally 12 mm in thickness. The base plate has multiple nozzles of 1.0 mm in diameter for the liquid supply and 4 slits of 2.0 mm in width for vapor discharging, and is attached onto the top surface of the porous copper plate of 20 mm in diameter and 5.0 mm in thickness. The pore size is 0.36 mm and the porosity is 36 %. The cooling liquid flows into the porous copper as an impinging jet flow from the multiple nozzles, and then the vapor, which is generated in the pore, is discharged through the grooves and the vapor slits outside the cold plate. A heated test section consists of the cold plate, which was explained above, and a heat transfer copper block with 6 cartridge heaters. The cross section of the heat transfer block is reduced in order to increase the heat flux. The top surface of the block is the grooved heat transfer surface of 10 mm in diameter at which the porous copper is soldered. The grooves are fabricated like latticework, and the width and depth are 1.0 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. By embedding three thermocouples in the cylindrical part of the heat transfer block, the temperature of the heat transfer surface ant the heat flux are extrapolated in a steady state. In this experiment, the flow rate is 0.5 L/min and the flow velocity at each nozzle is 0.27 m/s. The liquid inlet temperature is 60 °C. The experimental results prove that, in a single-phase heat transfer regime, the heat transfer performance of the cold plate with the uni-directional porous copper is 2.1 times higher than that without the porous copper, though the pressure loss with the porous copper also becomes higher than that without the porous copper. As to the two-phase heat transfer regime, the critical heat flux increases by approximately 35% by introducing the uni-directional porous copper, compared with the CHF of the multiple impinging jet flow. In addition, we confirmed that these heat transfer data was much higher than that of the ordinary single impinging jet flow. These heat transfer data prove high potential of the cold plate with the uni-directional porous copper from the view point of not only the heat transfer performance but also energy saving.
134
100344
An Efficient Activated Carbon for Copper (II) Adsorption Synthesized from Indian Gooseberry Seed Shells
Abstract:
Removal of metal pollutants by efficient activated carbon is challenging research in the present-day scenario. In the present study, the characteristic features of an efficient activated carbon (AC) synthesized from Indian gooseberry seed shells for the copper (II) adsorption are reported. A three-step chemical activation method consisting of the impregnation, carbonization and subsequent activation is used to produce the activated carbon. The copper adsorption kinetics and isotherms onto the activated carbon were analyzed. As per present investigation, Indian gooseberry seed shells showed the BET surface area of 1359 m²/g. The maximum adsorptivity of the activated carbon at a pH value of 9.52 was found to be 44.84 mg/g at 30°C. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model along with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This AC could be used as a favorable and cost-effective copper (II) adsorbent in wastewater treatment to remove the metal contaminants.
133
10285
Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposite Reinforced with Copper Coated MWCNTs
Abstract:
Mechanical properties of epoxy based nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs were investigated and a comparative study between nanocomposites containing functionalized MWCNTs and copper coated MWCNTs which are already functionalized was conducted. The MWCNTs was deposited with copper nanoparticles through electroless deposition process after accomplishment of "two-step" method as sensitization and activation procedures on oxidized MWCNTs. In addition, functionalization of MWCNTs was carried out through combination of two covalent and non-covalent funcionalization methods using HNO3 for acid solution of covalent treatment and Triton X100 as non-ionic surfactant of non-covalent treatment. The presence of functional groups and removal of impurities of MWCNTs were confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The layer of copper nanoparticles on the MWCNTs wall increasing its diameter was observed by SEM. Utilizing solution blending process, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.5% wt loading of both copper coated MWCNTs and non-coated MWCNTs were used to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of nanocomposites were investigated. The results of tensile test demonstrated that nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs exhibited brittle behavior compared to those reinforced with functionalized MWCNTs, whereas former one exhibited higher values of modulus than latter one for concentrations more than 0.4% wt. Presence of copper particles on MWCNTs surface decreased the tensile strength of nanocomposites. In comparison to pure epoxy, nanocomposites with treated-MWCNTs and Cu-MWCNTs loading of 0.1% wt showed an increase of 35% and 51.6% for flexural strength beside 20% and 30% increase in flexural modulus, respectively, whereas flexural properties of both naocomposites decreased with increasing of CNTs concentration. The results of impact strength of nanocomposites with Cu-CNTs demonstrated that impact properties decreased with increasing of filler content with a optimum value at 0.1% wt while in high concentrations impact properties of Cu-nanocomposites exhibited lower values than f-MWCNT nanocomposites.
132
106714
Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment
Abstract:
This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.
131
18236
Targeted Delivery of Novel Copper-Based Nanoparticles for Advance Cancer Therapeutics
Abstract:
We have explored the synergistic anti-cancer activity of copper ion and acetylacetone complex containing 1,3 diketone group (like curcumin) in metallorganic compound “Copper acetylacetonate” (CuAA). The cytotoxicity mechanism of CuAA complex was evaluated on various cancer cell lines in vitro. Among these, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione level (GSH) in the cell was found to increase. Further mitochondrial membrane damage was observed. The fate of cell death was found to be induced by apoptosis. For application purpose, we have developed a novel biodegradable, non-toxic polymer-based nanoparticle which has hydrophobically modified core for loading of the CuAA. Folic acid is conjugated on the surface of the polymer (chitosan) nanoparticle for targeting to cancer cells for minimizing toxicity to normal cells in-vivo. Thus, this novel drug CuAA has an efficient anticancer activity which has been targeted specifically to cancer cells through polymer nanoparticle.
130
112946
Recovery of Gold and Copper from Liberated Metallic Sheets of Waste Printed Circuit Boards
Abstract:
This article presents a two-stage, eco-friendly hydrometallurgical route for the recovery of gold from the delaminated metallic layers of waste mobile phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). Initially, mobile phone PCBs are downsized (1x1 cm²) and treated with an organic solvent dimethylacetamide (DMA) for the separation of metallic fraction from non-metallic glass fiber. In the first stage, liberated metallic sheets are used for the selective dissolution of copper in an aqueous leaching reagent. Influence of various parameters such as type of leaching reagent, the concentration of the solution, temperature, time, and pulp density are optimized for the effective leaching (almost 100%) of copper. Results have shown that 3M nitric acid is a suitable reagent for copper leaching at room temperature and considering chemical features, gold remained in solid residue. In the second stage, the separated residue is used for the recovery of gold by using sulphuric acid with a combination of halide salt. In this halide leaching, Cl₂ or Br₂ is generated as an in-situ oxidant to improve the leaching of gold. Results have shown that almost 92% of gold is recovered at the optimized parameters.
129
36673
Micro-Nutrient Bio-Fortification in Sprouts Grown on Fortified Fiber Mats
Abstract:
This research study was designed to determine if food crops could be bio-fortified with micro-nutrients by growing sprouts on mineral fortified fiber mats. Diets high in processed foods have been found to lack essential micro-nutrients for optimum human development and overall health. Some micro-nutrients such as copper (Cu) have been found to enhance the inflammatory response through its oxidative functions, thereby having a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes and related complications. Recycled cellulose fibers and clay saturated with micro-nutrient ions can be converted to a novel mineral-metal hybrid material in which the fiber mat becomes a carrier of essential micro-nutrients. The reduction of ionic to metallic copper was accomplished using hydrogen at temperatures ranging from 400o to 600oC. Copper particles with diameters ranging from ~1 to 400-500 nm reside on the recycled fibers that make up the mats. Seeds purchased from a commercial, organic supplier were germinated on the specially engineered cellulose fiber mats that incorporated w10 wt% clay fillers saturated with either copper particles or ionic copper. After the appearance of the first leaves, the sprouts were dehydrated and analyzed for Cu content. Nutrient analysis showed 1.5 to 1.6 increase in Cu of the sprouts grown on the fiber mats with copper particles, and 2.3 to 2.5 increase on mats with ionic copper as compared to the control samples. The antibacterial properties of materials saturated with copper ions at room temperature and at temperatures up to 400°C have been verified with halo method tests against Escherichia Coli in previous studies. E. coli is a known pathogenic risk in sprout production. Copper exhibits excellent antibacterial properties when tested on S. aureus, a pathogenic gram-positive bacterium. This has also been confirmed for the fiber-copper hybrid material in this study. This study illustrates the potential for the use of engineered mats as a viable way to increase the micro-nutrient composition of locally-grown food crops and the need for additional research to determine the uptake, nutritional implications and risks of micro-nutrient bio-fortification.
128
20975
Influence of Copper-Methionine on Hematological and Biochemical Changes and Ascites Incidence in Cold-Stressed Broilers
Abstract:
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of copper-methionine on ascites incidence and hematological, morphological and enzymatic responses in broiler chickens. A total of 480 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments including two ambient temperatures (thermoneutral and cold stress) and three copper levels (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg as copper-methionine) with 4 replicates (20 birds in each replicate). Broilers were kept in an environmentally-controlled room from 1 to 28 days; then, half of them exposed to cold temperature from 28 to 45 days of age. The birds were sacrificed at days 38 and 45 of age. Heparinized blood samples were collected to measure hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Heart, lungs, liver, and spleen were collected and weighed separately on a sensitive digital scale. At d 38 of age, none of hematological variables, enzymatic parameters, and relative weights of organs were affected by treatments. Ascitic broilers were observed in group subjected to cold temperature and control diet (without supplemental copper) at d 45 of age. Relative weight of lungs and relative weight of heart in broilers fed on copper-methionine supplemented diets in cold temperature were lower compared with other groups. Relative liver weight, ALT, AST activities, and hematological parameters such as hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count in ascitic broilers were significantly increased. In contrast, a significant decrease of the relative weight of spleen was shown in these chickens. The results showed that dietary supplementation with copper–methionine can decrease probability of ascites incidence in broilers chicks, especially under cold condition.
127
23639
Alumina Supported Copper-manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Catalysts Characterization
Abstract:
In recent research copper and manganese systems were found to be the most active in CO and organic compounds oxidation among the base catalysts. The mixed copper manganese oxide has been widely studied in oxidation reactions because of their higher activity at low temperatures in comparison with single oxide catalysts. The results showed that the formation of spinel CuxMn3−xO4 in the oxidized catalyst is responsible for the activity even at room temperature. That is why most of the investigations are focused on the hopcalite catalyst (CuMn2O4) as the best copper-manganese catalyst. Now it’s known that this is true only for CO oxidation, but not for mixture of CO and VOCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alumina supported copper-manganese catalysts with different Cu/Mn molar ratio in terms of oxidation of CO, methanol and dimethyl ether. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and the catalytic activity measurements were carried out in continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Gas mixtures on the input and output of the reactor were analyzed with a gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and TCD detectors. The texture characteristics were determined by low-temperature (- 196 oС) nitrogen adsorption in a Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e (USA) specific surface area&pore analyzer. Thermal, XRD and TPR analyses were performed. It was established that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO, methanol and DME oxidation were synthesized. While the hopcalite is the best catalyst for CO oxidation, the best compromise for simultaneous oxidation of all components is the catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5.
126
56206
Recovery of Copper from Edge Trims of Printed Circuit Boards Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans: Bioleaching
Abstract:
The enormous generation of E- waste and its recycling have greater environmental concern especially in developing countries like India. A major part of this waste comprises printed circuit boards (PCBs). Edge trims of PCBs have high copper content ranging between 25-60%. The extraction of various metals out of these PCBs is more or less a proven technology, wherein various hazardous chemicals are being used in the resource recovery, resulting into secondary pollution. The current trend of extracting of valuable metals is the utilization of microbial strains to eliminate the problem of a secondary pollutant. Keeping the above context in mind, this work aims at the enhanced recovery of copper from edge trims, through bioleaching using bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The raw material such as motherboards, hard drives, floppy drives and DVD drives were obtained from the warehouse of the University. More than 90% copper could be extracted through bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Inoculate concentration has merely insignificant effect over copper recovery above 20% inoculate concentration. Higher concentration of inoculation has the only initial advantage up to 2-4 days. The complete recovery has been obtained between 14- 24 days.
125
17527
Wear and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Iron Modified with Copper
Abstract:
The nodular iron is a material that has shown great advantages respect to other materials (steel and gray iron) in the production of machine elements. The engineering industry, especially automobile, are potential users of this material. As it is known, the alloying elements modify the properties of steels and castings. Copper has been investigated as a structural modifier of nodular iron, but studies of its mechanical and tribological implications still need to be addressed for industrial use. With the aim of improving the mechanical properties of nodular iron, alloying elements (Mn, Si, and Cu) are added in order to increase their pearlite (or ferrite) structure according to the percentage of the alloying element. In this research (using induction furnace process) nodular iron with three different percentages of copper (residual, 0,5% and 1,2%) was obtained. Chemical analysis was performed by optical emission spectrometry and microstructures were characterized by Optical Microscopy (ASTM E3) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The study of mechanical behavior was carried out in a mechanical test machine (ASTM E8) and a Pin on disk tribometer (ASTM G99) was used to assess wear resistance. It is observed that copper increases the pearlite structure improving the wear behavior; tension behavior. This improvement is observed in higher proportion with 0,5% due to the fact that too much increase of pearlite leads to ductility loss.
124
83584
Modeling and Estimating Reserve of the Ali Javad Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit, East Azerbaijan, Iran
Abstract:
The study area is located in East Azerbaijan province, north of Ahar city, and 1/100000 geological map of Varzgan. This region is located in the middle of Iran zone. Ali Javad Porphyry copper-gold ore deposit has been created in a magmatic complex containing intrusive masses, combining Granodiorite and quartz Monzonite that penetrates into the Eocene volcanic aggregate. The most important mineralization includes primary oxides minerals (magnetite), sulfide (pyrite, chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, Bornite, Chalcocite, Covollite), secondary oxide or hydroxide minerals (hematite, goethite, limonite), and carbonate (malachite and Azurite). The mineralization forms into the vein-veinlets and scattered system. The alterations observed in the region include intermediate Argillic, advanced Argillic, Phyllic, silica, Propylitic, chlorite and Potassic. The 3D model of mineralization of the Alijavad is provided by Data DATAMINE software and based on the study of 700 polished sections of 32 drilled boreholes in the region. This model is completely compatible with the model provided by Lowell and Gilbert for the mineralization of porphyry copper deposits of quartz Monzonite type. The estimated cumulative residual value of copper for Ali Javad deposit is 81.5 million tons with 0.75 percent of copper, and for gold is 8.37 million tons with 1.8 ppm.
123
68374
Green Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc and Ferrous Nanoparticles for Their Potent Therapeutic Approach
Abstract:
Green nanotechnology is the most researched field in the current scenario. Herein we study the synthesis of Zinc and Ferrous nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. Our protocol using established protocols heat treatment of plant extracts along with the solution of copper sulphate in the ratio of 1:1. The leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera were prepared in deionized water. Copper sulfate solution (1mM) was added to this, and the change in color of the solution was observed indicating the formation of Cu nanoparticles. The as biosynthesized Cu nanoparticles were characterized with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). It was observed that the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera can reduce copper ions into copper nanoparticles within 8 to 10 min of reaction time. The method thus can be used for rapid and eco-friendly biosynthesis of stable copper nanoparticles. Further, we checked their antimicrobial and antioxidant potential, and it was observed that maximum antioxidant activity was observed for the particles prepared using the heating method. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in Streptomyces grisveus particles and in Triochoderma Reesei for the maximum antifungal activity. At present, we are engaged in studying the anti-inflammatory activities of these as prepared nanoparticles.
122
27873
Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery
Abstract:
The experimental production methods Chevreul’s salt being a intermediate stage product for copper recovery were investigated by dealing with the articles written on this topic. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O, being a mixed valence copper sulphite compound has been obtained by using different methods and reagents. Chevreul’s salt has a intense brick-red color. It is a highly stable and expensive salt. The production of Chevreul’s salt plays a key role in hiydrometallurgy. In recent years, researchs on this compound have been intensified. Silva et al. reported that this salt is thermally stable up to 200oC. Çolak et al. precipitated the Chevreul’s salt by using ammonia and sulphur dioxide. Çalban et al. obtained at the optimum conditions by passing SO2 from leach solutions with NH3-(NH4)2SO4. Yeşiryurt and Çalban investigated the optimum precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt from synthetic CuSO4 solutions including Na2SO3. Çalban et al. achieved the precipitation of Chevreul’s salt at the optimum conditions by passing SO2 from synthetic CuSO4 solutions. Çalban et al. examined the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt using (NH4)2SO3 from synthetic aqueous CuSO4 solutions. In light of these studies, it can be said that Chevreul’s salt can be produced practically from both a leach solutions including copper and synthetic CuSO4 solutions.
121
34708
Experimental Investigation with Different Inclination Angles on Copper Oscillating Heat Pipes Performance Using Fe2O3 / Kerosene under Magnetic Field
Abstract:
This paper presents the result of an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nanoparticles added to Kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field for Copper Oscillating Heat pipe with inclination angle of 0°(horizontal), 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° (vertical). The following were examined; measure the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP), with magnetic field under different angles. Results showed that the addition of Fe2O3 nanoparticles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP especially in 75°.
120
58770
Separation of Copper(II) and Iron(III) by Solvent Extraction and Membrane Processes with Ionic Liquids as Carriers
Abstract:
Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions is important as well as difficult process in hydrometallurgical technology. This process is necessary for obtaining of clean metals. Solvent extraction and membrane processes are well known as separation methods. Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) are very often applied and studied as extractants and carriers of metal ions from aqueous solutions due to their good extractability properties for various metals. This work discusses a method to separate copper(II) and iron(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by solvent extraction and transport across polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) with the selected ionic liquids as extractants/ion carriers. Cyphos IL 101 (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride), Cyphos IL 104 (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4 trimethylpentyl)phosphi-nate), trioctylmethylammonium thiosalicylate [A336][TS] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium thiosalicylate [PR4][TS] were used for the investigations. Effect of different parameters such as hydrochloric acid concentration in aqueous phase on iron(III) and copper(II) extraction has been investigated. Cellulose triacetate membranes with the selected ionic liquids as carriers have been prepared and applied for transport of iron(IIII) and copper(II) from hydrochloric acid solutions.
119
80071
Stainless Steel Swarfs for Replacement of Copper in Non-Asbestos Organic Brake-Pads
Abstract:
Nowadays extensive research is going on in the field of friction materials (FMs) for development of eco-friendly brake-materials by removing copper as it is a proven threat to the aquatic organisms. Researchers are keen to find the solution for copper-free FMs by using different metals or without metals. Steel wool is used as a reinforcement in non-asbestos organic (NAO) FMs mainly for increasing thermal conductivity, and it affects wear adversely, most of the times and also adds friction fluctuations. Copper and brass used to be the preferred choices because of superior performance in almost every aspect except cost. Since these are being phased out because of a proven threat to the aquatic life. Keeping this in view, a series of realistic multi-ingredient FMs containing stainless steel (SS) swarfs as a theme ingredient in increasing amount (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt. %- S₅, S₁₀, and S₁₅) were developed in the form of brake-pads. One more composite containing copper instead of SS swarfs (C₁₀) was developed. These composites were characterized for physical, mechanical, chemical and tribological performance. Composites were tribo-evaluated on a chase machine with various test loops as per SAE J661 standards. Various performance parameters such as normal µ, hot µ, performance µ, fade µ, recovery µ, % fade, % recovery, wear resistance, etc. were used to evaluate the role of amount of SS swarfs in FMs. It was concluded that SS swarfs proved successful in Cu replacement almost in all respects except wear resistance. With increase in amount of SS swarfs, most of the properties improved. Worn surface analysis and wear mechanism were studied using SEM and EDAX techniques.
118
81563
Stainless Steel Swarfs for Replacement of Copper in Non-Asbestos Organic Brake-Pads
Abstract:
Nowadays extensive research is going on in the field of friction materials (FMs) for development of eco-friendly brake-materials by removing copper as it is a proven threat to the aquatic organisms. Researchers are keen to find the solution for copper-free FMs by using different metals or without metals. Steel wool is used as a reinforcement in non-asbestos organic (NAO) FMs mainly for increasing thermal conductivity, and it affects wear adversely, most of the times and also adds friction fluctuations. Copper and brass used to be the preferred choices because of superior performance in almost every aspect except cost. Since these are being phased out because of a proven threat to the aquatic life. Keeping this in view, a series of realistic multi-ingredient FMs containing stainless steel (SS) swarfs as a theme ingredient in increasing amount (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt. %- S₅, S₁₀, and S₁₅) were developed in the form of brake-pads. One more composite containing copper instead of SS swarfs (C₁₀) was developed. These composites were characterized for physical, mechanical, chemical and tribological performance. Composites were tribo-evaluated on a chase machine with various test loops as per SAE J661 standards. Various performance parameters such as normal µ, hot µ, performance µ, fade µ, recovery µ, % fade, % recovery, wear resistance, etc. were used to evaluate the role of amount of SS swarfs in FMs. It was concluded that SS swarfs proved successful in Cu replacement almost in all respects except wear resistance. With increase in amount of SS swarfs, most of the properties improved. Worn surface analysis and wear mechanism were studied using SEM and EDAX techniques.
117
31480
Electrochemical Study of Copper–Tin Alloy Nucleation Mechanisms onto Different Substrates
Abstract:
In the present work, several materials such as M/glass (M = Pt, Mo) were investigated to test their suitability for studying the early nucleation stages and growth of copper-tin clusters. It was found that most of these materials stand as good substrates to be used in the study of the nucleation and growth of electrodeposited Cu-Sn alloys from aqueous solution containing CuCl2, SnCl2 as electroactive species and Na3C6H5O7 as complexing agent. Among these substrates, Pt shows instantaneous models followed by 3D diffusion-limited growth. On the other hand, the electrodeposited copper-tin thin films onto Mo substrate followed progressive nucleation. The deposition mechanism of the Cu-Sn films has been studied using stationary electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetery (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The structural, morphological and compositional of characterization have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX techniques respectively.
116
51765
Bimetallic Cu/Au Nanostructures and Bio-Application
Authors:
Abstract:
Bimetallic nanostructures have received tremendous interests as a new class of nanomaterials which may have better technological usefulness with distinct properties from those of individual atoms and molecules or bulk matter. They excelled over the monometallic counterparts because of their improved electronic, optical and catalytic performances. The properties and the applicability of these bimetallic nanostructures not only depend on their size and shape, but also on the composition and their fine structure. These bimetallic nanostructures are potential candidates for bio-applications such as biosensing, bioimaging, biodiagnostics, drug delivery, targeted therapeutics, and tissue engineering. Herein, gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures were synthesized through the controlled disproportionation of Cu⁺-oleylamine complex at 220 ºC to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au³⁺ at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 ºC. This is to achieve their synergistic effect through the combined use of the merits of low-cost transition and high-stability noble metals. Of these Cu/Au nanostructures, Cu/Au nanotubes display the best performance towards electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensing, originating from the high conductivity of gold and the high aspect ratio copper nanotubes with high surface area so as to optimise the electroactive sites and facilitate mass transport. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose.
115
21834
Effect of Chemical Modification of Functional Groups on Copper(II) Biosorption by Brown Marine Macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum
Abstract:
The principal mechanism of metal ions sequestration by brown algae involves the formation of complexes between the metal ion and functional groups present on the cell wall of the biological material. To understand the role of functional groups on copper(II) uptake by Ascophyllum nodosum, some functional groups were chemically modified. The esterification of carboxylic groups was carried out by suspending the biomass in a methanol/HCl solution under stirring for 48 h and the blocking of the sulfonic groups was performed by repeating the same procedure for 4 cycles of 48 h. The methylation of amines was conducted by suspending the biomass in a formaldehyde/formic acid solution under shaking for 6 h and the chemical modification of sulfhydryl groups on the biomass surface was achieved using dithiodipyridine for 1 h. Equilibrium sorption studies for Cu2+ using the raw and esterified algae were performed at pH 2.0 and 4.0. The experiments were performed using an initial copper concentration of 300 mg/L and algae dose of 1.0 g/L. After reaching the equilibrium, the metal in solution was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. The biological material was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Potentiometric Titration techniques for functional groups identification and quantification, respectively. The results using unmodified algae showed that the maximum copper uptake capacity at pH 4.0 and 2.0 was 1.17 and 0.52 mmol/g, respectively. At acidic pH values most carboxyl groups are protonated and copper sorption suffered a significant reduction of 56%. Blocking the carboxylic, sulfonic, amines and sulfhydryl functional groups, copper uptake decreased by 24/26%, 69/81%, 1/23% and 40/27% at pH 2.0/4.0, respectively, when compared to the unmodified biomass. It was possible to conclude that the carboxylic and sulfonic groups are the main functional groups responsible for copper binding (>80%). This result is supported by the fact that the adsorption capacity is directly related to the presence of carboxylic groups of the alginate polymer, and the second most abundant acidic functional group in brown algae is the sulfonic acid of fucoidan that contributes, to a lower extent, to heavy metal binding, particularly at low pH.
114
30320
Utilization of Pozzolonic Material for the Enhancement of the Concrete Strength: A Comprehensive Review Paper
Abstract:
Concrete is the material of choice where strength, performance, durability, impermeability, fire resistance, and abrasion resistance are required. The hunger for the higher strength leads to other materials to achieve the desired results and thus, emerged the contribution of cementitious material for the strength of concrete In present day constructions, concrete is chosen as one of the best choices by civil engineers in construction materials. The concept of sustainability is touching new heights and many pozzolonic materials are tried and tested as partial replacement for the cement. In this paper, comprehensive review of available literatures are studied to evaluate the performance of pozzolonic materials such as ceramic waste powder, copper slag, silica fume on the strength of concrete by the partial replacement of ordinary materials such as cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate at different percentage of composition. From the study, we conclude that ceramic wastes are suitable to be used in the construction industry, and more significantly on the making of concrete. Ceramic wastes are found to be suitable for usage as substitution for fine and coarse aggregates and partial substitution in cement production. They were found to be performing better than normal concrete, in properties such as density, durability, permeability, and compressive strength. Copper slag is the waste material of matte smelting and refining of copper such that each ton of copper generates approximately 2.5 tons of copper slag. Copper slag is one of the materials that is considered as a waste which could have a promising future in construction Industry as partial or full substitute of aggregates. Silica fume, also known as micro silica or condensed silica fume, is a relatively new material compared to fly ash, It is another material that is used as an artificial pozzolonic admixture. High strength concrete made with silica fume provides high abrasion/corrosion resistance.
113
25590
Heavy Metal Pollution of the Soils around the Mining Area near Shamlugh Town (Armenia) and Related Risks to the Environment
Abstract:
The heavy metal pollution of the soils around the mining area near Shamlugh town and related risks to human health were assessed. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals that can be ranked by anthropogenic pollution degree as follows: Cu>Pb>As>Co>Ni>Zn. The main sources of the anthropogenic metal pollution of the soils were the copper mining area near Shamlugh town, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the trucks transferring are from the mining area. Copper pollution degree in some observation sites was unallowable for agricultural production. The total non-carcinogenic chronic hazard index (THI) values in some places, including observation sites in Shamlugh town, were above the safe level (THI
112
14488
Financial Benefits after the Implementation of Antimicrobial Copper in Intensive Care Units (ICUs)
Abstract:
Aim: Aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) microbial flora after the antimicrobial copper alloy (Cu+) implementation as well as the effect on financial-epidemiological operation parameters. Methods: Medical, epidemiological and financial data in two time periods, before and after the implementation of copper (Cu 63% - Zn 37%, low lead) were recorded and analyzed in a general ICU. The evaluated parameters were: the importance of patients' admission (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation - APACHE II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SAPS), microbial flora's record in the ICU before and after the implementation of Cu+ as well as the impact on epidemiological and ICU's operation financial parameters. Results: During December 2010 and March 2011 and respectively during December 2011 and March 2012 comparative results showed statistically significant reduction on the microbial flora (CFU/ml) by 95% and the use of antimicrobial medicine (per day per patient) by 30% (p = 0,014) as well as patients hospitalization time and cost. Conclusions: The innovative implementation of antimicrobial copper in ICUs contributed to their microbial flora significant reduction and antimicrobial drugs use reduction with the apparent positive effect (decrease) in both patient’s hospitalization time and cost. Under the present circumstances of economic crisis, survey results are of highest importance and value.
111
3721
New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film
Abstract:
The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.
110
107793
Performance of Coded Multi-Line Copper Wire for G.fast Communications in the Presence of Impulsive Noise
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on the design of a multi-line copper wire (MLCW) communication system. First, we construct our proposed MLCW channel and verify its characteristics based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In addition, we apply Middleton class A impulsive noise (IN) to the copper channel for further investigation. Second, the MIMO G.fast system is adopted utilizing the proposed MLCW channel model and is compared to a single line G-fast system. Second, the performance of the coded system is obtained utilizing concatenated interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) code with four-dimensional trellis-coded modulation (4D TCM), and compared to the single line G-fast system. Simulations are obtained for high quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations that are commonly used with G-fast communications, the results demonstrate that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the coded MLCW system shows an improvement compared to the single line G-fast systems.
109
22828
Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Effect of Preparation Method
Abstract:
The development of active and stable catalysts without noble metals for low temperature oxidation of exhaust gases remains a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of the preparation method on the catalytic activity of the supported copper-manganese mixed oxides in terms of VOCs oxidation. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and acetates and the possibilities for CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Effect of the support, Cu/Mn mole ratio, heat treatment of the precursor and active component loading were investigated. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation were synthesized. The effect of preparation conditions on the activity behavior of the catalysts was discussed. The synergetic interaction between copper and manganese species increases the activity for complete oxidation over mixed catalysts. Type of support, calcination temperature and active component loading along with catalyst composition are important factors, determining catalytic activity. Cu/Mn molar ratio of 1:5, heat treatment at 450oC and 20 % active component loading are the best compromise for production of active catalyst for simultaneous combustion of CO, CH3OH and DME.
108
17081
Facile Synthesis of CuO Nanosheets on Cu Foil for H2O2 Detection
Abstract:
A facile and simple fabrication of copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanosheet on copper foil as nanoelectrode for H2O2 sensing application was proposed in this study. The spontaneous formation of CuO nanosheets by immersing the copper foil into 0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution for 48 hrs was carried out at room temperature. The sheet-like morphology with several ten nanometers in thickness and ~500 nm in width was observed by SEM. Those nanosheets were confirmed the monoclinic-phase CuO by the structural analysis of XRD and Raman spectra. The directly grown CuO nanosheets film is mechanically stable and offers an excellent electrochemical sensing platform. The CuO nanosheets electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic response to H2O2 with significantly lower overpotentials for its oxidation and reduction and also exhibits a fast response and high sensitivity for the amperometric detection of H2O2. The novel spontaneously grown CuO nanosheets electrode is readily applicable to other analytes and has great potential applications in the electrochemical detection.
107
7794
Effect of Copper Complexes on Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line and Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line
Abstract:
Introduction: The continuous demand for new anti-cancer drugs has stimulated chemotherapeutic research based on the use of essential metalloelements with the aim to develop potential drugs with lower toxicity and higher antiproliferative activity against tumors. Copper(II) and its complexes play an important role as suitable species for antiproliferative tests. Objectives: The central objective of the current study was to investigate the potential in vitro anti-proliferative effects of N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes and molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by tested complexes. In our project we tested N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes ZK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK0 - ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O); MK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol); MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] at concentration range 0.001-100 µmol/L against human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 and human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Methods: Viability was assessed by direct counting of 0.4% trypan blue dye-excluding cells after 24, 48 and 72 hour cultivations with or without copper complex and by MTT assay. To analyze the type of cell death and its mechanism induced by our copper complex we used different methods. To distinguish apoptosis from necrosis we used electrophoretic analysis, to study the activity of caspases 8 and 9 – luminometric analysis and caspase activity 3 colorimetric assay. Results: The observed anti-proliferative effect of the copper complexes appeared to be dose-, time- and cell line- dependent. Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) than to ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)). Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex than human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7. IC50 decreased with time of incubation (24, 48 and 72h) for HT-29, but increased for MCF-7. By electrophoresis we found apoptotic cell death induced by our copper complexes in HT-29 at concentrations 1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol/L after 48h (ZK1) and 72h (MK0, MK1) and in MCF-7 we did not find apoptosis. We also studied molecular mechanism of apoptosis in HT-29 induced by copper complexes. We found active caspase 9 in HT-29 after ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)) influence and active caspase 8 after MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) influence. Conclusion: Our copper complexes showed cytotoxic activities against human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro. Apoptosis was activated by mitochondrial pathway (intrinsic pathway) in case of ZK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol) and MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] copper complexes and by death receptors (extrinsic pathway) in case of MK0 [Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O copper complex in HT-29.
106
18138
Templating Copper on Polymer/DNA Hybrid Nanowires
Abstract:
DNA-templated poly(N-substituted pyrrole)bipyridinium nanowires were synthesised at room temperature using the chemical oxidation method. The resulting CPs/DNA hybrids have been characterised using electronic and vibrational spectroscopic methods especially Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscpy. The nanowires morphology was characterised using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The electrical properties of the prepared nanowires were characterised using Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM), and measured using conductive AFM (c-AFM) and two terminal I/V technique, where the temperature dependence of the conductivity was probed. The conductivities of the prepared CPs/DNA nanowires are generally lower than PPy/DNA nanowires showingthe large effect on N-alkylation in decreasing the conductivity of the polymer, butthese are higher than the conductivity of their corresponding bulk films.This enhancement in conductivity could be attributed to the ordering of the polymer chains on DNA during the templating process. The prepared CPs/DNA nanowires were used as templates for the growth of copper nanowires at room temperature using aqueous solution of Cu(NO3)2as a source of Cu2+ and ascorbic acid as reducing agent. AFM images showed that these nanowires were uniform and continuous compared to copper nanowires prepared using the templating method directly onto DNA. Electrical characterization of the nanowires by c AFM revealed slight improvement in conductivity of these nanowires (Cu-CPs/DNA) compared to CPs/DNA nanowires before metallisation.
105
28966
Simulation of Particle Damping in Boring Tool Using Combined Particles
Abstract:
Particle damping is a promising vibration attenuating technique in boring tool than other type of damping with minimal effect on the strength, rigidity and stiffness ratio of the machine tool structure. Due to the cantilever nature of boring tool holder in operations, it suffers chatter when the slenderness ratio of the tool gets increased. In this study, Copper-Stainless steel (SS) particles were packed inside the boring tool which acts as a damper. Damper suppresses chatter generated during machining and also improves the machining efficiency of the tool with better slenderness ratio. In the first approach of particle damping, combined Cu-SS particles were packed inside the vibrating tool, whereas Copper and Stainless steel particles were selected separately and packed inside another tool and their effectiveness was analysed in this simulation. This study reveals that the efficiency of finite element simulation of the boring tools when equipped with particles such as copper, stainless steel and a combination of both. In this study, the newly modified boring tool holder with particle damping was simulated using ANSYS12.0 with and without particles. The aim of this study is to enhance the structural rigidity through particle damping thus avoiding the occurrence of resonance in the boring tool during machining.
104
51132
Studying the Effect of Different Sizes of Carbon Fiber on Locally Developed Copper Based Composites
Abstract:
Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) is a class of weight efficient structural materials that are becoming popular in engineering applications especially in electronic, aerospace, aircraft, packaging and various other industries. This study focuses on the development of carbon fiber reinforced copper matrix composite. Keeping in view the vast applications of metal matrix composites,this specific material is produced for its unique mechanical and thermal properties i.e. high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion at elevated temperatures. The carbon fibers were not pretreated but coated with copper by electroless plating in order to increase the wettability of carbon fiber with the copper matrix. Casting is chosen as the manufacturing route for the C-Cu composite. Four different compositions of the composite were developed by varying the amount of carbon fibers by 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt. % of the copper. The effect of varying carbon fiber content and sizes on the mechanical properties of the C-Cu composite is studied in this work. The tensile test was performed on the tensile specimens. The yield strength decreases with increasing fiber content while the ultimate tensile strength increases with increasing fiber content. Rockwell hardness test was also performed and the result followed the increasing trend for increasing carbon fibers and the hardness numbers are 30.2, 37.2, 39.9 and 42.5 for sample 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The microstructures of the specimens were also examined under the optical microscope. Wear test and SEM also done for checking characteristic of C-Cu marix composite. Through casting may be a route for the production of the C-Cu matrix composite but still powder metallurgy is better to follow as the wettability of carbon fiber with matrix, in that case, would be better.
103
72022
Design and Development of Solar Water Cooler Using Principle of Evaporation
Abstract:
The use of water cooler has increased and become an important appliance in the world of global warming. Most of the coolers are electrically operated. In this study an experimental setup of evaporative water cooler using solar energy is designed and developed. It works on the principle of heat transfer using evaporation of water. Water is made to flow through copper tubes arranged in a specific array manner. Cotton plug is wrapped on copper tubes and rubber pipes are arranged in the same way as copper tubes above it. Water percolated from rubber pipes is absorbed by cotton plug. The setup has 40L water carrying capacity with forced cooling arrangement and variable speed fan which uses solar energy stored in 20Ah capacity battery. Fan speed greatly affects the temperature drop. Tests were performed at different fan speed. Maximum temperature drop achieved was 90C at 1440 rpm of fan speed. This temperature drop is very attractive. This water cooler uses solar energy hence it is cost efficient and it is affordable to rural community as well. The cooler is free from any harmful emissions like other refrigerants and hence environmental friendly. Very less maintenance is required as compared to the conventional electrical water cooler.
102
80847
Optimization of Synergism Extraction of Toxic Metals (Lead, Copper) from Chlorides Solutions with Mixture of Cationic and Solvating Extractants
Abstract:
In recent years, environmental contamination by toxic metals such as Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn ... has become a worldwide crucial problem, particularly in some areas where the population depends on groundwater for drinking daily consumption. Thus, the sources of metal ions come from the metal manufacturing industry, fertilizers, batteries, paints, pigments and so on. Solvent extraction of metal ions has given an important role in the development of metal purification processes such as the synergistic extraction of some divalent cations metals ( M²⁺), the ions metals from various sources. This work consists of a water purification technique that involves the lead and copper systems: Pb²⁺, H₃O+, Cl⁻ and Cu²⁺, H₃O⁺, Cl⁻ for diluted solutions by a mixture of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or Tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP) and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in kerosene. The study of the fundamental parameters influencing the extraction synergism: cation exchange/extraction solvent have been examined.
101
61014
Inhibition of the Corrosion of Copper in 0.5 NaCl Solutions by Aqueous Extract and Hydrolysis Acid of Olive Leaf Extract
Abstract:
Oleuropein-rich extract from olive leaf and acid hydrolysates, rich in hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid was prepared under different experimental conditions. These phenolic compounds may be used as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibitive action of these extracts and its major constituents on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurements. The product of extraction was analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), whose analysis shows that olive leaf extract are greatly rich in phenolic compounds, mainly Oleuropeine (OLE), Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid (EA). After the acid hydrolysis and high temperature of extraction, an increase in hydroxytyrosol concentration was detected, coupled with relatively low oleuropeine content and high concentration of elenolic acid. The potentiodynamic measurements have shown that this extract acts as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor, and good inhibition efficiency is observed with the increase in HT and EA concentration. These results suggest that the inhibitive effect of olive leaf extract might be due to the adsorption of the various phenolic compounds onto the copper surface.
100
57622
Comparative Study of Stone Column with and without Encasement Using Waste Aggregate
Abstract:
In developing countries like India due to the rapid urbanization, large amount of waste materials are produced every year. These waste materials can be utilized in the improvement of problematic soils. Stone column is one of the best methods to improve soft clay deposits. In this study, load tests were conducted to ensure the suitability of waste as column materials. The variable parameters studied are material, number of column and encasement. The materials used for the study are stone aggregate, copper slag, construction waste, for one, two and three number of columns with geotextile and geogrid encasement. It was found that the performance of waste as column material are comparable to that of conventional stone column with and without encasement. Hence, it is concluded that the copper slag and construction waste may be used as a column material in place of conventional stone aggregate to improve the soft clay advantage being utilization of waste.
99
58248
Application of ATP7B Gene Mutation Analysis in Prenatal Diagnosis of Wilson’s Disease
Abstract:
Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, which is caused by mutation in copper- transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). The mechanism of this disease is a failure of hepatic excretion of copper to the bile, and it leads to copper deposits in the liver and other organs. Most clinical symptoms of Wilson’s disease can present as liver disease and/or neurologic disease. Objective: The goal of the study is prenatal diagnosis for pregnant women at high risk of Wilson’s disease in Northern Vietnam. Material and method: Three probands with clinically diagnosed liver disease were detected in the mutations of 21 exons and exon-intron boundaries of the ATP7B gene by direct Sanger-sequencing. Prenatal diagnoses were performed by amniotic fluid sampling from pregnant women in the 16th-18th weeks of pregnancy after the genotypes of parents with the probands were identified. Result: A total of three different mutations of the probands, including of S105*, P1052L, P1273G, were detected. Among three fetuses which underwent prenatal genetic testing, one fetus was homozygote; two fetuses were carriers. Conclusion: Genetic testing provided a useful method for prenatal diagnosis, and is a basis for genetic counseling.
98
61007
Olive Leaf Extract as Natural Corrosion Inhibitor for Pure Copper in 0.5 M NaCl Solution: A Study by Voltammetry around OCP
Abstract:
Oleuropein-rich extract from olive leaf and acid hydrolysates, rich in hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid was prepared under different experimental conditions. These phenolic compounds may be used as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibitive action of these extracts and its major constituents on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurements. The product of extraction was analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), whose analysis shows that olive leaf extract are greatly rich in phenolic compounds, mainly Oleuropeine (OLE), Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid (EA). After the acid hydrolysis and high temperature of extraction, an increase in hydroxytyrosol concentration was detected, coupled with relatively low oleuropeine content and high concentration of elenolic acid. The potentiodynamic measurements have shown that this extract acts as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor, and good inhibition efficiency is observed with the increase in HT and EA concentration. These results suggest that the inhibitive effect of olive leaf extract might be due to the adsorption of the various phenolic compounds onto the copper surface.
97
41163
Adsorption of Heavy Metals Using Chemically-Modified Tea Leaves
Abstract:
Copper is perhaps the most prevalent heavy metal used in the manufacturing industries, from food additives to metal-mechanic factories. Common methodologies to remove copper are expensive and produce undesired by-products. A good decontaminating candidate should be environment-friendly, inexpensive, and capable of eliminating low concentrations of the metal. This work suggests chemically modified spent tea leaves of chamomile, peppermint and green tea in their thiolated, sulfonated and carboxylated forms as candidates for the removal of copper from solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to maximize the adsorption of copper (II) ions. Effects such as acidity, salinity, adsorbent dose, metal concentration, and presence of surfactant were explored. Experimental data show that maximum adsorption is reached at neutral pH. The results indicate that Cu(II) can be removed up to 53%, 22% and 19% with the thiolated, carboxylated and sulfonated adsorbents, respectively. Maximum adsorption of copper on TPM (53%) is achieved with 150 mg and decreases with the presence of salts and surfactants. Conversely, sulfonated and carboxylated adsorbents show better adsorption in the presence of surfactants. Time-dependent experiments show that adsorption is reached in less than 25 min for TCM and 5 min for SCM. Instrumental analyses determined the presence of active functional groups, thermal resistance, and scanning electron microscopy, indicating that both adsorbents are promising materials for the selective recovery and treatment of metal ions from wastewaters. Finally, columns were prepared with these adsorbents to explore their application in scaled-up processes, with very positive results. A long-term goal involves the recycling of the exhausted adsorbent and/or their use in the preparation of biofuels due to changes in materials’ structures.
96
100170
Toxicological Effects of Heavy Metals; Copper, Lead and Chromium on Brain and Liver Tissue of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
Abstract:
The present study deals with the toxicological effects of copper, lead and chromium on brain and liver tissues of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The average length of experimental fish was 8.5 ± 5.5 cm and weighed 9.5 ± 6.5 g. Grass carp was exposed to lethal concentration (LC₁₅) of copper, lead and chromium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. (LC₁₅) for copper was 1.5, 1.4, 1.2 and 1mgL⁻¹. Similarly, LC₁₅ of lead was 250, 235, 225 and 216mgL⁻¹ while (LC₁₅) for chromium was 25.5, 22.5, 20 and 18mgL⁻¹ respectively. During the time of exposure against various doses of heavy metals the grass carp showed some behavioral changes. In the initial stages of experiment, the rapid movements and gulping of air were observed. Several times the fish tried to jump to scat from the toxic median. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals in different tissues of grass carp particularly in liver and brain tissues were observed. Lead was highly accumulated in brain tissue after the exposure of fish for 24 and 48 hours, while highly accumulated in liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 72 and 96 hours. Chromium was highly accumulated in the liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 24 hours while its accumulation was found highly in the brain tissues after the exposure of fish for 48, 72 and 96 hours. Similarly, accumulation of copper concentration was found highly in brain tissues after the exposure of 48 and 96 hours while its accumulation was high in liver tissues after the exposure of 24 and 72 hours. Comparatively maximum accumulation of lead was found in brain and liver tissues of grass carp followed by chromium and copper. Furthermore, accumulation of these metals caused many abnormalities like gliosis, destruction of cell, change in cell shape and shrinkage of cells in brain tissue while in liver tissues aggregation in hepatocytes, widen space between cells and also destruction of cell was observed. These experiments and observations can be useful to monitor the aquatic pollution and quality of aquatic environment system.
95
40181
Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Surfactants and Biosurfactants
Abstract:
The objective of this work is the use of natural surfactant (biosurfactant) and synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 80) for environmental application. In fact the solubility of the polycyclic hydrocarbon (naphthalene) and the desorption of the heavy metals in the presence of surfactants. The microorganisms selected in this work are bacterial strain (Bacillus licheniformis) for the production of biosurfactant for use in this study. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants solubilization certain hydrocarbons few soluble in water such as polyaromatic (case naphthalene). Tests have shown that from the critical micelle concentration, decontamination is performed. The second part presents the results on the desorption of heavy metals (for copper) by the three surfactants, using concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. The comparison between the desorption of copper by the three surfactants, it is shown that the biosurfactant is more effective than tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
94
19832
Effect of Manganese Doping Percentage on Optical Band Gap and Conductivity of Copper Sulphide Nano-Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Method
Abstract:
Mn doped copper sulphide (CuS:Mn) nano-films were deposited on indiums coated tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using electrodeposition method. Electrodeposition was carried out using bath of PH = 3 at room temperature. Other depositions parameters such as deposition time (DT) are kept constant while Mn doping was varied from 3% to 23%. Absorption spectra of CuS:Mn films was obtained by using JENWAY 6405 UV-VIS -spectrophotometer. Optical band gap (E_g ), optical conductivity (σo) and electrical conductivity (σe) of CuS:Mn films were determined using absorption spectra and appropriate formula. The effect of Mn doping % on these properties were investigated. Results show that film thickness (t) for the 13.27 nm to 18.49 nm; absorption coefficient (α) from 0.90 x 1011 to 1.50 x 1011 optical band gap from 2.29eV to 2.35 eV; optical conductivity from 1.70 x 1013 and electrical conductivity from 160 millions to 154 millions. Possible applications of such films for solar cells fabrication and optoelectronic devices applications were also discussed.
93
19271
Structural Properties of CuCl, CuBr, and CuI Compounds under Hydrostatic Pressure
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to investigate the structural phase-transitions and electronic properties of copper halides. Our calculations were performed within the PLW extension to the first principle FPLMTO method, which enables an accurate treatment of all kinds of structures including the open ones. Results are given for lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its first derivatives in five different surface phases, and are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. In the zinc-blende (B3) and PbO (B10) phases, the fundamental gap remains direct with both the top of VB and the bottom of CB located at Γ.
92
92026
Comparison of Mechanical Property of UNS C12200Joints Brazed by (Cu&Ag) Based Filler Metals
Abstract:
In this study the coper tube witch used in medical applications was brazed by Copper, Zink and Silver alloys, using BCuP2, RBCuZnAl and BAg2 filler metals. The sample of the medical tubes was chemically analyzed and the result matches the British standard. Tensile and hardness tests were carried out for brazed joints, and the tensile test results show that the BCuP2 has the hardest and the filler metal RBCuZnAl has the highest tensile strength.
91
4809
Determination of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Different Cigarette Brands in Yemen by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Authors:
Abstract:
The concentration levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different cigarette brands commonly produced and sold in Yemen were determined. Convenient sample treatment for cigarette tobacco of freshly opened packs was achieved by a sample preparation method based on dry digestion, and the concentrations of the analysed metals were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The mean values obtained for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in different Yemeni cigarette tobacco were 311, 52.2, 10.11, 1.71 and 4.06 µg/g dry weight, respectively. There is no more significant difference among cigarette brands tested. It was found that Fe was at the highest concentration, followed by Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.77% to 19.34%. The accuracy and precision of the results were checked by blank and recovery tests. The results show that Yemeni cigarettes contain heavy metal concentration levels that are similar to those in foreign cigarette brands reported by other studies in the worldwide.
90
5929
Effect of Nano-Copper Oxide Synthesized by Solution-Based Chemical Precipitation Method on Antibacterial Polyester Nanocopper Oxide Composite
Abstract:
Antibacterial materials have become future textile materials due to the escalation of people’s awareness regarding the importance of maintaining health. Textile materials with antibacterial properties are examples in application which has positive results in various aspects. In this research polyester nano-copper oxide composite with nanoparticle is synthesized by solution-based chemical precipitation method from Cu(NO3)2 solution. Parameters such as precursor concentration is varied to determine which composition would result in effective properties of antibacterial composite. The antibacterial property is observed using disk diffusion method and SEM observation is conducted on each specimen. The composites produced are able to inhibit the growth of both positive gram bacteria (i.e. S. aureus) and negative gram bacteria (i.e. E. coli), thus, highly capable of helping to prevent the spread of disease.
89
78915
Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste
Abstract:
Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.
88
27415
Gastroprotective Effect of Copper Complex On Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer In Rats. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study
Abstract:
Background: Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug. Indomethacin induces an injury to gastrointestinal mucosa in experimental animals and humans and their use is associated with a significant risk of hemorrhage, erosions and perforation of both gastric and intestinal ulcers. The anti-inflammatory action of copper complexes is an important activity of their anti-ulcer effect achieved by their intermediary role as a transport form of copper that allow activation of the several copper-dependent enzymes. Therefore, several copper complexes were synthesized and investigated as promising alternative anti-ulcer therapy. Aim of the work: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a copper chelating complex consisting of egg albumin and copper as one of the copper peptides that can be used as anti-inflammatory agent and effective in ameliorates the hazards of the indomethacin on the histological structure of the fundus of the stomach that could be added to raise the efficacy of the currently used simple and cheap gastric anti-inflammatory drug mucogel. Material &methods: This study was carried out on 40 adult male albino rats,divided equally into 4 groups;Group I(control group) received distilled water,Group II(indomethacin treated group) received (25 mg/kg body weight, oral intubation) once, Group III (mucogel treated group)2 mL/rat once daily, oral incubation, Group IV(copper complex group) 1 mL /rat of 30 gm of copper albumin complex was mixed uniformly with mucogel to 100 mL. Treatment has been started six hour after Induction of Ulcers and continued till the 3rd day. The animals sacrificed and was processed for light, transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS). Results: Fundic mucosa of group II, showed exfoliation of epithelial cells lining the gland, discontinuity of surface epithelial cells (ulcer formation), vacuolation and detachment of cells, eosinophilic infiltration and congestion of blood vessels in the lamina propria and submucosa. There was thickening and disarrangement of mucosa, weak positive reaction for PAS and marked increase in the collagen fibers lamina propria and the submucosa of the fundus. TEM revealed degeneration of cheif and parietal cells.Marked increase positive reactive of iNOS in all cells of the fundic gland. Group III showed reconstruction of gastric gland with cystic dilatation and vacuolation, moderate decrease of collagen fibers, reduced the intensity of iNOS while in Group IV healthy mucosa with normal surface lining epithelium and fundic glands, strong positive reaction for PAS, marked decrease of collagen fibers and positive reaction for iNOS. TEM revealed regeneration of cheif and parietal cells. Conclusion: Co treatment of copper-albumin complex seems to be useful for gastric ulcer treatment and ameliorates most of hazards of indomethacin.
87
73491
Surpassing Antibiotic Resistance through Synergistic Effects of Polyethyleneimine-Silver Nanoparticle Complex Coated Mesoporous Silica Trio-Nanoconstructs
Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become an emergency situation clinically. To improve the efficacy of antibiotics in resistant strains, advancement of nanoparticles is inevitable than ever. Herewith, we demonstrate a design by immobilizing tetracycline (TET) in copper substituted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Cu-MSNs) through a pH-sensitive coordination link, enabling its release in the acidic environment. Subsequently, MSNs are coated with silver nanoparticles stabilized polyethyleneimine (PEI-SNP) to act against drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Silver ions released from SNP are capable of sensitizing the resistant strains and facilitate the generation of free radicals capable of damaging the cell components. In addition, copper ions in the framework are also capable of generating free radicals through Fenton-like reaction. Furthermore, the nanoparticles are well-characterized physically, and various antibacterial efficacious tests against isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strain were highly commendable. However, this formulation has no significant toxic effect on normal mammalian fibroblast cells accounting its high biocompatibility. These MSN trio-hybrids, i.e., SNP, tetracycline, and copper ions result in synergistic effects, and their advancement could bypass resistance and allow synergism for effective treatment of antibiotic clinically.
86
42098
The Study of Chitosan beads Adsorption Properties for the Removal of Heavy Metals
Abstract:
In this study, a predicted pH model was used to determine adsorption equilibrium properties of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of Cape rock-lobsters, collected from the surroundings of Cape Town, South Africa. The beads were cross-linked with gluteraldehyde to restore its chemical stability in acid media. The chitosan beads were characterized; the beads water contents and pKa varied in the range of 90-96% and 4.3-6.0 respectively and the degree of crosslinking for the beads was 18%. A pH-model, which described the reversibility of the metal adsorbed onto the beads, was used to predict the equilibrium properties of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium adsorption onto the cross-linked beads. The model accounts for the effect of pH and the important model parameters; the equilibrium adsorption constant (Kads) and to a lesser extent the adsorbent adsorption capacity (qmax). The adsorption equilibrium constant for copper, lead, zinc and cadmium were found to be 2.58×10-3, 2.22×0-3, 9.55×0-3, and 4.79×0-3, respectively. The adsorbent maximum capacity was determined to be 4.2 mmol/g.
85
41203
Determination of Mineral Elements in Some Coarse Grains Used as Staple Food in Kano, Nigeria
Abstract:
Analyses of mineral elements were carried out on some coarse grains used as staple food in Kano. The levels of Magnesium, Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper and Zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), and that of Sodium and Potassium were obtained using flame photometer (FES). The result of the study shows that the mean results of the mineral elements ranged from 62.50±0.55 - 84.82±0.74mg/kg sodium, 73.33±0.35 - 317±0.10mg/kg magnesium, 89.22±0.26 - 193.33±0.19mg/kg potassium, 70.00±0.52 - 186.67±0.29mg/kg calcium, 1.00±0.11 - 20.50±1.30mg/kg manganese, 25.00±0.11 - 80.50±0.36mg/kg iron. 4.00±0.08 - 13.00±0.24mg/kg copper and 15.00±0.34 - 50.50±0.24 zinc. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in levels of sodium, potassium and calcium whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05) occurs in levels of magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc. In comparison with Recommended Daily Allowances of essential and trace metals set by international standard organizations, the coarse grains analysed in this work contribute little to the provision of essential and trace elements requirements.
84
23861
The Catalytic Activity of CU2O Microparticles
Abstract:
Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of a surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected to a study of the catalytic activity and the results of shape effects of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction was observed. The decolorizing reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and the decrease of reactant with respect to time was measured using a spectrophotometer. The result revealed that morphology of the crystal had no effect on the catalytic activity for the crystal violet reaction but contributed to total surface area predominantly.
83
45639
Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Commercially Pure Copper Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation Technique-Equal Channel Angular Extrusion
Abstract:
The experiments have been conducted to study the mechanical properties of commercially pure copper processing at room temperature by severe plastic deformation using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) through a die of 90oangle up to 3 passes by route BC i.e. rotating the sample in the same direction by 90o after each pass. ECAE is used to produce from existing coarse grains to ultra-fine, equiaxed grains structure with high angle grain boundaries in submicron level by introducing a large amount of shear strain in the presence of hydrostatic pressure into the material without changing billet shape or dimension. Mechanical testing plays an important role in evaluating fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in developing new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction. Yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and ductility are structure sensitive properties and vary with the structure of the material. Microhardness and tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the hardness, strength and ductility of the ECAE processed materials. The results reveal that the strength and hardness of commercially pure copper samples improved significantly without losing much ductility after each pass.
82
88804
Influence of Wavelengths on Photosensitivity of Copper Phthalocyanine Based Photodetectors
Abstract:
We demonstrated an organic field effect transistor based photodetector using phthalocyanine as the active material that exhibited high photosensitivity under varying light wavelengths. The thermally grown SiO₂ layer on silicon wafer act as a substrate. The critical parameters, such as photosensitivity, responsivity and detectivity, are comparatively high and were 3.09, 0.98AW⁻¹ and 4.86 × 10¹⁰ Jones, respectively, under a bias of 5 V and a monochromatic illumination intensity of 4mW cm⁻². The photodetector has a linear I-V curve with a low dark current. On comparing photoresponse of copper phthalocyanine at four different wavelengths, 560 nm shows better photoresponse and the highest value of photosensitivity is also obtained.
81
16499
In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials
Abstract:
To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and micro structures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.
80
98364
Effect of Copper Ions Doped-Hydroxyapatite 3D Fiber Scaffold
Abstract:
The mineral in human bone is not pure stoichiometric calcium phosphate (Ca/P) as it is partially substituted by in organic elements. In this study, the copper ions (Cu2+) substituted hydroxyapatite (CuHA) powder has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The CuHA powder has been used to fabricate CuHA fiber scaffolds by sol-gel process and the following sinter process. The resulted CuHA fibers have slightly different microstructure (i.e. porosity) compared to HA fiber scaffold, which is denser. The mechanical properties test was used to evaluate CuHA, and the results showed decreases in both compression strength and hardness tests. Moreover, the in vitro used endothelial cells to evaluate the angiogenesis of CuHA. The result illustrated that the viability of endothelial cell on CuHA fiber scaffold surfaces tends to antigenic behavior. The results obtained with CuHA scaffold give this material benefit in biological applications such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antigens, compacts, filling cavities of the tooth and for the deposition of metal implants anti-tumor, anti-cancer, bone filler, and scaffold.
79
1665
Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation
Abstract:
The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.
78
24214
Polymer Solar Cells Synthesized with Copper Oxide Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Copper Oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nano particles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nano particles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA/cm2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA/cm2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nano particles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nano particles.
77
48545
Application of Various Methods for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils around Agarak Copper-Molybdenum Mine Complex, Armenia
Abstract:
The present study was aimed in assessing the heavy metal pollution of the soils around Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex and related environmental risks. This mine complex is located in the south-east part of Armenia, and the present study was conducted in 2013. The soils of the five riskiest sites of this region were studied: surroundings of the open mine, the sites adjacent to processing plant of Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, surroundings of Darazam active tailing dump, the recultivated tailing dump of "ravine - 2", and the recultivated tailing dump of "ravine - 3". The mountain cambisol was the main soil type in the study sites. The level of soil contamination by heavy metals was assessed by Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) and Enrichment factor (EF). The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to Cf, Cd, I-geo and EF values shows that the soil is much polluted. Almost in all studied sites, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Cd were the main polluting heavy metals, and this was conditioned by Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex activity. It is necessary to state that the pollution problem becomes pressing as some parts of these highly polluted region are inhabited by population, and agriculture is highly developed there; therefore, heavy metals can be transferred into human bodies through food chains and have direct influence on public health. Since the induced pollution can pose serious threats to public health, further investigations on soil and vegetation pollution are recommended. Finally, Cf calculating based on distance from the pollution source and the wind direction can provide more reasonable results.
76
68098
Electrospinning in situ Synthesis of Graphene-Doped Copper Indium Disulfide Composite Nanofibers for Efficient Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Abstract:
In this paper, graphene-doped copper indium disulfide (rGO+CuInS2) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis, and carbonization, using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), copper dichloride (CuCl2), indium trichloride (InCl3), thiourea (C2H5NS) and graphene oxide nanosheets (Go) as the precursor solution for electrospinning. The average diameter of rGO+CuInS2 nanofibers were about 100 nm, and graphene nanosheets anchored with chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanocrystals 8-15 nm in diameter were overlapped and embedded, aligning along the fiber axial direction. The DSSC with a rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 5.93%; better than the corresponding values for a DSSC with a CuInS2 counter electrode, and comparable to that of a reference DSSC with a Pt counter electrode. The excellent photoelectric performance of the rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode was attributed to its high specific surface area, which facilitated permeation of the liquid electrolytes, promoted electron and ion transfer and provided numerous catalytically active sites for the oxidation reaction of the electrolytic (I- /I3-).
75
51828
Production of Nanocomposite Electrical Contact Materials Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C in Thermal Plasma
Abstract:
Composite materials where metal matrix is reinforced by ceramic or metal particles are of great interest for use in the manufacturing of electrical contacts. Significant improvement of the composite physical and mechanical properties as well as increase of the performance parameters of composite-based products can be achieved if the nanoscale structure in the composite materials is obtained by using nanosized powders as starting components. The results of nanosized composite powders synthesis (Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C) in the DC thermal plasma flows are presented in this paper. The investigations included the following processes: - Recondensation of micron powder mixture Ag + SnO2 in a nitrogen plasma; - The reduction of the oxide powders mixture (WO3 + CuO) in a hydrogen-nitrogen plasma; - Decomposition of the copper formate and copper acetate powders in nitrogen plasma. The calculations of equilibrium compositions of multicomponent systems Ag-Sn-O-N, W-Cu-O-H-N and Cu-O-C-H-N in the temperature range of 400-5000 K were carried to estimate basic process characteristics. Experimental studies of the processes were performed using a plasma reactor with a confined jet flow. The plasma jet net power was in the range of 2 - 13 kW, and the feedstock flow rate was up to 0.35 kg/h. The obtained powders were characterized by TEM, HR-TEM, SEM, EDS, ED-XRF, XRD, BET and QEA methods. Nanocomposite Ag-SnO2 (12 wt. %). Processing of the initial powder mixture (Ag-SnO2) in nitrogen thermal plasma stream allowed to produce nanopowders with a specific surface area up to 24 m2/g, consisting predominantly of particles with size less than 100 nm. According to XRD results, tin was present in the obtained products as SnO2 phase, and also as intermetallic phases AgxSn. Nanocomposite W-Cu (20 wt .%). Reduction of (WO3+CuO) mixture in the hydrogen-nitrogen plasma provides W-Cu nanopowder with particle sizes in the range of 10-150 nm. The particles have mainly spherical shape and structure tungsten core - copper shell. The thickness of the shell is about several nanometers, the shell is composed of copper and its oxides (Cu2O, CuO). The nanopowders had 1.5 wt. % oxygen impurity. Heat treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere allows to reduce the oxygen content to less than 0.1 wt. %. Nanocomposite Cu-C. Copper nanopowders were found as products of the starting copper compounds decomposition. The nanopowders primarily had a spherical shape with a particle size of less than 100 nm. The main phase was copper, with small amount of Cu2O and CuO oxides. Copper formate decomposition products had a specific surface area 2.5-7 m2/g and contained 0.15 - 4 wt. % carbon; and copper acetate decomposition products had the specific surface area 5-35 m2/g, and carbon content of 0.3 - 5 wt. %. Compacting of nanocomposites (sintering in hydrogen for Ag-SnO2 and electric spark sintering (SPS) for W-Cu) showed that the samples having a relative density of 97-98 % can be obtained with a submicron structure. The studies indicate the possibility of using high-intensity plasma processes to create new technologies to produce nanocomposite materials for electric contacts.
74
3553
Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing Process on Impact Property of Pure Copper
Abstract:
Ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanostructured (NS) materials have experienced a rapid development during the last decade and made profound impact on every field of materials science and engineering. The present work has been undertaken to develop ultra-fine grained pure copper by severe plastic deformation method and to examine the impact property by different characterizing tools. For this aim, equal channel angular pressing die with the channel angle, outer corner angle and channel diameter of 90°, 17° and 20 mm had been designed and manufactured. Commercial pure copper billets were ECAPed up to four passes by route BC at the ambient temperature. The results indicated that there is a great improvement at the hardness measurement, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength after ECAP process. It is found that the magnitudes of HV reach 136HV from 52HV after the final pass. Also, about 285% and 125% enhancement at the YS and UTS values have been obtained after the fourth pass as compared to the as-received conditions, respectively. On the other hand, the elongation to failure and impact energy have been reduced by imposing ECAP process and pass numbers. It is needed to say that about 56% reduction in the impact energy have been attained for the samples as contrasted to annealed specimens.
73
74539
Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method
Abstract:
The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.
72
40350
Influence of Electrode Assembly on Catalytic Activation and Deactivation of a PT Film Immobilized H+ Conducting Solid Electrolyte in Electrocatalytic Reduction Reactions
Abstract:
Symmetric (Cu–Pt|Nafion|Pt–Cu) and asymmetric(Pt|Nafion|Pt–Cu) assemblies were fabricated to study the nitrate reduction processes at the cathode. The electrocatalytic nitrate reduction reactions were performed in these assemblies in order to investigate the prerequisite for the enhanced catalytic activity, electrochemical cell durability as well as preferable product selectivity resulting from the reduction of nitrate at the cathode. It has been observed for the symmetric assembly that Cu particles were oxidized on the anode surface under an applied potential and the resulting copper ions migrated to the cathode surface through the Nafion membrane, which deposited as copper oxide on the cathode surface. The formation of this copper oxide covering layer on the Pt–Cu cathode surface is attributed as the reason for the deactivation of the cathode that governed the reduced nitrate reduction along with increasing nitrite selectivity. These problems were addressed and resolved with the asymmetric design of the electrocatalytic reactor, where enhanced hydrogen evolution activates the surface by eroding the CuO over layer as well as speeding up the slow rate determining hydrogenation reactions.
71
59761
Effects of Dietary Copper Supplementation on the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
Abstract:
The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, enzymatic antioxidant and metabolic enzymes of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu was supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 with the basal diets. Cu supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. At the end of the feeding experiment, 40 mg kg-1 Cu supplemented feeds fed PL showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities and concentrations of biochemical constituents. However, PL fed with 60 to 80 mg Cu kg-1 showed negative performance. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, metabolic enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the muscle and hepatopancreas showed insignificant alterations (P > 0.05) up to 40 mg kg-1 Cu supplemented feeds fed PL. Whereas, 60 and 80 mg of Cu kg-1 supplemented feeds fed PL showed significant alterations on these antioxidants and metabolic enzymes levels. It indicates that beyond 40 mg Cu kg-1 diets were produced some toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, the present study suggests that 40 mg Cu kg-1 can be supplemented in the diets of M. rosenbergii PL for regulating better survival and growth.
70
14485
Digital Antimicrobial Thermometer for Axilliary Usage: A New Device for Measuring the Temperature of the Body for the Reduction of Cross-Infections
Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this prospective comparative study is to evaluate the reduction of microbial flora on the surface of an axillary digital thermometer, made of antimicrobial copper, in relation with a common digital thermometer. Material – Methods: A brand new digital electronic thermometer implemented with antimicrobial copper (Cu 70% - Nic 30%, low lead) on the two edges of the device (top and bottom: World Patent Number WO2013064847 and Register Number by the Hellenic Copper Development Institute No 11/2012) was manufactured and a comparative study with common digital electronic thermometer was conducted on 18 ICU (Intensive Care Unit) patients of three different hospitals. The thermometry was performed in accordance with the projected International Nursing Protocols for body temperature measurement. A total of 216 microbiological samples were taken from the axillary area of the patients, using both of the investigated body temperature devises. Simultaneously the “Halo” phenomenon (phenomenon “Stefanis”) was studied at the non-antimicrobial copper-implemented parts of the antimicrobial digital electronic thermometer. Results: In all samples collected from the surface of the antimicrobial electronic digital thermometer, the reduction of microbial flora (Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermitis, Candida spp, Pneudomonas spp) was progressively reduced to 99% in two hours after the thermometry. The above flora was found in the axillary cavity remained the same in common thermometer. The statistical analysis (SPSS 21) showed a statistically significant reduction of the microbial load (N = 216, < 0.05). Conclusions: The hospital-acquired infections are linked to the transfer of pathogens due to the multi-usage of medical devices from both health professionals and patients, such as axillary thermometers. The use of antimicrobial digital electronic thermometer minimizes microbes' transportation between patients and health professionals while having all the conditions of reliability, proper functioning, security, ease of use and reduced cost.
69
107627
Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Deformation Behaviour of Single Crystal Copper
Abstract:
A study combining experimental and numerical investigation on the deformation behaviour of single crystals of copper is presented in this paper. Cylindrical samples were cut in specific orientations from high purity copper single crystal and subjected to uniaxial compression loading at quasi-static strain rate. The stress-strain curves along two different crystallographic orientations were then extracted. In order to study and compare the deformation responses, a single crystal plasticity model incorporating non-Schmid effects was developed assuming cross-slip plays an important role in orientation of the material. By making use of crystal plasticity finite element method, the model was applied to investigate the orientation dependence of the stress-strain behaviour of two crystallographic orientations. Finally, details of slip activities of deformed crystals were investigated by linking the orientation of slip lines with the theoretical traces of possible crystallographic planes. The experimentally determined active slip modes were matched with those determined by simulations.
68
41447
Electrochemical Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) Synthesis by Using Rigid and Felexible Ligands
Abstract:
The chemistry of coordination polymers in recent years has grown exponentially not only because of their interesting architectures but also due to their various technical applications in many fields including ion exchange, chemical catalysis, small molecule separations, and drug release. The use of bridging ligands for the controlled self-assembly of one, two or three dimensional metallo-supramolecular species is the subject of serious study in last decade. Numerous different synthetic methods have been offered for the preparation of coordination polymers such as (a) diffusion from the gas phase, (b) slow diffusion of the reactants into a polymeric matrix, (c) evaporation of the solvent at ambient or reduced temperatures, (d) temperature controlled cooling, (e) precipitation or recrystallisation from a mixture of solvents and (f) hydrothermal synthesis. The electrosynthetic process suggested several advantages over conventional approaches. A general advantage of electrochemical synthesis is that it allows synthesis under milder conditions than typical solvothermal or microwave synthesis. In this work we have introduced a simple electrochemical method for growing metal coordination polymers based on copper with a flexible 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and rigid 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate (BTC) ligands. The structure of coordination polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that different conformations of the ligands and different coordination modes of the carboxylate group as well as different coordination geometries of the copper atoms. Electrochemical synthesis of coordination polymers has different advantages such as faster synthesis at lower temperature in compare with conventional chemical methods and crystallization of desired materials in a single synthetic step.
67
58250
Mutation Analysis of the ATP7B Gene in 43 Vietnamese Wilson’s Disease Patients
Abstract:
Wilson&rsquo;s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the copper metabolism, which is caused by a mutation in the copper-transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). The mechanism of this disease is the failure of hepatic excretion of copper to bile, and leads to copper deposits in the liver and other organs. The ATP7B gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q14.3). This study aimed to investigate the gene mutation in the Vietnamese patients with WD, and make a presymptomatic diagnosis for their familial members. Forty-three WD patients and their 65 siblings were identified as having ATP7B gene mutations. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples; 21 exons and exon-intron boundaries of the ATP7B gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. We recognized four mutations ([R723=; H724Tfs*34], V1042Cfs*79, D1027H, and IVS6+3A&gt;G) in the sum of 20 detectable mutations, accounting for 87.2% of the total. Mutation S105* was determined to have a high rate (32.6%) in this study. The hotspot regions of ATP7B were found at exons 2, 16, and 8, and intron 14, in 39.6 %, 11.6 %, 9.3%, and 7 % of patients, respectively. Among nine homozygote/compound heterozygote siblings of the patients with WD, three individuals were determined as asymptomatic by screening mutations of the probands. They would begin treatment after diagnosis. In conclusion, 20 different mutations were detected in 43 WD patients. Of this number, four novel mutations were explored, including [R723=; H724Tfs*34], V1042Cfs*79, D1027H, and IVS6+3A&gt;G. The mutation S105* is the most prevalent and has been considered as a biomarker that can be used in a rapid detection assay for diagnosis of WD patients. Exons 2, 8, and 16, and intron 14 should be screened initially for WD patients in Vietnam. Based on risk profile for WD, genetic testing for presymptomatic patients is also useful in diagnosis and treatment.
66
3877
Comparative Studies on the Concentration of Some Heavy Metal in Urban Particulate Matter, Bangkok, Thailand
Abstract:
The main objective of this study was investigate particulate matter concentration on main and secondary roadside in urban area. And studied on the concentration of some heavy metal including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in particulate matter in Bangkok area. The averaged particle concentration for main roadside are higher than secondary roadside. The particulate matter less than 10 micron concentration contribute the majority of the Total Suspended Particulate for main road and zinc concentration were higher than copper and lead for both site.
65
76858
Promotional Effects of Zn in Cu-Zn/Core-Shell Al-MCM-41 for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3: Acidic Properties, NOx Adsorption Properties, and Nature of Copper
Abstract:
Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst with various copper species, prepared by a combination of three methods—substitution, ion-exchange, and impregnation, was studied for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at 300 °C for 150 min. In order to investigate the effects of Zn introduction on the nature of the catalyst, Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 and Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalysts were also studied. The roles of Zn promoter in the acidity and the NOx adsorption properties of the catalysts were investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of NH3 and NOx adsorption, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of NH3 and NOx. The results demonstrated that the acidity of the catalyst was enhanced by the Zn introduction, as exchanged Zn(II) cations loosely bonded with Al-O-Si framework could create Brønsted acid sites by interacting with OH groups. Moreover, Zn species also provided the additional sites for NO adsorption in the form of nitrite (NO2–) and nitrate (NO3–) species, which are the key intermediates for SCR reaction. In addition, the effect of Zn on the nature of copper was studied by in situ FTIR of CO adsorption and in situ X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES). It was found that Zn species hindered the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(0), resulting in higher Cu(I) species in the Zn promoted catalyst. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with that of the Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 for the whole reaction time, as it possesses the highest amount of Cu(I) sites, which are responsible for SCR catalytic activity. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst also reached the maximum NO conversion of 100% with the average NO conversion of 76 %. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was further improved by using Zn promoter in the form of ZnO instead of reduced Zn species. The Cu-ZnO/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst showed better catalytic performance with longer working reaction time, and achieved the average NO conversion of 81%.
64
10956
The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.
63
30563
Comparison of Different Methods of Microorganism's Identification from a Copper Mining in Pará, Brazil
Abstract:
Introduction: Higher copper concentrations promote a selection pressure on organisms such as plants, fungi and bacteria, which allows surviving only the resistant organisms to the contaminated site. This selective pressure keeps only the organisms most resistant to a specific condition and subsequently increases their bioremediation potential. Despite the bacteria importance for biosphere maintenance, it is estimated that only a small fraction living microbial species has been described and characterized. Due to the molecular biology development, tools based on analysis 16S ribosomal RNA or another specific gene are making a new scenario for the characterization studies and identification of microorganisms in the environment. News identification of microorganisms methods have also emerged like Biotyper (MALDI / TOF), this method mass spectrometry is subject to the recognition of spectroscopic patterns of conserved and features proteins for different microbial species. In view of this, this study aimed to isolate bacteria resistant to copper present in a Copper Processing Area (Sossego Mine, Canaan, PA) and identifies them in two different methods: Recent (spectrometry mass) and conventional. This work aimed to use them for a future bioremediation of this Mining. Material and Methods: Samples were collected at fifteen different sites of five periods of times. Microorganisms were isolated from mining wastes by culture enrichment technique; this procedure was repeated 4 times. The isolates were inoculated into MJS medium containing different concentrations of chloride copper (1mM, 2.5mM, 5mM, 7.5mM and 10 mM) and incubated in plates for 72 h at 28 ºC. These isolates were subjected to mass spectrometry identification methods (Biotyper – MALDI/TOF) and 16S gene sequencing. Results: A total of 105 strains were isolated in this area, bacterial identification by mass spectrometry method (MALDI/TOF) achieved 74% agreement with the conventional identification method (16S), 31% have been unsuccessful in MALDI-TOF and 2% did not obtain identification sequence the 16S. These results show that Biotyper can be a very useful tool in the identification of bacteria isolated from environmental samples, since it has a better value for money (cheap and simple sample preparation and MALDI plates are reusable). Furthermore, this technique is more rentable because it saves time and has a high performance (the mass spectra are compared to the database and it takes less than 2 minutes per sample).
62
55440
Assessment of Some Heavy Metals (Manganese, Copper, Nickel and Zinc) in Muscle and Liver of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Ilushi River, Nigeria
Abstract:
This study determined the level of manganese, zinc, copper, and nickel in the liver and muscle of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from Ilushi River, Edo State, Nigeria with a view to determining the extent of contamination. Heavy metal determination of digested fish samples was done using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The results show that the muscles and livers were contaminated to varying levels with the presence of some non-metallic elements. The heavy metal load revealed that zinc had the highest mean concentration of 0.217±0.008µg/g in liver and 0.130±0.006µg/g in muscle, while copper recorded the least concentration in liver 0.063±0.004µg/g and 0.027±0.003µg/gin muscle. The distribution of the heavy metals in the muscles and livers of Clarias gariepinus showed significant variations and the results also revealed that the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu,Ni and Mn) found in the liver was higher than those found in the muscle. This indicates that the liver is a better accumulator of heavy metal in Clarias gariepinus than the muscles. On comparison with WHO/FAO/FEPA/USFDA standards, the study shows that the concentrations of heavy metals in liver and muscle were within permissible limits safe for human consumption.
61
60394
Design of Tube Expanders with Groove Shapes to Reduce Deformation of Tube Inner Grooves in Copper Tube Expansion
Authors:
Abstract:
Fin-tube heat exchangers have grooves inside tubes to improve heat exchange performance. However, during the tube expansion process, heat exchange efficiency is decreased due to large deformation of tube inner grooves. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a tube expander with groove shapes on its outer surface to minimize deformation of the inner grooves in copper tube expansion for fin-tube heat exchangers. In order to achieve this goal, first, we have tried to calculate tube inner groove deformation by the currently used tube expander without groove shapes on its surface. The tube inner groove deformation was acquired by elastoplastic finite element analysis from the boundary conditions with one tube end fixed and friction between the tube and tube expander (friction coefficient: 0.15). The tube expansion process was simulated by inserting the tube expander into the tube with a speed of 90 mm/s. The analysis results showed that tube inner groove heights were decreased by approximately 8 % from 0.15 mm to 0.138 mm with stress concentrations observed at the groove end, consistent with experimental results. Based on the current results, we are trying to design a novel shape of the tube expander with grooves to further reduce deformation tube inner grooves in copper tube expansion. For this, we will select major design variables of tube expander groove shapes by conducting sensitivity analysis and then optimize the design variables using the Taguchi method.
60
41508
Hysteresis Behavior and Microstructure in Nanostructured Alloys Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Co
Abstract:
The intermetallic-based on transition metal compounds present interesting magnetic properties for the technological applications (permanent magnets, magnetic recording…). Cu70 Fe18Co12 and Cu70 Fe30 nanostructured with crystallite size vary from 10 a 12 nanometers have been developed by a mechanical milling method. For Cu-Fe samples, the iron and copper distribution was clear. The distribution showed a homogeneous distribution of iron and copper in a Cu-Fe obtained after 36 h milling. The structural properties have been performed with X-ray diffraction. With increasing milling times, Fe and Co diffuse into the Cu matrix, which accelerates the formation of the magnetic nanostructure Cu- Fe-Co and Cu-Fe alloys. The magnetic behavior is investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The two alloys nanocrystals possess ferromagnetic character at room temperature
59
95906
Ultrasonic Irradiation Synthesis of High-Performance [email protected] Nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Electrocatalyst by Galvanic Replacement toward Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media
Abstract:
The direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are contemplated as a promising energy source because, In addition to being used in portable electronic devices, it is also used for electric vehicles. The synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures due to their novel optical, catalytic and electronic characteristic which is precisely in contrast to their monometallic counterparts is attracting extensive attention. Galvanic replacement (sometimes is named to as cementation or immersion plating) is an uncomplicated and effective technique for making nanostructures (such as core-shell) of different metals, semiconductors, and their application in DEFCs. The replacement of galvanic does not need any external power supply compared to electrodeposition. In addition, it is different from electroless deposition because there is no need for a reducing agent to replace galvanizing. In this paper, a fast method for the palladium (Pd) wire nanostructures synthesis with the great surface area through galvanic replacement reaction utilizing copper nanowires (CuNWS) as a template by the assistance of ultrasound under room temperature condition is proposed. To evaluate the morphology and composition of [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan, emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were applied. In order to measure the phase structure of the electrocatalysts were performed via room temperature X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) applying an X-ray diffractometer. Various electrochemical techniques including chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were utilized for the electrocatalytic activity of ethanol electrooxidation and durability in basic solution. [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst demonstrated substantially enhanced performance and long-term stability for ethanol electrooxidation in the basic solution in comparison to commercial Pd/C that demonstrated the potential in utilizing [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan as efficient catalysts towards ethanol oxidation. Noticeably, the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan presented excellent catalytic activities with a peak current density of 320.73 mAcm² which was 9.5 times more than in comparison to Pd/C (34.2133 mAcm²). Additionally, activation energy thermodynamic and kinetic evaluations revealed that the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst has lower compared to Pd/C which leads to a lower energy barrier and an excellent charge transfer rate towards ethanol oxidation.
58
96835
Ultrasonic Irradiation Synthesis of High-Performance [email protected] Nanowires/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Electrocatalyst by Galvanic Replacement toward Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media
Abstract:
The direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are contemplated as a promising energy source because, In addition to being used in portable electronic devices, it is also used for electric vehicles. The synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures due to their novel optical, catalytic and electronic characteristic which is precisely in contrast to their monometallic counterparts is attracting extensive attention. Galvanic replacement (sometimes is named to as cementation or immersion plating) is an uncomplicated and effective technique for making nanostructures (such as core-shell) of different metals, semiconductors, and their application in DEFCs. The replacement of galvanic does not need any external power supply compared to electrodeposition. In addition, it is different from electroless deposition because there is no need for a reducing agent to replace galvanizing. In this paper, a fast method for the palladium (Pd) wire nanostructures synthesis with the great surface area through galvanic replacement reaction utilizing copper nanowires (CuNWS) as a template by the assistance of ultrasound under room temperature condition is proposed. To evaluate the morphology and composition of [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan , emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were applied. In order to measure the phase structure of the electrocatalysts were performed via room-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) applying an X-ray diffractometer. Various electrochemical techniques including chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were utilized for the electrocatalytic activity of ethanol electrooxidation and durability in basic solution. [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst demonstrated substantially enhanced performance and long-term stability for ethanol electrooxidation in the basic solution in comparison to commercial Pd/C that demonstrated the potential in utilizing [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan as efficient catalysts towards ethanol oxidation. Noticeably, the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan presented excellent catalytic activities with peak current density of 320.73 mAcm-2 which was 9.5 times more than in comparison to Pd/C (34.2133 mAcm-2). Additionally, activation energy thermodynamic and kinetic evaluations revealed that the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst has lower compared to Pd/C which leads to a lower energy barrier and an excellent charge transfer rate towards ethanol oxidation.
57
96333
Ultrasonic Irradiation Synthesis of High-Performance [email protected] Nanowires/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Electrocatalyst by Galvanic Replacement toward Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media
Abstract:
The direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are contemplated as a promising energy source because, In addition to being used in portable electronic devices, it is also used for electric vehicles. The synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures due to their novel optical, catalytic and electronic characteristic which is precisely in contrast to their monometallic counterparts is attracting extensive attention. Galvanic replacement (sometimes is named to as cementation or immersion plating) is an uncomplicated and effective technique for making nanostructures (such as core-shell) of different metals, semiconductors, and their application in DEFCs. The replacement of galvanic does not need any external power supply compared to electrodeposition. In addition, it is different from electroless deposition because there is no need for a reducing agent to replace galvanizing. In this paper, a fast method for the palladium (Pd) wire nanostructures synthesis with the great surface area through galvanic replacement reaction utilizing copper nanowires (CuNWS) as a template by the assistance of ultrasound under room temperature condition is proposed. To evaluate the morphology and composition of [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan , emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were applied. In order to measure the phase structure of the electrocatalysts were performed via room-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) applying an X-ray diffractometer. Various electrochemical techniques including chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were utilized for the electrocatalytic activity of ethanol electrooxidation and durability in basic solution. [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst demonstrated substantially enhanced performance and long-term stability for ethanol electrooxidation in the basic solution in comparison to commercial Pd/C that demonstrated the potential in utilizing [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan as efficient catalysts towards ethanol oxidation. Noticeably, the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan presented excellent catalytic activities with peak current density of 320.73 mAcm-2 which was 9.5 times more than in comparison to Pd/C (34.2133 mAcm-2). Additionally, activation energy thermodynamic and kinetic evaluations revealed that the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst has lower compared to Pd/C which leads to a lower energy barrier and an excellent charge transfer rate towards ethanol oxidation.
56
70462
Industrial Waste Multi-Metal Ion Exchange
Abstract:
Intel Chandler Site has internally developed its first-of-kind (FOK) facility-scale wastewater treatment system to achieve multi-metal ion exchange. The process was carried out using a serial process train of carbon filtration, pH / ORP adjustment, and cationic exchange purification to treat dilute metal wastewater (DMW) discharged from a substrate packaging factory. Spanning a trial period of 10 months, a total of 3,271 samples were collected and statistically analyzed (average baseline + standard deviation) to evaluate the performance of a 95-gpm, multi-reactor continuous copper ion exchange treatment system that was consequently retrofitted for manganese ion exchange to meet environmental regulations. The system is also equipped with an inline acid and hot caustic regeneration system to rejuvenate exhausted IX resins and occasionally remove surface crud. Data generated from lab-scale studies was transferred to system operating modifications following multiple trial-and-error experiments. Despite the DMW treatment system failing to meet internal performance specifications for manganese output, it was observed to remove the cation notwithstanding the prevalence of copper in the waste stream. Accordingly, the average manganese output declined from 6.5 + 5.6 mg¹L⁻¹ at pre-pilot to 1.1 + 1.2 mg¹L⁻¹ post-pilot (83% baseline reduction). This milestone was achieved regardless of the average influent manganese to DMW increasing from 1.0 + 13.7 mg¹L⁻¹ at pre-pilot to 2.1 + 0.2 mg¹L⁻¹ post-pilot (110% baseline uptick). Likewise, the pre-trial and post-trial average influent copper values to DMW were 22.4 + 10.2 mg¹L⁻¹ and 32.1 + 39.1 mg¹L⁻¹, respectively (43% baseline increase). As a result, the pre-trial and post-trial average copper output values were 0.1 + 0.5 mg¹L⁻¹ and 0.4 + 1.2 mg¹L⁻¹, respectively (300% baseline uptick). Conclusively, the operating pH range upstream of treatment (between 3.5 and 5) was shown to be the largest single point of influence for optimizing manganese uptake during multi-metal ion exchange. However, the high variability of the influent copper-to-manganese ratio was observed to adversely impact the system functionality. The journal herein intends to discuss the operating parameters such as pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) that were shown to influence the functional versatility of the ion exchange system significantly. The literature also proposes to discuss limitations of the treatment system such as influent copper-to-manganese ratio variations, operational configuration, waste by-product management, and system recovery requirements to provide a balanced assessment of the multi-metal ion exchange process. The take-away from this literature is intended to analyze the overall feasibility of ion exchange for metals manufacturing facilities that lack the capability to expand hardware due to real estate restrictions, aggressive schedules, or budgetary constraints.
55
15812
Bio-Estimation of Selected Heavy Metals in Shellfish and Their Surrounding Environmental Media
Abstract:
Due to the determination of the pollution status of fresh resources in the Egyptian territorial waters is very important for public health, this study was carried out to reveal the levels of heavy metals in the shellfish and their environment and its relation to the highly developed industrial activities in those areas. A total of 100 shellfish samples from the Rosetta, Edku, El-Maadiya, Abo-Kir and El-Max coasts [10 crustaceans (shrimp) and 10 mollusks (oysters)] were randomly collected from each coast. Additionally, 10 samples from both the water and the sediment were collected from each coast. Each collected sample was analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc residues using a Perkin Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the levels of heavy metals were higher in the water and sediment from Abo-Kir. The heavy metal levels decreased successively for the Rosetta, Edku, El-Maadiya, and El-Max coasts, and the concentrations of heavy metals, except copper and zinc, in shellfish exhibited the same pattern. For the concentration of heavy metals in shellfish tissue, the highest was zinc and the concentrations decreased successively for copper, lead, chromium and cadmium for all coasts, except the Abo-Kir coast, where the chromium level was highest and the other metals decreased successively for zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. In Rosetta, chromium was higher only in the mollusks, while the level of this metal was lower in the crustaceans; this trend was observed at the Edku, El-Maadiya and El-Max coasts as well. Herein, we discuss the importance of such contamination for public health and the sources of shellfish contamination with heavy metals. We suggest measures to minimize and prevent these pollutants in the aquatic environment and, furthermore, how to protect humans from excessive intake.
54
25371
The Investigation of Enzymatic Activity in the Soils Under the Impact of Metallurgical Industrial Activity in Lori Marz, Armenia
Abstract:
Beta-glucosidase, chitinase, leucine-aminopeptidase, acid phosphomonoestearse and acetate-esterase enzyme activities in the soils under the impact of metallurgical industrial activity in Lori marz (district) were investigated. The results of the study showed that the activities of the investigated enzymes in the soils decreased with increasing distance from the Shamlugh copper mine, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the ore transportation road. Statistical analysis revealed that the activities of the enzymes were positively correlated (significant) to each other according to the observation sites which indicated that enzyme activities were affected by the same anthropogenic factor. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Ni, Zn) due to copper mining activity in this territory. The results of Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between heavy metal pollution degree (Nemerow integrated pollution index) and soil enzyme activity. All of this indicated that copper mining activity in this territory causing the heavy metal pollution of the soils resulted in the inhabitation of the activities of the enzymes which are considered as biological catalysts to decompose organic materials and facilitate the cycling of nutrients.
53
25256
The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine
Abstract:
The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.
52
46861
Antimicrobial Properties of SEBS Compounds with Copper Microparticles
Abstract:
Indoor environments, such as car cabins and public transportation vehicles are places where users are subject to air quality. Microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeasts) enter these environments through windows, ventilation systems and may use the organic particles present as a growth substrate. In addition, atmospheric pollutants can act as potential carbon and nitrogen sources for some microorganisms. Compounds base SEBS copolymers, poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene, are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), fully recyclable and largely used in automotive parts. Metals, such as cooper and silver, have biocidal activities and the production of the SEBS compounds by melting blending with these agents can be a good option for producing compounds for use in plastic parts of ventilation systems and automotive air-conditioning, in order to minimize the problems caused by growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of copper microparticles as antimicrobial agent in compositions based on SEBS/PP/oil/calcite. Copper microparticles were used in weight proportion of 0%, 1%, 2% and 4%. The compounds were prepared using a co-rotating double screw extruder (L/D ratio of 40/1 and 16 mm screw diameter). The processing parameters were 300 rpm of screw rotation rate, with a temperature profile between 150 to 190°C. SEBS based TPE compounds were injection molded. The compounds emission were characterized by gravimetric fogging test. Compounds were characterized by physical (density and staining by contact), mechanical (hardness and tension properties) and rheological properties (melt volume rate – MVR). Antibacterial properties were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. To avaluate the abilities toward the fungi have been chosen Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Candida albicans (C. albicans), Cladosporium cladosporioides (C. cladosporioides) and Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum). The results of biological tests showed a reduction on bacteria in up to 88% in E.coli and up to 93% in S. aureus. The tests with fungi showed no conclusive results because the sample without copper also demonstrated inhibition of the development of these microorganisms. The copper addition did not cause significant variations in mechanical properties, in the MVR and the emission behavior of the compounds. The density increases with the increment of copper in compounds.
51
99968
Incorporation of Copper for Performance Enhancement in Metal-Oxides Resistive Switching Device and Its Potential Electronic Application
Abstract:
In this work, the fabrication and characterization of copper-doped zinc oxide (Cu:ZnO) based memristor devices with aluminum (Al) and indium tin oxide (ITO) metal electrodes are reported. The thin films of Cu:ZnO was synthesized using low-cost and low-temperature chemical process. The Cu:ZnO was then deposited onto ITO bottom electrodes using spin-coater technique, whereas the top electrode Al was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. Ellipsometer was employed in order to measure the Cu:ZnO thickness and it was found to be 50 nm. Several surface and materials characterization techniques were used to study the thin-film properties of Cu:ZnO. To ascertain the efficacy of Cu:ZnO for memristor applications, electrical characterizations such as current-voltage (I-V), data retention and endurance were obtained, all being the critical parameters for next-generation memory. The I-V characteristic exhibits switching behavior with asymmetrical hysteresis loops. This work imputes the resistance switching to the positional drift of oxygen vacancies associated with respect to the Al/Cu:ZnO junction. Further, a non-linear curve fitting regression techniques were utilized to determine the equivalent circuit for the fabricated Cu:ZnO memristors. Efforts were also devoted in order to establish its potentiality for different electronic applications.
50
89280
Incorporation of Copper for Performance Enhancement in Metal-Oxides Resistive Switching Device and Its Potential Electronic Application
Abstract:
In this work, the fabrication and characterization of copper-doped zinc oxide (Cu:ZnO) based memristor devices with aluminum (Al) and indium tin oxide (ITO) metal electrodes are reported. The thin films of Cu:ZnO was synthesized using low-cost and low-temperature chemical process. The Cu:ZnO was then deposited onto ITO bottom electrodes using spin-coater technique, whereas the top electrode Al was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. Ellipsometer was employed in order to measure the Cu:ZnO thickness and it was found to be 50 nm. Several surface and materials characterization techniques were used to study the thin-film properties of Cu:ZnO. To ascertain the efficacy of Cu:ZnO for memristor applications, electrical characterizations such as current-voltage (I-V), data retention and endurance were obtained, all being the critical parameters for next-generation memory. The I-V characteristic exhibits switching behavior with asymmetrical hysteresis loops. This work imputes the resistance switching to the positional drift of oxygen vacancies associated with respect to the Al/Cu:ZnO junction. Further, a non-linear curve fitting regression techniques were utilized to determine the equivalent circuit for the fabricated Cu:ZnO memristors. Efforts were also devoted in order to establish its potentiality for different electronic applications.
49
27188
A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices
Abstract:
Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.
48
37637
Hardness Analysis of Samples of Friction Stir Welded Joints of (Al-Cu)
Abstract:
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a Solid-State joining process. Unlike fusion welding techniques it does not involve operation above the melting point temperature of metals, but above the re-crystallization temperature. FSW also does not involve fusion of other material. FSW of ALUMINIUM has been commercialized and recent studies on joining dissimilar metals have been studied. Friction stir welding was introduced and patented in 1991 by The Welding Institute. For this paper, a total of nine samples each of copper and ALUMINIUM(Dissimilar metals) were welded using FSW process and Vickers Hardness were conducted on each of the samples.
47
44559
Effect of Copper Particle on the PD Characteristics in a Coaxial Duct with Mixture of SF6 (10%) and N2 (90%) Gases
Abstract:
Insulation performance of a gas insulated system is severely affected by particle contaminants. These metallic particles adversely affect the characteristics of insulating system. These particles can produce surface charges due to partial discharge activities. These particles which are free to move enhance the local electric fields. This paper deals with the influence of conducting particle placed in a co-axial duct on the discharge characteristics of gas mixtures. Co-axial duct placed in a high pressure chamber is used for the purpose. A gas pressure of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa have been considered with a 10:90 SF6 and N2 gas mixtures. The 2D and 3D histograms of clean duct and duct with copper particle are discussed in this paper.
46
31613
Preparation and Characterization of Copper-Nanoparticle on Extracted Carrageenan and Its Catalytic Activity for Reducing Aromatic Nitro Group
Abstract:
Copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and characterized on green-extracted Carrageenan from seaweed by precipitation method without using any supporter and template with precipitation method. The crystallinity, optical properties, morphology, and composition of products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of processing parameters on the size and shape of Cu- nanostructures such as effect of pH were investigated. It is found that the reaction at lower pH values (acidic) could not be completed and pH = 8.00 was the best pH value to prepare very fine nanoparticles. They as synthesized Cu-nanoparticles were used as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in presence of NaBH4. The results showed that Cu-nanoparticles are very active for reduction of these nitro aromatic compounds.
45
27608
How Does Improving the Existing DSL Infrastructure Influences the Expansion of Fiber Technology?
Abstract:
Experts, enterprises and operators expect that the bandwidth request will increase up to rates of 100 to 1,000 Mbps within several years. Therefore the most important question is, which technology shall satisfy the future consumer broadband demands. Currently the consensus is, that the fiber technology has the best technical characteristics to achieve such the high bandwidth rates. But fiber technology is so far very cost-intensive and resource consuming. To avoid these investments, operators are concentrating to upgrade the existing copper and hybrid fiber coax infrastructures. This work presents a comparison of the copper and fiber technologies including an overview about the current German broadband market. Both technologies are reviewed in the terms of demand, willingness to pay and economic efficiency in connection with the technical characteristics.
44
43857
Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Copper Metallic Foam during Convective Boiling in a Plate Heat Exchanger
Abstract:
The present work deals with the study of the heat transfer in a rectangular channel equipped with a metallic foam. The tested metallic foam sample is made from copper with 20 PPI (Pore per Inch Linear) and 93% of porosity and the working fluid used is the n-pentane. In the present work the independent variables are the velocity in the range from 0.02 to 0.06 m/s and a boiling heat flux rate varying between 30 and 70 kW/m2. The heat transfer coefficient is presented versus boiling heat flux, vapor quality and superheat ΔTsat. The thermal results are compared to those found for a plain tube for the same conditions. The comparison with the plain tube shows that the insert of a metallic foam enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a factor between 1.3 and 3.
43
10018
Effect of Copper Addition at a Rate of 4% Weight on the Microstructure, Mechanical Characteristics, and Surface Roughness on the Hot Extrusion of Aluminum
Abstract:
Al-4%Cu alloys are now widely used in many engineering applications especially in robotic, aerospace and vibration control area. The main problem arises from the weakness of their mechanical characteristics. Therefore, this study is directed towards enhancing the mechanical properties through severe plastic deformation. In this work, the hot direct extrusion process was chosen to provide the required hot work for this purpose. A direct extrusion die was designed and manufactured to be used in this investigation. The general microstructure, microhardness, surface roughness, and compression tests were performed on specimens from the produced Al-4%Cu alloy both in the as cast and after extrusion conditions. It was found that a pronounced enhancement in the mechanical characteristics of the produced Al-4%Cu after extrusion was achieved. The microhardness increased by 89.3%, the flow stress was decreased by 10% at 0.2 strain and finally the surface roughness was reduced by 81.6%.
42
48901
Upsetting of Tri-Metallic St-Cu-Al and St-Cu60Zn-Al Cylindrical Billets
Abstract:
This work investigates upsetting of the tri-metallic cylindrical billets both experimentally and analytically with a reduction ratio 30%. Steel, brass, and copper are used for the outer and outmost rings and aluminum for the inner core. Two different models have been designed to show material flow and the cavity took place over the two interfaces during forming after this reduction ratio. Each model has an outmost ring material as steel. Model 1 has an outer ring between the outmost ring and the solid core material as copper and Model 2 has a material as brass. Solid core is aluminum for each model. Billets were upset in press machine by using parallel flat dies. Upsetting load was recorded and compared for models and single billets. To extend the tests and compare with experimental procedure to a wider range of inner core and outer ring geometries, finite element model was performed. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. The aim is to show how contact between outmost ring, outer ring and the inner core are carried on throughout the upsetting process. Results have shown that, with changing in height, between outmost ring, outer ring and inner core, the Model 1 and Model 2 had very good interaction, and the contact surfaces of models had various interface behaviour. It is also observed that tri-metallic materials have lower weight but better mechanical properties than single materials. This can give an idea for using and producing these new materials for different purposes.
41
33636
Determination of Heavy Metals in Canned Dry-Milk and Fish from Supermarkets in Addis Ababa
Abstract:
Background: Human being require metallic elements such as copper and zinc up to certain limits that could cause problems if found in excess. Other metallic elements like cadmium and lead can be harmful to health if foodstuffs containing them are consumed regularly. Canned dry-milk and fish contain these metals in the journey from farm to fork. Objective: This study was designed to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in four brands of canned dry-milk and fish from supermarkets in Addis Ababa. Methods: Laboratory based cross-sectional study design was used to determine the concentration of the heavy metals in four different brands of canned dry-milk and fish imported from different country from February to March 2013. The foods brands were sampled by simple random sampling method from eight supermarkets in Addis Ababa and coded. Wet oxidation using HNO3 and H2O2 was used to extract the heavy metals from the foods samples and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Conclusions: From this study, it can be concluded that the level of Cadmium and Copper residues in canned dry-milk significantly vary among brands; and the levels of copper residue significantly vary among brands of canned fish at 95 % level. The AM milk brand from Ethiopia was safe in cadmium level. The cadmium and lead level in the NF fish brands from Indonesia packed in vegetables oil, and the lead level in DF brand packed in brine are safe.
40
46079
The Effectiveness of Bismuth Addition to Retard the Intermetallic Compound Formation
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of bismuth addition in the solder alloy to retard the intermetallic compound formation and growth. In this study, three categories of solders such as Sn-4Ag-xCu (x = 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu-xBi (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) were used. Ni/Au surface finish substrates were dipped into the molten solder at a temperature of 180-190 oC and allowed to cool at room temperature. The intermetallic compound (IMCs) were subjected to the characterization in terms of composition and morphology. The IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), whereas the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe microstructure evolution of the solder joint. The results clearly showed that copper concentration dependency was high during the reflow stage. Besides, only Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2 were detected for all copper concentrations. The addition of Bi was found to have no significant effect on the type of IMCs formed, but yet the grain became further refined.
39
106514
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Water Filter for Virus Pathogen Removal
Abstract:
Diseases caused by contaminated drinking water are the worldwide problem, which leads to the death and severe illnesses for hundreds of millions million people each year. There is an urgent need for efficient water treatment techniques for virus pathogens removal. The aim of the research was to develop safe and economic solution, which help with the water treatment. In this study, the synthesis of copper-based multi-walled carbon nanotube composites is described. Proposed solution utilize combination of a low-cost material with a high active surface area and copper antiviral properties. Removal of viruses from water was possible by adsorption based on electrostatic interactions of negatively charged virus with a positively charged filter material.
38
31289
Relationship of Trace Minerals Nutritional Status of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) to Their Contents in Egyptian Feedstuff
Abstract:
Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is very important animal in many arid and semi-arid zones of tropical and subtropical regions as it serves as dual purpose providing meat and milk for human and as draft animal. Camel, like other animal must receive all essential nutrients despite the hostile environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of some micro-minerals of camel under Egyptian environmental condition. Forty five blood samples were collected from apparently healthy male camels with an average age between 2-6 years at the slaughter house in Cairo province, Egypt. The animals were fed mainly on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or concentrate with straw before slaughtering. The collected serum and feedstuff samples were subjected to copper, iron, selenium and zinc analysis using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data showed variation in the level of copper, iron, selenium and zinc in the serum of the dromedary camel as well as in the feedstuffs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the micro- minerals status of feeds may not always reflected as such in camel blood suggesting some role of bioavailability. The main reason for the lack of such reflection seems to be the wide diversity exists in the surrounding environment (forages and plants) as well as the bioavailability of such minerals. Since the requirement of micro-minerals have not been established for camel, more researches must be focused on this topic.
37
41818
Comparison of Particle Size for ɑ(Alpha) Fe2O3 and ɤ(Gamma)Fe2O3 on Heat Transfer Performance in an Copper Oscillating Heat Pipe
Abstract:
The effect of ɑ(alpha) Fe2O3 and ɤ(gamma)Fe2O3 particles on the heat transfer performance of an oscillating heat pipe was investigated experimentally. Kerosene was used as the base fluid for the OHP. Six size particles with average diameters of 10 nm, 20 nm, and 30 nm ɑFe2O3 and ɤFe2O3 were investigated, respectively. Experimental results show that the ɤFe2O3 particles added in the OHP significantly affect the heat transfer performance. When the OHP was charged with kerosene and 20 nm ɤ Fe2O3 particles, the OHP can achieve the best heat transfer performance among six particles investigated in this research.
36
5044
Exploring the Influences on Entrainment of Serpentines by Grinding and Reagents
Abstract:
This paper presents the influences on the entrainment of serpentines by grinding and reagents during copper–nickel sulfide flotation. The previous bench flotation tests were performed to extract the metallic values from the ore in Yunnan Mine, China and the relatively satisfied results with recoveries of 86.92% Cu, 54.92% Ni, and 74.73% Pt+Pd in the concentrate were harvested at their grades of 4.02%, 3.24% and 76.61 g/t, respectively. However, the content of MgO in the concentrate was still more than 19%. Micro-flotation tests were conducted with the objective of figuring out the influences on the entrainment of serpentines into the concentrate by particle size, flocculants or depressants and collectors, as well as visual observations in suspension by OLYMPUS camera. All the tests results pointed to the presences of both “entrapped-in” serpentines and its coating on the hydrophobic flocs resulted from strong collectors (combination of butyl xanthate, butyl ammonium dithophosphate, even after adding carboxymethyl cellulose as effective depressant. And fine grinding may escalate the entrainment of serpentines in the concentrate.
35
67327
Adsorption of Lead (II) and Copper (II) Ions onto Marula Nuts Activated Carbon
Abstract:
Heavy metal contamination in waste water is a very serious issue affecting a lot of industrialized countries due to the health and environmental impact of these heavy metals on human life and the ecosystem. Adsorption using activated carbon is the most promising method for the removal of heavy metals from waste water but commercial activated carbon is expensive which gives rise to the need for alternatively activated carbon derived from cheap precursors, agricultural wastes, or byproducts from other processes. In this study activated bio-carbon derived from the carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of Marula nut shells was chemically activated and used as an adsorbent for the removal of lead (II) and copper (II) ions from aqueous solution. The surface morphology and chemistry of the adsorbent before and after chemical activation with zinc chloride impregnation were studied using SEM and FTIR analysis respectively and the results obtained indicate that chemical activation with zinc chloride improves the surface morphology of the adsorbent and enhances the intensity of the surface oxygen complexes on the surface of the adsorbent. The effect of process parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH value of the solution, initial metal concentration, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption of lead (II) and copper (II) ions onto Marula nut activated carbon were investigated, and their optimum operating conditions were also determined. The experimental data was fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the data fitted best on the Freundlich isotherm model for both metal ions. The adsorption kinetics were also evaluated, and the experimental data fitted the pseudo-first order kinetic model better than the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption thermodynamics were also studied and the results indicate that the adsorption of lead and copper ions is spontaneous and exothermic in nature, feasible, and also involves a dissociative mechanism in the temperature range of 25-45 °C.
34
71963
Removal of Copper(II) and Lead(II) from Aqueous Phase by Plum Stone Activated Carbon
Abstract:
In this study, plum stone shell activated carbon (PS-AC) was prepared to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. Some important parameters that influence the adsorption of metal ions such as pH, contact time and metal concentration have been systematically investigated in batch type reactors. The characterization of adsorbent is carried out by means of FTIR and SEM. It was found that the adsorption capacities of PS-AC were pH-dependent, and the optimal pH values were 4.5 and 5.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption was rapid and the equilibrium was reached within 60 minutes to remove of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption stability was studied in various doses of adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium studies of PS-AC. Adsorption data showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) is compatible with Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed that adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 33.22 mg/g and 57.80 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively.
33
72477
Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Copper Catalysts Supported on Magnetic Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Carbenes - species which possess neutral carbon atom with two shared and two unshared valence electrons, are known for their high reactivity and instability. Nevertheless, it is also known, that some carbenes i.e. N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), can form stable crystals. The usability of NHCs in organic synthesis was studied. Due to their exceptional properties (high nucleophilicity) NHCs are commonly used as organocatalysts and also as ligands in transition metal complexes. NHC ligands possess better electron-donating properties than phosphines. Moreover, they exhibit lower toxicity. Due to these features, phosphines are frequently replaced by NHC ligands. In this research is discussed the synthesis of five-membered NHCs which are mainly obtained by deprotonation of azolium salts, e.g., imidazolium or imidazolinium salts. Some of them are immobilized on a solid support what leads to formation of heterogeneous, recyclable catalysts. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are often used as a solid support for catalysts. MNPs can be easily separated from the reaction mixture using an external magnetic field. Due to their low size and high surface to volume ratio, they are a good choice for immobilization of catalysts. Herein is presented synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene copper complexes directly on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. Formation of four different catalysts is discussed. They vary in copper oxidation state (Cu(I) and Cu(II)) and structure of NHC ligand. Catalysts were tested in Huisgen reaction, a type of copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Huisgen reaction represents one of the few universal and highly efficient reactions in which 1,2,3-triazoles can be obtained. The catalytic activity of all synthesized catalysts was compared with activity of commercially available ones. Different reaction conditions (solvent, temperature, the addition of reductant) and reusability of the obtained catalysts were investigated and are discussed. The project was financially supported by National Science Centre, Poland, grant no. 2016/21/N/ST5/01316. Analyses were performed in Centre of Synthesis and Analyses BioNanoTechno of University of Bialystok. The equipment in the Centre of Synthesis and Analysis BioNanoTechno of University of Bialystok was funded by EU, as a part of the Operational Program Development of Eastern Poland 2007-2013, project: POPW.01.03.00-20-034/09-00 and POPW.01.03.00-20-004/11.
32
14642
The Application of New Ligands including Different Atoms and Evaluation of Their Nucleophile Effects against Various Metals
Abstract:
The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the application of new ligands including different atoms and evaluation of their nucleophile effects against various metals. Chemistry researchers are really interested in this field. From among various ligands, there are some ligands with different coordinating ligands as well. There are great number of intermediate complexes and major elements of organic compositions with various atoms. There is a regular adding of new compositions. Complexes are the most important chemical combinations with various catalysts and biological, medicinal and other applications. Those complexes with ligands including different atom givers are really important and their synthesis could solve most of chemical problems. Supplying of new ligands is an important and key part of coordination chemistry which may cause some varieties and different properties in complexes with equal central nucleus. As a result, this research has evaluated new ligands including different coordination atoms, such as oxygen, nitrogen etc. along with their behavior against various metals like copper, nickel, iron etc.
31
82434
Cupric Oxide Thin Films for Optoelectronic Application
Abstract:
Copper oxide is a semiconductor that has been studied for several reasons such as the natural abundance of starting material copper (Cu); the easiness of production by Cu oxidation; their non-toxic nature and the reasonably good electrical and optical properties. Copper oxide is well-known as cuprite oxide. The cuprite is p-type semiconductors having band gap energy of 1.21 to 1.51 eV. As a p-type semiconductor, conduction arises from the presence of holes in the valence band (VB) due to doping/annealing. CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbency and a low thermal emittance. CuO is very promising candidate for solar cell applications as it is a suitable material for photovoltaic energy conversion. It has been demonstrated that the dip technique can be used to deposit CuO films in a simple manner using metallic chlorides (CuCl₂.2H₂O) as a starting material. Copper oxide films are prepared using a methanolic solution of cupric chloride (CuCl₂.2H₂O) at three baking temperatures. We made three samples, after heating which converts to black colour. XRD data confirm that the films are of CuO phases at a particular temperature. The optical band gap of the CuO films calculated from optical absorption measurements is 1.90 eV which is quite comparable to the reported value. Dip technique is a very simple and low-cost method, which requires no sophisticated specialized setup. Coating of the substrate with a large surface area can be easily obtained by this technique compared to that in physical evaporation techniques and spray pyrolysis. Another advantage of the dip technique is that it is very easy to coat both sides of the substrate instead of only one and to deposit otherwise inaccessible surfaces. This method is well suited for applying coating on the inner and outer surfaces of tubes of various diameters and shapes. The main advantage of the dip coating method lies in the fact that it is possible to deposit a variety of layers having good homogeneity and mechanical and chemical stability with a very simple setup. In this paper, the CuO thin films preparation by dip coating method and their characterization will be presented.
30
62476
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid
Abstract:
The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.
29
55644
An Analysis of Heavy Metal Pollution by Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) in Different Cities of Pakistan
Abstract:
The levels of metal pollution (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) were investigated in the leaves of Dalbergia sisso in urban areas of the Sahiwal and Faisalabad City. For this purpose, three habitats were selected for sampling (roads, residential areas and parks). High concentration of metal was found in roadside samples as compared to residential areas and parks. In Sahiwal city the mean concentration of Copper (7.68µgg-¹) Zinc (43.55µgg-¹) and lead (4.79µgg-¹) were detected. Similarly, concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in leaves of Faisalabad city ranged from 14.4-11.3µgg-¹, 49.7-49.5µgg-¹,138.7-47.1µgg-¹. Highest concentration of heavy metals was detected in Faisalabad as compared to Sahiwal city and level of heavy metals was below the threshold limits, therefore, the concentration of heavy metals was not high in Dalbergia sissoo.
28
12959
Optimization of Copper-Water Negative Inclination Heat Pipe with Internal Composite Wick Structure
Abstract:
Theoretical optimization of a copper-water negative inclination heat pipe with internal composite wick structure has been performed, regarding a new introduced parameter: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps of the composite wick. Since in many cases, the design of a heat pipe matches specific thermal requirements and physical limitations, this work demonstrates the optimization of a 1 m length, 8 mm internal diameter heat pipe without an adiabatic section, at a negative inclination angle of -10º. The optimization is based on a new introduced parameter, LR: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps.
27
19923
Particle Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method
Abstract:
In this work, copper ferrite CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 530 cm-1 (ν1) and around 360 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in copper ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles was also observed. The change in magnetic properties with change of particle size is due to cation redistribution, which was confirmed by X-Ray photoelectron study.
26
30592
Investigation of Cascade Loop Heat Pipes
Abstract:
The aim of this research is to design a LHP with low thermal resistance and low condenser temperature. A Self-designed cascade LHP was tested by using biomaterial, sintered copper powder, and aluminum screen mesh as the wick. Using pure water as the working fluid for the first level of the LHP and 96% alcohol as the working fluid for the second level of LHP, the experiments were run with 10W, 20W, and 30W heat input. Experimental result shows that the usage of biomaterial as wick could reduce more temperature at evaporator than by using sintered copper powder and screen mesh up to 22.63% and 37.41% respectively. The lowest thermal resistance occurred during the usage of biomaterial as wick of heat pipe, which is 2.06 oC/W. The usage of cascade system could be applied to LHP to reduce the temperature at condenser and reduced thermal resistance up to 17.6%.
25
77879
The Impact of Maternal Micronutrient Levels on Risk of Offspring Neural Tube Defects in Egypt
Abstract:
Neural tube defects (NTD) are important causes of infant mortality. Poor nutrition was essential factor for central nervous system deformation. Mothers gave NTD offspring had abnormal serum levels of micronutrients. The present research was designed to study the effect of maternal micronutrient levels and oxidative stress on the incidence of NTD in offspring. The study included forty mothers; twenty of them of 30.9+7.28 years had conceived fetuses with NTD were considered as cases; and twenty mothers of 28.2 + 7.82 years with healthy neonates. We determined serum vitamin B12 and folic acid by using radioimmunoassays. Also, serum zinc was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. While serum copper and iron were measured colorimetrically and serum ceruloplasmin was analyzed by radialimmunodiffusion. Cases showed significantly lower levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and zinc (P< 0.0005, 0.01, 0.01 respectively) than that of the control. Concentrations of copper, ceruloplasmin, and iron were markedly increased in cases as compared to controls (P < 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05 respectively). In conclusion, the current study clearly indicated the etiology of NTD cannot be explained with one strict etiologic mechanism, on the contrary, an interaction among maternal nutritional factors and oxidative stress would explain these anomalies. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and zinc supplementations should be considered for further decrease in the occurrence of NTD. Preventing excess iron during pregnancy favors better pregnancy outcomes.
24
23582
Evaluation of Some Trace Elements in Biological Samples of Egyptian Viral Hepatitis Patients under Nutrition Therapy
Abstract:
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis or liver cancer. Disease caused by the hepatitis virus, the virus can cause hepatitis infection, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. A growing body of evidence indicates that many trace elements play important roles in a number of carcinogenic processes that proceed with various mechanisms. To examine the status of trace elements during the development of hepatic carcinoma, we determined the iron, copper, zinc and selenium levels in some biological samples of patients at different stages of viral hepatic disease. We observed significant changes in the iron, copper, zinc and selenium levels in the biological samples of patients hepatocellular carcinoma, relative to those of healthy controls. The mean hair, nail, RBC, serum and whole blood copper levels in patients with hepatitis virus were significantly higher than that of the control group. In contrast the mean iron, zinc, and selenium levels in patients having hepatitis virus were significantly lower than those of the control group. On the basis of this study, we identified the impact of natural supplements to improve the treatment of viral liver damage, using the level of some trace elements such as, iron, copper, zinc and selenium, which might serve as biomarkers for increases survival and reduces disease progression. Most of the elements revealed diverse and random distribution in the samples of the donor groups. The correlation study pointed out significant disparities in the mutual relationships among the trace elements in the patients and controls. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of the element data manifested diverse apportionment of the selected elements in the scalp hair, nail and blood components of the patients compared with the healthy counterparts.
23
3494
Production of Renewable and Clean Bio-Fuel (DME) from Biomethanol over Copper Modified Alumina Catalyst
Abstract:
The effect of loading of copper on the catalytic performance of different alumina support during the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) was performed in a fixed bed reactor. There are two levels of loading; low loading (1, 2, 4 and 6% Cu wt/wt) and high loading (10 and 15% Cu wt/wt) on both AC350 (alumina catalyst calcined at 350) and AC550 (alumina catalyst calcined at 550), to study the effect of loading and the effect of the support during methanol dehydration to DME (MTD). The catalysts were characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, TPD-NH3, TEM and DRIFT-Pyridine. Under reaction conditions where the temperature ranged from 180-300˚C with a WHSV= 12.1 h-1 it was found that all the catalysts calcined at 550˚C showed higher activity than those calcined at 350˚C. In this study, the optimum catalyst was 6% Cu/AC550. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability, had one half activity of the pure catalyst (AC550) and double the activity of the optimum catalyst calcined at 350˚C (6% Cu/AC350). So, we recommended 6% Cu/AC550 for the production of DME from methanol.
22
63647
Spectroscopic (Ir, Raman, Uv-Vis) and Biological Study of Copper and Zinc Complexes and Sodium Salt with Cichoric Acid
Abstract:
Forming a complex of a phenolic compound with a metal not only alters the physicochemical properties of the ligand (including increase in stability or changes in lipophilicity), but also its biological activity, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and many others. As part of our previous projects, we examined the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of phenolic acids and their complexes with metals naturally occurring in foods. Previously we studied the complexes of manganese(II), copper(II), cadmium(II) and alkali metals with ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. In the framework of this study, the physicochemical and biological properties of cicoric acid, its sodium salt, and complexes with copper and zinc were investigated. Cichoric acid is a derivative of both caffeic acid and tartaric acid. It has first been isolated from Cichorium intybus (chicory) but also it occurs in significant amounts in Echinacea, particularly E. purpurea, dandelion leaves, basil, lemon balm and in aquatic plants, including algae and sea grasses. For the study of spectroscopic and biological properties of cicoric acid, its sodium salt, and complexes with zinc and copper a variety of methods were used. Studies of antioxidant properties were carried out in relation to selected stable radicals (method of reduction of DPPH and reduction of FRAP). As a result, the structure and spectroscopic properties of cicoric acid and its complexes with selected metals in the solid state and in the solutions were defined. The IR and Raman spectra of cicoric acid displayed a number of bands that were derived from vibrations of caffeic and tartaric acids moieties. At 1746 and 1716 cm-1 the bands assigned to the vibrations of the carbonyl group of tartaric acid occurred. In the spectra of metal complexes with cichoric these bands disappeared what indicated that metal ion was coordinated by the carboxylic groups of tartaric acid. In the spectra of the sodium salt, a characteristic wide-band vibrations of carboxylate anion occurred. In the spectra of cicoric acid and its salt and complexes, a number of bands derived from the vibrations of the aromatic ring (caffeic acid) were assigned. Upon metal-ligand attachment, the changes in the values of the wavenumbers of these bands occurred. The impact of metals on the antioxidant properties of cicoric acid was also examined. Cichoric acid has a high antioxidant potential. Complexation by metals (zinc, copper) did not significantly affect its antioxidant capacity. The work was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant no. 2015/17/B/NZ9/03581).
21
74570
Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis of Copper-Water Nanofluid with Temperature Dependent Viscosity past a Riga Plate
Authors:
Abstract:
Flow of electrically conducting nanofluids is of pivotal importance in countless industrial and medical appliances. Fluctuations in thermophysical properties of such fluids due to variations in temperature have not received due attention in the available literature. Present investigation aims to fill this void by analyzing the flow of copper-water nanofluid with temperature dependent viscosity past a Riga plate. Strong wall suction and viscous dissipation have also been taken into account. Numerical solutions for the resulting nonlinear system have been obtained. Results are presented in the graphical and tabular format in order to facilitate the physical analysis. An estimated expression for skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are obtained by performing linear regression on numerical data for embedded parameters. Results indicate that the temperature dependent viscosity alters the velocity, as well as the temperature of the nanofluid and, is of considerable importance in the processes where high accuracy is desired. Addition of copper nanoparticles makes the momentum boundary layer thinner whereas viscosity parameter does not affect the boundary layer thickness. Moreover, the regression expressions indicate that magnitude of rate of change in effective skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number with respect to nanoparticles volume fraction is prominent when compared with the rate of change with variable viscosity parameter and modified Hartmann number.
20
109259
The Late Bronze Age Archeometallurgy of Copper in Mountainous Colchis (Lechkhumi), Georgia
Abstract:
Studies of ancient metallurgy are a subject of worldwide current interest. Georgia with its famous early metalworking traditions is one of the central parts of in the Caucasus region. The aim of the present study is to introduce the results of archaeometallurgical investigations being undertaken in the mountain region of Colchis, Lechkhumi (the Tsageri Municipality of western Georgia) and establish their place in the existing archaeological context. Lechkhumi (one of the historic provinces of Georgia known from Georgian, Greek, Byzantine and Armenian written sources as Lechkhumi/Skvimnia/Takveri) is the part of the Colchian mountain area. It is one of the important but little known centres of prehistoric metallurgy in the Caucasian region and of Colchian Bronze Age culture. Reconnaissance archaeological expeditions (2011-2015) revealed significant prehistoric metallurgical sites in Lechkhumi. Sites located in the vicinity of Dogurashi Village (Tsageri Municipality) have become the target area for archaeological excavations. During archaeological excavations conducted in 2016-2018 two archaeometallurgical sites – Dogurashi I and Dogurashi II were investigated. As a result of an interdisciplinary (archaeological, geological and geophysical) survey, it has been established that at both prehistoric Dogurashi mountain sites, it was copper that was being smelted and the ore sources are likely to be of local origin. Radiocarbon dating results confirm they were operating between about the 13th and 9th century BC. More recently another similar site has been identified in this area (Dogurashi III), and this is about to undergo detailed investigation. Other prehistoric metallurgical sites are being located and investigated in the Lechkhumi region as well as chance archaeological finds (often in hoards) – copper ingots, metallurgical production debris, slag, fragments of crucibles, tuyeres (air delivery pipes), furnace wall fragments and other related waste debris. Other chance finds being investigated are the many copper, bronze and (some) iron artefacts that have been found over many years. These include copper ingots, copper, bronze and iron artefacts such as tools, jewelry, and decorative items. These show the important but little known or understood the role of Lechkhumi in the late Bronze Age culture of Colchis. It would seem that mining and metallurgical manufacture form part of the local agricultural yearly lifecycle. Colchian ceramics have been found and also evidence for artefact production, small stone mould fragments and encrusted material from the casting of a fylfot (swastika) form of Colchian bronze buckle found in the vicinities of the early settlements of Tskheta and Dekhviri. Excavation and investigation of previously unknown archaeometallurgical sites in Lechkhumi will contribute significantly to the knowledge and understanding of prehistoric Colchian metallurgy in western Georgia (Adjara, Guria, Samegrelo, and Svaneti) and will reveal the importance of this region in the study of ancient metallurgy in Georgia and the Caucasus. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (grant FR # 217128).
19
107852
The Late Bronze Age Archeometallurgy of Copper in Mountainous Colchis (Lechkhumi), Georgia
Abstract:
Studies of ancient metallurgy are a subject of worldwide current interest. Georgia with its famous early metalworking traditions is one of the central parts of in the Caucasus region. The aim of the present study is to introduce the results of archaeometallurgical investigations being undertaken in the mountain region of Colchis, Lechkhumi (the Tsageri Municipality of western Georgia) and establish their place in the existing archaeological context. Lechkhumi (one of the historic provinces of Georgia known from Georgian, Greek, Byzantine and Armenian written sources as Lechkhumi/Skvimnia/Takveri) is the part of the Colchian mountain area. It is one of the important but little known centres of prehistoric metallurgy in the Caucasian region and of Colchian Bronze Age culture. Reconnaissance archaeological expeditions (2011-2015) revealed significant prehistoric metallurgical sites in Lechkhumi. Sites located in the vicinity of Dogurashi Village (Tsageri Municipality) have become the target area for archaeological excavations. During archaeological excavations conducted in 2016-2018 two archaeometallurgical sites – Dogurashi I and Dogurashi II were investigated. As a result of an interdisciplinary (archaeological, geological and geophysical) survey, it has been established that at both prehistoric Dogurashi mountain sites, it was copper that was being smelted and the ore sources are likely to be of local origin. Radiocarbon dating results confirm they were operating between about the 13th and 9th century BC. More recently another similar site has been identified in this area (Dogurashi III), and this is about to undergo detailed investigation. Other prehistoric metallurgical sites are being located and investigated in the Lechkhumi region as well as chance archaeological finds (often in hoards) – copper ingots, metallurgical production debris, slag, fragments of crucibles, tuyeres (air delivery pipes), furnace wall fragments and other related waste debris. Other chance finds being investigated are the many copper, bronze and (some) iron artefacts that have been found over many years. These include copper ingots, copper, bronze and iron artefacts such as tools, jewelry, and decorative items. These show the important but little known or understood the role of Lechkhumi in the late Bronze Age culture of Colchis. It would seem that mining and metallurgical manufacture form part of the local agricultural yearly lifecycle. Colchian ceramics have been found and also evidence for artefact production, small stone mould fragments and encrusted material from the casting of a fylfot (swastika) form of Colchian bronze buckle found in the vicinities of the early settlements of Tskheta and Dekhviri. Excavation and investigation of previously unknown archaeometallurgical sites in Lechkhumi will contribute significantly to the knowledge and understanding of prehistoric Colchian metallurgy in western Georgia (Adjara, Guria, Samegrelo, and Svaneti) and will reveal the importance of this region in the study of ancient metallurgy in Georgia and the Caucasus. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (grant FR # 217128).
18
55642
Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge
Abstract:
Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 &deg;C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.
17
51426
Risk Assessment of Contamination by Heavy Metals in Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex of Iran Using Topsis Method
Abstract:
In recent years, the study of soil contamination problems surrounding mines and smelting plants has attracted some serious attention of the environmental experts. These elements due to the non- chemical disintegration and nature are counted as environmental stable and durable contaminants. Variability of these contaminants in the soil and the time and financial limitation for the favorable environmental application, in order to reduce the risk of their irreparable negative consequences on environment, caused to apply the favorable grading of these contaminant for the further success of the risk management processes. In this study, we use the contaminants factor risk indices, average concentration, enrichment factor and geoaccumulation indices for evaluating the metal contaminant of including Pb, Ni, Se, Mo and Zn in the soil of Sarcheshmeh copper mine area. For this purpose, 120 surface soil samples up to the depth of 30 cm have been provided from the study area. And the metals have been analyzed using ICP-MS method. Comparison of the heavy and potentially toxic elements concentration in the soil samples with the world average value of the uncontaminated soil and shale average indicates that the value of Zn, Pb, Ni, Se and Mo is higher than the world average value and only the Ni element shows the lower value than the shale average. Expert opinions on the relative importance of each indicators were used to assign a final weighting of the metals and the heavy metals were ranked using the TOPSIS approach. This allows us to carry out efficient environmental proceedings, leading to the reduction of environmental ricks form the contaminants. According to the results, Ni, Pb, Mo, Zn, and Se have the highest rate of risk contamination in the soil samples of the study area.
16
64328
Wear Map for Cu-Based Friction Materials with Different Contents of Fe Reinforcement
Abstract:
Copper-based sintered friction materials are widely used in the brake system of different applications such as engineering machinery or high-speed train, due to the excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological performance. Considering the diversity of the working conditions of brake system, it is necessary to identify well and understand the tribological performance and wear mechanisms of friction materials for different conditions. Fe has been a preferred reinforcement for copper-based friction materials, due to its ability to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of material. Wear map is well accepted as a useful research method for evaluation of wear performances and wear mechanisms over a wider range of working conditions. Therefore, it is significantly important to construct a wear map which can give out the effects of work condition and Fe reinforcement on tribological performance of Cu-based friction materials. In this study, the copper-based sintered friction materials with the different addition of Fe reinforcement (0-20 vol. %) were studied. The tribological tests were performed against stainless steel in a ring-on-ring braking tester with varying braking energy density (0-5000 J/cm2). The linear wear and friction coefficient were measured. The worn surface, cross section and debris were analyzed to determine the dominant wear mechanisms for different testing conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the wear map and wear mechanism map were established, in terms of braking energy density and the addition of Fe. It was found that with low contents of Fe and low braking energy density, adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of friction materials. Oxidative wear and abrasive wear mainly occurred under moderate braking energy density. In the condition of high braking energy density, with both high and low addition of Fe, delamination appeared as the main wear mechanism.
15
68871
Structure-Activity Relationship of Gold Catalysts on Alumina Supported Cu-Ce Oxides for CO and Volatile Organic Compound Oxidation
Abstract:
The catalytic oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is considered as one of the most efficient ways to reduce harmful emissions from various chemical industries. The effectiveness of gold-based catalysts for many reactions of environmental significance was proven during the past three decades. The aim of this work was to combine the favorable features of Au and Cu-Ce mixed oxides in the design of new catalytic materials of improved efficiency and economic viability for removal of air pollutants in waste gases from formaldehyde production. Supported oxides of copper and cerium with Cu: Ce molar ratio 2:1 and 1:5 were prepared by wet impregnation of g-alumina. Gold (2 wt.%) catalysts were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method. Catalysts characterization was carried out by texture measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in the oxidation of CO, CH3OH and (CH3)2O was measured using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed reactor. Both Cu-Ce/alumina samples demonstrated similar catalytic behavior. The addition of gold caused significant enhancement of CO and methanol oxidation activity (100 % degree of CO and CH3OH conversion at about 60 and 140 oC, respectively). The composition of Cu-Ce mixed oxides affected the performance of gold-based samples considerably. Gold catalyst on Cu-Ce/&gamma;-Al2O3 1:5 exhibited higher activity for CO and CH3OH oxidation in comparison with Au on Cu-Ce/&gamma;-Al2O3 2:1. The better performance of Au/Cu-Ce 1:5 was related to the availability of highly dispersed gold particles and copper oxide clusters in close contact with ceria.
14
17716
EDTA Enhanced Plant Growth, Antioxidant Defense System, and Phytoextraction of Copper by Brassica napus L.
Abstract:
Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development, but in excess, it is also toxic to plants. The present study investigated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing Cu uptake and tolerance as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Brassica napus L. seedlings under Cu stress. Four-week-old seedlings were transferred to hydroponics containing Hoagland’s nutrient solution. After 2 weeks of transplanting, three levels (0, 50, and 100 μM) of Cu were applied with or without application of 2.5 mM EDTA and plants were further grown for 8 weeks in culture media. Results showed that Cu alone significantly decreased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Cu stress also reduced the activities of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with protein contents. Cu toxicity increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by the increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both leaves and roots. The application of EDTA significantly alleviated Cu-induced toxic effects in B. napus, showing remarkable improvement in all these parameters. EDTA amendment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes by decreasing the concentrations of MDA and H2O2 both in leaves and roots of B. napus. Although, EDTA amendment with Cu significantly increased Cu uptake in roots, stems, and leaves in decreasing order of concentration but increased the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes. These results showed that the application of EDTA can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction of Cu by B. napus from contaminated soils.
13
34171
Effects of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on the Growth Performance, Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gut Morphology of Broiler Chickens
Abstract:
This research was carried out to investigate the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) on performance and gut morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-day-old male chickens (Ross-308) were randomly divided in a completely randomized design, the inclusion of 4 groups of 60 birds with 4 replicates and 15 birds in each. Experimental diets were as follow: T1 control (basal diets, without nano-CuO but contain 9.1 mg Cu/kg from CuO), T2, T3, and T4 basal diet supplementation with 30, 60, and 90 mg nano-CuO/kg, respectively. Feed intake (FI) and gain weight as weekly recorded and on d 21 feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Furthermore, at the end of the trial (21 d), four birds per treatment (one bird/replicate) randomly selected and after removed blood samples, they slaughtered and then to the analysis of gut morphological. A segment (10 cm) from the middle part of duodenum and jejunum was removed and put in the formalin 10% (pH = 7). The results revealed that nano-CuO had significantly increased body weight (P = 0.029, but feed intake (P = 0.017), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.031) decreased in the birds that fed 90 mg nano-CuO when compared to control and the other groups. Total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.041), superoxide dismutase (P = 0.036), and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.048) were more in the birds fed diet inclusion of 60 and 90 mg nano-CuO (T4) than other treatments. The lowest malonaldehyde (MDA) level was observed in T3 (P = 0.23) and T4 (P = 0.028) decreased (P = 0.17). The villi height and villi height to crypt depth (VH/CD ratio) numerically increased (P = 0.09) in the bird fed 90 mg nano-CuO in comparison with other treatments. According to present results, it could be concluded that dietary nano-CuO improved performance parameters and antioxidant status of broiler chickens during starter period. As well, the optimum improvement observed in the birds fed diet inclusion of 90 mg nano-CuO/kg.
12
69761
Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor
Abstract:
This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.
11
69764
Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor
Abstract:
This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.
10
69763
Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor
Abstract:
This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.
9
67508
Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor
Abstract:
This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.
8
69762
Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor
Abstract:
This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.
7
69760
Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor
Abstract:
This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.
6
86282
Strip Size Optimization for Spiral Type Actuator Coil Used in Electromagnetic Flat Sheet Forming Experiment
Abstract:
Flat spiral coil for electromagnetic forming system has been modelled in FEMM 4.2 software. Copper strip was chosen as the material for designing the actuator coil. Relationship between height to width ratio (S-factor) of the copper strip and coil’s performance has been studied. Magnetic field intensities, eddy currents, and Lorentz force were calculated for the coils that were designed using six different 'S-factor' values (0.65, 0.75, 1.05, 1.25, 1.54 and 1.75), keeping the cross-sectional area of strip the same. Results obtained through simulation suggest that actuator coil with S-factor ~ 1 shows optimum forming performance as it exerts maximum Lorentz force (84 kN) on work piece. The same coils were fabricated and used for electromagnetic sheet forming experiments. Aluminum 6061 sheets of thickness 1.5 mm have been formed using different voltage levels of capacitor bank. Smooth forming profiles were obtained with dome heights 28, 35 and 40 mm in work piece at 800, 1150 and 1250 V respectively.
5
70130
Iridium-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Glycerol Aqueous-Phase Reforming
Abstract:
Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production that can be used for aqueous-phase reforming to obtain hydrogen. Iridium is a material that has high activity and hydrogen selectivity for steam phase reforming. Nevertheless, a drawback for the use of iridium in aqueous-phase reforming is the low activity in water-gas shift reaction. Therefore, in this work, it is proposed the use of nickel and copper as a second metal in the catalyst to reach a synergetic effect. Iridium, iridium-nickel and iridium-copper catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and evaluated in the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol using CeO₂ or La₂O₃ as support. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, and EDX. The reactions were carried out in a fixed bed reactor feeding a solution of glycerol 10 wt% in water at 270°C, and reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that IrNi/CeO₂ reached highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen production, slightly above 70% and 43 vol% respectively. In terms of conversion, iridium is a promising metal, and its activity for hydrogen production can be enhanced when adding a second metal.
4
26172
Prediction of Unsteady Heat Transfer over Square Cylinder in the Presence of Nanofluid by Using ANN
Abstract:
Heat transfer due to forced convection of copper water based nanofluid has been predicted by Artificial Neural network (ANN). The present nanofluid is formed by mixing copper nano particles in water and the volume fractions are considered here are 0% to 15% and the Reynolds number are kept constant at 100. The back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. The present ANN is trained by the input and output data which has been obtained from the numerical simulation, performed in finite volume based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial software Ansys Fluent. The numerical simulation based results are compared with the back propagation based ANN results. It is found that the forced convection heat transfer of water based nanofluid can be predicted correctly by ANN. It is also observed that the back propagation ANN can predict the heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid very quickly compared to standard CFD method.
3
2276
Curved Rectangular Patch Array Antenna Using Flexible Copper Sheet for Small Missile Application
Abstract:
This paper presents the development and design of the curved rectangular patch arrays antenna for small missile application. This design uses a 0.1mm flexible copper sheet on the front layer and back layer, and a 1.8mm PVC substrate on a middle layer. The study used a small missile model with 122mm diameter size with speed 1.1 Mach and frequency range on ISM 2.4 GHz. The design of curved antenna can be installation on a cylindrical object like a missile. So, our proposed antenna design will have a small size, lightweight, low cost, and simple structure. The antenna was design and analysis by a simulation result from CST microwave studio and confirmed with a measurement result from a prototype antenna. The proposed antenna has a bandwidth covering the frequency range 2.35-2.48 GHz, the return loss below -10 dB and antenna gain 6.5 dB. The proposed antenna can be applied with a small guided missile effectively.
2
62154
A Study of Surface of Titanium Targets for Neutron Generators
Abstract:
The development of tritium and deuterium targets for neutron tubes and generators is a part of the activities in All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF). These items contain a metal substrate (for example, copper) with a titanium film with a few microns thickness deposited on it. Then these metal films are saturated with tritium, deuterium or their mixtures. The significant problem in neutron tubes and neutron generators is the characterization of substrate surface before a deposition of titanium film on it, and analysis of the deposited titanium film’s surface before hydrogenation and after a saturation of the film with hydrogen isotopes. The performance effectiveness of neutron tube and generator also depends on upon the quality parameters of the surface of the initial substrate, deposited metal film and hydrogenated target. The objective of our work is to study the target prototype samples, that have differ by various approaches to the preliminary chemical processing of a copper substrate, and to analyze the integrity of titanium film after its saturation with deuterium. The research results of copper substrate and the surface of deposited titanium film with the use of electron microscopy, X-ray spectral microanalysis and laser-spark methods of analyses are presented. The causes of surface defects appearance have been identified. The distribution of deuterium and some impurities (oxygen and nitrogen) along the surface and across the height of the hydrogenated film in the target has been established. This allows us to evaluate the composition homogeneity of the samples and consequently to estimate the quality of hydrogenated samples. As the result of this work the propositions on the advancement of production technology and characterization of target’s surface have been presented.
1
95487
A Cheap Mesoporous Silica from Fly Ash as an Adsorbent for Sulfate in Water
Abstract:
This research describes the development of a very cheap mesoporous silica material similar to hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) and using a silicate extract as precursor. This precursor is obtained from cheap fly ash by an easy calcination process at 850 °C and a green extraction with water. The obtained mesoporous fly ash material had a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a pore size of 5.7 nm. It was functionalized with ethylene diamino moieties via the well-known SAMMS method, followed by a DRIFT analysis that clearly showed the successful functionalization. An excellent adsorbent was obtained for the adsorption of sulfate anions by the solid’s modification with copper forming a copper-ethylenediamine complex. The adsorption of sulfates was studied in a batch system ( experimental conditions: pH=8.0; 5 min). The kinetics data were adjusted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model. The maximum sulfate adsorption capacity of this very cheap fly ash based adsorbent was 146.1 mg g-1, 3 times greater than the values reported in literature and commercial adsorbent materials.