Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context
Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.
Critical Heights of Sloped Unsupported Trenches in Unsaturated Sand
Workers are often required to enter unsupported trenches during the construction process, which may present serious risks. Trench failures can result in death or damage to adjacent properties, therefore trenches should be excavated with extreme precaution. Excavation work is often done in unsaturated soils, where the critical height (i.e. maximum depth that can be excavated without failure) of unsupported trenches can be more reliably estimated by considering the influence of matric suction. In this study, coupled stress/pore-water pressure analyses are conducted to investigate the critical height of sloped unsupported trenches considering the influence of pore-water pressure redistribution caused by excavating. Four different wall slopes (1.5V:1H, 2V:1H, 3V:1H, and 90°) and a vertical trench with the top 0.3 m sloped 1:1 were considered in the analyses with multiple depths of the ground water table in a sand. For comparison, the critical heights were also estimated using the limit equilibrium method for the same excavation scenarios used in the coupled analyses.
Plantation Forests Height Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial System
Plantation forests are useful for timber production, recreation, environmental protection and social development. Stands height is an important parameter for the estimation of forest volume and carbon stocks. Although lidar is suitable technology for the vertical parameters extraction of forests, but high costs make it not suitable for operational inventory. With the development of computer vision and photogrammetry, aerial photos from unmanned aerial system can be used as an alternative solution for height mapping. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry technique can be used to extract DSM and DEM information. Canopy height model (CHM) can be achieved by subtraction DEM from DSM. Our result shows that overlapping aerial photos is a potential solution for plantation forests height mapping.
Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.
Investigating the Effect of Height on Essential Oils of Urtica diocia L.: Case Study of Ramsar, Mazandaran, Iran
Urtica Diocia L. from the Urticaceae family is a plant of herbal value and of a noticeable distribution in the north of Iran. The growth of different plants in various natural environments and ecosystems seems to be affected by factors such as the height (from sea surface).To investigate the effect of height on Urtica Diocia L. medicine compounds in its natural environment, three areas with the height of zero, 800 and 1800m were selected.The samples were randomly gathered three times and were dried; also, their compounds was extracted using the Clivenger with the water-distilling method. To determine the medicine compounds, the GC-MS as well as the GC machines were used. The analysis of variance was done in the form of the random-full-block design. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the percent of EOs in the selected heights; however, such difference was not significant within each height. From among the eight flavors of the study, the phytol compound was more in terms of percentage. By increasing the height the percent of EOs would decrease. lower heights could be considered most appropriate for producing the studied effective materials despite of the moistened climate and soil there.
Correlation between Sprint Performance and Vertical Jump Height in Elite Female Football Players
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sprint and vertical jump performance in elite female football players. Twenty four professional female football players (age, 18.6±3.1 years; height, 168.3±6.3 cm, body mass 61.6±7.4 kg; mean±SD) were tested for 30-m sprint time, 10-m sprint time and vertical countermovement (CMJ) and squat (SJ) jumps height. Participants performed three countermovement jumps and three squat jumps for maximal height on a force platform. Mean values of three trials were used in statistical analysis. The displacement of center of mass (COM) during flight phase (e.g. jump height) was calculated using the vertical velocity of the COM at the moment of take-off. 30-m and 10-m sprint time were measured using OptoGait optical system. The best of three trials were used for analysis. A significant negative correlation was found between 30-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.85, r = -0.79 respectively), between 10-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.73, r = -0.8 respectively), and step frequency was significantly related to CMJ peak power (r = -0.57). Our study indicates that there is strong correlation between sprint and jump performance in elite female football players, thus vertical jump test can be considered as a good sprint and agility predictor in female football.
Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper
The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.
Measuring the Height of a Person in Closed Circuit Television Video Footage Using 3D Human Body Model
The height of criminals is one of the important clues that can determine the scope of the suspect's search or exclude the suspect from the search target. Although measuring the height of criminals by video alone is limited by various reasons, the 3D data of the scene and the Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) footage are matched, the height of the criminal can be measured. However, it is still difficult to measure the height of CCTV footage in the non-contact type measurement method because of variables such as position, posture, and head shape of criminals. In this paper, we propose a method of matching the CCTV footage with the 3D data on the crime scene and measuring the height of the person using the 3D human body model in the matched data. In the proposed method, the height is measured by using 3D human model in various scenes of the person in the CCTV footage, and the measurement value of the target person is corrected by the measurement error of the replay CCTV footage of the reference person. We tested for 20 people's walking CCTV footage captured from an indoor and an outdoor and corrected the measurement values with 5 reference persons. Experimental results show that the measurement error (true value-measured value) average is 0.45 cm, and this method is effective for the measurement of the person's height in CCTV footage.
Growth Analysis in Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria
The study was carried out on effect of water stress and variety on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), during 2009/10 and 2010/11 dry seasons. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress) and two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kauze/Weaver) laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress was assigned to the main-plot while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed significant (P< 0.05) effect of water stress, water stress at tillering significantly (P< 0.05) reduced plant height, LAI, CGR, and NAR. Variety had a significant effect on plant height, LAI, CGR and NAR. In conclusion water stress at tillering was observed to be most critical growth stage in wheat, and water stress at this period should be avoided because it results to decrease in growth components in wheat. Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Star II TR 77173/LM is recommended variety for the area.
On Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM)
We proposed a Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM), which was developed by introducing a stabilizing parameter called θ using hyperbolic sine function into the classical gompertz growth equation. The resulting integral solution obtained deterministically was reprogrammed into a statistical model and used in modeling the height and diameter of Pines (Pinus caribaea). Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical gompertz growth model, an approach which mimicked the natural variability of height/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using goodness of fit tests and model selection criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the compliance of the error term to normality assumptions while using testing the independence of the error term using the runs test. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic gompertz growth models better than the source model (classical gompertz growth model) while the results of R2, Adj. R2, MSE, and AIC confirmed the predictive power of the Hyperbolic Monomolecular growth models over its source model.
Protection of the Object of the Critical Infrastructure in the Czech Republic
With the increasing dependence of countries on the critical infrastructure, it increases their vulnerability. Big threat is primarily in the human factor (personnel of the critical infrastructure) and in terrorist attacks. It emphasizes the development of methodology for searching of weak points and their subsequent elimination. This article discusses methods for the analysis of safety in the objects of critical infrastructure. It also contains proposal for methodology for training employees of security services in the objects of the critical infrastructure and developing scenarios of attacks on selected objects of the critical infrastructure.
Design Optimisation of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) for Improved Performance
A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is a well known non-imaging concentrator that will concentrate the solar radiation onto receiver (PV cell). One of disadvantage of CPC is has tall and narrow height compared to its diameter entry aperture area. Therefore, for economic reason, a truncation had been done by removed from the top of the full height CPC. This is also will lead to the decreases of concentration ratio but it will be negligible. In this paper, the flux distribution of untruncated and truncated 2-D hollow compound parabolic trough concentrator (hCPTC) design is presented. The untruncated design has initial height, H=193.4mm with concentration ratio, C_(2-D)=4. This paper presents the optical simulation of compound parabolic trough concentrator using ray-tracing software TracePro. Results showed that, after the truncation, the height of CPC reduced 45% from initial height with the geometrical concentration ratio only decrease 10%. Thus, the cost of reflector and material dielectric usage can be saved especially at manufacturing site.
Study on The Pile Height Loss of Tunisian Handmade Carpets Under Dynamic Loading
Nine different Tunisian handmade carpets were used for the investigation. The raw material of the carpet pile yarns was wool. The influence of the different structure parameters (linear density and pile height) on the carpet compression was investigated. Carpets were tested under dynamic loading in order to evaluate and observe the thickness loss and carpet behavior under dynamic loads. To determine the loss of pile height under dynamic loading, the pile height carpets were measured. The test method was treated according to the Tunisian standard NT 12.165 (corresponds to the standard ISO 2094). The pile height measurements are taken and recorded at intervals up to 1000 impacts (measures of this study were made after 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 impacts). The loss of pile height is calculated using the variation between the initial height and those measured after the number of reported impacts. The experimental results were statistically evaluated using Design Expert Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) software. As regards the deformation, results showed that both of the structure parameters of the pile yarn and the pile height have an influence. The carpet with the higher pile and the less linear density of pile yarn showed the worst performance. Results of a polynomial regression analysis are highlighted. There is a good correlation between the loss of pile height and the impacts number of dynamic loads. These equations are in good agreement with measured data. Because the prediction is reasonably accurate for all samples, these equations can also be taken into account when calculating the theoretical loss of pile height for the considered carpet samples. Statistical evaluations of the experimen¬tal data showed that the pile material and number of impacts have a significant effect on mean thickness and thickness loss variations.
On Differential Growth Equation to Stochastic Growth Model Using Hyperbolic Sine Function in Height/Diameter Modeling of Pines
Richard's growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richard's growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richard's growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richard's nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richard's growth model.
Tsunami Wave Height and Flow Velocity Calculations Based on Density Measurements of Boulders: Case Studies from Anegada and Pakarang Cape
Inundation events, such as storms and tsunamis can leave onshore sedimentary evidence like sand deposits or large boulders. These deposits store indirect information on the related inundation parameters (e.g., flow velocity, flow depth, wave height). One tool to reveal these parameters are inverse models that use the physical characteristics of the deposits to refer to the magnitude of inundation. This study used boulders of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami from Thailand (Pakarang Cape) and form a historical tsunami event that inundated the outer British Virgin Islands (Anegada). For the largest boulder found in Pakarang Cape with a volume of 26.48 m³ the required tsunami wave height is 0.44 m and storm wave height are 1.75 m (for a bulk density of 1.74 g/cm³. In Pakarang Cape the highest tsunami wave height is 0.45 m and storm wave height are 1.8 m for transporting a 20.07 m³ boulder. On Anegada, the largest boulder with a diameter of 2.7 m is the asingle coral head (species Diploria sp.) with a bulk density of 1.61 g/cm³, and requires a minimum tsunami wave height of 0.31 m and storm wave height of 1.25 m. The highest required tsunami wave height on Anegada is 2.12 m for a boulder with a bulk density of 2.46 g/cm³ (volume 0.0819 m³) and the highest storm wave height is 5.48 m (volume 0.216 m³) from the same bulk density and the coral type is limestone. Generally, the higher the bulk density, volume, and weight of the boulders, the higher the minimum tsunami and storm wave heights required to initiate transport. It requires 4.05 m/s flow velocity by Nott’s equation (2003) and 3.57 m/s by Nandasena et al. (2011) to transport the largest boulder in Pakarang Cape, whereas on Anegada, it requires 3.41 m/s to transport a boulder with diameter 2.7 m for both equations. Thus, boulder equations need to be handled with caution because they make many assumptions and simplifications. Second, the physical boulder parameters, such as density and volume need to be determined carefully to minimize any errors.
An Alternative Richards’ Growth Model Based on Hyperbolic Sine Function
Richrads growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richards growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richards growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richards nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richards growth model.
A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls
In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.
Effects of Net Height of Crab Entangling Nets on the Capture of Targeted Economically Important Portunid Species and Non-Target Species
This study determined the effects of net height on the capture performance of crab entangling nets. Fishing trials were conducted using nets with the following net heights: 1) 12 meshes down (MD), 2) 24 MD and 3) 50 MD. A total of 1,290 individuals comprising of 87 species belonging to 53 families were caught. One-way ANOVA showed that net height significantly affects various catch parameters such as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the total and target catch, amount of non-target catch, sizes and species richness. The use of appropriate net height is a potential technical measure for a selective but still efficient crab entangling net fishery. Lower net height significantly reduced non-target catch up to 70%. While lower nets decreased the CPUE of target catch such as blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus and christian crab Charybdis feriatus up to 65% in 12 MD, catch in 24 MD was not significantly different with that in 50 MD. The use of 24 MD also resulted in capturing larger-sized Portunus pelagicus. Catch species richness decreased up to 58% in lower nets. These results are useful to fisheries managers and government institutions to develop or improve existing regulations towards a sustainable crab fishery particularly blue swimming crabs.
Effect of Slope Height and Horizontal Forces on the Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings near Slopes in Cohesionless Soil
The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing capacity, both without and with using superposition as presupposed in the traditional bearing capacity equation. The results for friction angles 30, 35 and 40 degrees, slope inclinations 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, for selfweight and surcharge are given as charts showing the slope inclination factors suitable for design.
The Faithful Extension of Constant Height and Constant Width Between Finite Posets
The problem of faithful extension with the condition of keeping constant height h and constant width w, i.e. for h w -inextensibility, seems more interesting than the brute extension of finite poset (partially ordered set). We shall investigate some theorems of hw-inextensive and hw-exrensive posets that can be used to formulate the faithful extension problem. A theorem in its general form of hw-inextensive posets is given to implement the presented theorems.
Characterization of current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage–frequency (C–V–f) features of Au/GaN Schottky diodes
The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of Au/GaN Schottky diodes were measured at room temperature. In addition, capacitance–voltage–frequency (C–V–f) characteristics are investigated by considering the interface states (Nss) at frequency range 100 kHz to 1 MHz. From the I–V characteristics of the Schottky diode, ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φb) values of 1.22 and 0.56 eV, respectively, were obtained from a forward bias I–V plot. In addition, the interface states distribution profile as a function of (Ess − Ev) was extracted from the forward bias I–V measurements by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height (Φe) for the Schottky diode. The C–V curves gave a barrier height value higher than those obtained from I–V measurements. This discrepancy is due to the different nature of the I–V and C–V measurement techniques.
Release Response of Black Spruce and White Spruce Following Overstory Lodgepole Pine Mortality Due to Mountain Pine Beetle Attack
Advance regeneration is present in many lodgepole pine stands in Alberta. When the overstory pine canopy is killed by Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) the growth of this advance is likely to increase. Understanding the growth response of these understory tree species is needed to improve mid-term timber supply projections and management decisions. To quantify the growth (diameter, height, height/diameter ratio) responses of black spruce and white spruce to lodgepole pine mortality, sample trees of black and white spruce advance regeneration were selected from 7 lodgepole pine dominated stands (5 attacked; 2 control) in the Foothills Region of western Alberta. Measurements were collected 7-8 years after MPB attack across a wide range of spruce height and stand densities. Analysis was done using mixed model linear regression. Result indicates that there was an increase in both diameter and height growth after MPB attack; however, this increase in growth was delayed for about four years. Both spruce species had similar height response and their height/diameter ratio decreased after release, partly as a result of increased understory light associated with loss of needles in the pine canopy. In addition, the diameter and height growth responses of both spruce species were strongly related to density, prerelease growth and initial size.
Ultrasonic Evaluation of Periodic Rough Inaccessible Surfaces from Back Side
The surface roughness is an important parameter for evaluating the quality of material surfaces since it affects functions and performance of industrial components. Although stylus and optical techniques are commonly used for measuring the surface roughness, they are applicable only to accessible surfaces. In practice, surface roughness measurement from the back side is sometimes demanded, for example, in inspection of safety-critical parts such as inner surface of pipes. However, little attention has been paid to the measurement of back surface roughness so far. Since back surface is usually inaccessible by stylus or optical techniques, ultrasonic technique is one of the most effective among others. In this research, an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique is considered for evaluating the pitch and the height of back surface having periodic triangular profile as a very first step. The pitch of the surface profile is measured by applying the diffraction grating theory for oblique incidence; then the height is evaluated by numerical analysis based on the Kirchhoff theory for normal incidence. The validity of the proposed method was verified by both numerical simulation and experiment. It was confirmed that the pitch is accurately measured in most cases. The height was also evaluated with good accuracy when it is smaller than a half of the pitch because of the approximation in the Kirchhoff theory.
Critical Activity Effect on Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method
Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) with its additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activities provides more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in PDM network will have anomalous effect on critical path. Researchers have proposed some classification of critical activity effects. In this paper, we do further study on classifications of critical activity effect and provide more information in detailed. Furthermore, we determine the maximum amount of time for each class of critical activity effect by which the project managers can control the dynamic feature (shortening/lengthening) of critical activities and project duration more efficiently.
Effect of Friction Parameters on the Residual Bagging Behaviors of Denim Fabrics
This research focuses on the yarn-to-yarn and metal-to-fabric friction effects on the residual bagging behavior expressed by residual bagging height, volume and recovery of some denim fabrics. The results show, that both residual bagging height and residual bagging volume, which is determined using image analysis method, are significantly affected due to the most influential fabric parameter variations, the weft yarns density and the mean frictional coefficients. After the applied number of fatigue cycles, the findings revealed that the weft yarn rigidity contributes on fabric bagging behavior accurately. Among the tested samples, our results show that the elastic fabrics present a high recovery ability to give low bagging height and volume values.
Modeling of Wind Loads on Heliostats Installed in South Algeria of Various Pylon Height
Knowledge of wind loads is important to develop a heliostat with good performance. These loads can be calculated by mathematical equations based on several parameters: the density, wind velocity, the aspect ratio of the mirror (height/width) and the coefficient of the height of the tower. Measurement data of the wind velocity and the density of the air are used in a numerical simulation of wind profile that was performed on heliostats with different pylon heights, with 1m^2 mirror areas and with aspect ratio of mirror equal to 1. These measurement data are taken from the meteorological station installed in Ghardaia, Algeria. The main aim of this work is to find a mathematical correlation between the wind loads and the height of the tower.
Faithful Extension of Constant Height and Constant Width between Finite Posets
The problem of faithful extension with the condition of keeping constant height h and constant width w, i.e. for hw-inextensibility, seems more interesting than the brute extension of finite poset (partially ordered set). We shall investigate some theorems of hw-inextensive and hw-extensive posets that can be used to formulate the faithful extension problem. A theorem in its general form of hw-inextensive posets are given to implement the presented theorems.
The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method
The additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides a more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in the PDM network will have an anomalous effect on the critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting the project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.
Numerical Solution of 1-D Shallow Water Equations at Junction for Sub-Critical and Super-Critical Flow
In this paper, we solve 1-D shallow water equation for sub-critical and super-critical water flow at junction. The water flow at junction has been studied for the last 50 years from the physical-hydraulic point of views and for numerical computations need more attention. For numerical simulation, we need to establish an inner boundary condition at the junction to avoid an oscillation which rise from the waves interactions at the junction. Indeed, we introduce a new boundary condition at the junction based on the mass conservation, total head, and the admissible wave relations between the flow parameters in the three branches to predict the water depths and discharges at the junction. These boundary conditions are valid for sub-critical flow and super-critical flow.
Optimum Design of Tall Tube-Type Building: An Approach to Structural Height Premium
In last decades, tubular systems employed for tall buildings were efficient structural systems. However, increasing the height of a building leads to an increase in structural material corresponding to the loads imposed by lateral loads. Based on this approach, new structural systems are emerging to provide strength and stiffness with the minimum premium for height. In this research, selected tube-type structural systems such as framed tubes, braced tubes, diagrids and hexagrid systems were applied as a single tube, tubular structures combined with braced core and outrigger trusses on a set of 48, 72, and 96-story, respectively, to improve integrated structural systems. This paper investigated structural material consumption by model structures focusing on the premium for height. Compared analytical results indicated that as the height of the building increased, combination of the structural systems caused the framed tube, hexagrid and braced tube system to pay fewer premiums to material tonnage while in diagrid system, combining the structural system reduced insignificantly the steel material consumption.
Experimental Study on Floating Breakwater Anchored by Piles
Coastline is vulnerable to coastal erosion which damage infrastructure and buildings. Floating breakwaters are applied in order to minimize material cost but still can reduce wave height. In this paper, we investigated floating breakwater anchored by piles based on experimental study in the laboratory with model scale 1:8. Two type of floating model were tested with several combination wave height, wave period and surface water elevation to determined transmission coefficient. This experimental study proved that floating breakwater with piles can prevent wave height up to 27 cm. The physical model shows that ratio of depth to wave length is less than 0.6 and ratio of model width to wave length is less than 0.3. It is confirmed that if those ratio are less than those value, the transmission coefficient is 0.5. The result also showed that the first type model of floating breakwater can reduce wave height by 60.4 % while the second one can reduce up to 55.56 %.
The Application of the Security Audit Method on the Selected Objects of Critical Infrastructure
The paper is focused on the application of the security audit method on the selected objects of the critical infrastructure. The emphasis is put on security audit method to find gaps in the critical infrastructure security. The theoretical part describes objects of the critical infrastructure. The practical part describes using the security audit method. The main emphasis was put on the protection of the critical infrastructure in the Czech Republic.
The Effect of Brassica rapa Leaf Extracts on the Growth of Upland Ipomoea aquatica
The effect of Brassica rapa leaf extracts on the growth of upland Ipomoea aquatica was investigated. One hundred grams Brassica rapa leaf were blended using a heavy duty blender. These were diluted with water to have final concentrations of 75% (T1), 50% (T2) and 25% (T3) that served as treatments of the study. Pure water (T0) that served as control was also included Upland Ipomoea aquatic were grown in pots. A 3-4 in water level was maintained during the whole duration of the study. Plant height, leaf area, fruit size and shoot height, were taken after 6 months. Results showed that plant height and shoot height was highest in T1 while T0 was the lowest. On the other hand, T2 had the highest leaf area and fruit size. The study suggests that T1 and T2 can be a good fertilizer for Ipomoea aquatica.
Dynamic Process of Single Water Droplet Impacting on a Hot Heptane Surface
Understanding the interaction mechanism between the water droplet and pool fire has an important significance in engineering application of water sprinkle/spray/mist fire suppression. The micro impact process is unclear when the droplet impacts on the burning liquid surface at present. To deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of pool fire suppression with water spray/mist, dynamic processes of single water droplet impinging onto a hot heptane surface are visualized with the aid of a high-speed digital camera at 2000 fps. Each test is repeated 20 times. The water droplet diameter is around 1.98 mm, and the impact Weber number ranges from 30 to 695. The heptane is heated by a hot plate to mimic the burning condition, and the temperature varies from 30 to 90°C. The results show that three typical phenomena, including penetration, crater-jet and surface bubble, are observed, and the pool temperature has a significant influence on the critical condition for the appearance of each phenomenon. A global picture of different phenomena is built according to impact Weber number and pool temperature. In addition, the pool temperature and Weber number have important influences on the characteristic parameters including maximum crater depth, crown height and liquid column height. For a fixed Weber number, the liquid column height increases with pool temperature.
Scheduling of Repetitive Activities for Height-Rise Buildings: Optimisation by Genetic Algorithms
In this paper, a developed prototype for the scheduling of repetitive activities in height-rise buildings was presented. The activities that describe the behavior of the most of activities in multi-storey buildings are scheduled using the developed approach. The prototype combines three methods to attain the optimized planning. The methods include Critical Path Method (CPM), Gantt and Line of Balance (LOB). The developed prototype; POTER is used to schedule repetitive and non-repetitive activities with respect to all constraints that can be automatically generated using a generic database. The prototype uses the method of genetic algorithms for optimizing the planning process. As a result, this approach enables contracting organizations to evaluate various planning solutions that are calculated, tested and classified by POTER to attain an optimal time-cost equilibrium according to their own criteria of time or coast.
A Mathematical Model Approach Regarding the Children’s Height Development with Fractional Calculus
The study aims to use a mathematical approach with the fractional calculus which is developed to have the ability to continuously analyze the factors related to the children’s height development. Until now, tracking the development of the child is getting more important and meaningful. Knowing and determining the factors related to the physical development of the child any desired time would provide better, reliable and accurate results for childcare. In this frame, 7 groups for height percentile curve (3th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th) of Turkey are used. By using discrete height data of 0-18 years old children and the least squares method, a continuous curve is developed valid for any time interval. By doing so, in any desired instant, it is possible to find the percentage and location of the child in Percentage Chart. Here, with the help of the fractional calculus theory, a mathematical model is developed. The outcomes of the proposed approach are quite promising compared to the linear and the polynomial method. The approach also yields to predict the expected values of children in the sense of height.
Critical Realism as a Bridge between Critical Pedagogy and Queer Theory
This paper explores the traditions of critical and queer pedagogy, its intersections, tensions and paradoxes. Critical pedagogy, with a materialist realist ontology, and queer theory, which is often post-modern, post-structural and anti-essential, may not seem compatible. Similarly, there are tensions between activist orientations, often enacted through essential sexual identities, and a queer approach that questions such identities and subjectivities. It will argue that critical realism gives us a bridge between critical and queer pedagogy in preserving a realist materialist ontology, where economic forces are real, and independent of consciousness and hermeneutic constructions of them. At the same time, it offers an epistemology that does not necessitate a binary view of the roles of the oppressed, liberator, or even oppressor. It accepts that our knowledge is contingent, partial and contestable, but has the potential, and enough validity, to demand action and potentially inform the actions of others.
Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class
This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension.
Promoting Critical Thinking in a Robotics Class
This paper describes the creation and teaching of an undergraduate course aimed at promoting critical thinking among the students in the course. The class, Robots in Business and Society, taught at Clemson University, is open to all undergraduate students of any discipline. It is taught as part of Clemson’s online class program and is structured to promote critical thinking via a series of interactive discussion boards and assignments. Critical thinking is measured via pre- and post-testing using a benchmark standardized test. The paper will detail the class organization, and describe and discuss the results and lessons learned with respect to improvement of student critical thinking from three offerings of the class.
Historical Tree Height Growth Associated with Climate Change in Western North America
The effect of climate change on tree growth in boreal and temperate forests has received increased interest in the context of global warming. However, most studies were conducted in small areas and with a limited number of tree species. Here, we examined the height growth responses of seventeen tree species to climate change in Western North America. 37009 stands from forest inventory databases in Canada and USA with varying establishment date were selected. Dominant and co-dominant trees from each stand were sampled to determine top tree height at 50 years breast height age. Height was related to historical mean annual and summer temperatures, annual and summer Palmer Drought Severity Index, tree establishment date, slope, aspect, soil fertility as determined by the rate of carbon organic matter decomposition (carbon/nitrogen), geographic locations (latitude, longitude, and elevation), species range (coastal, interior, and both ranges), shade tolerance and leaf form (needle leaves, deciduous needle leaves, and broadleaves). Climate change had mostly a positive effect on tree height growth. The results explained 62.4% of the height growth variance. Since 1880, height growth increase was greater for coastal, high shade tolerant, and broadleaf species. Height growth increased more on steep slopes and high soil fertility soils. Greater height growth was mostly observed at the leading range and upward. Conversely, some species showed the opposite pattern probably due to the increase of drought (coastal Mediterranean area), precipitation and cloudiness (Alaska and British Columbia) and peculiarity (higher latitudes-lower elevations and vice versa) of western North America topography. This study highlights the role of the species ecological amplitude and traits, and geographic locations as the main factors determining the growth response and its magnitude to the recent global climate change.
Breakfast Eating Pattern Associated with Nutritional Status of Urban Primary Schoolchildren in Iran and India
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of breakfast eating pattern (between frequencies of breakfast consumers and non-consumers) on nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height). A total 4570 primary school children aged 6-9 years old constituted the sample. From these, 2234 Iranian school children (1218 girls and 1016 boys) and 2336 Indian school children (1096 girls and 1240 boys) were included in a cross sectional study. Breakfast frequency consumption was recorded through an interview with mothers of children. Height and wight of children were taken and body mass index were calculated. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) AnthroPlus software used to assess the nutritional status of the children. Weight for age z-scores were slightly associated with frequency of consuming breakfast in both India (χ2 = 60.083, p=0.000) and Iran (χ2 = 18.267, p=0.032). A significant association was seen between frequency of child‘s breakfast intake and the height z-scores in both India (χ2 = 31.334, p=0.000) and Iran (χ2 = 19.443, p=0.022). Most of children with normal height had breakfast daily in both countries. A significant association was seen with children‘s BMI z-scores of Indian children (χ2 = 31.247, p=0.000) but it was not significant in Iran (χ2 = 10.791, p=0.095). The present study confirms the observations of other studies that showed more frequency in having breakfast is associated with better nutritional status.
Vertical Distribution of the Monthly Average Values of the Air Temperature above the Territory of Kakheti in 2012-2017
Studies of the vertical distribution of the air temperature in the atmosphere have great value for the solution of different problems of meteorology and climatology (meteorological forecast of showers, thunderstorms, and hail, weather modification, estimation of climate change, etc.). From the end of May 2015 in Kakheti after 25-year interruption, the work of anti-hail service was restored. Therefore, in connection with climate change, the need for the detailed study of the contemporary regime of the vertical distribution of the air temperature above this territory arose. In particular, the indicated information is necessary for the optimum selection of rocket means with the works on the weather modification (fight with the hail, the regulation of atmospheric precipitations, etc.). Construction of the detailed maps of the potential damage distribution of agricultural crops from the hail, etc. taking into account the dimensions of hailstones in the clouds according to the data of radar measurements and height of locality are the most important factors. For now, in Georgia, there is no aerological probing of atmosphere. To solve given problem we processed information about air temperature profiles above Telavi, at 27 km above earth's surface. Information was gathered during four observation time (4, 10, 16, 22 hours with local time. After research, we found vertical distribution of the average monthly values of the air temperature above Kakheti in 2012-2017 from January to December. Research was conducted from 0.543 to 27 km above sea level during four periods of research. In particular, it is obtained: -during January the monthly average air temperature linearly diminishes with 2.6 °C on the earth's surface to -57.1 °C at the height of 10 km, then little it changes up to the height of 26 km; the gradient of the air temperature in the layer of the atmosphere from 0.543 to 8 km - 6.3 °C/km; height of zero isotherm - is 1.33 km. -during July the air temperature linearly diminishes with 23.5 °C to -64.7 °C at the height of 17 km, then it grows to -47.5 °C at the height of 27 km; the gradient of the air temperature of - 6.1 °C/km; height of zero isotherm - is 4.39 km, which on 0.16 km is higher than in the sixties of past century.
Application Potential of Selected Tools in Context of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Risk Analysis
Risk analysis is considered as a fundamental aspect relevant for ensuring the level of critical infrastructure protection, where the critical infrastructure is seen as system, asset or its part which is important for maintaining the vital societal functions. Article actually discusses and analyzes the potential application of selected tools of information support for the implementation and within the framework of risk analysis and critical infrastructure protection. Use of the information in relation to their risk analysis can be viewed as a form of simplifying the analytical process. It is clear that these instruments (information support) for these purposes are countless, so they were selected representatives who have already been applied in the selected area of critical infrastructure, or they can be used. All presented fact were the basis for critical infrastructure resilience evaluation methodology development.
Study of Seismic Damage Reinforced Concrete Frames in Variable Height with Logistic Statistic Function Distribution
In seismic design, the proper reaction to the earthquake and the correct and accurate prediction of its subsequent effects on the structure are critical. Choose a proper probability distribution, which gives a more realistic probability of the structure's damage rate, is essential in damage discussions. With the development of design based on performance, analytical method of modal push over as an inexpensive, efficacious, and quick one in the estimation of the structures' seismic response is broadly used in engineering contexts. In this research three concrete frames of 3, 6, and 13 stories are analyzed in non-linear modal push over by 30 different earthquake records by OpenSEES software, then the detriment indexes of roof's displacement and relative displacement ratio of the stories are calculated by two parameters: peak ground acceleration and spectra acceleration. These indexes are used to establish the value of damage relations with log-normal distribution and logistics distribution. Finally the value of these relations is compared and the effect of height on the mentioned damage relations is studied, too.
Alvaro Siza’s Design Strategy: An Insight into Critical Regionalism
By the emergence of the debate over the failure of Regionalism in the late 1970s, Critical Regionalism was introduced as a different way to respond to the state of architecture in the post-war era. Critical Regionalism is most often understood as a discourse that not only mediates the language of modern architecture with the local cultures but also revives the relation between architecture and spectator as indexed by capitalism. Since the inception of Critical Regionalism, a large number of architectural practices have emerged around the globe; however, the work of the well-known Portuguese architect, Álvaro Siza, is considered as a unique case amongst works associated with the discourse of Critical Regionalism. This paper intends to respond to a number of questions, including; what are the origins of Critical Regionalism? How does Siza’s design strategy correspond to the thematic of Critical Regionalism? How does Siza recover the relation between object and subject in most of his projects? Using Siza’s housing project for the Malagueira district in Évora, Portugal, this article will attempt to answer these questions, and highlight Alvaro Siza’s design procedure which goes beyond the existing discourse of Critical Regionalism and contributes to our understanding of this practice.
Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Myanmar, Based on Microtremor Measurement
Seismic evaluation is needed upon the buildings in Myanmar. Microtremor measurement was conducted in the main cities, Mandalay and Yangon. In order to evaluate the seismic properties of buildings currently under construction, seismic information was gathered for six buildings in Yangon city and four buildings in Mandalay city. The investigated buildings vary from 12m-80 m in height, and mostly public residence structures. The predominant period obtained from frequency results of the investigated buildings were given by horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) for each building. The fundamental period results have been calculated in the form of Fourier amplitude spectra of translation along with the main structure. Based on that, the height (H)-period(T) relationship was observed as T=0.012H-0.017H in the buildings of Yangon and, observed the relationship as T=0.014H-0.019H in the buildings of Mandalay. The results showed that the relationship between height and natural period was slightly under the relationship T=0.02H that is used for Japanese reinforced concrete buildings, which indicated that the results depend on the properties and characteristics of materials used.
Critical Pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Grade 8 Values Education Curriculum and Textbook
Critical pedagogy is known for its advocacy of humanistic and liberating education. Its far-reaching approach helps students to understand and analyze their own situations and the realities happening in their society. However, this pedagogy together with its promising features is not well-known in the Philippines. This paper determines the place of critical pedagogy in the new values education curriculum and analyzes its features in the K-12 Values Education curriculum and textbook. The study examines the position of critical pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Values Education curriculum by closely studying and comparing their features; and scrutinizes the Grade 8 Values Education textbook specifically modules 4, 8, 10 and 13 which comprises 25% of the total 16 modules. The said modules are concerned with the role of the family in the preservation of social justice, which is one of the objectives of critical pedagogy. The findings in this research were based on the pieces of evidence gathered from the curriculum and textbook itself. Based on the evaluation done, the study found out that the ideas of critical pedagogy were the same with that of the objectives of K-12 Values Education Curriculum. Due to this, values education teachers can utilize critical pedagogy in their subject. In addition, the K-12 Values Education curriculum exhibits some of the features of critical pedagogy such as authentic student empowerment and critical thinking. Lastly, some features of critical pedagogy are also evident in some of the general parts and recommended activities in the K-12 Values Education textbook while other activities need to be fully developed by both teacher and students to reflect the genuine critical pedagogy.
Mathematical Modeling Pressure Losses of Trapezoidal Labyrinth Channel and Bi-Objective Optimization of the Design Parameters
The influence of the geometric parameters of trapezoidal labyrinth channel on the pressure losses along the labyrinth length is investigated in this work. The impact of the dentate height is studied at fixed values of the dentate angle and the dentate spacing. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to derive a mathematical model of the pressure losses along the labyrinth length depending on the dentate height. The numerical simulations of the water flow movement are performed by using Commercial codes ANSYS GAMBIT and FLUENT. Dripper inlet pressure is set up to be 1 bar. As a result, the mathematical model of the pressure losses is determined as a second-order polynomial by means Commercial code STATISTIKA. Bi-objective optimization is performed by using the mean algebraic function of utility. The optimum value of the dentate height is defined at fixed values of the dentate angle and the dentate spacing. The derived model of the pressure losses and the optimum value of the dentate height are used as a basis for a more successful emitter design.
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Single and Twin Offshore Rubble Mound Breakwaters under Regular and Random Waves
This paper investigates the interaction of single and twin offshore rubble mound breakwaters with regular and random water waves through physical modeling to assess their reflection, transmission and energy dissipation characteristics. Various combinations of wave heights and wave periods were utilized in a series of experiments, along with three different water depths. The single and twin permeable breakwater models were both constructed with one layer of rubbles. Both models had the same total volume; however, the single breakwater was of trapezoidal type while the twin breakwaters were of triangular type. Physical modeling experiments were carried out in the wave flume of the coastal engineering laboratory of Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). Measurements of the six wave probes which were fixed in the two-dimensional wave flume were collected and used to determine the generated incident wave heights, as well as the reflected and transmitted wave heights resulting from the wave-breakwater interaction. The possible factors affecting the wave attenuation efficiency of the breakwater models are the relative water depth (d/L), wave steepness (H/L), relative wave height ((h-d)/Hi), relative height of the breakwater (h/d), and relative clear spacing between the twin breakwaters (S/h). The results indicated that the single and double breakwaters show different responds to the change in their relative height as well as the relative wave height which demonstrates that the effect of the relative water depth on wave reflection, transmission, and energy dissipation is highly influenced by the change in the relative breakwater height, the relative wave height and the relative breakwater spacing. In general, within the range of the relative water depth tested in this study, and under both regular and random waves, it is found that the single breakwater allows for lower wave transmission and shows higher energy dissipation effect than both of the tested twin breakwaters, and hence has the best overall performance.
Some Agricultural Characteristics of Cephalaria syriaca Lines Selected from a Population and Developed as Winter Type
The research was conducted in the “Randomized Complete Block Design” with three replications in research field of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. In study, a total of 9 Cephalaria syriaca promised lines (9, 37, 38, 42, Beyaz 4, 5 Beyaz, 13 Beyaz, 27 Beyaz, Başaklar 2), which were taken from Sivas population, and 1 population were evaluated in two growing seasons (2012-13 and 2013-14). According to the results, the highest plant height, first branch height, first head height, number of branches per plant, number of head per plant, head diameter,1000 seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were obtained respectively from Başaklar 2 (68.37 cm), Başaklar 2 (37.80 cm), Başaklar 2 (54.83 cm), 37 (7.73 number/plant), 42 (18.03 number/plant), 9 (10.30 mm), Başaklar 2 (19.33 g), 27 Beyaz (1254.2 kg ha-1), Başaklar 2 (28.77%), and 27 Beyaz (357.9 kg ha-1).
The Process of Critical Care Nursing Resilience in Workplace Adversity
Critical care nurses are at risk for burnout when confronted with sustained workplace adversity, which stems from a variety of social, structural, and environmental factors. Researchers have suggested that nurses can become resilient and overcome workplace adversity to achieve positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to learn more about critical care nurses’ experiences with workplace adversity, and their process of becoming resilient. The research question will be: what is the process of critical care nursing resilience in workplace adversity?
In-depth interviews with critical care nurses will provide the data to inductively generate the grounded theory. The resultant grounded theory will provide a framework to inform nurses and managers in developing interventions to support critical care nurses in their workplace. By enhancing nursing resilience, burnout may be avoided, and nurse satisfaction and overall quality of care may be improved.
Changes in Some Morphological Characters of Dill Under Cadmium Stress
To investigate the effect of cadmium heavy metal stress on five ecotype of dill, this experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Tabriz University and Shabestar Islamic Azad University’s laboratories with tree replications. After growing the plants, cadmium treatments (concentration 0,300, 600 µmol) were applied. The essential oil of the samples was measured by hydro distillation and using a Clevenger apparatus. Variables used in this study include: wet and dry roots and aerial part of plant, plant height, stem diameter, and root length. The results showed that different concentrations of heavy metal has statistical difference (p < 0.01) on the fresh weight, dry weight, plant height and root length but hadn’t significant difference on essential oil percentage and root length. Dill ecotypes have statistical significant difference on essential oil percent, fresh plant weight, plant height, root length, except plant dry weight. The interactions between Cd concentration and dill ecotypes have not significant effect on all traits, except root length. Maximum fresh weight (4.98 gr) and minimum amount (3.13 gr) were obtained in control trait and 600 ppm of cd concentration, respectively. Highest amount of fresh weight (4.78 gr) was obtained in Birjand ecotype. Maximum plant dry weight (1.2 gr) was obtained at control. The highest plant height (32.54 cm) was obtained in control and with applies cadmium concentrations from zero to 300 and 600 ppm was found significantly reduced in plant height.
Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Taxonomy Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class
This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension
Extraction of Urban Building Damage Using Spectral, Height and Corner Information
Timely and accurate information on urban building damage caused by earthquake is important basis for disaster assessment and emergency relief. Very high resolution (VHR) remotely sensed imagery containing abundant fine-scale information offers a large quantity of data for detecting and assessing urban building damage in the aftermath of earthquake disasters. However, the accuracy obtained using spectral features alone is comparatively low, since building damage, intact buildings and pavements are spectrally similar. Therefore, it is of great significance to detect urban building damage effectively using multi-source data. Considering that in general height or geometric structure of buildings change dramatically in the devastated areas, a novel multi-stage urban building damage detection method, using bi-temporal spectral, height and corner information, was proposed in this study. The pre-event height information was generated using stereo VHR images acquired from two different satellites, while the post-event height information was produced from airborne LiDAR data. The corner information was extracted from pre- and post-event panchromatic images. The proposed method can be summarized as follows. To reduce the classification errors caused by spectral similarity and errors in extracting height information, ground surface, shadows, and vegetation were first extracted using the post-event VHR image and height data and were masked out. Two different types of building damage were then extracted from the remaining areas: the height difference between pre- and post-event was used for detecting building damage showing significant height change; the difference in the density of corners between pre- and post-event was used for extracting building damage showing drastic change in geometric structure. The initial building damage result was generated by combining above two building damage results. Finally, a post-processing procedure was adopted to refine the obtained initial result. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated and compared to two existing methods in Port au Prince, Haiti, which was heavily hit by an earthquake in January 2010, using pre-event GeoEye-1 image, pre-event WorldView-2 image, post-event QuickBird image and post-event LiDAR data. The results showed that the method proposed in this study significantly outperformed the two comparative methods in terms of urban building damage extraction accuracy. The proposed method provides a fast and reliable method to detect urban building collapse, which is also applicable to relevant applications.
Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Laminar Flow over a Backward Facing Step with and without Obstacle
Heat transfer and laminar fluid flow over backward facing step with and without obstacle numerically studied in this paper. The finite volume method adopted to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations in two dimensions. Backward facing step without obstacle and with different dimension of obstacle were presented. The step height and expansion ratio of channel were 4.8mm and 2 respectively, the range of Reynolds number varied from 75 to 225, constant heat flux subjected on downstream of wall was 2000W/m2, and length of obstacle was 1.5, 3, and 4.5mm with width 1.5mm. The separation length noticed increase with increase Reynolds number and height of obstacle. The result shows increase of heat transfer coefficient for backward facing step with obstacle in compared to those without obstacle. The maximum enhancement of heat transfer observed at 4.5mm of height obstacle due to increase recirculation flow after the obstacle in addition that at backward. Streamline of velocity showing the increase of recirculation region with used obstacle in compared without obstacle and highest recirculation region observed at obstacle height 4.5mm. The amount of enhancement heat transfer was varied between 3-5% compared to backward without obstacle.
Effect of Preloading on Long-Term Settlement of Closed Landfills: A Numerical Analysis
In recent years, by developing cities and increasing population, reconstructing on closed landfill sites in some regions is unavoidable. Long-term settlement is one of the major concerns associated with reconstruction on landfills after closure. The purpose of this research is evaluating the effect of preloading in various patterns of height and time on long-term settlements of closed landfills. In this regard, five scenarios of surcharge from 1 to 3 m high within 3, 4.5 and 6 months of preloading time have been modeled using PLAXIS 2D software. Moreover, the numerical results have been compared to those obtained from analytical methods, and a good agreement has been achieved. The findings indicate that there is a linear relationship between settlement and surcharge height. Although, long-term settlement decreased by applying a longer and higher preloading, the time of preloading was found to be a more effective factor compared to preloading height.
Critical Thinking Index of College Students
Critical thinking Index (CTI) of 150 third year college students from five State Colleges and Universities (SUCs) in Region I were determined. Only students with Grade Point Average (GPA) of at least 2.0 from four general classification of degree courses, namely: Education, Arts and Sciences, Engineering and Agriculture were included. Specific problem No.1 dealt with the profile variables, namely: age, sex, degree course, monthly family income, number of siblings, high school graduated from, grade point average, personality type, highest educational attainment of parents, and occupation of parents. Problem No. 2 determined the critical thinking index among the respondents. Problem No. 3 investigated whether or not there are significant differences in the critical thinking index among the respondents across the profile variables. While problem No.4 determined whether or not there are significant relationship between the critical thinking index and selected profile variables, namely: age, monthly family income, number of siblings, and grade point average of the respondents. Finally, on problem No. 5, the critical thinking instrument which obtained the lowest rates, were used as basis for outlining an intervention program for enhancing critical thinking index (CTI) of students. The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance: there are no significant differences in the critical thinking index of the third college students across the profile variables; there are no significant relationships between the critical thinking index of the respondents and selected variables, namely: age, monthly family income, number of siblings, and grade point average.
Relation of Black Carbon Aerosols and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height during Wet Removal Processes over a Semi Urban Location
The life cycle of Black carbon aerosols depends on their physical removal processes from the atmosphere during the precipitation events. Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration has been analysed during rainy and non-rainy days of Northeast (NE) Monsoon months of the years 2015 and 2017 over a semi-urban environment near Chennai (12.81 N, 80.03 E), located on the east coast of India. BC, measured using an Aethalometer (AE-31) has been related to the atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH) obtained from the ERA Interim Reanalysis data during rainy and non-rainy days on monthly mean basis to understand the wet removal of BC over the study location. The study reveals that boundary layer height has a profound effect on the BC concentration on rainy days and non rainy days. It is found that the BC concentration in the night time is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days owing to wash out on rainy days and the boundary layer height remaining nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days. On the other hand, in the daytime, it is found that the BC concentration remains nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days whereas the boundary layer height is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days. This reveals that in daytime, lower boundary layer heights compensate for the wet removal effect on BC concentration on rainy days. A quantitative relation is found between the product of BC and BLH during rainy and non-rainy days which indicates the extent of redistribution of BC during non-rainy days when compared to the rainy days. Further work on the wet removal processes of the BC is in progress considering the individual rain events and other related parameters like wind speed.
The Investigation on Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions in Terms of Several Variables
The purpose of this research is to examine the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service teachers in terms of several variables. In the line of this aim, we have investigated what their levels of critical thinking dispositions and whether there is any significant different in their critical thinking dispositions. Also, we have examined the relations between their critical thinking dispositions and their parents’ education statues, the number of their siblings, family income levels, and their religiosity level. 202 pre-service teachers who are studying at different departments at faculty of education at Uşak University participated in this research. In study, critical thinking dispositions scale by one of researchers was utilized and its validity and reliability was performed. The findings indicate that the level of their critical thinking dispositions was found to be .376 (arithmetic mean). On the other hand, we found that there is no significant difference in terms of their gender and the department at which they are studying. Furthermore, although there aren’t significant relationships between critical thinking dispositions and their mother education statues, their income levels, their religiosity levels and the number of their siblings; there is any significant positively at low level the relation between thinking dispositions and father educational statues. The findings obtained will be discussed together with literature and other research’ results.
Identification Algorithm of Critical Interface, Modelling Perils on Critical Infrastructure Subjects
The paper deals with crisis situations investigation and modelling within the organizations of critical infrastructure. Every crisis situation has an origin in the emergency event occurrence in the organizations of energetic critical infrastructure especially. Here, the emergency events can be both the expected events, then crisis scenarios can be pre-prepared by pertinent organizational crisis management authorities towards their coping or the unexpected event (Black Swan effect) – without pre-prepared scenario, but it needs operational coping of crisis situations as well. The forms, characteristics, behaviour and utilization of crisis scenarios have various qualities, depending on real critical infrastructure organization prevention and training processes. An aim is always better organizational security and continuity obtainment. This paper objective is to find and investigate critical/ crisis zones and functions in critical situations models of critical infrastructure organization. The DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method is able to identify problematic critical zones and functions, displaying critical interfaces among actors of crisis situations on the DYVELOP maps named Blazons. Firstly, for realization of this ability is necessary to derive and create identification algorithm of critical interfaces. The locations of critical interfaces are the flags of crisis situation in real organization of critical infrastructure. Conclusive, the model of critical interface will be displayed at real organization of Czech energetic crisis infrastructure subject in Black Out peril environment. The Blazons need live power Point presentation for better comprehension of this paper mission.
Influence of Long-Term Variability in Atmospheric Parameters on Ocean State over the Head Bay of Bengal
The atmosphere-ocean is a dynamically linked system that influences the exchange of energy, mass, and gas at the air-sea interface. The exchange of energy takes place in the form of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum commonly referred to as fluxes along the atmosphere-ocean boundary. The large scale features such as El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a classic example on the interaction mechanism that occurs along the air-sea interface that deals with the inter-annual variability of the Earth’s Climate System. Most importantly the ocean and atmosphere as a coupled system acts in tandem thereby maintaining the energy balance of the climate system, a manifestation of the coupled air-sea interaction process. The present work is an attempt to understand the long-term variability in atmospheric parameters (from surface to upper levels) and investigate their role in influencing the surface ocean variables. More specifically the influence of atmospheric circulation and its variability influencing the mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) has been explored. The study reports on a critical examination of both ocean-atmosphere parameters during a monsoon season over the head Bay of Bengal region. A trend analysis has been carried out for several atmospheric parameters such as the air temperature, geo-potential height, and omega (vertical velocity) for different vertical levels in the atmosphere (from surface to the troposphere) covering a period from 1992 to 2012. The Reanalysis 2 dataset from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) was used in this study. The study signifies that the variability in air temperature and omega corroborates with the variation noticed in geo-potential height. Further, the study advocates that for the lower atmosphere the geo-potential heights depict a typical east-west contrast exhibiting a zonal dipole behavior over the study domain. In addition, the study clearly brings to light that the variations over different levels in the atmosphere plays a pivotal role in supporting the observed dipole pattern as clearly evidenced from the trends in SLP, associated surface wind speed and significant wave height over the study domain.
The Effect on Some Plant Traits of Cutting Frequency Applied in Species of Grass
This study has been carried out in the Selcuk University, Department of Fields Crops Research and Application Greenhouse. 4 different grass genotypes (1 Lolium perenne L., 1 Poa trivialis L., 1 Festuca ovina L., and 1 Festuca arundinacea Scheb.) have been used in the application. It has been done with four repetition according to design of random parcel test. The research have been started with the implementation of 3 clones to each pot of each kind on 07.12.2009. It has been processed normally. When the plants have filled % 80 of the pot and have grown to the height of 7-10 cm, 5 cm has cut. After the first cutting, there have been applied 4 cutting frequency within the periods of 5, 10, 15, 20 days. Number of tillers, the degree of filling the bottom, the height of plant, the length of leaf and the width of the leaf have been measured. This procedure have been repeated in once a-five-day-periods, once a-ten-day-periods, once a-fifteen-day-periods, once a-twenty-day-periods, the data have been taken, and it has completed in 60 days. All the plants in the pots have been reaped from the 5cm height on 16.08.2010. The first measures have been taken for each quality. It is aimed to set the effects of different cutting frequency on the some grass kinds’ some plant characteristics.
Relationship between Dynamic Balance and Explosive Leg Power in Young Female Gymnasts
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of dynamic balance and countermovement jump in young, female gymnasts. A single-group design was used. Forty-seven young, female gymnasts (Mean±SD; age: 8-12 years, height: 42.88±10.38 cm, mass: 35.59±8.15 kg; body mass index: 17.18±1.62 kg/m2; training hours per week: 15-18 h/week) performed measurements of dynamic balance and countermovement jump with and without arm swing. Significant, but small to medium associations were observed between variables of balance and height of the jump in both protocols of the countermovement jump ranging from r = +0.313 to +0.426. No significant associations were observed between variables of dynamic balance and relative power and peak power of countermovement jump with or without arm swings. The data indicate that dynamic balance and leg power imply that balance and power are independent of each other and may have to be tested and trained complementarily in young gymnasts.
Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Enclosure as an Attic for Different Geometries and Boundary Conditions
In this paper, natural convection in an attic is numerically investigated. The geometry of the problem is considered to be a triangular enclosure. ANSYS Fluent software is used for modeling and numerical solution. This study is for steady state. Four right-angled triangles with height to base ratios of 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 are considered. The behavior of various parameters related to its performance, including temperature distribution and velocity vectors are evaluated, and graphs for the Nusselt number have been drawn. Also, in this study, the effect of geometric shape of enclosure with different height-to-base ratios has been evaluated for three types of boundary conditions of winter, summer day and one another state. It can be concluded that as the bottom edge temperature and ratio of base to height of the enclosure increases, the convective effects become more prominent and circulation happened.
Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Enclosure as an Attic for Different Geometries and Boundary Conditions
In this paper, natural convection in an attic is numerically investigated. The geometry of the problem is considered to be a triangular enclosure. ANSYS Fluent software is used for modeling and numerical solution. This study is for steady state. Four right-angled triangles with height to base ratios of 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 are considered. The behavior of various parameters related to its performance, including temperature distribution and velocity vectors are evaluated, and graphs for the Nusselt number have been drawn. Also, in this study, the effect of geometric shape of enclosure with different height-to-base ratios has been evaluated for three types of boundary conditions of winter, summer day and one another state. It can be concluded that as the bottom edge temperature and ratio of base to height of the enclosure increases, the convective effects become more prominent and circulation happened.
Anthropometric Data Variation within Gari-Frying Population
The imperative of anthropometry in designing to fit cannot be overemphasized. Of essence is the variability of measurements among population for which data is collected. In this paper anthropometric data were collected for the design of gari-frying facility such that work system would be designed to fit the gari-frying population in the Southwestern states of Nigeria comprising Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, and Ekiti. Twenty-seven body dimensions were measured among 120 gari-frying processors. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS package to determine the mean, standard deviation, minimum value, maximum value and percentiles (2nd, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th, and 98th) of the different anthropometric parameters. One sample t-test was conducted to determine the variation within the population. The 50th percentiles of some of the anthropometric parameters were compared with those from other populations in literature. The correlation between the worker’s age and the body anthropometry was also investigated.The mean weight, height, shoulder height (sitting), eye height (standing) and eye height (sitting) are 63.37 kg, 1.57 m, 0.55 m, 1.45 m, and 0.67 m respectively.Result also shows a high correlation with other populations and a statistically significant difference in variability of data within the population in all the body dimensions measured. With a mean age of 42.36 years, results shows that age will be a wrong indicator for estimating the anthropometry for the population.
Estimating Tree Height and Forest Classification from Multi Temporal Risat-1 HH and HV Polarized Satellite Aperture Radar Interferometric Phase Data
In this paper the height of the tree is estimated and forest types is classified from the multi temporal RISAT-1 Horizontal-Horizontal (HH) and Horizontal-Vertical (HV) Polarised Satellite Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The novelty of the proposed project is combined use of the Back-scattering Coefficients (Sigma Naught) and the Coherence. It uses Water Cloud Model (WCM). The approaches use two main steps. (a) Extraction of the different forest parameter data from the Product.xml, BAND-META file and from Grid-xxx.txt file come with the HH & HV polarized data from the ISRO (Indian Space Research Centre). These file contains the required parameter during height estimation. (b) Calculation of the Vegetation and Ground Backscattering, Coherence and other Forest Parameters. (c) Classification of Forest Types using the ENVI 5.0 Tool and ROI (Region of Interest) calculation.
Empowering Minority Students Through the use of Critical Educational Technologies: Latinos in the United States
Educational technologies have great potential as tools for student empowerment, particularly for members of a marginalized population such as immigrant Latino children in the American public education system. It is not merely a matter of access to the necessary technological devices; rather, it is development and implementation under a critical lens that may prompt a positive change.
Evaluation of Critical State Behavior of Granular Soil in Confined Compression Tests
Identification of steady/critical state of coarse granular soil is challenging at conventional pressures. This study examines the drained and undrained triaxial tests for large strains on loose to dense, uniformly graded, Leighton Buzzard Fraction A sand. The triaxial tests are conducted under controlled test conditions. The comparison of soil behavior on shear strength characteristics at different effective stresses has been studied at the medium to large strains levels and the uniqueness of the critical state was discussed. The test results showed that there were two steady/critical state lines for drained and undrained conditions at confining pressures less than 1000 kPa. A critical state friction angle is not constant and the overall scatter in the steady/critical state line for the tested sand is ±0.01 in terms of void ratio at stress levels less than 1000 kPa.
The Spectral Power Amplification on the Regular Lattices
We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves on the spectral power amplification (SPA), we note that the SPA does not have an effect on the critical exponents but does have an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice; the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.
Response of Summer Sesame to Irrigation Regimes and Nitrogen Levels
A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2011 at Agronomy research farm, Dr. PDKV, Akola, to study the effect of irrigation regime and nitrogen levels on growth and productivity of summer sesame. The experiment was laid out in split plot Design in which three irrigation scheduling on the basis of IW/CPE ratio viz., irrigation at 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 IW/CPE ratios (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) and one irrigation scheduling based on critical growth stages of sesame (I4), in main plot and three nitrogen levels 0, 30 and 60 kg N ha-1 (N0, N1 and N2, respectively) in subplot. The result showed that plant height, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area and dry matter accumulation were maximum in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio, which significantly superior over 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and irrigation at critical growth stages but were statistically at par with irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio. Nitrogen levels, application of 60 kg N ha-1 was recorded significantly superior all growth parameters over treatment 30 kg N ha-1 and 0 kg N ha-1. In case of yield attributes viz., No. of capsules plant-1, Test wt., grain yield and Stalk yield (qha-1) were maximum in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio and were significantly superior over 0.8 IW/CPE ratio, 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and irrigation at critical growth stages. Application of 60 kg N ha-1 increased all yield attributing characters over application of 30 and 0 kg N ha-1. In case of economics of crop same trend was found and the highest B:C ration was obtained in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio. Whereas, application of 30 kg N ha-1 was recorded highest B:C ration over application of 60 and 0 kg N ha-1. Interaction effect of irrigation and nitrogen levels were found to be non significant in summer season.
Hypertension and Obesity: A Cross-National Comparison of BMI and Waist-Height Ratio
Hypertension has been identified as a prominent co-morbidity of obesity. To improve clinical intervention of hypertension, it is critical to identify metrics that most accurately reflect risk for increased morbidity. Two of the most relevant and accurate measures for increased risk of hypertension due to excess adipose tissue are Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-Height Ratio (WHtR). Previous research has examined these measures in cross-national and cross-ethnic studies, but has most often relied on secondary means such as meta-analysis to identify and evaluate the efficacy of individual body mass measures. In this study, we instead use cross-sectional analysis to assess the cross-ethnic discriminative power of BMI and WHtR to predict risk of hypertension. Using the WHO SAGE survey, which collected anthropometric and biometric data from respondents in six middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa), we implement logistic regression to examine the discriminative power of measured BMI and WHtR with a known population of hypertensive and non-hypertensive respondents. We control for gender and age to identify whether optimum cut-off points that are adequately sensitive as tests for risk of hypertension may be different between groups. We report results for OR, RR, and ROC curves for each of the six SAGE countries. As seen in existing literature, results demonstrate that both WHtR and BMI are significant predictors of hypertension (p < .01). For these six countries, we find that cut-off points for WHtR may be dependent upon gender, age and ethnicity. While an optimum omnibus cut-point for WHtR may be 0.55, results also suggest that the gender and age relationship with WHtR may warrant the development of individual cut-offs to optimize health outcomes. Trends through multiple countries show that the optimum cut-point for WHtR increases with age while the area under the curve (AUROC) decreases for both men and women. Comparison between BMI and WHtR indicate that BMI may remain more robust than WHtR. Implications for public health policy are discussed.
Effect of Weed Control and Different Plant Densities the Yield and Quality of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
This trial was made to determine effect of different plant density and weed control on yield and quality of winter sowing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Selcuk University, Agricultural Faculty trial fields and the effective substance of Trifluran was used as herbicide. Field trial was made during the vegetation period of 2009-2010 with three replications according to 'Split Plots in Randomized Blocks' design. The weed control techniques were made on main plots and row distances was set up on sub-plots. The trial subjects were consisting from three weed control techniques as fallowing: herbicide application (Trifluran), hoeing and control beside the row distances of 15 cm and 30 cm. The results were ranged between 59.0-76.73 cm in plant height, 40.00-47.07 cm in first branch height, 5.00-7.20 in number of branch per plant, 6.00-14.73 number of head per plant, 19.57-21.87 mm in head diameter, 2125.0-3968.3 kg ha-1 in seed yield, 27.10-28.08 % in crude oil rate and 531.7-1070.3 kg ha-1. According to the results, Remzibey safflower cultivar showed the highest seed yield on 30 cm of row distance and herbicide application by means of the direct effects of plant height, first branch height, number of branch per plant, number of head per plant, table diameter, crude oil rate and crude oil yield.
Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column
Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.
Measurement of Thermal Protrusion Profile in Magnetic Recording Heads via Wyko Interferometry
A procedure in measuring the thermal protrusion profiles of magnetic recording heads was developed using a Wyko HD-8100 optical interference-based instrument. The protrusions in the heads were made by the application of a constant power through the thermal flying height controller pads. It was found that the thermally-induced bubble is confined to form in the same head locations, primarily in the reader and writer regions, regardless of the direction of approach of temperature. An application of power to the thermal flying height control pads ranging from 0 to 50 milliWatts showed that the protrusions demonstrate a linear dependence with the supplied power. The efficiencies calculated using this method were compared to that obtained through Guzik and found to be 19.57% greater due to the static testing environment used in the testing.
Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer
A three-dimensional numerical simulation of ﬂow through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor and the Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and 100 μm in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s. The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel diameter.
Failure Mechanism of Slip-Critical Connections on Curved Surface
Variation of slip coefficient in slip-critical connections of curved plates. This paper presents the results of analytical investigations of slip coefficients in slip-critical bolted connections of curved plates. It may depend on the contact stress distribution at interface and the flexibility of spliced plate. Non-linear FEM analyses have been made to simulate the behavior of bolted connections of curved plates with various radiuses of curvature and thicknesses.
Studies on Irrigation and Nutrient Interactions in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)
Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crop in India. It stands on second position amongst citrus group after mandarin. Irrigation and fertigation are vital importance of sweet orange orchard and considered to be the most critical cultural operations. The soil acts as the reservoir of water and applied nutrients, the interaction between irrigation and fertigation leads to the ultimate quality and production of fruits. The increasing cost of fertilizers and scarcity of irrigation water forced the farmers for optimum use of irrigation and nutrients. The experiment was conducted with object to find out irrigation and nutrient interaction in sweet orange to optimize the use of both the factors. The experiment was conducted in medium to deep soil. The irrigation level I3,drip irrigation at 90% ER (effective rainfall) and fertigation level F3 80% RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) recorded significantly maximum plant height, plant spread, canopy volume, number of fruits, weight of fruit, fruit yield kg/plant and t/ha followed by F2 , fertigation with 70% RDF. The interaction effect of irrigation and fertigation on growth was also significant and the maximum plant height, E-W spread, N-S spread, canopy volume, highest number of fruits, weight of fruit and yield kg/plant and t/ha was recorded in T9 i.e. I3F3 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 80% of RDF followed by I3F2 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 70% of RDF.
Teaching Critical Thinking in Post-Conflict Countries: The University of Liberia
Critical thinking is a topic that has been disputed in the field of education for decades, but many resulting debates have centered around strengthening critical thinking capabilities in the societies, workforces, and educational centers of the global north. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis of the teaching of critical thinking in Liberia, which has been ravaged by years of war and a recent Ebola outbreak. These crises have decimated the Liberian education sector, leading to a loss of teaching capacities that are essential to providing critical thinking education. Until recently, critical thinking had no seat at the table when the future needs of the country were discussed by the government and non-governmental agencies. Now, the University of Liberia has a bold goal to become one of the top twenty universities in West Africa in the next seven years, which has led to a focus on teaching critical thinking skills to improve learning. This paper argues that critical thinking is essential to strengthening not only the Liberian education system, but for promoting peace amongst community members, and yet it suggests that commitments to the teaching of critical thinking in Liberia have hitherto been overly superficial. Based on an initial scoping study, this paper will examine the potential impacts of teaching critical thinking skills to undergraduate students in the William V. S. Tubman School of Education at the University of Liberia on continued peacebuilding and reconstruction efforts of the country. The research contends that if critical thinking skills are taught, practiced and continually utilized, teachers and students will have the ability to engage with information and negotiate challenges to solutions in ways that are beneficial to the communities in which they live. The research will use a variety of methods, that include the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. This research will demonstrate that critical thinking skills are not only needed for entering the workforce, but necessary for negotiating and expressing the needs and desires of local communities in a peaceful way.
The Protection of Assets in the Crisis Management Processes
This paper deals with the prevention and management of emergencies. It focuses on the protection of assets of the critical infrastructure entities that are important to preventing, preparing for and management of emergencies and crisis situations. The paper defines assets and specifies their use and place in the process of crisis management and planning. Critical assets that are protected from the negative effects of emergency or crisis situation we can use in crisis management and response. This basic rule applies mainly to the substantial assets used in the protection of critical infrastructure processes.
The Use of Crisis Workplace Technology to Protect Communication Processes of Critical Infrastructure
This paper deals with a protection of the national and European infrastructure. It is issue nowadays. The paper deals with the perspectives and possibilities of "smart solutions" to critical infrastructure protection. The research project deals with computers aided technologies are used from the perspective of new, better protection of selected infrastructure objects. Protection is focused on communication and information channels. These communication and information channels are very important for the functioning of the system of protection of critical infrastructure elements.
The Effect of the Side-Weir Crest Height to Scour in Clay-Sand Mixed Sediments
Experimental studies to investigate the depth of the scour conducted at a side-weir intersection located at the 1800 curved flume which located Hydraulic Laboratory of Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. Side weirs were located at the middle of the straight part of the main channel. Three different lengths (25, 40 and 50 cm) and three different weir crest height (7, 10 and 12 cm) of the side weir placed on the side weir station. There is no scour when the material is only kaolin. Therefore, the cohesive bed was prepared by properly mixing clay material (kaolin) with 31% sand in all experiments. Following 24h consolidation time, in order to observe the effect of flow intensity on the scour depth, experiments were carried out for five different upstream Froude numbers in the range of 0.33-0.81. As a result of this study the relation between scour depth and upstream flow intensity as a function of time have been established. The longitudinal velocities decreased along the side weir; towards the downstream due to overflow over the side-weirs. At the beginning, the scour depth increases rapidly with time and then asymptotically approached constant values in all experiments for all side weir dimensions as in non-cohesive sediment. Thus, the scour depth reached equilibrium conditions. Time to equilibrium depends on the approach flow intensity and the dimensions of side weirs. For different heights of the weir crest, dimensionless scour depths increased with increasing upstream Froude number. Equilibrium scour depths which formed 7 cm side-weir crest height were obtained higher than that of the 12 cm side-weir crest height. This means when side-weir crest height increased equilibrium scour depths decreased. Although the upstream side of the scour hole is almost vertical, the downstream side of the hole is inclined.
Stature and Gender Estimation Using Foot Measurements in South Indian Population
Introduction: The significance of the human foot and its measurements in identifying an individual has been proved a lot of times by different studies in different geographical areas and its association to the stature and gender of the individual has been justified by many researches. In our study we have used different foot measurements including the length, width, malleol height and navicular height for establishing its association to stature and gender and to find out its accuracy. The purpose of this study is to show the relation of foot measurements with stature and gender, and to derive Multiple and Logistic regression equations for stature and gender estimation in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The subjects for this study were 200 South Indian students out of which 100 were females and 100 were males, aged between 18 to 24 years. The data for the present study included the stature, foot length, foot breath, foot malleol height, foot navicular height of both right and left foot. Descriptive statistics, T-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were derived between stature, gender and foot measurements. The stature was estimated from right and left foot measurements for both male and female South Indian population using multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis for gender estimation. Results: The means, standard deviation, stature, right and left foot measurements and T-test in male population were higher than in females. LFL (Left foot length) is more than RFL (Right Foot length) in male groups, but in female groups the length of both foot are almost equal [RFL=226.6, LFL=227.1]. There is not much of difference in means of RFW (Right foot width) and LFW (Left foot width) in both the genders. Significant difference were seen in mean values of malleol and navicular height of right and left feet in male gender. No such difference was seen in female subjects. Conclusions: The study has successfully demonstrated the correlation of foot length in stature estimation in all the three study groups in both right and left foot. Next in parameters are Foot width and malleol height in estimating stature among male and female groups. Navicular height of both right and left foot showed poor relationship with stature estimation in both male and female groups. Multiple regression equations for both right and left foot measurements to estimate stature were derived with standard error ranging from 11-12 cm in males and 10-11 cm in females. The SEE was 5.8 when both male and female groups were pooled together. The logistic regression model which was derived to determine gender showed 85% accuracy and 92.5% accuracy using right and left foot measurements respectively. We believe that stature and gender can be estimated with foot measurements in South Indian population.
On the Influence of the Metric Space in the Critical Behavior of Magnetic Temperature
In this work, a study of generic magnetic nanoparticles varying the metric space is presented. As the metric space is changed, the nanoparticle form and the inner product are also varied, since the energetic scale is not conserved. This study is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations combined with the Wolff embedding and Metropolis algorithms. The Metropolis algorithm is used at high temperature regions to reach the equilibrium quickly. The Wolff embedding algorithm is used at low and critical temperature regions in order to reduce the critical slowing down phenomenon. The ions number is kept constant for the different forms and the critical temperatures using finite size scaling are found. We observed that critical temperatures don't exhibit significant changes when the metric space was varied. Additionally, the effective dimension according the metric space was determined. A study of static behavior for reaching the static critical exponents was developed. The objective of this work is to observe the behavior of the thermodynamic quantities as energy, magnetization, specific heat, susceptibility and Binder's cumulants at the critical region, in order to demonstrate if the magnetic nanoparticles describe their magnetic interactions in the Euclidean space or if there is any correspondence in other metric spaces.
Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of N-Heptane in the Critical Region
In this work, we use the crossover model to formulate a comprehensive fundamental equation of state for the thermodynamic properties for several n-alkanes in the critical region that extends to the classical region. This equation of state is constructed on the basis of comparison of selected measurements of pressure-density-temperature data, isochoric and isobaric heat capacity. The model can be applied in a wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point for n-heptane. It is found that the developed model represents most of the reliable experimental data accurately.
Indoor Air Pollution Effects on Physical Growth of Children under 5 Years from Solid Fuel Combustion
Solid fuel combustion is an important source of indoor air pollution (IAP) in developing countries that has adverse health impacts particularly in children. This study was conducted to determine the effect of IAP due to solid fuel combustion on physical growth of children under five in a Sri Lankan setting. A prospective study was conducted in a mixed population comprising urban and semi urban residents. The study included 240 children under 5 who were permanent residents of the area. Physical growth was assessed by measuring anthropometric indices based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and standards. Exposure levels were defined according to the main type of fuel used for cooking at home: children residing in households using biomass fuel or kerosene as the main type of fuel for cooking were classified as the “high exposure” group and children resident in households using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or electricity for cooking were classified as the “low exposure” group. Sixty percent of the children were classified as from the “high” exposure group and 40% of the children were classified as from the “low” exposure group; 54% of the children were male. At baseline, the prevalence of wasting was 17.1% and the prevalence of stunting was 10.4%; the mean z-score for weight for height was - 0.85, weight for age was - 0.46 and height for age was -0.38. At baseline, children from the “high” exposure group had a significantly lower mean weight for height z-score (p=0.02) and a mean height for age z-score (p=0.001) as compared to children from the “low” exposure group after adjusting for confounding factors such as father’s education, mother’s education and family income. Poor maternal education was significantly associated with lower height for age z-scores (p=0.04) after adjusting for exposure status. IAP due to combustion of biomass fuel leads to chronic malnutrition.
Mathematical Modeling of Drip Emitter Discharge of Trapezoidal Labyrinth Channel
The influence of the geometric parameters of trapezoidal labyrinth channel on the emitter discharge is investigated in this work. The impact of the dentate angle, the dentate spacing, and the dentate height are studied among the geometric parameters of the labyrinth channel. Numerical simulations of the water flow movement are performed according to central cubic composite design using Commercial codes GAMBIT and FLUENT. Inlet pressure of the dripper is set up to be 1 bar. The objective of this paper is to derive a mathematical model of the emitter discharge depending on the dentate angle, the dentate spacing, the dentate height of the labyrinth channel. As a result, the obtained mathematical model is a second-order polynomial reporting 2-way interactions among the geometric parameters. The dentate spacing has the most important and positive influence on the emitter discharge, followed by the simultaneous impact of the dentate spacing and the dentate height. The dentate angle in the observed interval has no significant effect on the emitter discharge. The obtained model can be used as a basis for a future emitter design.
An Effect of Organic Supplements on Stimulating Growth of Dendrobium Protocorms and Seedlings
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of various organic supplements on growth and development of Dendrobium discolor’s protocorms and seedlings growth of Dendrobium Judy Rutz. Protocorms of Dendrobium discolor with 2.0 cm. in diameter and seedlings of Dendrobium Judy Rutz at the same size (0.5 cm. height) were sub-cultured on Hyponex medium supplemented with cow milk (CM), soy milk (SM), potato extract (PE) and peptone (P) for 2 months. The protocorms were developed to seedlings in all treatments after cultured for 2 months. However, the best results were found on Hyponex medium supplemented with P was the best in which the maximum fresh and dry weight and maximum shoot height were obtained in this treatment statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) to other treatments. Moreover, Hyponex medium supplemented with P also stimulated the maximum mean number of 5.7 shoots per explant which also showed statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) when compared to other treatments. The results of growth of Dendrobium Judy Rutz seedlings indicated the medium supplemented with 100 mL/L PE enhanced the maximum fresh and dry weigh per explants with significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) in fresh weight from other treatments including the control medium without any organic supplementation. However, the dry weight was not significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from medium supplemented with SM and P. There was multiple shoots induction in all media with or without organic supplementation ranging from 2.6 to 3 shoots per explants. The maximum shoot height was also obtained in the seedlings cultured on medium supplemented with PE while the longest root length was found in medium supplemented with SM.
[Keynote Speech]: An Overview on the Effectiveness of Critical Thinking on Knowledge
The study focuses on revisiting the effectiveness of Critical Thinking in human mind capability as a major faculty in human life. The tool used as a measurement of this knowledge ability consists of several processes including experience and education background. To emphasize the `Overview` concept, the researcher highlights two major aspects of philosophical approach, they are; Divine Revelation Concept and Modern Scientific Theory. The research compares between the both parties to introduce the Divine Revelation into Modern Scientific theory. An analytical and critical study of the both concepts become the methodology of the discussion.
Construction Project Planning Using Fuzzy Critical Path Approach
Planning is one of the most important phases of the management science and network planning, which represents the project activities relationship. Critical path is one of the project management techniques used to plan and control the execution of a project activities. The objective of this paper is to implement a fuzzy logic approach to arrange network planning on construction projects. This method is used to finding out critical path in the fuzzy construction project network. The trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are used to represent the activity construction project times. A numerical example that represents a house construction project is introduced. The critical path method is implemented on the fuzzy construction network activities, and the results showed that this method significantly affects the completion time of the construction projects.
Experimental Studies and CFD Predictions on Hydrodynamics of Gas-Solid Flow in an ICFB with a Draft Tube
Hydrodynamic study of gas and solid flow in an internally circulating fluidized bed with draft tube is made in this paper using high speed camera and pressure probes for the laboratory ICFB test rig 3.0 m X 2.7 m column having a draft tube located in the center of ICFB. Experiments were conducted using different sized sand particles with varying particle size distribution. At each experimental run the standard pressure-flow curves for both draft tube and annular region beds measured and the same time downward particles velocity in the annular bed region were also measured. The effect of superficial gas velocity, static bed height (40, 50 & 60 cm) and the draft tube gap height (10.5 & 14.5 cm) on pressure drop profiles, solid circulation pattern, and gas bypassing dynamics for the ICFB investigated extensively. The mechanism of governing solid recirculation and the pressure losses in an ICFB has been eluded based on gas and solid dynamics obtained from the experimental data. 3D ICFB CFD simulation runs conducted and extracted data validated with ICFB experimental data.
Identification of Thermally Critical Zones Based on Inter Seasonal Variation in Temperature
Varying distribution of land surface temperature in an urbanized environment is a globally addressed phenomenon. Usually has been noticed that criticality of surface temperature increases from the periphery to the urban centre. As the centre experiences maximum severity of heat throughout the year, it also represents most critical zone in terms of thermal condition. In this present study, an attempt has been taken to propose a quantitative approach of thermal critical zonation (TCZ) on the basis of seasonal temperature variation. Here the zonation is done by calculating thermal critical value (TCV). From the Landsat 8 thermal digital data of summer and winter seasons for the year 2014, the land surface temperature maps and thermally critical zonation has been prepared, and corresponding dataset has been computed to conduct the overall study of that particular study area. It is shown that TCZ can be clearly identified and analyzed by the help of inter-seasonal temperature range. The results of this study can be utilized effectively in future urban development and planning projects as well as a framework for implementing rules and regulations by the authorities for a sustainable urban development through an environmentally affable approach.
Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Rib-Roughened Flat Plate
Cooling by impingement jet is known to have a significant high local and average heat transfer coefficient which make it widely used in industrial cooling systems. The heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet on rib-roughened flat plate has been investigated numerically. This paper was set out to investigate the effect of rib height on the heat transfer rate. Since the flow needs to have enough spacing after passing the rib to allow reattachment especially for high Reynolds numbers, this study focuses on finding the optimum rib height which would be the best to maximize the heat transfer rate downstream the plate. This investigation employs a round nozzle with hydraulic diameter (Dh) of 13.5 mm, Jet-to-target distance of (H/D) of 4, rib location=1.5D and and finally jet angels of 45˚ and 90˚ under the influence of Re =10,000.
Critical Thinking and Creativity of Undergraduate Nursing Students: Descriptive and Disposition in Academic Levels
Critical thinking and creativity are desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Nursing colleges in Thailand have developed teaching strategies and curricula that nurture critical thinking and creativity dispositions according academic levels. Objectives: This descriptive study identified critical thinking and creativity dispositions of Thai nursing students according academic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 515 nursing students for four academic levels. All are studying at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri, Thailand. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analysis were applied. Results: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually increased as academic level is rising from the junior year throughout the senior year, but its scores are neutral. Scores on creativity skill is neutral and constant thorough the four academic years. The fourth grade students had slightly higher scores on creativity when compared to others. A significant relationship between critical thinking and creativity was also found. Conclusions: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually improved which greatly increased in the senior year. However, creativity has neutrally progressed. The findings suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching strategies for all grades of nursing students to increase their critical thinking and creativity skills.
Application of Artificial Neural Network and Background Subtraction for Determining Body Mass Index (BMI) in Android Devices Using Bluetooth
Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the different ways to monitor the health of a person. It is based on the height and weight of the person. This study aims to compute for the BMI using an Android tablet by obtaining the height of the person by using a camera and measuring the weight of the person by using a weighing scale or load cell. The height of the person was estimated by applying background subtraction to the image captured and applying different processes such as getting the vanishing point and applying Artificial Neural Network. The weight was measured by using Wheatstone bridge load cell configuration and sending the value to the computer by using Gizduino microcontroller and Bluetooth technology after the amplification using AD620 instrumentation amplifier. The application will process the images and read the measured values and show the BMI of the person. The study met all the objectives needed and further studies will be needed to improve the design project.
Enhancing Critical Thinking through a Virtual Learning Environment
The use of a virtual learning environment (VLE), via the Second Life Platform has been a positive experience to enhance critical thinking, for executive graduate nursing practicum students. Due to the interest of faculty and students, the opportunity to immerse students via a virtual learning environment to enhance critical thinking related to the nurse executive role was explored. The College of Nursing realized the potential to enhance critical thinking and incorporated the Second Life, virtual learning environment platform into their graduate nursing program within their executive practicum course. The results from students and faculty regarding this experience have been positive. Students state the VLE platform has enhanced their critical thinking and interaction with peers. To date, course refinement incorporating a Second Life, virtual learning environment for the nurse executive practicum students continues. As a result, a designated subject matter expert has been designated for this course. The development and incorporation of the VLE approach will be presented.
The Effect of Footrest Height on Muscle Fatigue and Discomfort in Prolonged Standing Activities
Work which requires prolonged standing, especially in a fixed position can cause discomfort and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of height footrest in discomfort and fatigue lower extremities during long-standing activities. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 15 students with a mean (SD) age of 21.5 ± (2.3) and mean height of 163 ± (2.8). Participants attended 3 sessions each lasting one hour. They stood on three different surfaces: ceramic, footrest 10 and 25 cm. Surface electromyography was used to assess muscle fatigue. Body map and visual analog scale were employed to evaluate discomfort ratings of the lower extremities and the back. Data analyses were performed using ANOVA-R. Based on the results of electromyography there was no difference between soleus, anterior tibial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles fatigue and type of surfaces. There was a significant variation between the surfaces (p < 0.05) and different areas of the body discomfort level; so that the ceramic had the highest discomfort rating, while the lowest ratings were related to the footrest. Further investigations are recommended on the properties of the footrest.
Tuning Cubic Equations of State for Supercritical Water Applications
Cubic equations of state (EoS), popular due to their simple mathematical form, ease of use, semi-theoretical nature and, reasonable accuracy are normally fitted to vapor-liquid equilibrium P-v-T data. As a result, They often show poor accuracy in the region near and above the critical point. In this study, the performance of the renowned Peng-Robinson (PR) and Patel-Teja (PT) EoS’s around the critical area has been examined against the P-v-T data of water. Both of them display large deviations at critical point. For instance, PR-EoS exhibits discrepancies as high as 47% for the specific volume, 28% for the enthalpy departure and 43% for the entropy departure at critical point. It is shown that incorporating P-v-T data of the supercritical region into the retuning of a cubic EoS can improve its performance above the critical point dramatically. Adopting a retuned acentric factor of 0.5491 instead of its genuine value of 0.344 for water in PR-EoS and a new F of 0.8854 instead of its original value of 0.6898 for water in PT-EoS reduces the discrepancies to about one third or less.
An Integrated Approach for Optimal Selection of Machining Parameters in Laser Micro-Machining Process
In the existent analysis, laser micro machining (LMM) of Silicon carbide (SiCp) reinforced Aluminum 7075 Metal Matrix Composite (Al7075/SiCp MMC) was studied. While machining, Because of the intense heat generated, A layer gets formed on the work piece surface which is called recast layer and this layer is detrimental to the surface quality of the component. The recast layer needs to be as small as possible for precise applications. Therefore, The height of recast layer and the depth of groove which are conflicting in nature were considered as the significant manufacturing criteria, Which determines the pursuit of a machining process obtained in LMM of Al7075/10%SiCp composite. The present work formulates the depth of groove and height of recast layer in relation to the machining parameters using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and correspondingly, The formulated mathematical models were put to use for optimization. Since the effect of machining parameters on the depth of groove and height of recast layer was contradictory, The problem was explicated as a multi objective optimization problem. Moreover, An evolutionary Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was employed to optimize the model established by RSM. Subsequently this algorithm was also adapted to achieve the Pareto optimal set of solutions that provide a detailed illustration for making the optimal solutions. Eventually experiments were conducted to affirm the results obtained from RSM and NSGA-II.
A Framework on the Critical Success Factors of E-Learning Implementation in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature
This paper presents a conceptual framework on the critical success factors of e-learning implementation in higher education, derived from an in-depth survey of literature review. The aim of this study was achieved by identifying critical success factors that affect for the successful implementation of e-learning. The findings help to articulate issues that are related to e-learning implementation in both formal and non-formal higher education and in this way contribute to the development of programs designed to address the relevant issues.
Critical Thinking Skills in Activities Included in 11th Grade Chemistry Textbook - An Analytical Study
The current study aimed to identify critical thinking skills and its level of inclusion in all the activities (44) listed in 11th grade chemistry textbooks. The researcher used a descriptive analytical method by using the content analyzing design. An instrument was created for this purpose and tested for validity and reliability.
Results showed that, all activities included critical thinking skills with different ratios as follow: conclusion skill was (87.72%), induction skill was (80.90%), interpretation skill was (77. 72%), discussion of evaluation skill was (68.64%), and assumption skill was (50.45%). Also, the study results indicated that, the level of inclusion of critical thinking skills in the scientific activities was more explicit than implicit with same order as the level of inclusions.
In the light of the study's results, the researcher provided some recommendations including the need to provide and redistribute critical thinking skills in the activities listed the chemistry textbook, as well as the need to pay attention to the inclusion level of these skills more implicitly in the activities.
Sociocultural and Critical Approach for Summer Study Abroad Program in Higher Education
This paper presents the empirical and the theoretical principles associated with the Duke in Brazil Summer Program. Using a sociocultural model and critical theory, this study abroad maximizes students’ ability to enrich language competence, intercultural skills, and critical thinking. The fourteen-year implementation of this project demonstrates the global importance of foreign language teaching as the program unfolds into real life scenarios within the cultures of distinct regions of Brazil; Cosmopolitan Rio, in the southeast, and rural Belém, northern Amazon region.
Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Young Soccer Players in Republic of Macedonia
Introduction: A number of positive effects on the player’s physical status, including the body mass components are attributed to training process. As young soccer players grow up qualitative and quantitative changes appear and contribute to better performance. Player’s anthropometric and physiologic characteristics are recognized as important determinants of performance. Material: A sample of 52 soccer players with an age span from 9 to 14 years were divided in two groups differentiated by age. The younger group consisted of 25 boys under 11 years (mean age 10.2) and second group consisted of 27 boys with mean age 12.64. Method: The set of basic anthropometric parameters was analyzed: height, weight, BMI (Body Mass Index) and body mass components. Maximal oxygen uptake was tested using the treadmill protocol by Brus. Results: The group aged under 11 years showed the following anthropometric and physiological features: average height= 143.39cm, average weight= 44.27 kg; BMI= 18.77; Err = 5.04; Hb= 13.78 g/l; VO2=37.72 mlO2/kg. Average values of analyzed parameters were as follows: height was 163.7 cm; weight= 56.3 kg; BMI = 19.6; VO2= 39.52 ml/kg; Err=5.01; Hb=14.3g/l for the participants aged 12 to14 years. Conclusion: Physiological parameters (maximal oxygen uptake, erythrocytes and Hb) were insignificantly higher in the older group compared to the younger group. There were no statistically significant differences between analyzed anthropometric parameters among the two groups except for the basic measurements (height and weight).
Exploring Critical Thinking Skill Development in the 21st Century College Classroom: A Multi-Case Study
Employers today expect college graduates to not only develop and demonstrate content-specific knowledge but also 21st century skillsets such as critical thinking. International assessments suggest students enrolled in United States (U.S.) educational institutions are underperforming in comparison to their global peers in areas such as critical thinking and technology. This multi-case study examined how undergraduate digital literacy courses at a four-year university in the U.S., as implemented by instructors, fostered students’ development of critical thinking skills. The conceptual framework for this study presumed that as students engaged in complex thinking within the context of a digital literacy course, their ability to deploy critical thinking was contingent upon whether the course was designed with the expectation for students to use critical thinking skills as well as the instructor’s approach to implementing the course. Qualitative data collected from instructor interviews, classroom observations, and course documents were analyzed with an emphasis on exploring the course design and instructional methods that provided opportunities to foster critical thinking skill development. Findings from the cross-case analysis revealed that although the digital literacy courses were designed and implemented with the expectation students would deploy critical thinking; there was no explicit support for students to develop these skills. The absence of intentional skill development resulted in inequitable opportunities for all students to engage in complex thinking. The implications of this study suggest that if critical thinking is to remain a priority, then universities must expand their support of pedagogical and instructional training for faculty regarding how to support students’ critical thinking skill development.
Investigating the Efficacy of Developing Critical Thinking through Literature Reading
Due to the continuous change in workforce and the demands of the global workplace, many employers had lamented that the majority of university graduates were not prepared in the key areas of employment such as critical thinking, writing, self-direction and global knowledge which are most needed for the purposes of promotion. Further, critical thinking skills are deemed as integral parts of transformational pedagogy which aims at having a more informed society. To add to this, literature teaching has recently been advocated for enhancing students’ critical thinking and reasoning. Thus this study explored the effects of incorporating a few strategies in teaching literature, namely a Shakespeare play, into a course design to enhance these skills. An experiment involving a pretest and posttest using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were administered on 80 first-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts programme who were randomly assigned into the control group and experimental group. For the next 12 weeks, the experimental group was given intervention which included guided in-class discussion with Socratic questioning skills, learning log to detect their weaknesses in logical reasoning; presentations and quizzes. The results of CCTST which included paired T-test using SPSS version 22 indicated significant differences between the two groups. Findings have significant implications on the course design as well as pedagogical practice in using literature to enhance students’ critical thinking skills.
The Use of Superplastic Tin-Lead Alloy as A solid Lubricant in Free Upsetting of Aluminum and Brass
The main function of a lubricant in any forming process is to reduce friction between the work piece and the die set, hence reducing the force and energy requirement for forming process and to achieve homogeneous deformation. The free upsetting test is an important open forging test. In this paper, super plastic tin-lead alloy is used as solid lubricant in the free upsetting test of non-ferrous metals and compared with eight different lubricants using the following three criteria: one comparing the value of the reduction in height percentages, i.e. the engineering strain, in identical specimens of the same material under the effect of the same compressive force. The second is comparing the amount of barreling produced in each of the identical specimens, at each lubricant. The third criterion is using the specific energy, i.e. the energy per unit volume consumed in forming each material, using the different lubricants to produce the same reduction in height percentage of identical specimens from each of the two materials, namely: aluminum and brass. It was found that the super plastic tin-lead alloy lubricant has produced higher values of reductions in height percentage and less barreling in the two non-ferrous materials, used in this work namely: aluminum and brass. It was found that the super plastic tin-lead alloy lubricant has produced higher values of reductions in height percentage and less barreling in the two non-ferrous materials, used in this work, under the same compression force among the different used lubricants.
Relationship between Age, Gender, Anthropometrics Characteristics and Dynamic Balance in Children Age Group between 5 to 12 Years Old at Anand City, Gujarat
Objective: To assess the relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics and dynamic balance in 5 to 12 years of children in Anand city. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted. 150 school going children of 5-12 (75-girls, 75-boys) years were recruited from the school of the Anand city-Shivam English Medium school, Veer Vithalbhai Patel school, Adarsh Primary school. Height, weight, arm length, and foot length were measured in 150 children of 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using Time Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test, Pediatric Balance Scale. Results: Positive relationship (r = 0.58 and r= 0.77) were found between increasing age and FRT and PBS scores. A negative relationship (r = - 0.46) was observed between age of boys and TUG test. Significant gender by age group difference was observed in FRT. Arm length and height has the strongest influence on FRT, and age, height, foot length; and arm length has the strongest influence on PBS. Conclusions: Age and arm length have the strongest relationship with the dynamic balance (FRT, PBS). Dynamic balance ability is directly related to the age. It helps the pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance test according to the age.
Seismic Response of Large-Scale Rectangular Steel-Plate Concrete Composite Shear Walls
An experimental program on steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo. Four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and faceplate slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure-critical. This paper presents the damage to SC walls at different drift ratios, the cyclic force-displacement relationships, energy dissipation and equivalent viscous damping ratios, the strain and stress fields in the steel faceplates and the contribution of the steel faceplates to the total shear load, the variation of vertical strain in the steel faceplates along the length of the wall, near the base, at different drift ratios, the contributions of shear, flexure, and base rotation to the total lateral displacement, the displacement ductility of the SC walls, and the cyclic secant stiffness of the four SC walls.
Re-Thinking and Practicing Critical Pedagogy in Education through Art
In the last decade art-educators strive to integrate critical pedagogy within the art classroom. Critical pedagogy aims to deconstruct the oppressive social reality and the false consciousness in which learners from both privileged and underprivileged groups are caught. Understanding oppression as a product of socio-political conditions seeks to instigate processes of change anchored in the student's views. Yet, growing empirical evidence show that these efforts often has resulted in art projects in which art teachers play an active role in the process of critical teaching, while the students remain passive listeners. In this common scenario, the teachers/artists become authoritarian moral guides of critical thinking and acting, while the students are often found to be indifferent or play along to satisfy the teachers'/artists aspirations. These responses indicate that the message of critical pedagogy – transforming the students' way of thinking and acting – mostly do not fulfill its emancipation goals. The study analyses the critical praxis embedded in new art projects and their influence on the participants. This type of projects replaces the individual producer with a collaborative work; switch the finite work with an ongoing project; and transforms the passive learner to an engaged co-producer. The research delves into the pedagogical framework of two of these art projects by using qualitative methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 of the projects' initiator and managers, in order to access understandings of the art projects goals and pedagogical methods. Field work included 4 participant observation (two in each project) during social encounters in the project's settings, focusing on how critical thinking is enacted (or not) by the participants. The analysis exposes how the new art projects avoid the prepackaged "critical" assumptions and praxis, thus turning the participants from passive carriers of critical thinking to agents that actively use criticism. Findings invite researchers to explore new avenues for understanding critical pedagogy and developing various ways to implement critical pedagogy during art education, in view of the growing need of critical thinking and acting in school/society.
Finite Element Simulation of Limiting Dome Height Test on the Formability of Aluminium Tailor Welded Blanks
Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) have established themselves to be a revolutionary and foremost integral part of the automotive and aerospace industries. Metals sheets with varied thickness, strength and coatings are welded together to form TWBs through friction stir welding and laser welding prior to stamping operations. The formability of the TWBs completely varies from those of conventional blanks due to the diverse strength levels of individual sheets which are made to deform under the same forming load uniformly throughout causing unequal and unsatisfactory deformation in the blank. Limiting Dome Height(LDH) test helps predicting the formability of each blanks and assists in determining the appropriate TWB. Finite Element Simulation of LDH test for both base material and TWBs was performed and analysed for both before and after the solution heat treatment. The comparison and validation of simulation results are done with the experimental data and correlated accordingly. The formability of solution heat treated TWBs had enhanced than those of blanks made from non-heat treated TWBs.
Disturbance Observer-Based Predictive Functional Critical Control of a Table Drive System
This paper addresses a control system design for a table drive system based on the disturbance observer (DOB)-based predictive functional critical control (PFCC). To empower the previously developed DOB-based PFC to handle constraints on controlled outputs, we propose to take a critical control approach. To this end, we derive the transfer function representation of the PFC controller, and yield a detailed design procedure. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed through an experimental evaluation.
Analysis Rotor Bearing System Dynamic Interaction with Bearing Supports
Frequently, in the design of machines, some of parameters that directly affect the rotor dynamics of the machines are not accurately known. In particular, bearing stiffness support is one such parameter. One of the most basic principles to grasp in rotor dynamics is the influence of the bearing stiffness on the critical speeds and mode shapes associated with a rotor-bearing system. Taking a rig shafting as an example, this paper studies the lateral vibration of the rotor with multi-degree-of-freedom by using Finite Element Method (FEM). The FEM model is created and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated and analyzed to find natural frequencies, critical speeds, mode shapes. Then critical speeds and mode shapes are analyzed by set bearing stiffness changes. The model permitted to identify the critical speeds and bearings that have an important influence on the vibration behavior.
Drought Resistance of Nursery Grown Betel Nut (Areca catechu L.) under the Influences of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza MycoVAM
The aim of the study conducted inside screen house is to determine the effect of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza MycoVAM Glomus mosseae or Glomus fasciculatum on the drought resistance of Betel nut (Areca catechu). The study revealed that there is a highly significant growth increment and drought resistance of planted seedling inoculated with VAM compared to uninoculated seedling. The study revealed not significant under well water condition after 60 days. Growths are higher in inoculated seedlings compared to uninoculated seedlings. Seventy days (75) days after planting there was a highly significant difference in inoculated plants. It is not significant in height increment after 90 days, although the height percentage increase in inoculated seedlings was higher. The water stressed Areca catechu seedlings inoculated with VAM significantly increases total shoot height with increment of 72.34 while days before wilting 65.89 and 88.68 in the leaf water content. This demonstrates the result provided by VAM in the development of seedlings.
Critical Path Segments Method for Scheduling Technique
Project managers today rely on scheduling tools based on the Critical Path Method (CPM) to determine the overall project duration and the activities’ float times which lead to greater efficiency in planning and control of projects. CPM was useful for scheduling construction projects, but researchers had highlighted a number of serious drawbacks that limit its use as a decision support tool and lacks the ability to clearly record and represent detailed information. This paper discusses the drawbacks of CPM as a scheduling technique and presents a modified critical path method (CPM) model which is called critical path segments (CPS). The CPS scheduling mechanism addresses the problems of CPM in three ways: decomposing the activity duration of separated but connected time segments; all relationships among activities are converted into finish–to–start relationship; and analysis and calculations are made with forward path. Sample cases are included to illustrate the shortages in CPM, CPS full analysis and calculations are explained in details, and how schedules can be handled better with the CPS technique.
An Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Six Sigma Implementation in Pakistani SMEs
The main purpose of any economic investment is to get profit at the end. As the investment in large organizations bears complexities, investors are influenced to invest in small or medium enterprises. With the increase of global competition in terms of quality and productivity, these small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are trying to convert to modern production practices using Six Sigma. But this concept is still lacking in Pakistani SMEs. There are some critical success factors which influence the successful implementation of Six Sigma. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to identify various CSF for successful implementation of Six Sigma in Pakistani SMEs with the help of a structured survey. On the basis of responses to the questionnaire, factor analysis is performed on the selected critical success factors (from literature) to prioritize the critical factors and those are rated by calculating descriptive statistics. This paper will provide a base for Pakistani SMEs and future researchers working in six sigma implementation and help them to prepare a road map to eradicate the hurdles in six sigma implementation.
An Effect of Organic Supplements on Stimulating Growth of Vanda and Mokara Seedlings in Tissue Culture
This study aimed to investigate effect of different organic supplements on growth of Vanda and Mokara seedlings. Vanda and Mokara seedlings approximately 0.2 and 0.3 cm. in height were sub-cultured onto VW supplemented with 150 ml/L coconut water, 100 g/L potato extract, 100 g/L ‘Gros Michel’ banana (AAA group) and 100 g/L ‘Namwa’ banana (ABB group). The explants were sub-cultured onto the same medium every month for 3 months. The best medium increased stem height to 0.52 and 0.44 Cm. in Vanda and Mokara respectively was supplemented with coconut water. The maximum fresh weight of Vanda (0.59 g) was found on medium supplemented with ‘Gros Michel’ banana while Mokara cultured on medium supplemented with Potato extract had the maximum fresh weight (0.27 g) and number of roots (5.20 roots/shoot) statistically different (p≤ 0.05) to other treatments. However, Vanda cultured on medium supplemented with ‘Namwa’ banana had the maximum number of roots (3.80 roots/shoot). Our results suggested that growth of different orchid genera was responded diversely to different organic supplements.
Factors Associated with Stunting at Birth and at 6 Weeks in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa
Introduction: The first 1000 days from conception to 24 months, is a critical period for healthy growth and development. In South Africa, stunting is a major public health issue with significant health consequences. We determined associations between demographic, health and anthropometric indicators of mothers and their infants. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all districts in the Northern Cape. All mothers with 5-7 week old babies visiting PHC facilities could participate. A questionnaire was completed in a structured interview with each mother. Weight and length of the baby at birth and at 6 weeks were used to determine stunting, while weight and height of the mother were measured for body mass index (BMI). Results: Eight hundred questionnaires were completed in 92 facilities. The median age of mothers was 26 years (range 10-46 years), and 44,9% were married. Almost 40% relied on a government grant as main source of income. Two-thirds (64,9%) had not planned the pregnancy, and 19.4% had a Caesarian section. Although 79% breastfed exclusively, more than a quarter (26,1%) smoked cigarettes or used snuff during pregnancy, while 9,4% drank alcohol. At birth, 17.7% of boys and 13.0% of girls were stunted (height-for-age below -2SD from the WHO reference values), while at 6 weeks this had increased to 30.8% of boys and 14.1% of girls. In terms of mothers, 25,4% were classified as obese and 24,6% as overweight at 6 weeks. Compared to babies that were not stunted, significantly more babies of mothers that were older, overweight, used ART, relied on a grant and smoked/snuffed during pregnancy were stunted. Conclusion: To address stunting, interventions aimed at encouraging healthy lifestyles with the emphasis on maintaining a healthy weight, healthy eating and smoking cessation before pregnancy are urgently required.
Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics Investigation in Spray Cooling Systems Using Nanofluids
This paper aims to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of nanofluids used in spray cooling systems. The effect of spray height, type of nanofluids and concentration of nanofluids are numerically investigated. Five different nanofluids such as AgH2O, Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and TiO2 with volume fraction range of 0.5% to 2.5% are used. The results revealed that the heat transfer performance decreases as spray height increases. It is found that TiO2 has the highest transfer coefficient among other nanofluids. In dilute spray conditions, low concentration of nanofluids is observed to be more effective in heat removal in a spray cooling system.
The Comparative Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), Critical Thinking and a Combination of Both On EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension
The present study was an attempt to investigate the comparative effect of teaching NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of NLP and critical thinking on EFL learners' reading comprehension. To fulfill the purpose of this study, a group of 82 female and male intermediate EFL learners at a Language School in Iran took a piloted sample PET as a proficiency test and 63 of them were selected as homogenous learners and were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. Within a treatment process of 10 sessions the teacher/researcher provided the participants of each group with handouts, explanations, practices, homework, and questionnaires on techniques of NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of both. During these 10 sessions, 10 same reading comprehension texts extracted from the multi-skill course book suggested by the language school where thought to the participants of each experimental group using skills and strategies of NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of both. On the eleventh session, the participants sat for a reading posttest. The results of one-way ANOVA showed no significant difference among the three groups in terms of reading comprehension. Justifications and implications for the findings of the study and suggestions for further research are presented.
Combination of Plantar Pressure and Star Excursion Balance Test for Evaluation of Dynamic Posture Control on High-Heeled Shoes
High-heeled shoes force the foot into plantar flexion position resulting in foot arch rising and disturbance of the articular congruence between the talus and tibiofibular mortice, all of which may increase the challenge of balance maintenance. Plantar pressure distribution of the stance limb during the star excursion balance test (SEBT) contributes to the understanding of potential sources of reaching excursions in SEBT. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic posture control while wearing high-heeled shoes using SEBT in a combination of plantar pressure measurement. Twenty healthy young females were recruited. Shoes of three heel heights were used: flat (0.8 cm), low (4.0 cm), high (6.6 cm). The testing grid of SEBT consists of three lines extending out at 120° from each other, which were defined as anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Participants were instructed to stand on their dominant limb with the heel in the middle of the testing grid and hands on hips and to reach the non-stance limb as far as possible towards each direction. The distal portion of the reaching limb lightly touched the ground without shifting weight. Then returned the reaching limb to the beginning position. The excursion distances were normalized to leg length. The insole plantar measurement system was used to record peak pressure, contact area, and pressure-time integral of the stance limb. Results showed that normalized excursion distance decreased significantly as heel height increased. The changes of plantar pressure in SEBT as heel height increased were more obvious in the medial forefoot (MF), medial midfoot (MM), rearfoot areas. At MF, the peak pressure and pressure-time integral of low and high shoes increased significantly compared with that of flat shoes, while the contact area decreased significantly as heel height increased. At MM, peak pressure, contact area, and pressure-time integral of high and low shoes were significantly lower than that of flat shoes. To reduce posture instability, the stance limb plantar loading shifted to medial forefoot. Knowledge of this study identified dynamic posture control deficits while wearing high-heeled shoes and the critical role of the medial forefoot in dynamic balance maintenance.
Effect of High-Intensity Core Muscle Exercises Training on Sport Performance in Dancers
Traditional core stability, core endurance, and balance exercises on a stable surface with isometric muscle actions, low loads, and multiple repetitions, which may not improvements the swimming and running economy performance. However, the effects of high intensity core muscle exercise training on jump height, sprint, and aerobic fitness remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether high intensity core muscle exercises training could improve sport performances in dancers. Thirty healthy university dancer students (28 women and 2 men; age 20.0 years, height 159.4 cm, body mass 52.7 kg) were voluntarily participated in this study, and each participant underwent five suspension exercises (e.g., hip abduction in plank alternative, hamstring curl, 45-degree row, lunge and oblique crunch). Each type of exercise was performed for 30-second, with 30-second of rest between exercises, two times per week for eight weeks and each exercise session was increased by 10-second every week. We measured agility, explosive force, anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness in dancer performance before and after eight weeks of training. The results showed that the 8-week high intensity core muscle training would significantly increase T-test agility (7.78%), explosive force of acceleration (3.35%), vertical jump height (8.10%), jump power (6.95%), lower extremity anaerobic ability (7.10%) and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (4.15%). Therefore, it can be concluded that eight weeks of high intensity core muscle exercises training can improve not only agility, sprint ability, vertical jump ability, anaerobic and but also cardiovascular fitness measures as well.
Influences of High Rise Buildings on Local Air Flow Characteristics on External Surfaces of Neighboring Buildings
This study indicates the wind effects of 49-storey height four towers on a high-density urban area-consisting of 10-12 storey height buildings called Goztepe in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, four towers and close environments are modeled in 1/500 scale for wind tunnel test. Three neighboring buildings are chosen to find out the pressure coefficient changes on the surfaces of the buildings according to the construction order of these four towers and wind directions. Results were compared with the 'TS 498 Wind Standard of Tall Buildings in Istanbul' which is prepared by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality in 2009.
Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Microchannel with Thin Obstacles
Due to the miniaturisation process, in many technical devices, microchannels are used in cooling systems. Because of the small size of microchannels, the flow inside is laminar, which caused a slow heat exchange. In order to intensify the heat exchange, the flow must be disturbed, for example, by introducing obstacles. We present results on the influence of a thin obstacle, placed on microchannel wall, on the fluid and heat flow in the aspect of their use by constructors of heat exchangers. The obstacle is called 'thin' when its geometrical parameter (o=w/h, w- width, h - height of the obstacle) satisfies inequality: o < 0.5. In this work, we report numerical results on heat and mass transfer in the microchannels of 400 micrometer height (H - height of the microchannel), where thin obstacles are immersed on the walls, to disturb the flow. The Reynolds number of the flow in microchannel varies between 20 and 200 and is typical for the flow in micro heat exchangers. The equations describing the fluid and heat flows in microchannels were solved numerically by using the finite element method with an application of CFD&FSI package of ADINA R&D, Inc. 9.4 solver. In the case of flows in the microchannels with sequences of thin rectangular obstacles placed on the bottom and the top wall of a microchannel, the influence of distances s (s is the distance between two thin obstacles) and heights of obstacles on the fluid and heat transfer was investigated. Thermal and flow conditions of the application area of microchannels in electronic cooling systems, i.e., wall temperature of 60 °C, the fluid temperature of 20°C were used to solve equations. Additionally, the distance s between the thin obstacles in microchannels as a multiple of the amount of the channel height was determined. Results show that placing thin obstacles on microchannel walls increase the length of recirculation zones of the flow and improves the heat transfer.
Critical Discourse Analysis of President Mamnoon Hussain Speech in the Joint Session of Parliament.
This article briefly reviews the rise of Critical Discourse Analysis about the Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain speech which delivered in the joint session of Parliament and teases out a detailed analysis of the various critiques that have been levelled at CDA and its practitioners over the last twenty years, both by scholars working within the “critical” paradigm and by other critics. A range of criticisms are discussed which target the underlying premises, the analytical methodology and the disputed areas of reader response and the integration of contextual factors. Controversial issues such as the predominantly negative focus of much CDA scholarship, and the status of CDA as an emergent “intellectual orthodoxy”, are also reviewed. The conclusions offer a summary of the principal criticisms that emerge from this overview, and suggest some ways in which these problems could be attenuated. It also focused on the different views about president speech and how it is presented in the Pakistani print and electronic media.
Numerical Investigation of the Diffuser: Geometrical Parameters Effect on Flow Characteristics for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine
This study deals with numerical simulation using a commercial package 'ANSYS FLUENT 14.5' for flow characteristics of a flanged diffuser wind turbine. Influence of geometrical parameters such as flange height, diffuser length, and expansion angle on the lift and drag performance were investigated. As the angle of expansion increases, a considerable flow acceleration through the diffuser occur at expansion angle ranged from 0° and 12° due to the presence of undisturbed streamlines. after that flow circulation is developed near the diffuser outlet and increase with increasing expansion angle which causes a negligible effect of expansion angle. The effect of diffuser length on flow behavior shows that when the diffuser length ratio is less than 1.25, flow acceleration is observed and increased with diffuser length ratio. After this value, the flow field at diffuser outlet is characterized by a recirculation zone. The diffuser flange has an impact effect of the flow behavior as a low pressure zone is developed behind the flange, while a high pressure zone is generated in front of it. As the flange height increase, the intensity of both low and high pressure regions increase which tend to accelerate the flow inside the diffuser till flange height ratio reaches to 0.75.
The Effect of Tip Parameters on Vibration Modes of Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever
In this paper, the effect of mass and height of tip on the flexural vibration modes of an atomic force microscope (AFM) rectangular cantilever is analyzed. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of vibration modes is derived using the relationship between the resonant frequency and contact stiffness of cantilever and sample. Each mode has a different sensitivity to variations in surface stiffness. This sensitivity directly controls the image resolution. It is obtained an AFM cantilever is more sensitive when the mass of tip is lower and the first mode is the most sensitive mode. Also, the effect of changes of tip height on the flexural sensitivity is negligible.
Vulnerability Assessment of Healthcare Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Coloured Petri Net Model
Critical Infrastructure (CI) consists of services and technological networks such as healthcare, transport, water supply, electricity supply, information technology etc. These systems are necessary for the well-being and to maintain effective functioning of society. Critical Infrastructures can be represented as nodes in a network where they are connected through a set of links depicting the logical relationship among them; these nodes are interdependent on each other and interact with each at other at various levels, such that the state of each infrastructure influences or is correlated to the state of another. Disruption in the service of one infrastructure nodes of the network during a disaster would lead to cascading and escalating disruptions across other infrastructures nodes in the network. The operation of Healthcare Infrastructure is one such Critical Infrastructure that depends upon a complex interdependent network of other Critical Infrastructure, and during disasters it is very vital for the Healthcare Infrastructure to be protected, accessible and prepared for a mass casualty. To reduce the consequences of a disaster on the Critical Infrastructure and to ensure a resilient Critical Health Infrastructure network, knowledge, understanding, modeling, and analyzing the inter-dependencies between the infrastructures is required. The paper would present inter-dependencies related to Healthcare Critical Infrastructure based on Hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets modeling approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The model properties are being analyzed for the various state changes which occur when there is a disruption or damage to any of the Critical Infrastructure. The failure probabilities for the failure risk of interconnected systems are calculated by deriving a reachability graph, which is later mapped to a Markov chain. By analytically solving and analyzing the Markov chain, the overall vulnerability of the Healthcare CI HCPN model is demonstrated. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information-based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behavior of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.
The Moderation Effect of Critical Item on the Strategic Purchasing: Quality Performance Relationship
Theories about strategic purchasing and quality performance are underdeveloped. Understanding the evolving role of purchasing from reactive to proactive is a pressing strategic issue. Using survey responses from 176 manufacturing and electronics industry professionals, we study the relationships between strategic purchasing and supply chain partners’ quality performance to answer the following questions: Can transaction cost economics be used to elucidate the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship? Is this strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship moderated by critical item analysis? The findings indicate that critical item analysis positively and significantly moderates the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship.
Comparison of Two-Phase Critical Flow Models for Estimation of Leak Flow Rate through Cracks
The estimation of leak flow rates through narrow cracks in structures is of importance for nuclear reactor safety, since the leak flow could be detected before occurrence of loss-of-coolant accidents. The two-phase critical leak flow rates are calculated using the system analysis code, and two representative non-homogeneous critical flow models, Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model, are compared. The pressure decrease and vapor generation in the crack, and the leak flow rates are found to be larger for the Henry-Fauske model. It is shown that the leak flow rates are not affected by the structural temperature, but affected largely by the roughness of crack surface.
Ads on Social Issues: A Tool for Improving Critical Thinking Skills in a Foreign Language Classroom
This paper is a qualitative research report. A group of
students form a public university in a small town in Colombia
participated in this study which aimed at describing to what extend
the use of social ads, published on the internet, helped to develop
their critical thinking skills. Students’ productions, field notes, video
recordings and direct observation were the instruments and
techniques used by the researches in order to gather the data which
was analyzed under the principles of grounded theory and
triangulation. The implementation of social ads into the classroom
evidenced a noticeable improvement in students’ ability to interpret
and argue social issues, as well as, their self-improvement in oral and
written production in English, as a foreign language.
An Analysis of Transition in Building Form from Abolition of Diagonal Plane Control by Street Width: Focusing on Site Plan and Urban Block
The purpose of this study is to Analyze the role and effect arise from Diagonal Plane Control by Street Width (DPCSW) in Architecture in Seoul, and to predict the aspect of transition about the relationship among buildings and Urban morphology After the abolition. To find the tendency of building shape regulation, This study review Building Acts concerned with form making (the building to land Ratio, building designated line, wall designated line, building height limit (DPCSW) and etc.) and simulate the shape of urban blocks made by Acts in drawings. The review results show DPCSW is not only limitation about height, but also making the building setback from road and make the Road broader. And it makes the typical shape of the urban block that buildings are moving away from surrounding road After the Abolition of DPCSW; it is expected by the legislature that domestic real estate’s market would be promoted by increased total floor areas in each building. Some substitution from the legislature is announced, but it just deals with Building Maximum unit by Block unit except the regulation about arrangement in urban Figure and Ground. In conclusion, refrain from the uncontrolled development of city, It is important to make regulation about not only height factors but limitation line in land. Furthermore, through revising District Unit Plan, It is positively necessary to reset the relationship between buildings for the making the city space better.
The Comparative Effect of Practicing Self-Assessment and Critical Thinking Skills on EFL Learners’ Writing Ability
The purpose of the present study was to discover which of the two writing activities, a self-assessment questioner or a critical thinking skills handout, is more effective on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a sample of 120 undergraduate students of English SAT for a standardized sample of PET. Eighty-two students whose scores fell one standard deviation above and below the sample mean were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups. One group practiced self-assessment and the other group practiced critical thinking skills while they were learning process writing. A writing posttest was finally administered to the students in both groups and the mean rank scores were compared by t-test. The result led to the rejection of the null hypothesis, indicating that practicing critical thinking skills had a significantly higher effect on the writing ability. The implications of the study for students and teachers as well as course book designers are discussed.
Critical Thinking in the Moroccan Textbooks of English: Ticket to English as a Case Study
The ultimate aim of this study was to analyze a second-year baccalaureate textbook of English to see to what extent it includes elements of critical thinking. A further purpose was to assess the extent to which the teachers’ teaching practices help students develop some degree of critical thinking. The literature on critical thinking indicated that all the writers agree that critical thinking is skilled and dispositional oriented, and most of the definitions highlight the skill and disposition to select, collect, analyze and evaluate information effectively. In this study, two instruments were used, namely content analysis and questionnaire to ensure validity and reliability. The sample of this study, on the one hand, was a second year textbook of English, namely Ticket to English. The process of collecting data was carried out through designing a checklist to analyze the textbook of English. On the other hand, high school students (second baccalaureate grade) and teachers of English constituted the second sample. Two questionnaires were administered—One was completed by 28 high school teachers (18 males and10 females), and the other was completed by 51 students (26 males and 25 females) from Fez, Morocco. The items of the questionnaire tended to elicit both qualitative and quantitative data. An attempt was made to answer two research questions. One pertained to the extent to which the textbooks of English contain critical thinking elements (Critical thinking skills and dispositions, types of questions, language learning strategies, classroom activities); the second was concerned with whether the teaching practices of teachers of English help improve students’ critical thinking. The results demonstrated that the textbooks of English include elements of critical thinking, and the teachers’ teaching practices help the students develop some degree of critical thinking. Yet, the textbooks do not include problem-solving activities and media analysis and 86% of the teacher-respondents tended to skip activities in the textbooks, mainly the units dealing with Project Work and Study Skills which are necessary for enhancing critical thinking among the students. Therefore, the textbooks need to be designed around additional activities and the teachers are required to cover the units skipped so as to make the teaching of critical thinking effective.
Structural Design for Effective Load Balancing of the Iron Frame in Manhole Lid
Manhole refers to facilities that are accessible to the people cleaning and inspection of sewer, and its covering is called manhole lid. Manhole lid is typically made of a cast iron material. Due to the heavy weight of the cast iron manhole lids their installation and maintenance are not easy, and an electrical shock and corrosion aging of them can cause critical problems. The manhole body and the lid manufacturing using the fiber-reinforced composite material can reduce the weight considerably compared to the cast iron manhole. But only the fiber reinforcing is hard to maintain the heavy load, and the method of the iron frame with double injection molding of the composite material has been proposed widely. In this study reflecting the situation of this market, the structural design of the iron frame for the composite manhole lid was carried out. Structural analysis with the computer simulation for the effectively distributed load on the iron frame was conducted. In addition, we want to assess manufacturing costs through the comparing of weights and number of welding spots of the frames. Despite the cross-sectional area is up to 38% compared with the basic solid form the maximum von Mises stress is increased at least about 7 times locally near the rim and the maximum strain in the central part of the lid is about 5.5 times. The number of welding points related to the manufacturing cost was increased gradually with the more complicated shape. Also, the higher the height of the arch in the center of the lid the better result might be obtained. But considering the economic aspect of the composite fabrication we determined the same thickness as the frame for the height of the arch at the center of the lid. Additionally in consideration of the number of the welding points we selected the hexagonal as the optimal shape. Acknowledgment: These are results of a study on the 'Leaders Industry-university Cooperation' Project, supported by the Ministry of Education (MOE).
Investigating Relationship between Body Size and Physical Fitness Factors among University Students
Background: The objectives of this study was to investigate effect of anthropometric variables and body composition on physical capabilities among male and female students. Materials and Methods: The study had a descriptive correlation method. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, from 2011 to 2013, which was about 7000 students. The statistical sample included 300 male and 300 female students who were randomly selected from among university students in proportion to frequency of students in each faculty. Descriptive statistical methods, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Results of this research showed that body size of male students in the studied variables was more than that of female students (p< 0.05). Moreover, there was significant difference between all the variables based on significance level of the table. Also, the results taken from the Pearson correlation of this study's variables showed a positive relationship between height and leg and hand length and sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests (p< 0/01). Besides, there was a positive correlation between hand length, sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests. As far as tests of length of legs and vertical jump were concerned, a highly positive correlation was observed between them. Additionally, results of this study indicated a significant correlation at alpha level of 0.05 between age and height of the students; but, there was a negative correlation between age, sit-up and 1600-m tests (p< 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a relationship between size of weight, height, length of hands and legs and some physical fitness tests. Therefore, it is required to consider anthropometric factors in addition to gender and age while preparing norms of physical fitness since variables of height and length of hands also affect physical fitness evaluation.
Enhancing Critical Reflective Practice in Fieldwork Education: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Social Work Agencies in the Welfare Context of Hong Kong
In recent decades, it is observed that social work agencies have participated actively, and thus, have gradually been more influential in social work education in Hong Kong. The neo-liberal welfare ideologies and changing funding mode have transformed the landscape in social work practice and have also had a major influence on the fieldwork environment in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to explore the educational role of social work agencies and examine in particular whether they are able to enhance or hinder critical reflective learning in fieldwork. In-depth interviews with 15 frontline social workers and managers in different social work agencies were conducted to collect their views and experience in helping social work students in fieldwork. The overall findings revealed that under the current social welfare context most social workers consider that the most important role of social work agencies in fieldwork is to help students prepare to fit-in the practice requirements and work within agencies’ boundary. The fit-for-purpose and down-to-earth view of fieldwork practice is seen as prevalent among most social workers. This narrow perception of agency’s role seems to be more favourable to competence-based approaches. In contrast, though critical reflection has been seen as important in addressing the changing needs of service users, the role of enhancing critical reflective learning has not been clearly expected or understood by most agency workers. The notion of critical reflection, if considered, has been narrowly perceived in fieldwork learning. The findings suggest that the importance of critical reflection is found to be subordinate to that of practice competence. The lack of critical reflection in the field is somehow embedded in the competence-based social work practice. In general, social work students’ critical reflection has not been adequately supported or enhanced in fieldwork agencies, nor critical reflective practice has been encouraged in fieldwork process. To address this situation, the role of social work agencies in fieldwork should be re-examined. To maximise critical reflective learning in the field, critical reflection as an avowed objective in fieldwork learning should be clearly stated. Concrete suggestions are made to help fieldwork agencies become more prepared to critical reflective learning. It is expected that the research can help social work communities to reflect upon the current realities of fieldwork context and to identify ways to strengthen agencies’ capacities to enhance critical reflective learning and practice of social work students.
Formation of Miniband Structure in Dimer Fibonacci GaAs/Ga1-XAlXAs Superlattices
The effect of a uniform electric field across multibarrier systems (GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs) is exhaustively explored by a computational model using exact Airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. In the case of biased Dimer Fibonacci Height Barrier superlattices (DFHBSL) structure a strong reduction in transmission properties was observed and the width of the miniband structure linearly decreases with the increase of the applied bias. This is due to the confinement of the states in the miniband structure, which becomes increasingly important (Wannier-Stark effect).
Association of Body Composition Parameters with Lower Limb Strength and Upper Limb Functional Capacity in Quilombola Remnants
In Brazil, projections of population aging follow all world projections, the birth rate tends to be surpassed by the mortality rate around the year 2045. Historically, the population of Brazilian blacks suffered for several centuries from the oppression of dominant classes. A group, especially of blacks, stands out in relation to territorial, historical and social aspects, and for centuries they have isolated themselves in small communities, in order to maintain their freedom and culture. The isolation of the Quilombola communities generated socioeconomic effects as well as the health of these blacks. Thus, the objective of the present study is to verify the association of body composition parameters with lower and upper limb strength and functional capacity in Quilombola remnants. The research was approved by ethics committee (1,771,159). Anthropometric evaluations of hip and waist circumference, body mass and height were performed. In order to verify the body composition, the relationship between stature and body mass (BM) was performed, generating the body mass index (BMI), as well as the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) test. The Time Up and Go (TUG) test was used to evaluate the functional capacity, and a maximum repetition test (1MR) for knee extension and handgrip (HG) was applied for strength magnitude analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS 22.0. Shapiro Wilk's normality test was performed. For the possible correlations, the suggestions of the Pearson or Spearman tests were adopted. The results obtained after the interpretation identified that the sample (n = 18) was composed of 66.7% of female individuals with mean age of 66.07 ± 8.95 years. The sample’s body fat percentage (%BF) (35.65 ± 10.73) exceeds the recommendations for age group, as well as the anthropometric parameters of hip (90.91 ± 8.44cm) and waist circumference (80.37 ± 17.5cm). The relationship between height (1.55 ± 0.1m) and body mass (63.44 ± 11.25Kg) generated a BMI of 24.16 ± 7.09Kg/m2, that was considered normal. The TUG performance was 10.71 ± 1.85s. In the 1MR test, 46.67 ± 13.06Kg and in the HG 23.93±7.96Kgf were obtained, respectively. Correlation analyzes were characterized by the high frequency of significant correlations for height, dominant arm mass (DAM), %BF, 1MR and HG variables. In addition, correlations between HG and BM (r = 0.67, p = 0.005), height (r = 0.51, p = 0.004) and DAM (r = 0.55, p = 0.026) were also observed. The strength of the lower limbs correlates with BM (r = 0.69, p = 0.003), height (r = 0.62, p = 0.01) and DAM (r = 0.772, p = 0.001). In this way, we can conclude that not only the simple spatial relationship of mass and height can influence in predictive parameters of strength or functionality, being important the verification of the conditions of the corporal composition. For this population, height seems to be a good predictor of strength and body composition.
The Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Compressed Composite Plate in Asymmetrical Arrangement of Layers
The work focused on the original concept of a thin-walled plate element with a cut-out, for use as a spring or load-bearing element. The subject of the study were rectangular plates with a cut-out with variable geometrical parameters and with a variable angle of fiber arrangement, made of a carbon-epoxy composite with high strength properties in an asymmetrical arrangement, subjected to uniform compression. The influence of geometrical parameters of the cut-out and the angle of fiber arrangement on the value of critical load of the structure and buckling form was investigated. Uniform thin plates are relatively cheap to manufacture, however due to their low bending stiffness; they can carry relatively small loads. The lowest form of loss of plate stability, which is the bending form, leads to its rapid destruction due to high deflection increases, with a slight increase in compressive load - low rigidity of the structure. However, the stiffness characteristics of the structure change significantly when the work of plate is forcing according to the higher flexural-torsional form of buckling. The plate is able to carry a much higher compressive load while maintaining much stiffer work characteristics in the post-critical range. The calculations carried out earlier show that plates with forced higher form of buckling are characterized by stable, progressive paths of post-critical equilibrium, enabling their use as elastic elements. The characteristics of such elements can be designed in a wide range by changing the geometrical parameters of the cut-out, i.e. height and width as well as by changing the angle of fiber arrangement The commercial ABAQUS program using the finite element method was used to develop the discrete model and perform numerical calculations. The obtained results are of significant practical importance in the design of structures with elastic elements, allowing to achieve the required maintenance characteristics of the device.
Miller’s Model for Developing Critical Thinking Skill of Pre-Service Teachers at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
The research study aimed to (1) compare the critical thinking of the teacher students of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University before and after applying Miller’s Model learning activities and (2) investigate the students’ opinions towards Miller’s Model learning activities for improving the critical thinking. The participants of this study were purposively selected. They were 3 groups of teacher students: (1) fourth year 33 student teachers majoring in Early Childhood Education and enrolling in semester 1 of academic year 2013 (2) third year 28 student teachers majoring in English and enrolling in semester 2 of academic year 2013 and (3) third year 22 student teachers majoring in Thai and enrolling in semester 2 of academic year 2013. The research instruments were (1) lesson plans where the learning activities were settled based on Miller’s Model (2) critical thinking assessment criteria and (3) a questionnaire on opinions towards Miller’s Model based learning activities. The statistical treatment was mean, deviation, different scores and T-test. The result unfolded that (1) the critical thinking of the students after the assigned activities was better than before and (2) the students’ opinions towards the critical thinking improvement activities based on Miller’s Model ranged from the level of high to highest.
Protective Effects of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on Experimentally Induced Testicular Torsion and Detorsion in Rat Model
Aim: To evaluate and compare the effects of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on experimentally induced testicular torsion and detorsion in rats.
Methods: Forty Male Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. Animals in the Group I underwent Sham operation, Group II consisted of animals that were subjected to torsion for three hours followed by detorsion for 24 hours without any treatment. While Group III, IV and V were orally pretreated with Vitamin C (40mg/kg.bw), vitamin E (100mg/kg.bw) and a combination of Vitamin C and vitamin E respectively for a period of 30 days. The testes of the experimental groups were manually rotated to 720° clockwise for three hours and counter rotated for 24 hours to induce ischemia and reperfusion. Sequential biopsies were performed and the testes were collected at the end of 24 hours of detrosion for morphological evaluation. Result: There was a significant decrease in the standard tubular diameter and the epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules in the untreated group when compared to Sham controls. The standard tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height showed near normal values when animals were pretreated with Vitamin C and Vitamin E individually or in combination. Conclusion: The results showed that pretreatment of with antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C when administered prior to testicular torsion in rats significantly reduced the torsion and detorsion induced histopathlogical injury.
Ecotourism Development in Ikogosi Warmspring, Nigeria: Implications on Its Floristic Composition and Structure
The high rate of infrastructural development in Ikogosi warm spring towards harnessing her great ecotourism potentials calls for a serious concern, as more forest areas are been opened up for public access and the landscape is modified. On this note, we investigated the implication of ecotourism development on the floristic composition and forest structure in Ikogosi. The study aimed at identifying the past and present status of infrastructural development, assessing and comparing the floristic composition and structure of the built- up/ recreational areas and undisturbed forested areas, to infer on the impact of ecotourism development on the study site. We conducted stakeholder interview and field observation to identify the past and present status of infrastructural development respectively. A total of ten quadrants were employed in the vegetation assessment to characterize the woody tree species composition, diameter at breast height and height, to obtain mean indices characterizing each part of the site. These indices were compared using T – test analysis. A total of 49 different woody tree species distributed in 21 families were identified in the built-in/ recreational areas while 67 different woody tree species belonging to 25 families were recorded in the undeveloped forested areas. Although, the latter has a higher mean diameter at breast height of woody trees, it was not significantly different from the former (T-test = -0.74, p = 0.46). On the contrary, the built-up area had a higher mean trees height than the undeveloped areas, but the difference was not statistically significant (T-test= 1.04, p = 0.30). Despite these, the slight reduction in richness and diversity of the woody tree species in the built- up/ recreational areas implies mitigating the negative effects of infrastructural development on the warm spring's vegetation.
Theoretical Density Study of Winding Yarns on Spool
The aim of work is to define the distribution density of winding yarn on cylindrical and conical bobbins. It is known that parallel winding gives greater density and more regular distribution, but the unwinding of yarn is much more difficult for following process. The conical spool has an enormous advantage during unwinding and may contain a large amount of yarns, but the density distribution is not regular because of difference in diameters. The variation of specific density over the reel height is explained generally by the sudden change of winding speed due to direction movement variation of yarn. We determined the conditions of uniform winding and developed a calculate model to the change of the specific density of winding wire over entire spool height.
Extraction of Forest Plantation Resources in Selected Forest of San Manuel, Pangasinan, Philippines Using LiDAR Data for Forest Status Assessment
Forest inventories are essential to assess the composition, structure and distribution of forest vegetation that can be used as baseline information for management decisions. Classical forest inventory is labor intensive and time-consuming and sometimes even dangerous. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in forest inventory would improve and overcome these restrictions. This study was conducted to determine the possibility of using LiDAR derived data in extracting high accuracy forest biophysical parameters and as a non-destructive method for forest status analysis of San Manual, Pangasinan. Forest resources extraction was carried out using LAS tools, GIS, Envi and .bat scripts with the available LiDAR data. The process includes the generation of derivatives such as Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Canopy Height Model (CHM) and Canopy Cover Model (CCM) in .bat scripts followed by the generation of 17 composite bands to be used in the extraction of forest classification covers using ENVI 4.8 and GIS software. The Diameter in Breast Height (DBH), Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Carbon Stock (CS) were estimated for each classified forest cover and Tree Count Extraction was carried out using GIS. Subsequently, field validation was conducted for accuracy assessment. Results showed that the forest of San Manuel has 73% Forest Cover, which is relatively much higher as compared to the 10% canopy cover requirement. On the extracted canopy height, 80% of the tree’s height ranges from 12 m to 17 m. CS of the three forest covers based on the AGB were: 20819.59 kg/20x20 m for closed broadleaf, 8609.82 kg/20x20 m for broadleaf plantation and 15545.57 kg/20x20m for open broadleaf. Average tree counts for the tree forest plantation was 413 trees/ha. As such, the forest of San Manuel has high percent forest cover and high CS.
Societal Resilience Assessment in the Context of Critical Infrastructure Protection
Critical infrastructure protection has been an important topic for several years. Programmes such as the European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (EPCIP), Critical Infrastructure Warning Information Network (CIWIN) and the European Reference Network for Critical Infrastructure Protection (ENR-CIP) have been the pillars to the work done since 2006. However, measuring critical infrastructure resilience has not been an easy task. This has to do with the fact that the concept of resilience has several definitions and is applied in different domains such as engineering and social sciences. Since June 2015, the EU project IMPROVER has been focusing on developing a methodology for implementing a combination of societal, organizational and technological resilience concepts, in the hope to increase critical infrastructure resilience. For this paper, we performed research on how to include societal resilience as a form of measurement of the context of critical infrastructure resilience. Because one of the main purposes of critical infrastructure (CI) is to deliver services to the society, we believe that societal resilience is an important factor that should be considered when assessing the overall CI resilience. We found that existing methods for CI resilience assessment focus mainly on technical aspects and therefore that is was necessary to develop a resilience model that take social factors into account. The model developed within the project IMPROVER aims to include the community’s expectations of infrastructure operators as well as information sharing with the public and planning processes. By considering such aspects, the IMPROVER framework not only helps operators to increase the resilience of their infrastructures on the technical or organizational side, but aims to strengthen community resilience as a whole. This will further be achieved by taking interdependencies between critical infrastructures into consideration. The knowledge gained during this project will enrich current European policies and practices for improved disaster risk management. The framework for societal resilience analysis is based on three dimensions for societal resilience; coping capacity, adaptive capacity and transformative capacity which are capacities that have been recognized throughout a widespread literature review in the field. A set of indicators have been defined that describe a community’s maturity within these resilience dimensions. Further, the indicators are categorized into six community assets that need to be accessible and utilized in such a way that they allow responding to changes and unforeseen circumstances. We conclude that the societal resilience model developed within the project IMPROVER can give a good indication of the level of societal resilience to critical infrastructure operators.
The Brand Value of Cosmetics in the View of Customers in Thailand
The purpose of this research is to study the relationship customer perception and brand value of cosmetics in the view of customers in Thailand. The research is quantitative research using the survey method by questionnaire. Data were collected from female cosmetics consumer that residents in Bangkok, aged between 25-55 years. Researchers have determined the size of the sample by using Taro Yamane technic a total of 400 people. The study found the Shiseido cosmetics brand image always come with the new products innovation is in the height level. The average was 3.812, second is Shiseido brand has used innovation to produce the product for 3.792. And brand Shiseido looks luxury with an average of 3.707 respectively. In additional in terms of Lancôme cosmetic brand found the brand image is luxury at the height levels for 4.170 average. The seductive glamor is considered in the moderate with an average of 3.822 respectively.
The Impact of Teaching Critical Reading Strategies on Students' Performance in English and Communication Skills in College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State Nigeria
The study focused on the impact of teaching critical reading strategies on students’ performance in English and communication skills at the college of education Azare Bauchi state, Nigeria. It adopted a pre-test, post-test experimental group design. A sample of two hundred and forty (240) students was randomly selected from four departments within the school. The students were randomized into two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught critical reading strategies as a form of treatment, while the control group involved in normal reading comprehension exercises. The findings of the study showed a significant difference in the performance of students who were taught critical reading strategies at the post- test level. Recommendations based on the findings of the study were proffered such as placing more emphasis on teaching critical reading strategies in order to improve students’ creative thinking skills and also encouraging students to read articles in science and humanities to improve their reading skills among others.
Numerical Determination of Transition of Cup Height between Hydroforming Processes
Various attempts concerning the low formability issue for lightweight materials like aluminium and magnesium alloys are being investigated in many studies. Advanced forming processes such as hydroforming is one of these attempts. In last decades sheet hydroforming process has an increasing interest, particularly in the automotive and aerospace industries. This process has many advantages such as enhanced formability, the capability to form complex parts, higher dimensional accuracy and surface quality, reduction of tool costs and reduced die wear compared to the conventional sheet metal forming processes. There are two types of sheet hydroforming. One of them is hydromechanical deep drawing (HDD) that is a special drawing process in which pressurized ﬂuid medium is used instead of one of the die half compared to the conventional deep drawing (CDD) process. Another one is sheet hydroforming with die (SHF-D) in which blank is formed with the act of fluid pressure and it takes the shape of die half. In this study, transition of cup height according to cup diameter between the processes was determined by performing simulation of the processes in Finite Element Analysis. Firstly SHF-D process was simulated for 40 mm cup diameter at different cup heights chancing from 10 mm to 30 mm and the cup height to diameter ratio value in which it is not possible to obtain a successful forming was determined. Then the same ratio was checked for a different cup diameter of 60 mm. Then thickness distributions of the cups formed by SHF-D and HDD processes were compared for the cup heights. Consequently, it was found that the thickness distribution in HDD process in the analyses was more uniform.
Implications of Humanizing Pedagogy on Learning Design in a Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Environment: Critical Reflections on Student Identity and Agency
Nelson Mandela University subscribes to a humanizing pedagogy (HP), as housed under broader critical pedagogy, that underpins and informs learning and teaching activities at the institution. The investigation sought to explore the implications of humanizing and critical pedagogical considerations for a technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) environment in a university course. The paper inquires into the design of a learning resource in an online learning environment of an English communication module, that applied HP principles. With an objective of creating agentive spaces for foregrounding identity, student voice, critical self-reflection, and recognition of others’ humanity; a flexible and open 'My Presence' feature was added to the TELL environment that allowed students and lecturers to share elements of their backgrounds in a ‘mutually vulnerable’ manner as a way of establishing digital identity and a more ‘human’ presence in the online language learning encounter, serving as a catalyst for the recognition of the ‘other’. Following a qualitative research design, the study adopted an auto-ethnographic approach, complementing the critical inquiry nature embedded into the activity’s practices. The study’s findings provide critical reflections and deductions on the possibilities of leveraging digital human expression within a humanizing pedagogical framework to advance the realization of HP-adoption in language learning and teaching encounters. It was found that the consideration of humanizing pedagogical principles in the design of online learning was more effective when the critical outcomes were explicated to students and lecturers prior to the completion of the activities. The integration of humanizing pedagogy also led to a contextual advancement of ‘affective’ language learning. Upon critical reflection and analysis, student identity and agency can flourish in a technology-enhanced learning environment when humanizing, and critical pedagogy influences the learning design.
Various Body Measurements of Hair, Boer x Hair F1 Crossbred Kids and Effects of Some Environmental Factors on These Traits
The aim of the study was to determine various body measurements from the birth to the 30-day age of Boer x Hair goats F1 crossbred kids and pure Hair goat kids raised in Van in Eastern Anatolia region, and reveal factors such as the effects of year, dame body weight, genotype, dame age, birth type and sex on this parameter. 49 kids born in 2012 and 76 kids born in 2014 were utilized in the study. In the statistical analysis of various body measurements data was performed using the General Lineer Model procedure in SPSS software. Duncan's multiple range test was used for multiple comparisons. Boer x Hair goats F1 crossbred kids and pure Hair goat kids from various body measurements cidago height, body length, chest length, chest depth, chest circumference, circumference of leg, cannon bone circumference, chest width were determinated in general respectively 29.90 and 27.88 cm; 29.49 and 27.93 cm; 17.28 and 16.68 cm; 13.34 and 12.82 cm; 31.74 and 29.85 cm; 28.43 and 23.95 cm; 5.41 and 5.15 cm; 8.71 and 7.63 cm at birth, respectively; 35.01 and 32.98 cm; 35.20 and 33.30 cm; 18.82 and 18.17 cm; 15.64 and 14.83 cm; 39.08 and 37.30 cm; 34.29 and 29.25 cm; 5.80 and 5.42 cm; 9.87 and 8.85 cm at 30 days age, respectively. Among factors affecting cidago height in this study, the effect of dame body weight and sex were not significant, but genotype, dame age and birth type were significant (P < 0,05 and P < 0,01) at birth; dame body weight effect of the cidago height was not significant, but the effect of genotype, birth type, of dame age and sex were significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P< 0.001) at 30-day age. The effect of genotype and sex of body length were not significant, but dam age, dame body weight and birth type were significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P< 0.001, respectively) at birth; the effect of sex to body length was not significant, but genotype, dame age, dame body weight and birth type were significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) at 30-day age. While circumference of leg was insignificant the effect of dame age and sex, genotype, dame body weight and type of the birth were significant (P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) at birth; the circumstance of leg at 30-day age was found to be important the effect of examined other factors except for sex (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). The obtained results, when considered in terms of a variety of body sizes, from birth to 30-day age growth period, showed that the kids of Boer x Hair Goat F1 hybrids have higher values than the kids of Hair Goats.
Kinematic Analysis of Heel Height Effect on Knee Direction Correction in a Patient with Genu Recurvatum: A Case Study
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heel height on the knee joint direction in Genu recurvatum patients compared to normal state. The test was performed on a patient with Genu recurvatum and a healthy person with similar and match biomechanical conditions. Subjects were tested under six different positions of shoes with heels 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm after marking during the gate. The results of the spatial temporal geometry obtained from Vicon Motion System (six-camera T10 model, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK), and were used to compute and analyze the kinematic results. In this study, we tried to determine the effect of shoe heel intervention on knee joint direction correction. The results indicate that the 1 cm heel has been optimized and significantly improved in knee joint flexion and flexion-extension angle so that the difference in knee flexion-extension angle between the patient and the healthy person at some stages of walking has reached zero (good posture). The 3 cm heel compared with the 0 cm heel has reduced the knee recurvatum index (KRI) by up to 21.74% in the patient (from 219.233 mm to 47.6714 mm). According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that heel increase is effective in correcting knee joints in Genu recurvatum and the optimum heel height is 1 cm.
Numerical Investigation of the Bio-fouling Roughness Effect on Tidal Turbine
Unlike other renewable energy sources, tidal current energy is an extremely reliable, predictable and continuous energy source as the current pattern and speed can be predicted throughout the year. A key concern associated with tidal turbines is their long-term reliability when operating in the hostile marine environment. Bio-fouling changes the physical shape and roughness of turbine components, hence altering the overall turbine performance. This paper seeks to employ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to quantify the effects of this problem based on the obtained flow field information. The simulation is carried out on a NACA 63-618 aerofoil. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulent model are used to simulate the flow around the model. Different levels of fouling are studied on 2D aerofoil surface with quantified fouling height and density. In terms of lift and drag coefficient results, numerical results show good agreement with the experiment which was carried out in wind tunnel. Numerical results of research indicate that an increase in fouling thickness causes an increase in drag coefficient and a reduction in lift coefficient. Moreover, pressure gradient gradually becomes adverse as height of fouling increases. In addition, result by turbulent kinetic energy contour reveals it increases with fouling height and it extends into wake due to flow separation.
Determination of Critical Organ Doses for Liver Scintigraphy Using Cr-51
Scintigraphy is an imaging method of nuclear events provoked by collisions or charged current interactions with radiation. It is used for diagnostic test used in nuclear medicine via radiopharmaceuticals emitting radiation which is captured by gamma cameras to form two-dimensional images. Liver scintigraphy is widely used in nuclear medicine.Tc-99m and Cr-51 gamma radioisotopes can be used for this purpose. Cr-51 usage is more important for patients’ organ dose that has higher energy and longer half-life as compared to Tc-99m. In this study, it is aimed to determine the required dose for critical organs of patient through liver scintigraphy via Cr-51 gamma radioisotope. Experimental studies were conducted on patients even though conducting experimental studies on patients is extremely difficult for determination of critical organ doses. Torso phantom was utilized to simulate the liver scintigraphy by using 20 mini packages of Cr-51 that were placed on the organ. The radioisotope was produced by irradiation in central thimble of TRIGA MARK II Reactor at 250 KW power. As the results of the study, critical organ doses were determined and evaluated with different critic organs.
Application of Genetic Programming for Evolution of Glass-Forming Ability Parameter
A few glass forming ability expressions in terms of characteristic temperatures have been proposed in the literature. Attempts have been made to correlate the expression with the critical diameter of the bulk metallic glass composition. However, with the advent of new alloys, many exceptions have been noted and reported. In the present approach, a genetic programming based code which generates an expression in terms of input variables, i.e., three characteristic temperatures viz. glass transition temperature (Tg), onset crystallization temperature (Tx) and offset temperature of melting (Tl) with maximum correlation with a critical diameter (Dmax). The expression evolved shows improved correlation with the critical diameter. In addition, the expression can be explained on the basis of time-temperature transformation curve.
The Development of Research Based Model to Enhance Critical Thinking, Cognitive Skills and Culture and Local Wisdom Knowledge of Undergraduate Students
The purposes of this research was to develop instructional model by using research-based learning enhancing critical thinking, cognitive skills, and culture and local wisdom knowledge of undergraduate students. The sample consisted of 307 undergraduate students. Critical thinking and cognitive skills test were employed for data collection. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis, t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were employed for data analysis using SPSS and LISREL programs. The major research results were as follows; 1) the instructional model by using research-based learning enhancing critical thinking, cognitive skills, and culture and local wisdom knowledge should be consists of 6 sequential steps, namely (1) the setting research problem (2) the setting research hypothesis (3) the data collection (4) the data analysis (5) the research result conclusion (6) the application for problem solving, and 2) after the treatment undergraduate students possessed a higher scores in critical thinking and cognitive skills than before treatment at the 0.05 level of significance.
The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Performance Traits, Carcass Quality, Gut Morphology and Haematological Parameters of Broilers Fed Wet Diet
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (Nano-ZnO) on carcass quality, blood parameters, and gut morphology in broiler chickens feeding wet diets. This research was conducted by total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) were distributed into a completely randomized design inclusion of 5 treatments in 4 replicated and 15 birds in each from 1 to 42 d. The experimental diets contain: 1) diet-based on corn-soybean dry (without Nano-ZnO), 2) dry diet whit 25 mg Nano-ZnO, 3) wet diet whit 25 mg Nano-ZnO, 4) dry diet whit 50 mg Nano-ZnO, 5) wet diet whit 50 mg Nano-ZnO to wet diet. The results indicated that trail diets had no significant effect on carcass and fraction cuts in 21 age (P > 0.05). Wet feeding increased (P < 0.05) live, carcass, pancreas, gizzard, proventriculus, breast, wing and SI weight index so that the birds fed wet diet contain 50mg/kg of Nano-ZnO had the highest (P < 0.05) live, carcass, pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, breast, wing, and gut weights at 42d compared other treatments. The birds fed diet contain 25mg/kg Nano-ZnO had the higher (P < 0.05) leg weight and lowest gizzard and gut weight than others treatment. Wet diet inclusion of 50mg Nano-ZnO increased (P < 0.05) liver weight on d 42. Experimental treatments had no significant effect on blood hematology on 21 and 42. The lymphocyte count had increased (P < 0.05) in dry than wet diet, however, monocyte Percent had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in dry and increased in wet diets. The birds of height and height: crypts villi ratio had significantly (P < 0.05) increased on d 42, so that the highest and lowest villus height observed in 50 mg Nano-ZnO to form dry and control, respectively. In conclusion, the results of indicated that used of Nano-ZnO and wet feeding had no effect on performance parameters. Wet diet caused increased monocyte percent and 50 mg level Nano-ZnO to form dry caused increased height of villi.
Using Focused Free-Writing to Help English to Speakers of Other Languages Students Generate Ideas for Critical, Academic Writing
This paper describes how the method of focused freewriting can be used to help teachers to foster critical thinking through writing. In this study, we used focused freewriting during the pre-writing stage of our writing course to help our English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students to generate ideas and to think critically about the issues they were to write on. In each of the four classes where we applied this technique, we used pictures or videos to stimulate their thinking during the prewriting stage of writing and then asked them to write non-stop for ten minutes about whatever that came to their minds as a result of being presented with these prompts. We then asked them to focus on the themes that emerged from their brief writing. Using observations, in-depth interviews, and an analysis of their brief essays, our study found that focused freewriting helped our students to generate ideas and think critically about the issues they were writing on. We postulate that by using focused freewriting and discussions during the prewriting stage of writing, instructors can help their students to think critically about various issues and facilitate their efforts at organising their arguments for critical, academic essays.
Comparison between Open and Closed System for Dewatering with Geotextile: Field and Comparative Study
The present paper aims to expose two techniques of dewatering for sludge, analyzing its operations and dewatering processes, aiming at improving the conditions of disposal of residues with high liquid content. It describes the field tests performed on two geotextile systems, a closed geotextile tube and an open geotextile drying bed, both of which are submitted to two filling cycles. The sludge used in the filling cycles for the field trials is from the water treatment plant of the Technological Center of Aeronautics – CTA, in São José dos Campos, Brazil. Data about volume and height abatement due to the dewatering and consolidation were collected per time, until it was observed constancy. With the laboratory analysis of the sludge allied to the data collected in the field, it was possible to perform a critical comparative study between the observed and the scientific literature, in this way, this paper expresses the data obtained and compares them with the bibliography. The tests were carried out on three fronts: field tests, including the filling cycles of the systems with the sludge from CTA, taking measurements of filling time per cycle and maximum filling height per cycle, heights against the abatement by dewatering of the systems over time; tests carried out in the laboratory, including the characterization of the sludge and removal of material samples from the systems to ascertain the solids content within the systems per time and; comparing the data obtained in the field and laboratory tests with the scientific literature. Through the study, it was possible to perceive that the process of densification of the material inside a closed system, such as the geotextile tube, occurs faster than the observed in the drying bed system. This process of accelerated densification can be brought about by the pumping pressure of the sludge in its filling and by the confinement of the residue through the permeable geotextile membrane (allowing water to pass through), accelerating the process of densification and dewatering by its own weight after the filling with sludge.
Production Structures of Energy Based on Water Force, Its Infrastructure Protection, and Possible Causes of Failure
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the enhancement of a hydroelectric plant protection by coordinating protection measures and existing security and introducing new measures under a risk management process. Also, the plan identifies key critical elements of a hydroelectric plant, from its level vulnerabilities and threats it is subjected to in order to achieve the necessary protection measures to reduce the level of risk.
An Evaluation of the Relationship between the Anthropometric Measurements and Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents
Childhood obesity is a significant health issue that is currently on the rise all over the world. In recent years, the relationship between childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease risk has been pointed out. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between some of the anthropometric indicators and blood lipid levels in adolescents. The present study has been conducted on a total of 252 adolescents -200 girls and 52 boys- within an age group of 12 to 18 years. Blood was drawn from each participant in the morning -after having fasted for 10 hours from the day before- to analyze their total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Their body weight, height, waist circumference, subscapular skinfold thicknesses and triceps skinfold thicknesses measurements were taken and their individual waist/height ratios, BMI and body fat ratios were calculated. The blood lipid levels of the participants were categorized as acceptable, borderline and high in accordance with the 2011 Expert Panel Integrated Guidelines. The body fat ratios, total blood cholesterol and HDL levels of the girls were significantly higher than the boys whereas their waist circumference values were lower. The triglyceride levels, total cholesterol/HDL, LDL/HDL, triglyceride/HDL ratios of the group with the BMI ≥ 95 percentile ratio (the obese group) were higher than the groups that were considered to be overweight and normal weight as per their respective BMI values, while the HDL level of the obese group was lower; a fact that was found to be statistically significant. No significant relationship could be established, however, between the total blood cholesterol and LDL levels with their anthropometric measurements. The BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio, body fat ratio and triglyceride level of the group with the higher triglyceride level ( ≥ 130mg/dl) were found to be significantly higher compared to borderline (90-129 mg/dl) and the normal group (< 90 mg/dl). The BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio values of the group with the lower HDL level ( < 40 mg/dl) were significantly higher than the normal ( > 45 mg/dl) and borderline (40-45 mg/dl) groups. All of the anthropometric measurements of the group with the higher triglyceride/HDL ratio ( ≥ 3) were found to be significantly higher than that of the group with the lower ratio (< 3). Having a high BMI, waist/height ratio and waist circumference is related to low HDL and high blood triglyceride and triglyceride/HDL ratio. A high body fat ratio, on the other hand, is associated with a low HDL and high triglyceride/HDL ratio. Tackling childhood and adolescent obesity are important in terms of preventing cardiovascular diseases.
A Study of Quality Assurance and Unit Verification Methods in Safety Critical Environment
In the present case study we examined the development and testing methods of systems that contain safety-critical elements in different industrial fields. Consequentially, we observed the classical object-oriented development and testing environment, as both medical technology and automobile industry approaches the development of safety critical elements that way. Subsequently, we examined model-based development. We introduce the quality parameters that define development and testing. While taking modern agile methodology (scrum) into consideration, we examined whether and to what extent the methodologies we found fit into this environment.
, quality managent
, unit verification
, model base testing
, agile methods
, object-oriented programming
, field specific modelling
, user story
, UML Standard
Determination of Tide Height Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)
Hydrographic surveys have traditionally relied on the availability of tide information for the reduction of sounding observations to a common datum. In most cases, tide information is obtained from tide gauge observations and/or tide predictions over space and time using local, regional or global tide models. While the latter often provides a rather crude approximation, the former relies on tide gauge stations that are spatially restricted, and often have sparse and limited distribution. A more recent method that is increasingly being used is Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning which can be utilised to monitor height variations of a vessel or buoy, thus providing information on sea level variations during the time of a hydrographic survey. However, GNSS heights obtained under the dynamic environment of a survey vessel are affected by “non-tidal” processes such as wave activity and the attitude of the vessel (roll, pitch, heave and dynamic draft). This research seeks to examine techniques that separate the tide signal from other non-tidal signals that may be contained in GNSS heights. This requires an investigation of the processes involved and their temporal, spectral and stochastic properties in order to apply suitable recovery techniques of tide information. In addition, different post-mission and near real-time GNSS positioning techniques will be investigated with focus on estimation of height at ocean. Furthermore, the study will investigate the possibility to transfer the chart datums at the location of tide gauges.
Peril´s Environment of Energetic Infrastructure Complex System, Modelling by the Crisis Situation Algorithms
Crisis situations investigation and modelling are introduced and made within the complex system of energetic critical infrastructure, operating on peril´s environments. Every crisis situations and perils has an origin in the emergency/ crisis event occurrence and they need critical/ crisis interfaces assessment. Here, the emergency events can be expected - then crisis scenarios can be pre-prepared by pertinent organizational crisis management authorities towards their coping; or it may be unexpected - without pre-prepared scenario of event. But the both need operational coping by means of crisis management as well. The operation, forms, characteristics, behaviour and utilization of crisis management have various qualities, depending on real critical infrastructure organization perils, and prevention training processes. An aim is always - better security and continuity of the organization, which successful obtainment needs to find and investigate critical/ crisis zones and functions in critical infrastructure organization models, operating in pertinent perils environment. Our DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method is disposables for it. Here, it is necessary to derive and create identification algorithm of critical/ crisis interfaces. The locations of critical/ crisis interfaces are the flags of crisis situation in organization of critical infrastructure models. Then, the model of crisis situation will be displayed at real organization of Czech energetic crisis infrastructure subject in real peril environment. These efficient measures are necessary for the infrastructure protection. They will be derived for peril mitigation, crisis situation coping and for environmentally friendly organization survival, continuity and its sustainable development advanced possibilities.
Cryptic Diversity: Identifying Two Morphologically Similar Species of Invasive Apple Snails in Peninsular Malaysia
Invasive snails in the genus Pomacea have spread across Southeast Asia including Peninsular Malaysia. Apart from significant economic costs to wetland crops, very little is known about the snails’ effects on native species, and wetland function through their alteration of macrophyte communities. This study was conducted to establish diagnostic characteristics of Pomacea species in the Malaysian environment using genetic and morphological criteria. Snails were collected from eight localities in northern and central regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The mitochondrial COI gene of 52 adult snails was amplified and sequenced. Maximum likelihood analysis was used to analyse species identity and assess phylogenetic relationships among snails from different geographic locations. Shells of the two species were compared using geometric morphometric analysis and covariance analyses. Shell height accounted for most of the observed variation between P. canaliculata and P. maculata, with the latter possessing a smaller mean ratio of shell height: aperture height (p < 0.0001) and shell height to shell width (give p < 0.0001). Genomic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of two monophyletic taxa, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in Peninsular Malaysia samples. P. maculata co-occurred with P. canaliculata in 5 localities, but samples from 3 localities contained only P. canaliculata. This study is the first to confirm the presence of two of the most invasive species of Pomacea in Peninsular Malaysia using a genomic approach. P. canaliculata appears to be the more widespread species. Despite statistical differences, both quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics demonstrate much interspecific overlap and intraspecific variability; thus morphology alone cannot reliably verify species identity. Molecular techniques for distinguishing between these two highly invasive Pomacea species are needed to understand their specific ecological niches and develop effective protocols for their management.
The Isolation and Performance Evaluation of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from Raffia Palm (Raphia hookeri) Wine Used at Different Concentrations for Proofing of Bread Dough
Yeast (sacchoromyces cerevisiae) was isolated from the fermenting sap of raffia palm (Raphia hookeri) wine. Different concerntrations of the yeast isolate were used to produce bread samples – B, C, D, E, F containing (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) g of yeast isolate respectively, other ingredients were kept constant. Sample A, containing 2g of commercial baker yeast served as control. The proof heights, weights, volumes and specific volume of the dough and bread samples were determined. The bread samples were also subjected to sensory evaluation using a 9–point hedonic scale. Results showed that proof height increased with increased concentration of the yeast isolate; that is direct proportion. Sample B with the least concentration of the yeast isolate had the least loaf height and volume of 2.80c m and 200 cm³ respectively but exhibited the highest loaf weight of 205.50g. However, Sample A, (commercial bakers’ yeast) had the highest loaf height and volume of 5.00 cm and 400 cm³ respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed sample D compared favorably with sample A in all the organoleptic attributes-(appearance, taste, crumb texture, crust colour and overall acceptability) tested for (P< 0.05). It was recommended that 4g compressed yeast isolate per 100g flour could be used to proof dough as a substitute for commercial bakers’ yeast and produce acceptable bread loaves.
SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths
There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.
Influence of Pediococcus Pentasaceus Isolate “Dadih” (Buffalo Milk Fermended in Bamboo) the Bowel Frequence, Secretory Immunoglobulin a Level and Height of Ileum Villi of the Mice EPEC Induced Diarrhea
The aim of this study is Enteropathogenic Eschericia coli O157 (EPEC) is one of the pathogen that can cause inflamation and damage intestinal mucosa, which is leading diarrhea. Inflamation in the intestinal mucosa proved by the presence of secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) on the feces. Isolate dadih is Pediococcus pentosaceus (P. pentosaceus) as a probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is very usefull to improve sIgA and intestinal mucosa. The objective, to determine the dose and duration administration of P. pentosaceus for bowel frequence, sIgA level and height of illeum villi in mice EPEC-induced diarrhea. Method, using Complete Randomized design studies in mice EPEC-induced diarrhea. Mice was classified into 2 factors. A factor (dose of probiotic) and B factor (duration of probiotic observation) consisted of 0 hour, 12 hours, 24 hours and 36 hours. A factor consisted of negative control, positive control (mice induced by EPEC) and 3 different dose experimental mice. The results were a very significant interaction between dose and duration administration of P. pentosaceus. Mean of the most frequent defecation of mice EPEC-induced was 55 graetly reduced into 12 ,after 24 hours administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010 cfu/g, Mean of sIgA level of mice induced EPEC was 1,60 μg/ml, very significant different (p< 0,01). Mean of sIgA level after 24 administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g was 2,65 μg/ml. Mean of height of illeum villi after induced EPEC 53,04 μm with very significant different after 24 hours administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g (142,881μm). This study concluded that P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g after 24 hours is very beneficial to reduced bowel frequence, increase sIgA level and improve the height illeum villi of mice EPEC-induced diarrhea.
Beak Size and Asynchronous Hatch in Broiler Chicks
Beak plays a fundamental role in the hatching process of the chicks, since it is used for internal and external pipping. The present study examined whether the size of the beak influences the birth period of the broiler chicks in the hatching window. It was analyzed the beak size (length, height and width) of one-hundred twenty nine newly hatched chicks from light eggs (56.22-61.05g) and one-hundred twenty six chicks from heavy eggs (64.95-70.90g), produced by 38 and 45 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®), respectively. Egg incubation occurred at 37.5°C and 60% RH, with egg turning every hour. Length, height and width of the beaks were measured using a digital caliper (Zaas precision - digital caliper 6", 0.01mm) and the data expressed in millimeters. The beak length corresponded to distance between the tip of the beak and the rictus. The height of the beak was measured in the region of the culmen and its width in the region of the nostrils. Data were analyzed following a 3x2 factorial experimental design, being three birth periods within the hatching window (early: 471.78 to 485.42h, intermediate: 485.43 to 512.27h, and late: 512.28 to 528.72h) and two egg weights (light and heavy). There was a significant interaction between birth period and egg weight for beak height (P < 0.05), which was higher in the intermediate chicks from heavy eggs than in the other chicks from the same egg weight and chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05), that did not differ (P > 0.05). The beak length was influenced only for a birth period, and decreased through the hatch window (early < intermediate < late) (P < 0.05). The width of the beaks was influenced by both main factors, birth period and egg weight (P < 0.05). Early and intermediate chicks had similar beak width, but greater than late chicks, and chicks from heavy eggs presented greater beak width than chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05). In sum, the results show that chicks with longer beak hatch first and that beak length is an important variable for hatch period determination mainly for light eggs.
Strength of Soft Clay Reinforced with Polypropylene Column
Granular columns is a technique that has the properties of improving bearing capacity, accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressure and reducing settlement in a weak soft soil. This research aims to investigate the role of Polypropylene column in improving the shear strength and compressibility of soft reconstituted kaolin clay by determining the effects of area replacement ratio, height penetrating ratio and volume replacement ratio of a singular Polypropylene column on the strength characteristics. Reinforced kaolin samples were subjected to Unconfined Compression (UCT) and Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) triaxial tests. The kaolin samples were 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height. Using the PP column reinforcement, with an area replacement ratio of 0.8, 0.5 and 0.3, shear strength increased approximately 5.27%, 26.22% and 64.28%, and 37.14%, 42.33% and 51.17%, for area replacement ratios of 25% and 10.24%. Meanwhile, UU testing showed an increase in shear strength of 24.01%, 23.17% and 23.49% and 28.79%, 27.29 and 30.81% for the same ratios. Based on the UCT results, the undrained shear strength generally increased with the decrease in height penetration ratio. However, based on the UU test results Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria, the installation of Polypropylene columns did not show any significant difference in effective friction angle. However, there was an increase in the apparent cohesion and undrained shear strength of the kaolin clay. In conclusion, Polypropylene column greatly improved the shear strength; and could therefore be implemented in reducing the cost of soil improvement as a replacement for non-renewable materials.
Critical Velocities for Particle Transport from Experiments and CFD Simulations
In the petroleum industry, solid particles are often present along with the produced fluids. It is imperative to keep particles from accumulating in flow lines. In this study, various experiments are conducted to study sand particle transport, where critical velocity is defined as the average fluid velocity to keep particles continuously moving. Many parameters related to the fluid, particles and pipe affect the transport process. Experimental results are presented varying the particle concentration. Additionally, CFD simulations using a discrete element modeling (DEM) approach are presented to compare with experimental result.
An Approach for Determining and Reducing Vehicle Turnaround Time for Outbound Logistics by Using Critical Path Method
The study consists of a fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) beverage company wherein a portion of the supply chain which deals with outbound logistics is taken for improvement in order to reduce its logistics cost by using critical path method (CPM) method. Logistics is a major portion of the supply chain where customers are not willing to pay as it adds cost to product without adding value. In this study, it is necessary to ensure that products are delivered to clients at the right time while preserving high-quality standards from the beginning to the end of the supply chain. CPM is a logical sequencing method where in the most efficient route is achieved by arranging the series of events. CPM enables to identify a critical factor in order to minimize the delays and interruption by providing a feasible solution.
Temperature and Substrate Orientation Effects on the Thermal Stability of Graphene Sheet Attached on the Si Surface
The graphene binding with silicon substrate has apparently Schottky barriers property, which can be used in the application of solar cell and light source. Because graphene has only one atom layer, the atomistic structure of graphene binding with the silicon surface plays an important role to affect the properties of graphene. In this work, temperature effect on the morphology of graphene sheet attached on different crystal planes of silicon substrates are investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) (LAMMPS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories). The results show that the covered graphene sheet would cause the structural deformation of the surface Si atoms of stubtrate. To achieve a stable state in the binding process, the surface Si atoms would adjust their position and fit the honeycomb structure of graphene after the graphene attaches to the Si surface. The height contour of graphene on different plane of silicon surfaces presents different pattern, leading the local residual stress at the interface. Due to the high density of dangling bond on the Si (111)7x7 surface, the surface of Si(111)7x7 is not matching with the graphene so well in contrast with Si(100)2x1and Si(111)2x1. Si(111)7x7 is found that only partial silicon adatoms are rearranged on surface after the attachment when the temperature is lower than 200K, As the temperature gradually increases, the deformation of surface structure becomes significant, as well as the residue stress. With increasing temperature till the 815K, the graphene sheet begins to destroy and mixes with the silicon atoms. For the Si(100)2x1 and Si(111)2x1, the silicon surface structure keep its structural arrangement with a higher temperature. With increasing temperature, the residual stress gradually decrease till a critical temperatures. When the temperature is higher than the critical temperature, the residual stress gradually increases and the structural deformation is found on the surface of the Si substrates.
Radio Frequency Identification Device Based Emergency Department Critical Care Billing: A Framework for Actionable Intelligence
Emergency departments (EDs) provide urgent care to patients throughout the day in a complex and chaotic environment. Real-time location systems (RTLS) are increasingly being utilized in healthcare settings, and have shown to improve safety, reduce cost, and increase patient satisfaction. Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) data in an ED has been shown to compute variables such as patient-provider contact time, which is associated with patient outcomes such as 30-day hospitalization. These variables can provide avenues for improving ED operational efficiency. A major challenge with ED financial operations is under-coding of critical care services due to physicians’ difficulty reporting accurate times for critical care provided under Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 99291 and 99292. In this work, the authors propose a framework to optimize ED critical care billing using RFID data. RFID estimated physician-patient contact times could accurately quantify direct critical care services which will help model a data-driven approach for ED critical care billing. This paper will describe the framework and provide insights into opportunities to prevent under coding as well as over coding to avoid insurance audits. Future work will focus on data analytics to demonstrate the feasibility of the framework described.
The Use of Digital Stories in the Development of Critical Literacy
For Fairclough (1989) critical literacy is a tool to enable readers and writers to build up meaning in discourse. More recently other authors (Leu et al., 2004) have included the new technology context in their definition of literacy. In their view being literate nowadays means to “successfully use and adapt to the rapidly changing information and communication technologies and contexts that continuously emerge in our world and influence all areas of our personal and professional lives.” (Leu et al., 2004: 1570). In this presentation the concept of critical literacy will be related to the creation of digital stories.
In the first part of the presentation concepts such as literacy and critical literacy are examined. We consider that real social practices will help learners may improve their literacy level. Accordingly, we show some research, which was conducted at a secondary school in the north of Spain (2013-2014), to illustrate how the “writing” of digital stories may contribute to the development of critical literacy. The use of several instruments allowed the collection of data at the different stages of their creative process including watching and commenting models for digital stories, planning a storyboard, creating and selecting images, adding voices and background sounds, editing and sharing the final product. The results offer some valuable insights into learners’ literacy progress.
Studies on Influence of Rub on Vibration Signature of Rotating Machines
The influence of rotor rub was studied with respect to light rub and heavy rub conditions. The investigations were carried out for both below and above critical speeds. The time domain waveform has revealed truncation of the waveform during rubbing conditions. The quantum of rubbing has been indicated by the quantum of truncation. The orbits for light rub have indicated a single loop whereas for heavy rub multi looped orbits have been observed. In the heavy rub condition above critical speed both sub harmonics and super harmonics are exhibited. The orbit precess in a direction opposite to the direction of the rotation of the rotor. When the rubbing was created above the critical speed the orbit shape was of '8' shape indicating the rotor instability. Super-harmonics and sub-harmonics of vibration signals have been observed for light rub and heavy rub conditions and for speeds above critical.
A Survey on a Critical Infrastructure Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks
There are diverse applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in the real world, typically invoking some kind of monitoring, tracking, or controlling activities. In an application, a WSN is deployed over the area of interest to sense and detect the events and collect data through their sensors in a geographical area and transmit the collected data to a Base Station (BS). This paper presents an overview of the research solutions available in the field of environmental monitoring applications, more precisely the problems of critical area monitoring using wireless sensor networks.
The Sociocultural and Critical Theories under the Empiricism of a Study Abroad Program
This paper presents the sociocultural and critical theories used in the creation of a study abroad program in Brazil, as well as the successful results obtained in the fourteen years of experience provided by the program in distinct regions of Brazil. This program maximizes students’ acquisition of the Portuguese language, and affords them an in-depth intercultural and intracultural competence by on site studies in cosmopolitan Rio de Janeiro, afro-heritage Salvador da Bahia, and Amazonian Belém do Pará. The program provides the means to acknowledge the presence, influence, similarities, and differences of Portuguese-speaking Brazil in Latin America.
Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Square Duct with Turbulators
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of heat transfer in U-duct with turbulators is presented in this paper. The duct passages used to cool internally the blades in gas turbine. The study is focused in the flow behavior and the Nusselt number (Nu) distributions. The model of the u-duct contains two square legs that are connected by 180* turn. Four turbulators are located in each surface of the leg and distributed in a staggered arrangement. The turbulator height and width are equal to 0.1 of the duct width, and the turbulator height is 0.1 of the distance between the turbulators. The Reynolds number (Re) used in this study is 95000 and the inlet velocity is 10 m/s. It was noticed that, after the flow resettles from the interruptions generated by the first turbulator or the turn, the flow construct two eddies, one large and the other is small after and before the turbulator, respectively. The maximum values of the Nu are found at a distance of approximately one turbulator width w before of the flow reattachment point.
Relationship Between Dynamic Balance, Jumping Performance and Q-angle in Soccer Players
The soccer players need good dynamic balance and jumping performance for dribbling, crossing rival, and to be effective in high balls during soccer game. The quadriceps angle (Q-angle) is used to assess biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint in the musculoskeletal medicine. The Q angle is formed by the intersection of two lines drawing from the anterior superior iliac spine to the centre of the patella and to the midline of the tibia tuberosity. Studies have shown that the Q angle is inversely associated with quadriceps femoris strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Thirty male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 15.23 ± 0.56 years, height, 170 ± 8.37 cm, weight, 61.36 ± 6.04 kg) participated as volunteer in this study. Dynamic balance of the participants were evaluated at directions of anterior (A), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) with Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Each participant was instructed to reach as far as with the non-dominant leg in each of the 3 directions while maintaining dominant leg stance. Leg length was used to normalize excursion distances by dividing the distance reached by leg length and then multiplying the result by 100. The jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump using a contact mat. A universal (standard) goniometer was used to measure the Q angle in standing position. The Q angle was not correlated with directions of SEBT (A: p = 0.32, PM: p = 0.06, PL: p = 0.37). The squat jump height was not correlated with Q-angle (p = 0.21). The findings of this study suggest that there are no significant relationships between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Further studies should investigate relationship between balance ability, athletic performance and Q-angle with larger sample size in soccer players.
2D PbS Nanosheets Synthesis and Their Applications as Field Effect Transistors or Solar Cells
Two-dimensional, solution-processable semiconductor materials are interesting for low-cost electronic applications . We demonstrate the synthesis of lead sulfide nanosheets and how their size, shape and height can be tuned by varying concentrations of pre-cursors, ligands and by varying the reaction temperature. Especially, the charge carrier confinement in the nanosheets’ height adjustable from 2 to 20 nm has a decisive impact on their electronic properties. This is demonstrated by their use as conduction channel in a field effect transistor . Recently we also showed that especially thin nanosheets show a high carrier multiplication (CM) efficiency  which could make them, through the confinement induced band gap and high photoconductivity, very attractive for application in photovoltaic devices. We are already able to manufacture photovoltaic devices out of single nanosheets which show promising results.
Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite
This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole.
Fixed-Bed Column Studies of Green Malachite Removal by Use of Alginate-Encapsulated Aluminium Pillared Clay
The main objective of this study, concerns the modeling of breakthrough curves obtained in the adsorption column of malachite green into alginate-encapsulated aluminium pillared clay in fixed bed according to various operating parameters such as the initial concentration, the feed rate and the height fixed bed, applying mathematical models namely: the model of Bohart and Adams, Wolborska, Bed Depth Service Time, Clark and Yoon-Nelson. These models allow us to express the different parameters controlling the performance of the dynamic adsorption system. The results have shown that all models were found suitable for describing the whole or a deﬁnite part of the dynamic behavior of the column with respect to the ﬂow rate, the inlet dye concentration and the height of fixed bed.
Phase Behavior Modelling of Libyan Near-Critical Gas-Condensate Field
Fluid properties in states near a vapor-liquid critical region are the most difficult to measure and to predict with EoS models. The principal model difficulty is that near-critical property variations do not follow the same mathematics as at conditions far away from the critical region. Libyan NC98 field in Sirte basin is a typical example of near critical fluid characterized by high initial condensate gas ratio (CGR) greater than 160 bbl/MMscf and maximum liquid drop-out of 25%. The objective of this paper is to model NC98 phase behavior with the proper selection of EoS parameters and also to model reservoir depletion versus gas cycling option using measured PVT data and EoS Models. The outcomes of our study revealed that, for accurate gas and condensate recovery forecast during depletion, the most important PVT data to match are the gas phase Z-factor and C7+ fraction as functions of pressure. Reasonable match, within -3% error, was achieved for ultimate condensate recovery at abandonment pressure of 1500 psia. The smooth transition from gas-condensate to volatile oil was fairly simulated by the tuned PR-EoS. The predicted GOC was approximately at 14,380 ftss. The optimum gas cycling scheme, in order to maximize condensate recovery, should not be performed at pressures less than 5700 psia. The contribution of condensate vaporization for such field is marginal, within 8% to 14%, compared to gas-gas miscible displacement. Therefore, it is always recommended, if gas recycle scheme to be considered for this field, to start it at the early stage of field development.
Effects of Tomato-Crispy Salad Intercropping on Diameter of Tomato Fruits under Greenhouse Conditions
This study, in which crispy salad plants was cultivated between the two rows of tomato, was conducted in Spring 2007 in a research glasshouse at Akdeniz University. Crispy salad (Lactuca sativa var. crispa cv. Bohemia) plants were intercropped with tomato (Solanum lycopersicon cv. Selin F1) plants as the main crop. Tomato seedlings were planted according to double line plantation system with 100 cm large spacing, 50 cm narrow spacing and 50 cm within row plant spacing. In both control and intercropping applications, each plot was 9.75 m2 according to plantation distances and there were 26 plants per each plot for tomato. Crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30 cm spacing as one row in the middle of tomato plants and with 30x30 spacing as two rows between plants rows. Moreover, salad seedlings were transplanted between tomato plants above the tomato rows that were planted in two rows with intervals of 50 cm and also with 25x25 cm spacing as the third row in the middle of tomato rows. While tomato plants were growing during the research, fruit width and height were measured periodically with 15 days in the tomato fruits of the third cluster from the formation of fruit to fruit ripening. According to results, while there were no differences between cropping systems in terms of fruit width, the highest fruit height was found in Control trial in the first measurement. In the second measurement while the highest fruit width was determined with 64.39 mm in Control, there were no differences between cropping systems. In the third measurement, the highest fruit width and height were obtained from Control with 68.47 mm and 55.52 mm, respectively. As a conclusion the trial, which crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30x30 cm spacing as two rows between tomato plants rows, was determined as a best intercropping application.
Study of Low Loading Heavier Phase in Horizontal Oil-Water Liquid-Liquid Pipe Flow
Production fluids are transported from the platform to tankers or process facilities through transfer pipelines. Water being one of the heavier phases tends to settle at the bottom of pipelines especially at low flow velocities and this has adverse consequences for pipeline integrity. On restart after a shutdown this could result in corrosion and issues for process equipment, thus the need to have the heavier liquid dispersed into the flowing lighter fluid. This study looked at the flow regime of low water cut and low flow velocity oil and water flow using conductive film thickness probes in a large diameter 4-inch pipe to obtain oil and water interface height and the interface structural velocity. A wide range of 0.1–1.0 m/s oil and water mixture velocities was investigated for 0.5–5% water cut. Two fluid model predictions were used to compare with the experimental results.
The Long-Term Effects of Immediate Implantation, Early Implantation and Delayed Implantation at Aesthetics Area
Immediate Implantation after tooth extraction is considered to be the ideal way to retain the alveolar bone, but some scholars believe the aesthetic effect in the Early Implantation case are more reliable. In this study, 89 patients were added to this retrospective study up to 5 years. Assessment indicators was including the survival of the implant (peri-implant infection, implant loosening, shedding, crowns and occlusal), aesthetics (color and fullness gums, papilla height, probing depth, X-ray alveolar crest height, the patient's own aesthetic satisfaction, doctors aesthetics score), repair defects around the implant (peri-implant bone changes in height and thickness, whether the use of autologous bone graft, whether to use absorption/repair manual nonabsorbable material), treatment time, cost and the use of antibiotics.The results demonstrated that there is no significant difference in long-term success rate of immediate implantation, early implantation and delayed implantation (p> 0.05). But the results indicated immediate implantation group could get get better aesthetic results after two years (p< 0.05), but may increase the risk of complications and failures (p< 0.05). High-risk indicators include gingival recession, labial bone wall damage, thin gingival biotypes, planting position and occlusal restoration bad and so on. No matter which type of implanting methods was selected, the extraction methods and bone defect amplification techniques are observed as a significant factors on aesthetic effect (p< 0.05).
Determining Water Use Efficiency of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) under Arid Climatic Conditions
Water limitation is undoubtedly a critical environmental constraint limiting the crop production under arid and semiarid areas. Mung bean is susceptible to both drought and water logging stresses. Therefore, present study was conducted to assess the water deficit stress consequences of yield components and water use efficiency in Mung bean. A field experiment was conducted at Educational Farm, Crop Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Kind Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Trail comprised of four irrigation levels — total amount of irrigation divided into irrigation intervals — (3, 5, 7 and 9 days interval) and three Mung bean genotypes; Kawmay-1, VC-2010 and King from Egypt, Thailand and China respectively. Experiment was arranged under split plot design having irrigation as main while genotype as subplot treatment, and replicated thrice. Plant height, 100 seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index and water use efficiency were recorded at harvesting. Results revealed that decrease in irrigation have significantly hampered all the studied parameters. Mung bean genotypes have also shown significant differences for all parameters, whereas irrigation genotype interaction was highly significant for seed yield, harvest index and water use efficiency (WUE) while it was significant for biological yield. Plant height and 100 seed weight were recorded non-significant for irrigation genotype interaction. A statistically highly significant correlation among recorded parameters was observed. Minimum irrigation interval (3 days) significantly produced maximum values while VC-2010 comparatively performed better under low irrigation levels. It was concluded that Mung bean may be successfully adopted under Saudi Arabian climate but it needs high water or frequent irrigation, however, genotypic differences are a hope to develop some improved varieties with high water use efficiency.
Critical Success Factors for Implementation of E-Supply Chain Management
Globalization of the economy, e-business, and introduction of new technologies pose new challenges to all organizations. In recent decades, globalization, outsourcing, and information technology have enabled many organizations to successfully operate collaborative supply networks in which each specialized business partner focuses on only a few key strategic activities For this industries supply network can be acknowledged as a new form of organization. We will study about critical success factors (CSFs) for implementation of SCM in companies. It is shown that in different circumstances e- supply chain management has a higher impact on performance.
Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels
This study presents a way to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, high-tech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).
Association of Maternal Diet Quality Indices and Dietary Patterns during Lactation and the Growth of Exclusive Breastfed Infant
Maternal dietary intake during lactation might affect the growth rate of an exclusive breastfed infant. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of maternal dietary patterns and quality during lactation on the growth of the exclusive breastfed infant. Methods: 484 healthy lactating mothers with their infant were enrolled in this study. Only exclusive breastfed infants were included in this study which was conducted in Iran. Dietary intake of lactating mothers was assessed using a validated and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality indices such as alternative Healthy eating index (HEI), Dietary energy density (DED), and adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern score, Nordic and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating pattern were created. Anthropometric features of infant (weight, height, and head circumference) were recorded at birth, two and four months. Results: Weight, length, weight for height and head circumference of infants at two months and four months age were mostly in the normal range among those that mothers adhered more to the HEI in lactation period (normal weight: 61%; normal height: 59%). The prevalence of stunting at four months of age among those whose mothers adhered more to the HEI was 31% lower than those with the least adherence to HEI. Mothers in the top tertiles of HEI score had the lowest frequency of having underweight infants (18% vs. 33%; P=0.03). Odds ratio of being overweight or obese at four months age was the lowest among those infants whose mothers adhered more to the HEI (OR: 0.67 vs 0.91; Ptrend=0.03). However, there was not any significant association between adherence of mothers to Mediterranean diet as well as DASH diet and Nordic eating pattern and the growth of infants (none of weight, height or head circumference). Infant weight, length, weight for height and head circumference at two months and four months did not show significant differences among different tertile categories of mothers’ DED. Conclusions: Higher diet quality indices and more adherence of lactating mother to HEI (as an indicator of diet quality) may be associated with better growth indices of the breastfed infant. However, it seems that DED of the lactating mother does not affect the growth of the breastfed infant. Adherence to the different dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, DASH or Nordic among mothers had no different effect on the growth indices of the infants. However, higher diet quality indices and more adherence of lactating mother to HEI may be associated with better growth indices of the breastfed infant. Breastfeeding is a complete way that is not affected much by the dietary patterns of the mother. However, better diet quality might be associated with better growth.
Bi-Directional Evolutionary Topology Optimization Based on Critical Fatigue Constraint
This paper develops a method for considering the critical fatigue stress as a constraint in the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. Our aim is to reach an optimal design in which high cycle fatigue failure does not occur for a specific life time. The critical fatigue stress is calculated based on modified Goodman criteria and used as a stress constraint in our topology optimization problem. Since fatigue generally does not occur for compressive stresses, we use the p-norm approach of the stress measurement that considers the highest tensile principal stress in each point as stress measure to calculate the sensitivity numbers. The BESO method has been extended to minimize volume an object subjected to the critical fatigue stress constraint. The optimization results are compared with the results from the compliance minimization problem which shows clearly the merits of our newly developed approach.
Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke
Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.
Assessment of the Simulation Programs Usable to Support Decision Making Processes of the Critical Infrastructure Emergency Management
This article deals with the issue of practical training of the management staff during emergency events in the frame of critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure represents one of the possible targets of destructive activities as well as operational accidents and incidents which can seriously influence the functioning of the system of ensuring the basic needs of the inhabitants. Therefore, protection of critical infrastructure and training of the staff in dealing with emergencies becomes a broadly discussed topic. Nowadays, the market offers a wide range of simulation tools which proclaim that they are suitable for practical training of management staff and completing their tasks. Another group of programs declares that they are not primarily designed for this type of simulations. However, after some minor adaptations, for example by adding or changing users‘ roles, they are able to fulfil the needs of practical training as well as the process of emergency simulation. This paper characterises and selects simulators and programs for simulating emergency events.
Experimental Study on Flooding Phenomena in a Three-Phase Direct Contact Heat Exchanger for the Utilisation in Solar Pond Applications
Experiments to study the limitation of flooding inception of three-phase direct contact condenser have been carried out in a counter-current small diameter vertical condenser. The total column height was 70 cm and 4 cm diameter. Only 48 cm has been used as an active three-phase direct contact condenser height. Vapour pentane with three different initial temperatures (40, 43.5 and 47.5 °C) and water with a constant temperature (19 °C) have been used as a dispersed phase and a continuous phase respectively. Five different continuous phase mass flow rate and four different dispersed phase mass flow rate have been tested throughout the experiments. Dimensionless correlation based on the previous common flooding correlation is proposed to calculate the up flow flooding inception of the three-phase direct contact condenser.
Forecasting Exchange Rate between Thai Baht and the US Dollar Using Time Series Analysis
The objective of this research is to forecast the monthly exchange rate between Thai baht and the US dollar and to compare two forecasting methods. The methods are Box-Jenkins’ method and Holt’s method. Results show that the Box-Jenkins’ method is the most suitable method for the monthly Exchange Rate between Thai Baht and the US Dollar. The suitable forecasting model is ARIMA (1,1,0) without constant and the forecasting equation is Yt = Yt-1 + 0.3691 (Yt-1 - Yt-2) When Yt is the time series data at time t, respectively.
Development of EREC IF Model to Increase Critical Thinking and Creativity Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students
Critical thinking and creativity are prerequisite skills for working professionals in the 21st century. A survey conducted in 2014 at the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chon Buri, Thailand, revealed that these skills within students across all academic years was at a low to moderate level. An action research study was conducted to develop the EREC IF Model, a framework which includes the concepts of experience, reflection, engagement, culture and language, ICT, and flexibility and fun, to guide pedagogic activities for 75 sophomores of the undergraduate nursing science program at the college. The model was applied to all professional nursing courses. Prior to implementation, workshops were held to prepare lecturers and students. Both lecturers and students initially expressed their discomfort and pointed to the difficulties with the model. However, later they felt more comfortable, and by the end of the project they expressed their understanding and appreciation of the model. A survey conducted four and eight months after implementation found that the critical thinking and creativity skills of the sophomores were significantly higher than those recorded in the pretest. It could be concluded that the EREC IF model is efficient for fostering critical thinking and creativity skills in the undergraduate nursing science program. This model should be used for other levels of students.
Critical Analysis of the Level of Subjectivity and Objectivity While Reporting Kashmir Conflict
In this research paper the level of subjectivity and objectivity adopted by journalists of different newspapers of the two provinces of the Jammu and Kashmir state has been analysed. This research paper emphasized upon the professionalism of the journalists of two provinces in catering to readers of particular province. In this study it was found that Kashmir based reporters are subjective in their reporting while covering Kashmir sentiments and use hard language against New Delhi, whereas Jammu based reporters are subjective only when it comes to defend security forces and are also bitterly critical of Pakistan, accusing it of being a sponsor of violence in Kashmir.
Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method
In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Inﬂuence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.
The Development of GPS Buoy for Ocean Surface Monitoring: Initial Results
This study presents a kinematic positioning approach which is use the GPS buoy for precise ocean surface monitoring. A GPS buoy data from two experiments have been processed using a precise, medium-range differential kinematic technique. In each case the data were collected for more than 24 hours at nearby coastal site at a high rate (1 Hz), along with measurements from neighboring tidal stations, to verify the estimated sea surface heights. Kinematic coordinates of GPS buoy were estimated using the epoch-wise pre-elimination and the backward substitution algorithm. Test results show the centimeter level accuracy in sea surface height determination can be successfully achieved using proposed technique. The centimeter level agreement between two methods also suggests the possibility of using this inexpensive and more flexible GPS buoy equipment to enhance (or even replace) the current use of tidal gauge stations.
Proposal Evaluation of Critical Success Factors (CSF) in Lean Manufacturing Projects
Critical success factors (CSF) are used to design the practice of project management that can lead directly or indirectly to the success of the project. This management includes many elements that have to be synchronized in order to ensure the project on-time delivery, quality and the lowest possible cost. The objective of this work is to develop a proposal for evaluation of the FCS in lean manufacturing projects, and apply the evaluation in a pilot project. The results show that the use of continuous improvement programs in organizations brings benefits as the process cost reduction and improve productivity.