Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 60671

200
66114
Sorption of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan−Charcoal Composite
Abstract:
The study investigated the removal efficiency of crystal violet from aqueous solution using chitosan-charcoal composite as adsorbent. Deproteination was carried out by placing 200g of powdered snail shell in 4% w/v NaOH for 2hours. The sample was then placed in 1% HCl for 24 hours to remove CaCO3. Deacetylation was done by boiling in 50% NaOH for 2hours. 10% Oxalic acid was used to dissolve the chitosan before mixing with charcoal at 55°C to form the composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements. The efficiency of adsorption was evaluated by varying pH of the solution, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dose. Maximum removal of crystal violet by composite and activated charcoal was attained at pH10 while maximum removal of crystal violet by chitosan was achieved at pH 8. The results showed that adsorption of both dyes followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data showed that composite was best suited for crystal violet removal and also did relatively well in the removal of alizarin red. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔHº), free energy change (ΔGº) and entropy change (ΔSº) indicate that adsorption process of Crystal Violet was endothermic, spontaneous and feasible respectively.
199
23861
The Catalytic Activity of CU2O Microparticles
Abstract:
Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of a surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected to a study of the catalytic activity and the results of shape effects of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction was observed. The decolorizing reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and the decrease of reactant with respect to time was measured using a spectrophotometer. The result revealed that morphology of the crystal had no effect on the catalytic activity for the crystal violet reaction but contributed to total surface area predominantly.
198
97034
Hybrid Method Development for the Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Medium
Abstract:
Water scarcity is the much-identified issue all over the world. The available sources of water need to be reused to sustainable future. The present work explores the treatment of dye wastewater using combinative photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration membrane. Commercial ceramic membrane and TiO₂ catalyst were used in this study to investigate the removal of crystal violet dye from the aqueous solution. The effect of operating parameters such as inlet pressure, initial concentration of crystal violet dye, catalyst (TiO₂) loading, initial pH was investigated in the individual system as well as the combined system. In this study, 95 % of dye water was decolorized and 89 % of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed by the hybrid system for 500 ppm of dye and 0.75 g/l of TiO₂ concentrations at pH 9. The operation of the integrated photocatalytic reactor and ceramic membrane filtration has shown the maximum removal of crystal violet dye compared to individual systems. Hence this proposed method may be effective for the removal of Crystal violet dye from effluents.
197
108698
Optimization of Temperature for Crystal Violet Dye Adsorption Using Castor Leaf Powder by Response Surface Methodology
Abstract:
Temperature effect on the adsorption of crystal violet dye (CVD) was investigated using a castor leaf powder (CLP) that was prepared from the mature leaves of castor trees, through chemical reaction. The optimum values of pH (8), adsorbent dose (10g/L), initial dye concentration (10g/L), time (2hrs), and stirrer speed (120 rpm) were fixed to investigate the influence of temperature on adsorption capacity, percentage of removal of dye and free energy. A central composite design (CCD) was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The combined effect of temperature, absorbance, and concentration on the dye adsorption was studied and optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum values of adsorption capacity, percentage of removal of dye and free energy were found to be 0.965(mg/g), 93.38 %, -8202.7(J/mol) at temperature 55.97 °C having desirability > 90% for removal of crystal violet dye respectively. The experimental values were in good agreement with predicted values.
196
10329
Low-Temperature Luminescence Spectroscopy of Violet Sr-Al-O:Eu2+ Phosphor Particles
Abstract:
Violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles were synthesized from a metal–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution of Sr, Al, Eu, and particulate alumina via spray drying and sintering in a reducing atmosphere. The crystal structures and emission properties at 85–300 K were investigated. The composition of the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles was determined from various Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphors by their emission properties’ dependence on temperature. The highly crystalline SrAl12O19:Eu2+ emission phases were confirmed by their crystallite sizes and the activation energies for the 4f5d–8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+ ion. These results showed that the material identification for the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor was accomplished by the low-temperature luminescence measurements.
195
42487
Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Groundnut Hulls
Abstract:
Dyes are organic compounds with complex aromatic molecular structure that resulted in fast colour on a substance. Dye effluent found in wastewater generated from the dyeing industries is one of the greatest contributors to water pollution. Groundnut hull (GH) is an agricultural material that constitutes waste in the environment. Environmental contamination by hazardous organic chemicals is an urgent problem, which is partially solved through adsorption technologies. The choice of groundnut hull was promised on the understanding that some materials of agricultural origin have shown potentials to act as Adsorbate for hazardous organic chemicals. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of groundnut hull to adsorb Crystal violet dye through kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. The prepared groundnut hulls was characterized using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, and effect of temperature were studied. Equilibrium time for the adsorption process was attained in 80 minutes. Adsorption isotherms used to test the adsorption data were Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° of the adsorption processes were determined. The results showed that the uptake of dye by groundnut hulls occurred at a faster rate, corresponding to an increase in adsorption capacity at equilibrium time of 80 min from 0.78 to 4.45 mg/g and 0.77 to 4.45mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 mg/L for pH 3.0 and 8.0 respectively. High regression values obtained for pseudo-second-order kinetic model, sum of square error (SSE%) values along with strong agreement between experimental and calculated values of qe proved that pseudo second-order kinetic model fitted more than pseudo first-order kinetic model. The result of Langmuir and Freundlich model showed that the adsorption data fit the Langmuir model more than the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study demonstrated the feasibility, spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process due to negative values of free energy change (∆G) at all temperatures and positive value of enthalpy change (∆H) respectively. The positive values of ∆S showed that there was increased disorderliness and randomness at the solid/solution interface of crystal violet dye and groundnut hulls. The present investigation showed that, groundnut hulls (GH) is a good low-cost alternative adsorbent for the removal of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution.
194
114454
Zero Valent Iron Algal Biocomposite for the Removal of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution: Box-Behnken Optimization and Fixed Bed Column Studies
Abstract:
In this study, nano zero valent iron Sargassum swartzii (nZVI-SS) biocomposite a marine algal based biosorbent was used for the removal of simulated crystal violet (CV) in batch and continuous fixed bed operation. The Box-Behnen design (BBD) experimental results revealed the biosoprtion was maximum at pH 7.5, biosorbent dosage 0.1 g/L and initial CV concentration of 100 mg/L. The effect of various column parameters like bed depth (3, 6 and 9 cm), flow rate (5, 10 and 15 mL/min) and influent CV concentration (5, 10 and 15 mg/L) were investigated. The exhaustion time increased with increase of bed depth, influent CV concentration and decrease of flow rate. Adam-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were used to predict the breakthrough curve and to evaluate the model parameters. Out of these models, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models well described the experimental data. Therefore, the result implies that nZVI-SS biocomposite is a cheap and most promising biosorbent for the removal of CV from wastewater.
193
31072
Adsorption of Methyl Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Modified Kapok Sawdust : Characteristics and Equilibrium Studies
Abstract:
Kapok sawdust, an inexpensive material, has been utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet in aqueous solution. To increase the adsorption capacity, kapok sawdust was reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution having various concentrations. Various physico-chemical parameters such as solution pH, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherm model were used to analyze the equilibrium data. The research shows that the experimental data fitted well with the Redlich-Peterson model, with the value of constants are 41.001 for KR, 0.523 for aR and 0.799 for g.
192
101941
Performances of the Double-Crystal Setup at CERN SPS Accelerator for Physics beyond Colliders Experiments
Abstract:
We are currently presenting the recent results from the CERN accelerator facilities obtained in the frame of the UA9 Collaboration. The UA9 experiment investigates how a tiny silicon bent crystal (few millimeters long) can be used for various high-energy physics applications. Due to the huge electrostatic field (tens of GV/cm) between crystalline planes, there is a probability for charged particles, impinging the crystal, to be trapped in the channeling regime. It gives a possibility to steer a high intensity and momentum beam by bending the crystal: channeled particles will follow the crystal curvature and deflect on the certain angle (from tens microradians for LHC to few milliradians for SPS energy ranges). The measurements at SPS, performed in 2017 and 2018, confirmed that the protons deflected by the first crystal, inserted in the primary beam halo, can be caught and channeled by the second crystal. In this configuration, we measure the single pass deflection efficiency of the second crystal and prove our opportunity to perform the fixed target experiment at SPS accelerator (LHC in the future).
191
17335
Optimization of the Culture Medium, Incubation Period, pH and Temperatures for Maximal Dye Bioremoval Using A. Fumigates
Abstract:
This study dealing with optimization the conditions affecting the formation of extracellular lignin- degrading enzymes to achieve maximal decolorization activity of Direct Violet dye by one fungal strain. In this study Aspergillus fumigates fungal strain used for production extracellular ligninolytic enzymes for removing Direct Violet dye under different conditions: culture medium, incubation period, pH and temperatures. The results indicted that the removal efficiency of A. fumigatus was enhanced by addition glucose and peptone to the culture medium. The addition of peptone and glucose was found to increase the decolorization activity of the fungal isolate from 51.38% to 93.74% after 4 days of incubation. The highest production of extracellular lignin degrading enzymes also recorded in Direct Violet dye medium supplemented with peptone and glucose. It was also found the decolorization activity of A. fumigatus was decreased gradually by increasing the incubation period up to 4 days. Also it was found that the fungal strain can grow and produce extracellular ligninolytic enzymes which accompanied by efficient removal of Direct Violet dye in a wide pH range of 4-8. The results also found that the maximal biosynthesis of ligninolytic enzymes which accompanied with maximal removal of Direct Violet dye was obtained at a temperature of 28C. This indicates that the different conditions of culture medium, incubation period, pH and temperatures are effective on dye decolorization on the fungal biomass and played a role in Direct Violet dye removal along with enzymatic activity of A. fumigatus.
190
22500
Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers
Abstract:
Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration. With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry, the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers (CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation, slurry, and cooling crystallisations which representing the solution based method co-crystal screening were used. The product crystal from the screening was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were formed from evaporation and slurry crystallisation methods respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallisation method, CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus, it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising approach to be considered in research and development for pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.
189
88644
Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics
Abstract:
Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.
188
84780
A Closed-Form Solution and Comparison for a One-Dimensional Orthorhombic Quasicrystal and Crystal Plate
Abstract:
The work includes derivation of the exact-closed form solution for simply supported quasicrystal and crystal plates by using propagator matrix method under surface loading and free vibration. As a numerical example a quasicrystal and a crystal plate are considered, and after investigation, the variation of displacement and stress fields along the thickness of these two plates are presented. Further, it includes analyzing the displacement and stress fields for two plates having two different stacking arrangement, i.e., QuasiCrystal/Crystal/QuasiCrystal and Crystal/QuasiCrystal/Crystal and comparing their results. This will not only tell us the change in the behavior of displacement and stress fields in two different materials but also how these get changed after trying their different combinations. For the free vibration case, Crystal and Quasicrystal plates along with their different stacking arrangements are considered, and displacements are plotted in all directions for different Mode Shapes.
187
43718
Effect of Acid-Basic Treatments of Lingocellulosic Material Forest Wastes Wild Carob on Ethyl Violet Dye Adsorption
Abstract:
The effect of acid -basic treatment of lingocellulosic material (forest wastes wild carob) on Ethyl violet adsorption was investigated. It was found that surface chemistry plays an important role in Ethyl violet (EV) adsorption. HCl treatment produces more active acidic surface groups such as carboxylic and lactone, resulting in an increase in the adsorption of EV dye. The adsorption efficiency was higher for treated of lingocellulosic material with HCl than for treated with KOH. Maximum biosorption capacity was 170 and 130 mg/g, for treated of lingocellulosic material with HCl than for treated with KOH at pH 6 respectively. It was also found that the time to reach equilibrium takes less than 25 min for both treated materials. The adsorption of basic dye (i.e., ethyl violet or basic violet 4) was carried out by varying some process parameters, such as initial concentration, pH and temperature. The adsorption process can be well described by means of a pseudo-second-order reaction model showing that boundary layer resistance was not the rate-limiting step, as confirmed by intraparticle diffusion since the linear plot of Qt versus t^0.5 did not pass through the origin. In addition, experimental data were accurately expressed by the Sips equation if compared with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The values of ΔG° and ΔH° confirmed that the adsorption of EV on acid-basic treated forest wast wild carob was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The positive values of ΔS° suggested an irregular increase of the randomness at the treated lingocellulosic material -solution interface during the adsorption process.
186
74539
Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method
Abstract:
The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.
185
40599
The Electrical Properties of Polyester Materials as Outdoor Insulators
Abstract:
This work presents a study of flashover voltage for outdoor polyester and composite insulators under dry, ultra-violet and contaminated conditions. Cylindrical of polyester composite samples (with different lengths) have been prepared after incorporated with different concentration of inorganic filler e.g. Magnesium Hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] to improve the electrical and thermal properties in addition to maximize surface flashover voltage and decrease tracking phenomena. Results showed that flashover voltage reaches to 46 kV for samples without filler and 52.6 kV for samples containing 40% of [Mg(OH)2] filler in dry condition. A comparison between different concentrations of filler under various environmental conditions (dry and contaminated conditions) showed higher flashover voltage values for samples containing filler with ratio 40% [Mg(OH)2] and length 3cm than that of samples containing filler [Mg(OH)2] with ratios 20%, 30% and lengths 0.5cm, 1cm, 2cm and 2.5cm. Flashover voltage decreases by adding [Mg(OH)2] filler for polyester samples under ultra-violet condition; as the ratio of filler increases, the value of flashover voltage decreases Also, in this study, the effect of thermal performance with respect to surface of the sample under test have been investigated in details.
184
6503
Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube
Authors:
Abstract:
Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) – nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).
183
3029
Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cu(II) Complex of a Pyridine-Naphthoimidazole-Based Ligand
Abstract:
We present the synthesis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of a Cu(II) complex(bmn-bpy) of a pyridine-naphthoimidazole-based ligand containing two naphthoimidazoles as the chromophores and a vacant coordination site on Cu(II).
182
85755
Control Effect of Flowering Chrysanthemum, the Trap Plant to the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Greenhouse
Abstract:
Frankliniella. occidentalis is major pest in chrysanthemum in worldwide. The density of F. occidentalis increased continuously in spite of the periodical chemical control after planting in this study. F. occidentalis began to increase mid-May. The numbers of F. occidentalis collected on a tray with wet paper by heating the flowers of pink, white, and yellow Chrysanthemum standard mums were 18.4, 56.6, and 52.6 in the flowering season. Also, the numbers were 15.2, 45.8, and 41.6 in bud season, but in the case of the leaves, the numbers were 2, 8.8 and 3.4. In the Y-tube olfactometer test, the frequency of F. occidentalis’ visits to one side arm of the Y-tube olfactometer was higher in the odor cue of the white flower than of the yellow, red, and violet flowers, but the frequency was higher in the odor cue of the violet and red flowers than of the yellow without white. In the case of the four-choice olfactometer test, in the same visual cues as the odor cues of the pot mum flowers, the frequency of F. occidentalis was higher in the yellow flower than in the other flowers (white, red, and violet) in all the observation times (10, 15, and 20 minutes).
181
20129
Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-Water Based Slurry
Abstract:
Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide were add in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances and surface roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO crystal with high material removal.
180
78853
Box-Behnken Design for the Biosorption of Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solution Using a Zero-Valent Iron Nano Algal Composite
Abstract:
The advancement of adsorption is the development of nano-biocomposite for the sorption dyes and heavy metal ions. In fact, Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) is cost-effective reducing agent and a most reliable biosorbent for the dye biosorption. In this study, nano zero valent iron Sargassum swartzii (nZVI-SS) biocomposite, a novel marine algal based biosorbent, was used for the removal of simulated crystal violet (CV) in batch mode of operation. The Box-Behnen design (BBD) experimental results revealed the biosoprtion was maximum at pH 7.5, biosorbent dosage 0.1 g/L and initial CV concentration of 100 mg/L. Therefore, the result implies that nZVI-SS biocomposite is a cheap and most promising biosorbent for the removal of CV from wastewater.
179
5406
The Effect of the Crystal Field Interaction on the Critical Temperatures and the Sublattice Magnetizations of a Mixedspin-3/2 and Spin-5/2 Ferromagnetic System
Abstract:
The influence of the crystal field interactions on the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 ferromagnetic Ising system is considered by using the mean field theory based on Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The ground-state phase diagram is constructed, the phase diagrams of the second-order critical temperatures are obtained, and the thermal variation of the sublattice magnetizations is investigated in detail. We find some interesting phenomena for the sublattice magnetizations at particular values of the crystal field interactions.
178
33883
Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal
Authors:
Abstract:
A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.
177
63315
The Gradient Complex Protective Coatings for Single Crystal Nickel Alloys
Abstract:
High yield complex coatings have been designed for thermally stressed cooled HP turbine blades from single crystal alloys ZHS32-VI-VI and ZHS36 with crystallographic orientation [001]. These coatings provide long-term protection of single crystal blades during operation. The three-layer coatings were prepared as follows: the diffusion barrier layer formation on the alloy surface, the subsequent deposition of the condensed bilayer coatings consisting of an inner layer based on Ni-Cr-Al-Y systems and an outer layer based on the alloyed β-phase. The structure, phase composition of complex coatings and reaction zone interaction with the single-crystal alloys ZHS32-VI and ZHS36-VI were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of complex protective coatings on the properties of heat-resistant nickel alloys was studied.
176
76918
A Crystal Plasticity Approach to Model Dynamic Strain Aging
Abstract:
Dynamic strain aging (DSA), resulting from the reorientation of C-Mn clusters in the core of dislocations, can provide a strain hardening mechanism. In addition, in Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity is observed due to the DSA. In our study, we incorporated dynamic strain aging onto crystal plasticity computations to predict the local instabilities and corresponding negative strain rate sensitivity. Specifically, the material response of Hadfield steel was obtained from monotonic and strain-rate jump experiments under tensile loading. The strain rate range was adjusted from 10⁻⁴ to 10⁻¹s ⁻¹. The crystal plasticity modeling of the material response was carried out based on Voce-type hardening law and corresponding Voce hardening parameters were determined. The solute pinning effect of carbon atom was incorporated to crystal plasticity simulations at microscale level by computing the shear stress contribution imposed on an arrested dislocation by carbon atom. After crystal plasticity simulations with modifying hardening rule, which takes into account the contribution of DSA, it was seen that the model successfully predicts both the role of DSA and corresponding strain rate sensitivity.
175
33333
A Supramolecular Cocrystal of 2-Amino-4-Chloro-6-Methylpyrimidine with 4-Methylbenzoic Acid: Synthesis, Structural Determinations and Quantum Chemical Investigations
Abstract:
The 1:1 co-crystal of 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (2A4C6MP) with 4-methylbenzoic acid (4MBA) (I) has been prepared by slow evaporation method in methanol, which was crystallized in monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 8, a = 28.431 (2) Å, b = 7.3098 (5) Å, c = 14.2622 (10) Å, and β = 109.618 (3)°. The presence of unionized –COOH functional group in co-crystal I was identified both by spectral methods (1H and 13C NMR, FTIR) and X-ray diffraction structural analysis. The 2A4C6MP molecule interact with the carboxylic group of the respective 4MBA molecule through N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a cyclic hydrogen –bonded motif R22(8). The crystal structure was stabilized by Npyrimidine-H⋯O=C and C=O-H⋯Npyrimidine types hydrogen bonding interactions. Theoretical investigations have been computed by HF and density function (B3LYP) method with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational frequencies together with 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts have been calculated on the fully optimized geometry of co-crystal I. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. Solvent-free formation of this co-crystal I is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis.
174
69750
Sensing Mechanism of Nano-Toxic Ions Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Abstract:
Detection technique of nanotoxic materials is strongly imperative, because nano-toxic materials can harmfully influence human health and environment as their engineering applications are growing rapidly in recent years. In present work, we report the DNA immobilized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based sensor for detection of nano-toxic materials such as silver ions, Hg2+ etc. by using functionalization of quartz crystal with a target-specific DNA. Since the mass of a target material is comparable to that of an atom, the mass change caused by target binding to DNA on the quartz crystal is so small that it is practically difficult to detect the ions at low concentrations. In our study, we have demonstrated fast and in situ detection of nanotoxic materials using quartz crystal microbalance. We report the label-free and highly sensitive detection of silver ion for present case, which is a typical nano-toxic material by using QCM and silver-specific DNA. The detection is based on the measurement of frequency shift of Quartz crystal from constitution of the cytosine-Ag+-cytosine binding. It is shown that the silver-specific DNA measured frequency shift by QCM enables the capturing of silver ions below 100pM. The results suggest that DNA-based detection opens a new avenue for the development of a practical water-testing sensor.
173
81809
A Regression Model for Predicting Sugar Crystal Size in a Fed-Batch Vacuum Evaporative Crystallizer
Abstract:
Crystal size distribution is of great importance in the sugar factories. It determines the market value of granulated sugar and also influences the cost of production of sugar crystals. Typically, sugar is produced using fed-batch vacuum evaporative crystallizer. The crystallization quality is examined by crystal size distribution at the end of the process which is quantified by two parameters: the average crystal size of the distribution in the mean aperture (MA) and the width of the distribution of the coefficient of variation (CV). Lack of real-time measurement of the sugar crystal size hinders its feedback control and eventual optimisation of the crystallization process. An attractive alternative is to use a soft sensor (model-based method) for online estimation of the sugar crystal size. Unfortunately, the available models for sugar crystallization process are not suitable as they do not contain variables that can be measured easily online. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a regression model for estimating the sugar crystal size as a function of input variables which are easy to measure online. This has the potential to provide real-time estimates of crystal size for its effective feedback control. Using 7 input variables namely: initial crystal size (Lo), temperature (T), vacuum pressure (P), feed flowrate (Ff), steam flowrate (Fs), initial super-saturation (S0) and crystallization time (t), preliminary studies were carried out using Minitab 14 statistical software. Based on the existing sugar crystallizer models, and the typical ranges of these 7 input variables, 128 datasets were obtained from a 2-level factorial experimental design. These datasets were used to obtain a simple but online-implementable 6-input crystal size model. It seems the initial crystal size (Lₒ) does not play a significant role. The goodness of the resulting regression model was evaluated. The coefficient of determination, R² was obtained as 0.994, and the maximum absolute relative error (MARE) was obtained as 4.6%. The high R² (~1.0) and the reasonably low MARE values are an indication that the model is able to predict sugar crystal size accurately as a function of the 6 easy-to-measure online variables. Thus, the model can be used as a soft sensor to provide real-time estimates of sugar crystal size during sugar crystallization process in a fed-batch vacuum evaporative crystallizer.
172
103692
Noncritical Phase-Matched Fourth Harmonic Generation of Converging Beam by Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystal
Abstract:
In high power large-aperture laser systems, such as the inertial confinement fusion project, the Nd: glass laser (1053nm) is usually needed to be converted to ultraviolet (UV) light and the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) is one of the most favorite candidates to achieve UV light. Deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal is an optimal choice for converting the Nd: glass radiation to the fourth harmonic laser by noncritical phase matching (NCPM). To reduce the damage probability of focusing lens, the DKDP crystal is suggested to be set before the focusing lens. And a converging beam enters the FHG crystal consequently. In this paper, we simulate the process of FHG in the scheme and the dependence of FHG efficiency on the lens’ F is derived. Besides, DKDP crystal with gradient deuterium is proposed to realize the NCPM FHG of the converging beam. At every position, the phase matching is achieved by adjusting the deuterium level, and the FHG efficiency increases as a result. The relation of the lens’ F with the deuterium gradient is investigated as well.
171
103575
A Digital Representation of a Microstructure and Determining Its Mechanical Behavior
Authors:
Abstract:
Mechanical characterization tests might come with a remarkable cost of time and money for both companies and academics. The inquiry to transform laboratory experiments to the computational media is getting a trend; accordingly, the literature supplies many analytical ways to explain the mechanics of deformation. In our work, we focused on the crystal plasticity finite element modeling (CPFEM) analysis on various materials in various crystal structures to predict the stress-strain curve without tensile tests. For FEM analysis, which we used in this study was ABAQUS, a standard user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) was prepared. The geometry of a specimen was created via DREAM 3D software with the inputs of Euler angles taken by Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique as orientation, or misorientation angles. The synthetic crystal created with DREAM 3D is also meshed in a way the grains inside the crystal meshed separately, and the computer can realize interaction of inter, and intra grain structures. The mechanical deformation parameters obtained from the literature put into the Fortran based UMAT code to describe how material will response to the load applied from specific direction. The mechanical response of a synthetic crystal created with DREAM 3D agrees well with the material response in the literature.
170
16499
In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials
Abstract:
To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and micro structures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.
169
23956
Development of 420 mm Diameter Silicon Crystal Growth Using Continuous Czochralski Process
Abstract:
Large diameter Si wafer is used as semiconductor substrate. Large diameter Si crystal ingot should be needed in order to increase wafer size. To make convection of large silicon melt stable, magnetic field is normally applied, but magnetic field is expensive and it is not proper to stabilize the large Si melt. To solve the problem, we propose a continuous Czochralski process which can be applied to small melt without magnetic field. We used granule poly, which has size distribution of 1~3 mm and is easily supplied in double crucible during silicon ingot growth. As the result, we produced 420 mm diameter ingot. In this paper, we describe an experimental study on crystal growth of large diameter silicon by Continuous Czochralski process.
168
26102
A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal
Abstract:
In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.
167
81079
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Interference (CRISPRi): An Approach to Inhibit Microbial Biofilm
Authors:
Abstract:
Biofilm is a sessile bacterial accretion in which bacteria adapts different physiological and morphological behavior from planktonic form. It is the root cause of about 80% microbial infections in human. Among them, E. coli biofilms are most prevalent in medical devices associated nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to inhibit biofilm formation by targeting LuxS gene, involved in quorum sensing using CRISPRi. luxS is a synthase, involved in the synthesis of Autoinducer-2(AI-2), which in turn guides the initial stage of biofilm formation. To implement CRISPRi system, we have synthesized complementary sgRNA to target gene sequence and co-expressed with dCas9. Suppression of luxS was confirmed through qRT-PCR. The effect of luxS gene on biofilm inhibition was studied through crystal violet assay, XTT reduction assay and scanning electron microscopy. We conclude that CRISPRi system could be a potential strategy to inhibit bacterial biofilm through mechanism base approach.
166
90975
Shaped Crystal Growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al Alloy Plates by the Micro Pulling down Method
Abstract:
Techniques of energy harvesting y have been widely developed in recent years, due to high demand on the power supply for ‘Internet of things’ devices such as wireless sensor nodes. In these applications, conversion technique of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using magnetostrictive materials n have been brought to attention. Among the magnetostrictive materials, Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are attractive materials due to the figure of merits such price, mechanical strength, high magnetostrictive constant. Up to now, bulk crystals of these alloys are produced by the Bridgman–Stockbarger method or the Czochralski method. Using these method big bulk crystal up to 2~3 inch diameter can be grown. However, non-uniformity of chemical composition along to the crystal growth direction cannot be avoid, which results in non-uniformity of magnetostriction constant and reduction of the production yield. The micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method has been developed as a shaped crystal growth technique. Our group have reported shaped crystal growth of oxide, fluoride single crystals with different shape such rod, plate tube, thin fiber, etc. Advantages of this method is low segregation due to high growth rate and small diffusion of melt at the solid-liquid interface, and small kerf loss due to near net shape crystal. In this presentation, we report the shaped long plate crystal growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys using the μ-PD method. Alloy crystals were grown by the μ-PD method using calcium oxide crucible and induction heating system under the nitrogen atmosphere. The bottom hole of crucibles was 5 x 1mm² size. A oriented iron-based alloy was used as a seed crystal. 5 x 1 x 320 mm³ alloy crystal plates were successfully grown. The results of crystal growth, chemical composition analysis, magnetostrictive properties and a prototype vibration energy harvester are reported. Furthermore, continuous crystal growth using powder supply system will be reported to minimize the chemical composition non-uniformity along the growth direction.
165
82728
Terahertz Glucose Sensors Based on Photonic Crystal Pillar Array
Abstract:
Optical biosensors are dominant alternative for traditional analytical methods, because of their small size, simple design and high sensitivity. Photonic sensing method is one of the recent advancing technology for biosensors. It measures the change in refractive index which is induced by the difference in molecular interactions due to the change in concentration of the analyte. Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide, which is a metabolic source in many of the organisms. The terahertz waves occupies the space between infrared and microwaves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Terahertz waves are expected to be applied to various types of sensors for detecting harmful substances in blood, cancer cells in skin and micro bacteria in vegetables. We have designed glucose sensors using silicon based 1D and 2D photonic crystal pillar arrays in terahertz frequency range. 1D photonic crystal has rectangular pillars with height 100 µm, length 1600 µm and width 50 µm. The array period of the crystal is 500 µm. 2D photonic crystal has 5×5 cylindrical pillar array with an array period of 75 µm. Height and diameter of the pillar array are 160 µm and 100 µm respectively. Two samples considered in the work are blood and glucose solution, which are labelled as sample 1 and sample 2 respectively. The proposed sensor detects the concentration of glucose in the samples from 0 to 100 mg/dL. For this, the crystal was irradiated with 0.3 to 3 THz waves. By analyzing the obtained S parameter, the refractive index of the crystal corresponding to the particular concentration of glucose was measured using the parameter retrieval method. Refractive indices of the two crystals decreased gradually with the increase in concentration of glucose in the sample. For 1D photonic crystals, a gradual decrease in refractive index was observed at 1 THz. 2D photonic crystal showed this behavior at 2 THz. The proposed sensor was simulated using CST Microwave studio. This will enable us to develop a model which can be used to characterize a glucose sensor. The present study is expected to contribute to blood glucose monitoring.
164
20500
Ultra-Low Chromatic Dispersion, Low Confinement Loss, and Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fiber
Abstract:
Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding photonic crystal fiber (IG-PCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600 nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of IG-PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.
163
18766
Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber
Abstract:
Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.
162
19342
The Effect of H2S on Crystal Structure
Abstract:
For a better understanding on sulfide stress corrosion cracking, a theoretical approach based on crystal structure, molecule behavior, flow of electrons and electrochemical reaction is developed. Its impact on different materials such as carbon steel, low alloy, alloy for sour (H2S) environments is studied. This paper describes the theories on various disaster and failures occurred in the industry by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). Parameters such as pH of process fluid, partial pressure of CO2, O2, Chlorine, effect of internal pressure (crystal structure deformation by stress), and external environment condition are considered. An analytical line graph is then created for process fluid parameter verses time, temperature, induced/residual stress due to local pressure build-up. By comparison with the load test result of NACE and ASTM, it is possible to predict and simplify the control of SCC by use of materials like ferritic, Austenitic material in the oil and gas & petroleum industries.
161
90413
Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions
Abstract:
Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.
160
18648
The Effect of Chelate to RE Ratio on Upconversion Emissions Property of NaYF4: Yb3+ and Tm3+ Nanocrystals
Abstract:
In this paper the NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+ nanocrystals were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Different chelating ligand type (citric acid, butanoic acid, and AOT) was selected to investigate the effect of their concentration on upconversion efficiency. Crystal structure and morphology have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Photo luminescence were recorded on a spectrophotometer equipped with 980 nm laser diode az excitation source and an integerating sphere. The products with various morphologies range from sphere to cubic, hexagonal,prism and nanorods were prepared at different ratios. The particle size was found to be dependent on the nucleation rate, which, in turn, was affected by type and concentration of ligands. The optimum amount of chelate to RE ratio was obtained 0.75, 1.5, and 1 for Citric Acid, Butanoic Acid and AOT, respectively. Emissions in the UV (1D2-3H6), blue-violet(1D2-3F4), blue (1G4-3H6), red (1G4-3F4), and NIR (1G4-3H5) were observed and were the direct result of subsequent transfers of energy from the Yb3+ ion to the Tm3+ ion.
159
107627
Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Deformation Behaviour of Single Crystal Copper
Abstract:
A study combining experimental and numerical investigation on the deformation behaviour of single crystals of copper is presented in this paper. Cylindrical samples were cut in specific orientations from high purity copper single crystal and subjected to uniaxial compression loading at quasi-static strain rate. The stress-strain curves along two different crystallographic orientations were then extracted. In order to study and compare the deformation responses, a single crystal plasticity model incorporating non-Schmid effects was developed assuming cross-slip plays an important role in orientation of the material. By making use of crystal plasticity finite element method, the model was applied to investigate the orientation dependence of the stress-strain behaviour of two crystallographic orientations. Finally, details of slip activities of deformed crystals were investigated by linking the orientation of slip lines with the theoretical traces of possible crystallographic planes. The experimentally determined active slip modes were matched with those determined by simulations.
158
8310
Investigation of Biofilm Formation in Clinical Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis
Abstract:
Klebsiella species which are natural colonizers of human upper respiratory and human gastrointestinal tracts are also responsible for every reoccurring nosocomial infections by means of having ability to form slimy layers known as biofilm on many surfaces. Therefore, in this study, investigation of biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis and examination of each Klebsiella strains’ clinical information in the light of their biofilm formation results were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm formation levels of K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis strains were different from each other. Additionally, in comparison to K. rhinoscleromatis strains, K. pneumoniae was observed to include higher amounts of strong biofilm forming strains. Besides, it was also seen that clinical information of patients from which strong biofilm forming Klebsiella strains were isolated were similar to each other. Our results indicate that there should be more precautions against K. pneumoniae which includes higher amount of strong biofilm forming strains.
157
55250
Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis
Abstract:
Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.
156
25419
Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump
Abstract:
An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.
155
69695
Fabrication of Cesium Iodide Columns by Rapid Heating Method
Abstract:
This study presents how to use a high-efficiency process for producing cesium iodide (CsI) crystal columns by rapid heating method. In the past, the heating rate of the resistance wire heating furnace was relatively slow and excessive iodine and CsI vapors were therefore generated during heating. Because much iodine and CsI vapors are produced during heating process, the composition of CsI crystal columns is not correct. In order to enhance the heating rate, making CsI material in the heating process can quickly reach the melting point temperature. This study replaced the traditional type of external resistance heating furnace with halogen-type quartz heater, and then, CsI material can quickly reach the melting point. Eventually, CsI melt can solidify in the anodic aluminum template forming CsI crystal columns.
154
10735
The Effect of Calcining Temperature on Photocatalytic Activity of Porous ZnO Architecture
Abstract:
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano crystals assembled porous architecture was prepared by thermal decomposition of zinc oxalate precursor at various temperatures ranging from 400-900°C. The effect of calcining temperature on structure and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry, and BET adsorption analysis. The porous nano crystalline ZnO morphology was developed due to the release of volatile precursor products, while the overall shape of ZnO micro crystals was retained as a legacy of the precursor. The average crystallite size increased with increasing temperature of calcination from approximately 21 nm to 79 nm, while the specific surface area decreased from 30 to 1.7 m2g-1. The photo catalytic performance of prepared ZnO powders was evaluated by degradation of methyl violet 2B, a model compound. The significantly highest photo catalytic activity was achieved with powder calcined at 500°C. This may be attributed to the sufficiently well-developed crystalline arrangement, while the specific surface area is still high enough.
153
29060
Grain Selection in Spiral Grain Selectors during Casting Single-Crystal Turbine Blades
Abstract:
Single crystal components manufactured using Ni-base Superalloys are routinely used in the hot sections of aero engines and industrial gas turbines due to their outstanding high temperature strength, toughness and resistance to degradation in corrosive and oxidative environments. To control the quality of the single crystal turbine blades, particular attention has been paid to grain selection, which is used to obtain the single crystal morphology from a plethora of columnar grains. For this purpose, different designs of grain selectors are employed and the most common type is the spiral grain selector. A typical spiral grain selector includes a starter block and a spiral (helix) located above. It has been found that the grains with orientation well aligned to the thermal gradient survive in the starter block by competitive grain growth while the selection of the single crystal grain occurs in the spiral part. In the present study, 2D spiral selectors with different geometries were designed and produced using a state-of-the-art Bridgeman Directional Solidification casting furnace to investigate the competitive growth during grain selection in 2d grain selectors. The principal advantage of using a 2-D selector is to facilitate the wax injection process in investment casting by enabling significant degree of automation. The automation within the process can be derived by producing 2D grain selector wax patterns parts using a split die (metal mold model) coupled with wax injection stage. This will not only produce the part with high accuracy but also at an acceptable production rate.
152
111014
Growth of Struvite Crystals in Synthetic Urine Using Magnesium Nitrate
Abstract:
Urine diversion toilets have become popular as a means of solving the challenges in sanitation. As a result, the source-separated urine must be adequately treated so that it can be disposed of safely and valuable struvite can be extracted for use as fertilizer. In this study, synthetic urine was prepared, and struvite crystallisation experiments carried out using magnesium nitrate. The effect of residence time on crystal growth was studied. At residence time of 10, 30 and 60 minutes, mean particle sizes were 17, 34 and 53 µm showing that with higher residence times, larger crystal sizes can be achieved. SEM analysis of the crystal showed that the resultant crystals had the typical morphology of struvite crystals.
151
78419
Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal
Abstract:
In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.
150
4389
The Fabrication of Scintillator Column by Hydraulic Pressure Injection Method
Abstract:
Cesiumiodide with Na doping (CsI(Na)) solution or melt is easily forming three- dimension dendrites on the free surface. The defects or bobbles form inside the CsI(Na) during the solution or melt solidification. The defects or bobbles can further effect the x-ray path in the CsI(Na) crystal and decrease the scintillation characteristics of CsI(Na). In order to enhance the CsI(Na) scintillated property we made single crystal of CsI(Na) column in the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by hydraulic pressure injection method. It is interesting that when CsI(Na) melt is confined in the small AAO channels, the column grow as stable single column without any dendrites. The high aspect ratio (100~10000) of AAO and nano to sub-micron channel structure which is a suitable template for single of crystal CsI(Na) formation. In this work, a new low-cost approach to fabricate scintillator crystals using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) rather than Si is reported, which can produce scintillator crystals with a wide range of controllable size to optimize their performance in X-ray detection.
149
109501
Designing, Preparation and Structural Evaluation of Co-Crystals of Oxaprozin
Abstract:
The composition of pharmaceutical entities and the molecular interactions can be altered to optimize drug properties such as solubility and bioavailability by the crystal engineering technique. The present work has emphasized on the preparation, characterization, and biopharmaceutical evaluation of co-crystal of BCS Class II anti-osteoarthritis drug, Oxaprozin (OXA) with aspartic acid (ASPA) as co-former. The co-crystals were prepared through the mechanochemical solvent drop grinding method. Characterization of the prepared co-crystal (OXA-ASPA) was done by using analytical tools such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). DSC thermogram of OXA-ASPA cocrystal showed a single sharp melting endotherm at 235 ºC, which was between the melting peaks of the drug and the counter molecules suggesting the formation of a new phase which is a co-crystal that was further confirmed by using other analytical techniques. FT-IR analysis of OXA-ASPA cocrystal showed a shift in a hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amine peaks as compared to pure drugs indicating all these functional groups are participating in cocrystal formation. The appearance of new peaks in the PXRD pattern of cocrystals in comparison to individual components showed that a new crystalline entity has been formed. The Crystal structure of cocrystal was determined using material studio software (Biovia) from PXRD. The equilibrium solubility study of OXA-ASPA showed improvement in solubility as compared to pure drug. Therefore, it was envisioned to prepare the co-crystal of oxaprozin with a suitable conformer to modulate its physiochemical properties and consequently, the biopharmaceutical parameters.
148
8322
Determination of Biofilm Formation in Different Clinical Candida Species and Investigation of Effects of Some Plant Substances on These Biofilms
Abstract:
Candida species which often exist as commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals are major causes of important infections, especially in AIDS and immunocompromised patients, by means of their biofilm formation abilities. Therefore, in this study, determination of biofilm formation in different clinical strains of Candida species, investigation of strong biofilm forming Candida strains, examination of clinical information of each strong and weak biofilm forming Candida strains and investigation of some plant substances’ effects on biofilm formation of strong biofilm forming strains were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Candida strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm levels of strains belong to different Candida species were different from each other. Additionally, it is also found that some plant substances effect biofilm formation. All these results indicate that, as well as C. albicans strains, other non-albicans Candida species also emerge as causative agents of infections and have biofilm formation abilities. In addition, usage of some plant substances in different concentrations may provide a new treatment against biofilm related Candida infections.
147
21218
Property of Diamond Coated Tools for Lapping Single-Crystal Sapphire Wafer
Abstract:
Diamond coatings were prepared on cemented carbide by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Lapping experiment of single-crystal sapphire wafer was carried out using the prepared diamond coated tools. The diamond coatings and machined surface of the sapphire wafer were evaluated by SEM, laser confocal microscope and Raman spectrum. The results indicate that the lapping sapphire chips are small irregular debris and long thread-like debris. There is graphitization of diamond crystal during the lapping process. A low surface roughness can be obtained using a spherical grain diamond coated tool.
146
34386
Thermosalient Effect of an Organic Aminonitrile and its Derivatives
Abstract:
The thermosalient effect is an extremely rare propensity of certain crystalline solids for self-actuation by elastic deformation or a ballistic event1. Thermosalient compounds, colloquially known as ‘jumping crystals’ are promising materials for fabrication of actuators that are also being considered as materials for clean energy conversion because of their capabilities to convert thermal energy into mechanical motion directly. Herein, an organic aminonitrile and its derivatives have been probed by a combination of structural, microscopic and thermoanalytical techniques. Crystals of these compounds were analysed by means of single crystal XRD and hotstage microscopy in the temperature range of 100 to 298 K and found to exhibit the thermosalient effect. We also carried out differential scanning calorimetric analysis at the temperature corresponding to that at which the crystal jumps as observed under a hotstage microscope.
145
95169
Liquid Crystal Elastomers as Light-Driven Star-Shaped Microgripper
Abstract:
Scientists are very keen on biomimetic research that mimics biological species to micro-robotic devices with the novel functionalities and accessibility. The source of inspiration is the complexity, sophistication, and intelligence of the biological systems. In this work, we design a light-driven star-shaped microgripper, an autonomous soft device which can change the shape under the external stimulus such as light. The design is based on light-responsive Liquid Crystal Elastomers which fabricated onto the polymer coated aligned substrate. The change in shape, controlled by the anisotropicity and the molecular orientation of the Liquid Crystal Elastomer, based on the external stimulus. This artificial star-shaped microgripper is capable of autonomous closure and capable to grab the objects in response to an external stimulus. This external stimulus-responsive materials design, based on soft active smart materials, provides a new approach to autonomous, self-regulating optical systems.
144
24669
X-Ray and DFT Electrostatics Parameters Determination of a Coumarin Derivative Compound C17H13NO3
Abstract:
The crystal structure of 4-Methyl-7-(salicylideneamino)coumarin C17H13NO3has been determined using X-ray diffraction to establish the configuration and stereochemistry of the molecule. This crystal is characterized by its nolinear activity. The molecular electron charge density distribution of the title compound is described accurately using the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. The net atomic charge and the molecular dipole moment in-crystal have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter-and intramolecular charge transfer. The study present the thermal motion and the structural analysis obtained from the least-square refinement on F2,this study has also allowed us to determine the electrostatic potential and therefore locate the electropositive part and the electronegative part in molecular scale of the title compound.
143
13357
Spectroscopic Study of a Eu-Complex Containing Hybrid Material
Abstract:
The Eu(TTA)3(H2O)2 complex (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone) pure (EuTTA) and incorporated in an organicinorganic hybrid material (EuTTA-hyb) are revisited, this time from the crystal field parameters (CFP) and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ) point of view. A detailed analysis of the emission spectra revealed that the EuTTA phase still remains in the hybrid phase. Sparkle Model calculations of the EuTTA ground state geometry have been performed and satisfactorily compared to the X-ray structure. The observed weaker crystal field strength of the phase generated by the incorporation is promptly interpreted through the existing EXAFS results of the EuTTA-hyb structure. Satisfactory predictions of the CFP, of the 7F1 level splitting and of the Ωλ in all cases were obtained by using the charge factors and polarizabilities as degrees of freedom of non-parametric models.
142
68963
Adjustable Aperture with Liquid Crystal for Real-Time Range Sensor
Abstract:
An adjustable aperture using a liquid crystal is proposed for real-time range detection and obtaining images simultaneously. The adjustable aperture operates as two types of aperture stops which can create two different Depth of Field images. By analyzing these two images, the distance can be extracted from camera to object. Initially, the aperture stop has large size with zero voltage. When the input voltage is applied, the aperture stop transfer to smaller size by orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules in the device. The diameter of aperture stop is 1.94mm and 1.06mm. The proposed device has low driving voltage of 7.0V and fast response time of 6.22m. Compact size aperture of 6×6×1.1 mm3 is assembled in conventional camera which contain 1/3” HD image sensor and focal length of 3.3mm that can be used in autonomous. The measured range was up to 5m. The adjustable aperture has high stability due to no mechanically moving parts. This range sensor can be applied to the various field of 3D depth map application which is the Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS), drones and manufacturing machine.
141
84144
Adjustable Aperture with Liquid Crystal for Real-Time Range Sensor
Abstract:
An adjustable aperture using a liquid crystal is proposed for real-time range detection and obtaining images simultaneously. The adjustable aperture operates as two types of aperture stops which can create two different Depth of Field images. By analyzing these two images, the distance can be extracted from camera to object. Initially, the aperture stop has large size with zero voltage. When the input voltage is applied, the aperture stop transfers to smaller size by orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules in the device. The diameter of aperture stop is 1.94mm and 1.06mm. The proposed device has low driving voltage of 7.0V and fast response time of 6.22m. Compact size aperture of 6×6×1.1 mm3 is assembled in conventional camera which contains 1/3” HD image sensor and focal length of 3.3mm that can be used in autonomous. The measured range was up to 5m. The adjustable aperture has high stability due to no mechanically moving parts. This range sensor can be applied to the various field of 3D depth map application which is the Advanced Driving Assistance System(ADAS), drones and manufacturing machine.
140
28961
A Calibration Method for Temperature Distribution Measurement of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Based on Mathematical Morphology of Hue Image
Abstract:
The aim of this research is to design calibration method of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal for temperature distribution measurement based on mathematical morphology of hue image A glass of water is placed on the surface of sample TLC R25C5W at certain temperature. We use scanner for image acquisition. The true images in RGB format is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) by taking of hue without saturation and value. Then the hue images is processed based on mathematical morphology using Matlab2013a software to get better images. There are differences on the final images after processing at each temperature variation based on visualization observation and the statistic value. The value of maximum and mean increase with rising temperature. It could be parameter to identify the temperature of the human body surface like hand or foot surface.
139
55765
Development of Materials Based on Phosphates of NaZr2(PO4)3 with Low Thermal Expansion
Abstract:
NaZr2(PO4)3 (NZP) and their structural analogues are characterized by a peculiar behaviors on heating – they have different expansion and contraction along different crystallographic directions due to specific arrangements of crystal structure in these compounds. An important feature of such structures is the ability to incorporate into their structural analogues wide variety of metal cations having different size and oxidation states, with different combinations and concentrations. These cations are located in different crystallographic non-equivalent positions of octahedral tetrahedral crystal framework as well as in inter-framework cavities. Through, due to iso- and hetero-valent isomorphism of the cations (and the anions) in NZP, it becomes possible to tuning the compositions and to obtain the compounds with ‘on a plan’ properties. For the design of compounds with low and ultra-low thermal expansion including those with tailored thermal expansion properties, the following crystallochemical principles it seems are promising: 1) Insertion into crystal M1 position the cations having different sizes and, 2) the variation in the composition of compounds, providing different occupation of crystal M1 position. Following these principles we have designed and synthesized the next NZP-type phosphates series: a) where radii of the cations in the M1 crystal position was varied: Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3 - Th1/4Zr2(PO4)3 (series I); R1/3Zr2(PO4)3 where R= Nd, Eu, Er (series II), b) where the occupation of M1 crystal position was varied: Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3-Er1/3Zr2(PO4)3 (series III) and Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3-Sr1/2Zr2(PO4)3 (series IV). The thermal expansion parameters were determined over the range of 25-800ºC. For each series the minimum axial coefficient of thermal expansion αa = αb, αc and their anisotropy Δα = Iαa - αcI, 10-6 K-1 was found as next: -1.51, 1.07, 2.58 for Th1/4Zr2(PO4)3 (series I); -0.72, 0.10, 0.81 for Nd1/3Zr2(PO4)3 (series II); -2.78, 1.35, 4.12 for Er1/6Zr1/8Zr2(PO4)3 (series III); 2.23, 1.32, 0.91 for Sr1/2Zr2(PO4)3 (series IV). The measured tendencies of the thermal expansion of crystals were in good agreement with predicted ones. For one of the members from the studied phosphates namely Th1/16Zr3/16Zr2(PO4)3 structural refinement have been carried out at 25, 200, 600, and 800°C. The dependencies of the structural parameters with the temperature have been determined.
138
24659
Torque Magnetometry of Low Anisotropic CaCo2As2 Single Crystals
Abstract:
Role of Co spins in CaCo2As2 single crystal is systematically studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque measurements. A spin-flop transition in the antiferromagnetism (AFM) CaCo2As2 single crystal is studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque. Field dependent and angle dependent torque magnetometry confirmed the existence of spin-flop transition in this compound which is in agreement with the dc magnetization studies. A comparison of dc magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements for CaCo2As2 single crystal is done in detail. In conclusion, torque magnetometry can be a useful tool to study the spin flop transition in low anisotropic compounds analogous to dc magnetization studies.
137
39125
Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.
136
19036
Modeling and Characterization of the SiC Single Crystal Growth Process
Abstract:
In the present study numerical simulations silicon carbide single crystal growth process in Physical Vapor Transport reactor are addressed. Silicon Carbide is a perspective material for many applications in modern electronics. One of the main challenges for wider applications of SiC is high price of high quality mono crystals. Improvement of silicon carbide manufacturing process has a significant influence on the product price. Better understanding of crystal growth allows for optimization of the process, and it can be achieved by numerical simulations. In this work Virtual Reactor software was used to simulate the process. Predicted geometrical properties of the final product and information about phenomena occurring inside process reactor were obtained. The latter is especially valuable because reactor chamber is inaccessible during the process due to high temperature inside the reactor (over 2000˚C). Obtained data was used for improvement of the process and reactor geometry. Resultant crystal quality was also predicted basing on crystallization front shape evolution and threading dislocation paths. Obtained results were confronted with experimental data and the results are in good agreement.
135
79095
Substantiate the Effects of Reactive Dyes and Aloe Vera on the Ultra Violet Protective Properties on Cotton Woven and Knitted Fabrics
Authors:
Abstract:
The incidence of skin cancer has been rising worldwide due to excessive exposure to sun light. Climatic changes and depletion of ozone layer allow the easy entry of UV rays on earth, resulting skin damages such as sunburn, premature skin ageing, allergies and skin cancer. Researches have suggested many modes for protection of human skin against ultraviolet radiation; avoidance to outdoor activities, using textiles for covering the skin, sunscreen and sun glasses. However, this paper gives an insight about how textile material specially woven and knitted cotton can be efficiently utilized for protecting human skin from the harmful ultraviolet radiations by combining reactive dyes with Aloe Vera. Selection of the fabric was based on their utility and suitability as per the climate condition of the country for the upper and lower garment. A standard dyeing process was used, and Aloe Vera molecules were applied by in-micro encapsulation technique. After combining vat dyes with Aloe Vera excellent UPF (Ultra violet Protective Factor) was observed. There is a significant change in the UPF of vat dyed cotton fabric after treatment with Aloe Vera.
134
85771
A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents
Abstract:
In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.
133
85772
A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents
Abstract:
In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.
132
80248
A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents
Abstract:
In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.
131
97702
Exposing Latent Fingermarks on Problematic Metal Surfaces Using Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Fingermarks are a crucial form of evidence for identifying a person at a crime scene. However, visualising latent (hidden) fingermarks can be difficult, and the correct choice of techniques is essential to develop and preserve any fingermarks that might be present. Knives, firearms and other metal weapons have proven to be challenging substrates (stainless steel in particular) from which to reliably obtain fingermarks. In this study, time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) was used to image fingermarks on metal surfaces. This technique was compared to a conventional superglue based fuming technique that was accompanied by a series of contrast enhancing dyes (basic yellow 40 (BY40), crystal violet (CV) and Sudan black (SB)) on three different metal surfaces. The conventional techniques showed little to no evidence of fingermarks being present on the metal surfaces after a few days. However, ToF-SIMS images revealed fingermarks on the same and similar substrates with an exceptional level of detail demonstrating clear ridge definition as well as detail about sweat pore position and shape, that persist for over 26 days after deposition when the samples were stored under ambient conditions.
130
85251
Comparison of the Thermal Behavior of Different Crystal Forms of Manganese(II) Oxalate
Abstract:
Sparingly soluble manganese oxalate is an appropriate precursor for the preparation of nanosized manganese oxides, which have a wide range of technological application. During the precipitation of manganese oxalate, three crystal forms could be obtained – α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG C2/c), γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG P212121) and orthorhombic MnC₂O₄.3H₂O (SG Pcca). The thermolysis of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O has been extensively studied during the years, while the literature data for the other two forms has been quite scarce. The aim of the present communication is to highlight the influence of the initial crystal structure on the decomposition mechanism of these three forms, their magnetic properties, the structure of the anhydrous oxalates, as well as the nature of the obtained oxides. For the characterization of the samples XRD, SEM, DTA, TG, DSC, nitrogen adsorption, and in situ magnetic measurements were used. The dehydration proceeds in one step with α-MnC₂O₄.2H2O and γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O, and in three steps with MnC₂O₄.3H2O. The values of dehydration enthalpy are 97, 149 and 132 kJ/mol, respectively, and the last two were reported for the first time, best to our knowledge. The magnetic measurements show that at room temperature all samples are antiferomagnetic, however during the dehydration of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O the exchange interaction is preserved, for MnC₂O₄.3H₂O it changes to ferromagnetic above 35°C, and for γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O it changes twice from antiferomagnetic to ferromagnetic above 70°C. The experimental results for magnetic properties are in accordance with the computational results obtained with Wien2k code. The difference in the initial crystal structure of the forms used determines different changes in the specific surface area during dehydration and different extent of Mn(II) oxidation during decomposition in the air; both being highest at α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O. The isothermal decomposition of the different oxalate forms shows that the type and physicochemical properties of the oxides, obtained at the same annealing temperature depend on the precursor used. Based on the results from the non-isothermal and isothermal experiments, and from different methods used for characterization of the sample, a comparison of the nature, mechanism and peculiarities of the thermolysis of the different crystal forms of manganese oxalate was made, which clearly reveals the influence of the initial crystal structure. Acknowledgment: 'Science and Education for Smart Growth', project BG05M2OP001-2.009-0028, COST Action MP1306 'Modern Tools for Spectroscopy on Advanced Materials', and project DCOST-01/18 (Bulgarian Science Fund).
129
28233
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Nucleating Agents
Abstract:
Nucleating agents are widely used to modify the properties of various polymers. The rate of crystallization and the size of the crystals have a strong impact on mechanical and optical properties of a polymer. The addition of nucleating agents to the semi-crystalline polymers provides a surface on which the crystal growth can start easily. As a consequence, fast crystal formation will result in many small crystal domains so that the cycle times for injection molding may be reduced. Moreover, the mechanical properties e.g., modulus, tensile strength, heat distortion temperature and hardness may increase. In the present work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as nucleating agents for the crystallization of poly (e-caprolactone)diol (PCL). Thus nanocomposites of PCL filled with MWNTs were prepared by solution blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were carried out to study the effect of CNTs on on-isothermal crystallization of PCL. The polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to study the morphology and crystal structure of PCL and its nanocomposites. It is found that MWNTs act as effective nucleating agents that significantly shorten the induction period of crystallization and however, decrease the crystallization rate of PCL, exhibiting a remarkable decrease in the Avrami exponent n, surface folding energy σe and crystallization activation energy ΔE. The carbon-based fillers act as templates for hard block chains of PCL to form an ordered structure on the surface of nanoparticles during the induction period, bringing about some increase in equilibrium temperature. The melting process of PCL and its nanocomposites are also studied; the nanocomposites exhibit two melting peaks at higher crystallization temperature which mainly refer to the melting of the crystals with different crystal sizes however, PCL shows only one melting temperature.
128
33371
High-Pressure Calculations of the Elastic Properties of ZnSx Se 1−x Alloy in the Virtual-Crystal Approximation
Abstract:
We report first-principles calculation results on the structural and elastic properties of ZnS x Se1−x alloy for which we employed the virtual crystal approximation provided with the ABINIT program. The calculations done using density functional theory within the local density approximation and employing the virtual-crystal approximation, we made a comparative study between the numerical results obtained from ab-initio calculation using ABINIT or Wien2k within the Density Functional Theory framework with either Local Density Approximation or Generalized Gradient approximation and the pseudo-potential plane-wave method with the Hartwigzen Goedecker Hutter scheme potentials. It is found that the lattice parameter, the phase transition pressure, and the elastic constants (and their derivative with respect to the pressure) follow a quadratic law in x. The variation of the elastic constants is also numerically studied and the phase transformations are discussed in relation to the mechanical stability criteria.
127
105177
The Experimental Study on Reducing and Carbonizing Titanium-Containing Slag by Iron-Containing Coke
Authors:
Abstract:
The experimental study on reduction carbonization of coke containing iron respectively with the particle size of < 0.3mm, 0.3-0.6mm and 0.6-0.9mm and synthetic sea sand ore smelting reduction titanium-bearing slag as material were studied under the conditions of holding 6h at most at 1500℃. The effects of coke containing iron particle size and heat preservation time on the formation of TiC and the size of TiC crystal were studied by XRD, SEM and EDS. The results show that it is not good for the formation, concentration and growth of TiC crystal when the particle size of coke containing iron is too small or too large. The suitable particle size is 0.3~0.6mm. The heat preservation time of 2h basically ensures that all the component TiO2 in the slag are reduced and carbonized and converted to TiC. The size of TiC crystal will increase with the prolongation of heat preservation time. The thickness of the TiC layer can reach 20μm when the heat preservation time is 6h.
126
19028
Numerical Design and Characterization of SiC Single Crystals Obtained with PVT Method
Abstract:
In the present study, numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer in Physical Vapor Transport reactor during silicon carbide single crystal growth are addressed. Silicon carbide is a wide bandgap material with unique properties making it highly applicable for high power electronics applications. Because of high manufacturing costs improvements of SiC production process are required. In this study, numerical simulations were used as a tool of process optimization. Computer modeling allows for cost and time effective analysis of processes occurring during SiC single crystal growth and provides essential information needed for improvement of the process. Quantitative relationship between process conditions, such as temperature or pressure, and crystal growth rate and shape of crystallization front have been studied and verified using experimental data. Basing on modeling results, several process improvements were proposed and implemented.
125
34132
Synthesis Modified Electrodes with Au/Pt Nanoparticles and Two New Coordination Polymers of Ag(I) and Cu(II) Constructed by Pyrazine and 3-Nitrophthalic Acid as a Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform
Abstract:
Two new one and two dimensional metal organic coordination polymers of Cu(II), [Cu(3-nph)2(H2O)2pz]n (1) and Ag(I), {[Ag(3-nph)pz].H2O}n (2) with pyrazine (pz) and 3- nitrophthalic acid (3-nph) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. We used these compounds to preparation modified electrode with Au/Pt nanosparticles in order to investigation electrochemistry and electrocatalysis activities. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag(I) coordination polymer shows a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear silver (I) building blocks in which two crystallographically Ag+ ions are connected to each other by a covalent bond. The pyrazine ligands adopt μ2 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a one and two -dimensional coordination framework in 1 and 2. The two AgI cations are surrounded by pyrazine and 3-nitrophthalate mono anions and indicate distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structures of Ag(I) complex there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements, C–O•••π and π–π stacking interactions. In Cu(II) coordination polymer, the coordination geometry around Cu(II) atom is a distorted octahedron. Interestingly, the structural analysis illustrates that the strong and weak hydrogen bond accompanied with C–H•••π and C–O•••π stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 and 2 into fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture.
124
35661
A Study on Adsorption Ability of MnO2 Nanoparticles to Remove Methyl Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution
Abstract:
The textile industries are becoming a major source of environmental contamination because an alarming amount of dye pollutants are generated during the dyeing processes. Organic dyes are one of the largest pollutants released into wastewater from textile and other industrial processes, which have shown severe impacts on human physiology. Nano-structure compounds have gained importance in this category due their anticipated high surface area and improved reactive sites. In recent years several novel adsorbents have been reported to possess great adsorption potential due to their enhanced adsorptive capacity. Nano-MnO2 has great potential applications in environment protection field and has gained importance in this category because it has a wide variety of structure with large surface area. The diverse structures, chemical properties of manganese oxides are taken advantage of in potential applications such as adsorbents, sensor catalysis and it is also used for wide catalytic applications, such as degradation of dyes. In this study, adsorption of Methyl Violet (MV) dye from aqueous solutions onto MnO2 nanoparticles (MNP) has been investigated. The surface characterization of these nano particles was examined by Particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The effects of process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact duration on the adsorption capacities have been evaluated, in which pH has been found to be most effective parameter among all. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich for explaining the equilibrium characteristics of adsorption. And kinetic models like pseudo first- order, second-order model and Elovich equation were utilized to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Free energy of adsorption (ΔG°), enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were also determined and evaluated.
123
24761
Microstructural and Optical Characterization of High-quality ZnO Nano-rods Deposited by Simple Electrodeposition Process
Abstract:
Nanostructured Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates by a simple two electrode electrodeposition process at constant potential. The preparative parameters such as deposition time, deposition potential, concentration of solution, bath temperature and pH value of electrolyte have been optimized for deposition of uniform ZnO thin films. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the prepared ZnO thin films have a high preferential oriented c-axis orientation with compact hexagonal (wurtzite) structure. Surface morphological studies show that the ZnO films are smooth, continuous, uniform without cracks or holes and compact with nanorod-like structure on the top of the surface. Optical properties reveal that films exhibit higher absorbance in the violet region of the optical spectrum; it gradually decreased in the visible range with increases in wavelength and became least at the beginning of NIR region. The photoluminescence spectra shows that the observed peaks are attributed to the various structural defects in the nanostructured ZnO crystal. The microstructural and optical properties suggest that the electrodeposited ZnO thin films are suitable for application in photosensitive devices such as photovoltaic solar cells photoelectrochemical cells and light emitting diodes etc.
122
90720
Carbon Nanomaterials from Agricultural Wastes for Adsorption of Organic Pollutions
Abstract:
Agricultural waste materials from traditional oil mill and after extraction of natural raw materials in supercritical conditions were used for the preparation of carbon nanomaterials (activated carbons) by two various methods. Chemical activation using acetic acid and physical activation with a gaseous agent (carbon dioxide) were chosen as mild and environmentally friendly ones. The effect of influential factors: type of raw material, temperature and activation agent on the porous structure characteristics of the materials was discussed by using N₂ adsorption/desorption isotherms at 77 K. Furthermore scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to examine the physicochemical properties of the obtained sorbents. Selection of a raw material and an optimization of the conditions of the synthesis process, allowed to obtain the cheap sorbents with a targeted distribution of pores enabling effective adsorption of the model organic pollutants carried out in the multicomponent systems. Adsorption behavior (capacity and rate) of the chosen activated carbons was estimated by utilizing Crystal violet (CV), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D) as the adsorbates. Both rate and adsorption capacity of the organics on the sorbents evidenced that the activated carbons could be effectively used in sewage treatment plants. The mechanisms of organics adsorption were studied and correlated with activated carbons properties.
121
6108
Gap Formation into Bulk InSb Crystals Grown by the VDS Technique Revealing Enhancement in the Transport Properties
Abstract:
The vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique has been applied to the growth of bulk InSb crystals. The concept of practical stability is applied to the case of detached bulk crystal growth on earth in a simplified design. By optimization of the set up and growth parameters, 32 ingots of 65-75 mm in length and 10-22 mm in diameter have been grown. The results indicate that the wetting angle of the melt on the ampoule wall and the pressure difference across the interface are the crucial factors effecting the meniscus shape and stability. Taking into account both heat transfer and capillarity, it is demonstrated that the process is stable in case of convex menisci (seen from melt), provided that pressure fluctuations remain in a stable range. During the crystal growth process, it is necessary to keep a relationship between the rate of the difference pressure controls and the solidification to maintain the width of gas gap. It is concluded that practical stability gives valuable knowledge of the dynamics and could be usefully applied to other crystal growth processes, especially those involving capillary shaping. Optoelectronic properties were investigated in relation to the type of solidification attached and detached ingots growth. These samples, room temperature physical properties such as Hall mobility, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and microhardness achieved for antimonide samples grown by VDS technique have shown the highest values gained till at this time. These results reveal that these crystals can be used to produce InSb with high mobility for device applications.
120
39800
X-Ray Crystallographic, Hirshfeld Surface Analysis and Docking Study of Phthalyl Sulfacetamide
Abstract:
Phthalyl Sulfacetamide belongs to well-known member of antimicrobial sulfonamide family. It is a potent antitumor drug. Structural characteristics of 4-amino-N-(2quinoxalinyl) benzene-sulfonamides (Phthalyl Sulfacetamide), C14H12N4O2S has been studied by method of X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n with unit cell parameters a= 7.9841 Ǻ, b= 12.8208 Ǻ, c= 16.6607 Ǻ, α= 90˚, β= 93.23˚, γ= 90˚and Z=4. The X-ray based three-dimensional structure analysis has been carried out by direct methods and refined to an R-value of 0.0419. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N-H…N, N-H…O and π-π interactions. The Hirshfeld surfaces and consequently the fingerprint analysis have been performed to study the nature of interactions and their quantitative contributions towards the crystal packing. An analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitates a comparison of intermolecular interactions, which are the key elements in building different supramolecular architectures. Docking is used for virtual screening for the prediction of the strongest binders based on various scoring functions. Docking studies are carried out on Phthalyl Sulfacetamide for better activity, which is important for the development of a new class of inhibitors.
119
33613
Naturally Occurring Abietic Acid for Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Curing Agents
Abstract:
Two thermotropic liquid crystalline curing agents based on abietic acid with different mesogens (LCC1 and LCC2) were synthesized for producing thermally stable liquid crystal networks suitable for high performance epoxy coatings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM) was used to identify the liquid crystal phase transformation temperatures and texture, respectively. POM micro graphs for both LCCs revealing cholesteric texture. A multifunctional epoxy resin with two abietic acid moieties was also synthesized. Dynamic mechanical (DMA) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses show that the fully bio-based cured epoxies by either LCCs possess high glass transition temperature (Tg), high modulus (G`) and improved thermal stability. The chemical structure of the synthesized LCCs and epoxy resin was investigated through FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques.
118
8270
Multi-Wavelength Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Photonic Crystal Fiber and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:
A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14 lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to 25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of 69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum pulse width of 4.4 µs was obtained at the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump power of 69.0 mW.
117
43758
Octagon Shaped Wearable Antenna for Band at 4GHz
Abstract:
In this paper, octagon antenna ultra wideband (UWB) low band wearable antenna designs have been proposed for in-body to on-body communication channel of wireless. Single element antenna, dual elements, are designed and compared in free space and in body proximity. Conformal design has been focused. Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a material that has gained attention as a potential high-performance microwave substrate and packaging material. This investigation uses several methods to determine the electrical properties of LCP for millimeter-wave frequencies.
116
14287
Determination of the Structural Parameters of Calcium Phosphate for Biomedical Use
Abstract:
Calcium phosphate (Ca5(PO4)3(X)) is widely used in orthopedic applications and is widely used as powder and granules. However, their presence in bone is in the form of nanometric needles 60 nm in length with a non-stoichiometric phase of apatite contains CO3-2, Na+, OH-, F-, and other ions in a matrix of collagen fibers. The crystal size, morphology control and interaction with cells are essential for the development of nanotechnology. The structural results of calcium phosphate, synthesized by chemical precipitation with crystal size of 22.85 nm are presented in this paper. The calcium phosphate powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy and FT-IR transmission electron microscopy. Network parameters, atomic positions, the indexing of the planes and the calculation of FWHM (full width at half maximum) were obtained. The crystal size was also calculated using the Scherer equation d (hkl) = cλ/βcosѲ. Where c is a constant related to the shape of the crystal, the wavelength of the radiation used for a copper anode is 1.54060Å, Ѳ is the Bragg diffraction angle, and β is the width average peak height of greater intensity. Diffraction pattern corresponding to the calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite phase of a hexagonal crystal system was obtained. It belongs to the space group P63m with lattice parameters a = 9.4394 Å and c = 6.8861 Å. The most intense peak is obtained 2Ѳ = 31.55 (FWHM = 0.4798), with a preferred orientation in 121. The intensity difference between the experimental data and the calculated values is attributable to the temperature at which the sintering was performed. The intensity of the highest peak is at angle 2Ѳ = 32.11. The structure of calcium phosphate obtained was a hexagonal configuration. The intensity changes in the peaks of the diffraction pattern, in the lattice parameters at the corners, indicating the possible presence of a dopant. That each calcium atom is surrounded by a tetrahedron of oxygen and hydrogen was observed by infrared spectra. The unit cell pattern corresponds to hydroxyapatite and transmission electron microscopic crystal morphology corresponding to the hexagonal phase with a preferential growth along the c-plane was obtained.
115
43296
Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications
Abstract:
Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500&deg;C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.
114
45485
Pressure-Controlled Dynamic Equations of the PFC Model: A Mathematical Formulation
Abstract:
The phase-field-crystal, PFC, approach is a density-functional-type material model with an atomic resolution on a diffusive timescale. Spatially, the model incorporates periodic nature of crystal lattices and can naturally exhibit elasticity, plasticity and crystal defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations. Temporally, the model operates on a diffusive timescale which bypasses the need to resolve prohibitively small atomic-vibration time steps. The PFC model has been used to study many material phenomena such as grain growth, elastic and plastic deformations and solid-solid phase transformations. In this study, the pressure-controlled dynamic equation for the PFC model was developed to simulate a single-component system under externally applied pressure; these coupled equations are important for studies of deformable systems such as those under constant pressure. The formulation is based on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the thermodynamics of crystalline solids. To obtain the equations, the entropy variation around the equilibrium point was derived. Then the resulting driving forces and flux around the equilibrium were obtained and rewritten as conventional thermodynamic quantities. These dynamics equations are different from the recently-proposed equations; the equations in this study should provide more rigorous descriptions of the system dynamics under externally applied pressure.
113
13628
Design of Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Reflectarray Antenna Using Slot Embedded Patch Element Configurations
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflect array antenna with different design configurations within X-band frequency range. The effect of LC volume used for unit cell element on frequency tunability and reflection loss performance has been investigated. Moreover different slot embedded patch element configurations have been proposed for LC based tunable reflect array antenna design with enhanced performance. The detailed fabrication and measurement procedure for different LC based unit cells has been presented. The waveguide scattering parameter measured results demonstrated that by using the circular slot embedded patch elements, the frequency tunability and dynamic phase range can be increased from 180 MHz to 200 MHz and 120° to 124° respectively. Furthermore the circular slot embedded patch element can be designed at 10 GHz resonant frequency with a patch volume of 2.71 mm3 as compared to 3.47 mm3 required for rectangular patch without slot.
112
104811
Removal of Heavy Metal, Dye and Salinity from Industrial Wastewaters by Banana Rachis Cellulose Micro Crystal-Clay Composite
Abstract:
The consumption of water by various industries is increasing day by day, and the wastewaters from them are increasing as well. These wastewaters consist of various kinds of color, dissolved solids, toxic heavy metals, residual chlorine, and other non-degradable organic materials. If these wastewaters are exposed directly to the environment, it will be hazardous for the environment and personal health. So, it is very necessary to treat these wastewaters before exposing into the environment. In this research, we have demonstrated the successful processing and utilization of fully bio-based cellulose micro crystal (CMC) composite for the removal of heavy metals, dyes, and salinity from industrial wastewaters. Banana rachis micro-cellulose were prepared by acid hydrolysis (H₂SO₄) of banana (Musa acuminata L.) rachis fiber, and Bijoypur raw clay were treated by organic solvent tri-ethyl amine. Composites were prepared with varying different composition of banana rachis nano-cellulose and modified Bijoypur (north-east part in Bangladesh) clay. After the successful characterization of cellulose micro crystal (CMC) and modified clay, our targeted filter was fabricated with different composition of cellulose micro crystal and clay in the locally fabricated packing column with 7.5 cm as thickness of composites fraction. Waste-water was collected from local small textile industries containing basic yellow 2 as dye, lead (II) nitrate [Pb(NO₃)₂] and chromium (III) nitrate [Cr(NO₃)₃] as heavy metals and saline water was collected from Khulna to test the efficiency of banana rachis cellulose micro crystal-clay composite for removing the above impurities. The filtering efficiency of wastewater purification was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Finally, our all characterizations data are shown with very high expected results for in industrial application of our fabricated filter.
111
40533
A Comparative Study of Linearly Graded and without Graded Photonic Crystal Structure
Abstract:
Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted much attention due to its electromagnetic properties and potential applications. In PCs, there is certain range of wavelength where electromagnetic waves are not allowed to pass are called photonic band gap (PBG). A localized defect mode will appear within PBG, due to change in the interference behavior of light, when we create a defect in the periodic structure. We can also create different types of defect structures by inserting or removing a layer from the periodic layered structure in two and three-dimensional PCs. We can design microcavity, waveguide, and perfect mirror by creating a point defect, line defect, and palanar defect in two and three- dimensional PC structure. One-dimensional and two-dimensional PCs with defects were reported theoretically and experimentally by Smith et al.. in conventional photonic band gap structure. In the present paper, we have presented the defect mode tunability in tilted non-graded photonic crystal (NGPC) and linearly graded photonic crystal (LGPC) using lead sulphide (PbS) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the infrared region. A birefringent defect layer is created in NGPC and LGPC using potassium titany phosphate (KTP). With the help of transfer matrix method, the transmission properties of proposed structure is investigated for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. NGPC and LGPC without defect layer is also investigated. We have found that a photonic band gap (PBG) arises in the infrared region. An additional defect layer of KTP is created in NGPC and LGPC structure. We have seen that an additional transmission mode appers in PBG region. It is due to the addition of defect layer. We have also seen the effect, linear gradation in thickness, angle of incidence, tilt angle, and thickness of defect layer, on PBG and additional transmission mode. We have observed that the additional transmission mode and PBG can be tuned by changing the above parameters. The proposed structure may be used as channeled filter, optical switches, monochromator, and broadband optical reflector.
110
106535
4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Solubility Enhancing and Effects on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms
Abstract:
Piper betle has been extensively reported for various pharmacological effects including antimicrobial activity. 4-Allylpyrocatechol (AC) is a principle active compound found in P. betle. However, AC has a problem of solubility in water. The aims of the present study were to prepare AC loaded polymeric micelles for enhancing its water solubility and to evaluate its anti-biofilm activity against oral phathogenic bacteria. AC was loaded in polymeric micelles (PM) of Pluronic F127 by using thin film hydration method to obtain AC loaded PM (PMAC). The results revealed that AC in the form of PMAC possessed high water solubility. PMAC particles were characterized using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectroscopy. Determination of entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of PMAC was done by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest EE (86.33 ± 14.27 %) and LC (19.25 ± 3.18 %) of PMAC were found when the weight ratio of polymer to AC was 4 to 1. At this ratio, the particles showed spherical in shape with the size of 38.83 ± 1.36 nm and polydispersity index of 0.28 ± 0.10. Zeta potential of the particles is negative with the value of 16.43 ± 0.55 mV. Crystal violet assay and confocal microscopy were applied to evaluate the effects of PMAC on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a positive control. PMAC contained 1.5 mg/mL AC could potentially inhibit (102.01 ± 9.18%) and significantly eradicate (85.05 ± 2.03 %) these biofilms (p < 0.05). Comparison with CHX, PMAC showed slightly similar biofilm inhibition but significantly stronger biofilm eradication (p < 0.05) than CHX. It is concluded that PMAC can enhance water solubility and anti-biofilm activity of AC.
109
30428
Thermo-Physical and Morphological Properties of Pdlcs Films Doped with Tio2 Nanoparticles.
Abstract:
PDLCs are currently considered as promising materials for specific applications such as creation of window blinds controlled by electric field, fog simulators, UV protective glasses, high data storage device etc. We know that the electrical field inside the liquid crystal is low compare with the external electric field [1,2]. An addition of high magnetic and electrical, properties containing compounds to the polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) will enhance the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of the PDLC [3,4]. Low Concentration of inorganic nanoparticles TiO2 added to nematic liquid crystals (E7) and also combined with monomers (TPGDA) and cured monomer/LC mixture to elaborate polymer-LC-NP dispersion. The presence of liquid crystal and nanoparticles in TPGDA matrix were conformed and the modified properties of PDLC due to doped nanoparticle were studied and explained by the results of FTIR, POM, UV. Incorporation of nanoparticles modifies the structure of PDLC and thus it makes increase the amount of droplets and decrease in droplet size. we found that the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a shift the nematic-isotropic transition temperature TNI.
108
91272
Modeling of Anisotropic Hardening Based on Crystal Plasticity Theory and Virtual Experiments
Abstract:
Advanced material models involving several sets of model parameters require a big experimental effort. As models are getting more and more complex like e.g. the so called “Homogeneous Anisotropic Hardening - HAH” model for description of the yielding behavior in the 2D/3D stress space, the number and complexity of the required experiments are also increasing continuously. In the context of sheet metal forming, these requirements are even more pronounced, because of the anisotropic behavior or sheet materials. In addition, some of the experiments are very difficult to perform e.g. the plane stress biaxial compression test. Accordingly, tensile tests in at least three directions, biaxial tests and tension-compression or shear-reverse shear experiments are performed to determine the parameters of the macroscopic models. Therefore, determination of the macroscopic model parameters based on virtual experiments is a very promising strategy to overcome these difficulties. For this purpose, in the framework of multiscale material modeling, a dislocation density based crystal plasticity model in combination with a FFT-based spectral solver is applied to perform virtual experiments. Modeling of the plastic behavior of metals based on crystal plasticity theory is a well-established methodology. However, in general, the computation time is very high and therefore, the computations are restricted to simplified microstructures as well as simple polycrystal models. In this study, a dislocation density based crystal plasticity model – including an implementation of the backstress – is used in a spectral solver framework to generate virtual experiments for three deep drawing materials, DC05-steel, AA6111-T4 and AA4045 aluminum alloys. For this purpose, uniaxial as well as multiaxial loading cases, including various pre-strain histories, has been computed and validated with real experiments. These investigations showed that crystal plasticity modeling in the framework of Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) can be used to replace most of the expensive real experiments. Further, model parameters of advanced macroscopic models like the HAH model can be determined from virtual experiments, even for multiaxial deformation histories. It was also found that crystal plasticity modeling can be used to model anisotropic hardening more accurately by considering the backstress, similar to well-established macroscopic kinematic hardening models. It can be concluded that an efficient coupling of crystal plasticity models and the spectral solver leads to a significant reduction of the amount of real experiments needed to calibrate macroscopic models. This advantage leads also to a significant reduction of computational effort needed for the optimization of metal forming process. Further, due to the time efficient spectral solver used in the computation of the RVE models, detailed modeling of the microstructure are possible.
107
72074
Microstructure of Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings
Abstract:
Ceramics coatings consisting of fine crystal grains, with diameters of about 100 nm or less, provided superior hydrogen-permeation barriers. Applying TiN, TiC or Al₂O₃ coatings on a stainless steel substrate reduced the hydrogen permeation by a factor of about 100 to 5,000 compared with uncoated substrates. Effect of the microstructure of coatings on hydrogen-permeation behavior is studied. The test specimens coated with coatings, with columnar crystals grown vertically on the substrate, tended to exhibit higher hydrogen permeability. The grain boundaries of the coatings became trap sites for hydrogen, and microcrystalline structures with many grain boundaries are expected to provide effective hydrogen-barrier performance.
106
88386
Modifying the Electrical Properties of Liquid Crystal Cells by Including TiO₂ Nanoparticles on a Substrate
Abstract:
At the present time, the use of nanostructures in complex media, like liquid crystals, is widely extended to manipulate their properties, either electrical or optical. In addition, these media can also be used to control the optical properties of the nanoparticles, for instance when they are resonant. In this work, the change on electrical properties of a liquid crystal cell by adding TiO₂ nanoparticles on one of the alignment layers has been analyzed. These nanoparticles, with a diameter of 100 nm and spherical shape, were deposited in one of the substrates (ITO + polyimide) by spin-coating in order to produce a homogeneous layer. These substrates were checked using an optical microscope (objective x100) to avoid potential agglomerates. The liquid crystal cell is then fabricated, using one of these substrates and another without nanoparticles, and filled with E7. The study of the electrical response was done through impedance measurements in a long range of frequencies (3 Hz- 6 MHz) and at ambient temperature. Different nanoparticle concentrations were considered, as well as pure E7 and an empty cell for comparison purposes. Results about the effective dielectric permittivity and conductivity are presented along with models of equivalent electric circuits and its physical interpretation. As a summary, it has been observed the clear influence of the presence of the nanoparticles, strongly modifying the electric response of the device. In particular, a variation of both the effective permittivity and the conductivity of the device have been observed. This result requires a deep analysis of the effect of these nanoparticles on the trapping of free ions in the device, allowing a controlled manipulation and frequency tuning of the electrical response of these devices.
105
81656
Poly (L-Lysine)-Coated Liquid Crystal Droplets for Sensitive Detection of DNA and Its Applications in Controlled Release of Drug Molecules
Abstract:
Interactions between DNA and adsorbed Poly (L-lysine) (PLL) on liquid crystal (LC) droplets were investigated using polarizing optical microcopy (POM) and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Earlier, we demonstrated that adsorption of PLL to the LC/aqueous interface resulted in homeotropic orientation of the LC and thus exhibited a radial configuration of the LC confined within the droplets. Subsequent adsorption of DNA (single stranded DNA/double stranded DNA) at PLL coated LC droplets was found to trigger a LC reorientation within the droplets leading to pre-radial/bipolar configuration of those droplets. To our surprise, subsequent exposure of complementary ssDNA (c-ssDNA) to ssDNA/ adsorbed PLL modified LC droplets did not cause the LC reorientation. This is likely due to the formation of polyplexes (DNA-PLL complex) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, dsDNA adsorbed PLL droplets have been found to be effectively used to displace (controlled release) propidium iodide (a model drug) encapsulated within dsDNA over time. These observations suggest the potential for a label free droplet based LC detection system that can respond to DNA and may provide a simple method to develop DNA-based drug nano-carriers.
104
58128
Efficiently Silicon Metasurfaces at Visible Light
Authors:
Abstract:
The metasurfaces for beam deflecting with gradient silicon posts in the square lattices were fabricated on the thin film crystal silicon with quartz substrate. By using the crystals silicon with high refractive index and high transmission to control the phase over 2π coverage, we demonstrated the polarization independent beam deflecting at wavelength of 532nm with 45% transmission in experiment and 70% in simulation into the desired angle. This simulation efficiency is almost close to the TiO2 metasurfaces but has higher refractive index and lower aspect ratio to reduce fabrication complexity. The result can extend the application of silicon metalsurfaces from 700 nm to 500 nm hence open a new way to use metasurfaces efficiently in visible light regime.
103
23393
Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Hydrophobic Nanosensor for Lysozyme Detection
Abstract:
Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), high-resolution mass-sensing technique, measures changes in mass on oscillating quartz crystal surface by measuring changes in oscillation frequency of crystal in real time. Protein adsorption techniques via hydrophobic interaction between protein and solid support, called hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), can be favorable in many cases. Some nanoparticles can be effectively applied for HIC. HIC takes advantage of the hydrophobicity of proteins by promoting its separation on the basis of hydrophobic interactions between immobilized hydrophobic ligands and nonpolar regions on the surface of the proteins. Lysozyme is found in a variety of vertebrate cells and secretions, such as spleen, milk, tears, and egg white. Its common applications are as a cell-disrupting agent for extraction of bacterial intracellular products, as an antibacterial agent in ophthalmologic preparations, as a food additive in milk products and as a drug for treatment of ulcers and infections. Lysozyme has also been used in cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this study is the synthesis of hydrophobic nanoparticles for Lysozyme detection. For this purpose, methacryoyl-L-phenylalanine was chosen as a hydrophobic matrix. The hydrophobic nanoparticles were synthesized by micro-emulsion polymerization method. Then, hydrophobic QCM nanosensor was characterized by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and zeta size analysis. Hydrophobic QCM nanosensor was tested for real-time detection of Lysozyme from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using Lysozyme solutions with different concentrations. The responses related to a mass (Δm) and frequency (Δf) shifts were used to evaluate adsorption properties.
102
34337
Investigation the Photocatalytic Properties of Fe3O4-TiO2 Nanocomposites Prepared by Sonochemical Method
Abstract:
Fe3O4 is one of the important magnetic oxides with spinel structure; it has exhibited unique electric and magnetic properties based on the electron transfer between Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. Fe3O4 has received considerable attention in various areas such as cancer therapy, drug targeting, enzyme immobilization catalysis, magnetic cell separation, magnetic refrigeration systems and super-paramagnetic materials Fe3O4–TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by simple, effective and new co-precipitation method assisted by ultrasonic reaction at room temperatures with organic surfactant. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, time, and power on the size and morphology of the product was investigated. Alternating gradient force magnetometer shows that Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit super-paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature. For preparation of nanocomposite, 1 g of TiO2 nanostructures were dispersed in 100 mL of ethanol. 0.25 g of Fe(NO3)2 and 2 mL of octanoic acid was added to the solution as a surfactant. Then, NaOH solution (1.5 M) was slowly added into the solution until the pH of the mixture was 7–8. After complete precipitation, the solution placed under the ultrasonic irradiation for 30 min. The product was centrifuged, washed with distilled water and dried in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The resulting red powder was calcinated at 800 °C for 3 h to remove any organic residue. The photocatalytic behaviour of Fe3O4–TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluated using the degradation of a Methyl Violet (MV) aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. As time increased, more and more MV was adsorbed on the nanoparticles catalyst, until the absorption peak vanish. The MV concentration decreased rapidly with increasing UV-irradiation time
101
43440
Liquid Crystal Based Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antenna Design
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with slot embedded patch element configurations within X-band frequency range. The slots are shown to modify the surface current distribution on the patch element of reflectarray which causes the resonant patch element to provide different resonant frequencies depending on the slot dimensions. The simulated results are supported and verified by waveguide scattering parameter measurements of different reflectarray unit cells. Different rectangular slots on patch element have been fabricated and a change in resonant frequency from 10.46GHz to 8.78GHz has been demonstrated as the width of the rectangular slot is varied from 0.2W to 0.6W. The rectangular slot in the center of the patch element has also been utilized for the frequency tunable reflectarray antenna design based on K-15 Nematic LC. For the active reflectarray antenna design, a frequency tunability of 1.2% from 10GHz to 9.88GHz has been demonstrated with a dynamic phase range of 103&deg; provided by the measured scattering parameter results. Time consumed by liquid crystals for reconfiguration, which is one of the drawback of LC based design, has also been disused in this paper.
100
102893
1,8-Naphthalimide Substituted 4,4-Difluoroboradiaza-S-Indacene Dyads: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Live-Cell Imaging
Abstract:
Three 1,8-naphthalimide (NPI) substituted 4,4-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyads were synthesized via Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction of ethynyl substituted NPI with the meso-, β- and α-halogenated BODIPYs, respectively. The photophysical and electrochemical data reveals considerable electronic communication between the BODIPY and NPI moieties. The electronic absorption spectrum reveals that the substitution of NPI at α position of BODIPY exhibit better electronic communication between the NPI and the BODIPY units. The electronic structures of all the dyads exhibit planar geometries which are in a good correlation with the structures obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures of the dyads exhibit interesting supramolecular interactions. The dyads show good cytocompatibility with the potential of multicolor live-cell imaging; making them excellent candidates for biological applications. The work provides an important strategy of screening the substitution pattern at different position of BODIPYs which will be useful for the design of BODIPY based organic molecules for various optoelectronic applications as well as bio-imaging.
99
13119
Preparation of Li Ion Conductive Ceramics via Liquid Process
Abstract:
Li1.5Al0.5Ti1.5 (PO4)3(LATP) has received much attention as a solid electrolyte for lithium batteries. In this study, the LATP solid electrolyte is prepared by the co-precipitation method using Li3PO4 as a Li source. The LATP is successfully prepared and the Li ion conductivities of bulk (inner crystal) and total (inner crystal and grain boundary) are 1.1 × 10-3 and 1.1 × 10-4 S cm-1, respectively. These values are comparable to the reported values, in which Li2C2O4 is used as the Li source. It is conclude that the LATP solid electrolyte can be prepared by the co-precipitation method using Li3PO4 as the Li source and this procedure has an advantage in mass production over previous procedure using Li2C2O4 because Li3PO4 is lower price reagent compared with Li2C2O4.
98
52038
Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna
Abstract:
This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.
97
27319
Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Based on Poly Vinyl Alcohol Boric Acid Matrix
Abstract:
Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) represent an interesting class of materials which combine the ability of polymers to form films and their mechanical strength with the opto-electronic properties of liquid crystals. The proper choice of the two components - the liquid crystal and the polymeric matrix - leads to materials suitable for a large area of applications, from electronics to biomedical devices. The objective of our work was to obtain PDLC films with potential applications in the biomedical field, using poly vinyl alcohol boric acid (PVAB) as a polymeric matrix for the first time. Presenting all the tremendous properties of poly vinyl alcohol (such as: biocompatibility, biodegradability, water solubility, good chemical stability and film forming ability), PVAB brings the advantage of containing the electron deficient boron atom, and due to this, it should promote the liquid crystal anchoring and a narrow liquid crystal droplets polydispersity. Two different PDLC systems have been obtained, by the use of two liquid crystals, a nematic commercial one: 4-cyano-4’-penthylbiphenyl (5CB) and a new smectic liquid crystal, synthesized by us: buthyl-p-[p’-n-octyloxy benzoyloxy] benzoate (BBO). The PDLC composites have been obtained by the encapsulation method, working with four different ratios between the polymeric matrix and the liquid crystal, from 60:40 to 90:10. In all cases, the composites were able to form free standing, flexible films. Polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, RAMAN- spectroscopy and the contact angle measurements have been performed, in order to characterize the new composites. The new smectic liquid crystal has been characterized using 1H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and its thermotropic behavior has been established using differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy. The polarized light microscopy evidenced the formation of round birefringent droplets, anchored homeotropic in the first case and planar in the second, with a narrow dimensional polydispersity, especially for the PDLC containing the largest amount of liquid crystal, fact evidenced by SEM, also. The obtained values for the water to air contact angle showed that the composites have a proper hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance, making them potential candidates for bioapplications. More than this, our studies demonstrated that the water to air contact angle varies as a function of PVAB matrix crystalinity degree, which can be controled as a function of time. This fact allowed us to conclude that the use of PVAB as matrix for PDLCs obtaining offers the possibility to modulate their properties for specific applications.
96
31621
A High Quality Factor Filter Based on Quasi- Periodic Photonic Structure
Abstract:
We report the design and characterization of ultra high quality factor filter based on one-dimensional photonic-crystal Thue-Morse sequence structure. The behavior of aperiodic array of photonic crystal structure is numerically investigated and we show that by changing the angle of incident wave, desired wavelengths could be tuned and a tunable filter is realized. Also it is shown that high quality factor filter be achieved in the telecommunication window around 1550 nm, with a device based on Thue-Morse structure. Simulation results show that the proposed structure has a quality factor more than 100000 and it is suitable for DWDM communication applications.
95
26268
Fabrication of Periodic Graphene-Like Structure of Zinc Oxide Piezoelectric Device
Abstract:
This study proposes a fabrication of phononic-crystal acoustic wave device. A graphene-like atomic structure was adopted as the main research subject, and a graphene-like structure was designed using piezoelectric material zinc oxide and its periodic boundary conditions were defined using the finite element method. The effects of a hexagonal honeycomb structure were investigated regarding the band gap phenomenon. The use of micro-electromechanical systems process technology to make the film etched micron graphics, designed to produce four kinds of different piezoelectric structure (plat, periodic, single defect and double defects). Frequency response signals and phase change were also measured in this paper.
94
27673
Crystal Structures and High-Temperature Phase Transitions of the New Ordered Double Perovskites SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6
Authors:
Abstract:
In the present work we report X-ray powder diffraction measurements of SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, at different temperatures. The crystal structures at room temperature of both compounds are determined; and results showing the existence of high-temperature phase transitions in them are presented. Both compounds have double perovskite structure with 1:1 ordered arrangement of the B site cations. At room temperature their symmetries are described with the P21/n space group, that correspond to the (a+b-b-) tilt system. The evolution with temperature of the structure of both compounds shows the presence of three phase transitions: a continuous one, at 450 and 500 K, a discontinuous one, at 700 and 775 K, and a continuous one at 900 and 950 K for SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, respectively with the following phase-transition sequence: P21/n → I2/m → I4/m → Fm-3m.
93
51092
Designing a Dispersion Flattened Single Mode PCF for E-Band to U-Band with Less Effective Area
Abstract:
A signal is broadened when it is gone through a channel, this phenomenon is known as dispersion. And dispersion is different for different wavelength. So bandwidth become limited. Research have tried to design an optical fiber with flattened dispersion to use more bandwidth and also for wavelength division multiplexing. In this paper, a single mode photonic crystal fiber with a flattened dispersion and less effective area has been proposed where silica is used as fiber materials. The effective dispersion varies from -1.996 to 0.1783 [ps/(nm-km)] for enter E-band to U-band. This fiber will take only 3.048 [micrometer^2] (for 1.75 micrometer wavelength). Silica is being used as the fiber material.
92
34664
Influence of Crystal Orientation on Electromechanical Behaviors of Relaxor Ferroelectric P(VDF-TRFE-CTFE) Terpolymer
Abstract:
In this current contribution, authors are dedicated to investigate influence of the crystal lamellae orientation on electromechanical behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Poly (vinylidene fluoride –trifluoroethylene -chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)) films by control of polymer microstructure, aiming to picture the full map of structure-property relationship. In order to define their crystal orientation films, terpolymer films were fabricated by solution-casting, stretching and hot-pressing process. Differential scanning calorimetry, impedance analyzer, and tensile strength techniques were employed to characterize crystallographic parameters, dielectric permittivity, and elastic Young’s modulus respectively. In addition, large electrical induced out-of-plane electrostrictive strain was obtained by cantilever beam mode. Consequently, as-casted pristine films exhibited surprisingly high electrostrictive strain 0.1774% due to considerably small value of elastic Young’s modulus although relatively low dielectric permittivity. Such reasons contributed to large mechanical elastic energy density. Instead, due to 2 folds increase of elastic Young’s modulus and less than 50% augmentation of dielectric constant, fully-crystallized film showed weak electrostrictive behavior and mechanical energy density as well. And subjected to mechanical stretching process, Film C exhibited stronger dielectric constant and out-performed electrostrictive strain over Film B because edge-on crystal lamellae orientation induced by uniaxially mechanical stretch. Hot-press films were compared in term of cooling rate. Rather large electrostrictive strain of 0.2788% for hot-pressed Film D in quenching process was observed although its dielectric permittivity equivalent to that of pristine as-casted Film A, showing highest mechanical elastic energy density value of 359.5 J/m^3. In hot-press cooling process, dielectric permittivity of Film E saw values at 48.8 concomitant with ca.100% increase of Young’s modulus. Films with intermediate mechanical energy density were obtained.
91
87289
Luminescent Properties of Plastic Scintillator with Large Area Photonic Crystal Prepared by a Combination of Nanoimprint Lithography and Atomic Layer Deposition
Abstract:
Plastic scintillators play an important role in the measurement of a mixed neutron/gamma pulsed radiation, neutron radiography and pulse shape discrimination technology. In some research, these luminescent properties are necessary that photons produced by the interactions between a plastic scintillator and radiations can be detected as much as possible by the photoelectric detectors and more photons can be emitted from the scintillators along a specific direction where detectors are located. Unfortunately, a majority of these photons produced are trapped in the plastic scintillators due to the total internal reflection (TIR), because there is a significant light-trapping effect when the incident angle of internal scintillation light is larger than the critical angle. Some of these photons trapped in the scintillator may be absorbed by the scintillator itself and the others are emitted from the edges of the scintillator. This makes the light extraction of plastic scintillators very low. Moreover, only a small portion of the photons emitted from the scintillator easily can be detected by detectors effectively, because the distribution of the emission directions of this portion of photons exhibits approximate Lambertian angular profile following a cosine emission law. Therefore, enhancing the light extraction efficiency and adjusting the emission angular profile become the keys for improving the number of photons detected by the detectors. In recent years, photonic crystal structures have been covered on inorganic scintillators to enhance the light extraction efficiency and adjust the angular profile of scintillation light successfully. However, that, preparation methods of photonic crystals will deteriorate performance of plastic scintillators and even destroy the plastic scintillators, makes the investigation on preparation methods of photonic crystals for plastic scintillators and luminescent properties of plastic scintillators with photonic crystal structures inadequate. Although we have successfully made photonic crystal structures covered on the surface of plastic scintillators by a modified self-assembly technique and achieved a great enhance of light extraction efficiency without evident angular-dependence for the angular profile of scintillation light, the preparation of photonic crystal structures with large area (the diameter is larger than 6cm) and perfect periodic structure is still difficult. In this paper, large area photonic crystals on the surface of scintillators were prepared by nanoimprint lithography firstly, and then a conformal layer with material of high refractive index on the surface of photonic crystal by atomic layer deposition technique in order to enhance the stability of photonic crystal structures and increase the number of leaky modes for improving the light extraction efficiency. The luminescent properties of the plastic scintillator with photonic crystals prepared by the mentioned method are compared with those of the plastic scintillator without photonic crystal. The results indicate that the number of photons detected by detectors is increased by the enhanced light extraction efficiency and the angular profile of scintillation light exhibits evident angular-dependence for the scintillator with photonic crystals. The mentioned preparation of photonic crystals is beneficial to scintillation detection applications and lays an important technique foundation for the plastic scintillators to meet special requirements under different application backgrounds.
90
61291
Fabrication of Durable and Renegerable Superhydrophobic Coatings on Metallic Surfaces for Potential Industrial Applications
Abstract:
Fabrication of anti-corrosion and self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings for metallic surfaces which are regenerable and durable in the aggressive conditions has shown tremendous interest in materials science. In this work, the superhydrophobic coatings on metallic surfaces (aluminum, steel, copper) were prepared by two-step and one-step chemical etching process. In two-step process, roughness on surface was created by chemical etching and then passivation of roughened surface with low surface energy materials whereas, in one-step process, roughness on surface by chemical etching and passivation of surface with low surface energy materials were done in a single step. Beside this, the effect of etchant concentration and etching time on wettability and morphology was also studied. Thermal, mechanical, ultra-violet stability of these coatings were also tested. Along with this, regeneration of coatings and self-cleaning, corrosion resistance and water repelling characteristics were also studied. The surface morphology shows the presence of a rough microstuctures on the treated surfaces and the contact angle measurements confirms the superhydrophobic nature. It is experimentally observed that the surface roughness and contact angle increases with increase in etching time as well as with concentration of etchant. Superhydrophobic surfaces show the excellent self-cleaning behaviour. Coatings are found to be stable and maintain their superhydrophobicity in acidic and alkaline solutions. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests prove the water-repellent nature of the coatings. These coatings are found to be thermal, mechanical and ultra-violet stable. These durable superhydrophobic metallic surfaces have potential industrial applications.
89
106989
Study on Angle Measurement Interferometer around Any Axis Direction Selected by Transmissive Liquid Crystal Device
Abstract:
Generally, the optical interferometer system is too complicated and difficult to change the measurement items, pitch, yaw, and row, etc. In this article, the optical interferometer system using the transmissive Liquid Crystal Device (LCD) as the switch of the optical path was proposed. At first, the normal optical interferometer, Michelson interferometer, was constructed to measure the pitch angle and the yaw angle. In this optical interferometer, the ball lenses with the refractive indices of 2.0 were used as the retroreflectors. After that, the transmissive LCD was introduced as the switch to select the adequate optical path. In this article, these optical systems were constructed. Pitch measurement interferometer and yaw measurement interferometer were switched by the transmissive LCD. When the LCD was open for the yaw measurement, the yaw was sufficiently measured and optical path for the pitch measurement was blocked. On the other hand, when the LCD was open for the pitch measurement, the pitch was measured and the optical path for the yaw measurement was also blocked. In this article, the results of both of pitch measurement and yaw measurement were shown, and the result of blocked yaw measurement and pitch measurement were shown. As this measurement system was based on Michelson interferometer, the other measuring items, the deviation along the optical axis, the vertical deviation to the optical axis and row angle, could be measured by the additional ball lenses and the additional switching in future work.
88
62755
Examination Scheduling System with Proposed Algorithm
Authors:
Abstract:
Examination Scheduling System (ESS) is a scheduling system that targets as an exam committee in any academic institute to help them in managing the exams automatically. We present an algorithm for Examination Scheduling System. Nowadays, many universities have challenges with creating examination schedule fast with less confliction compared to hand works. Our aims are to develop a computerized system that can be used in examination scheduling in an academic institute versus available resources (Time, Hall, Invigilator and instructor) with no contradiction and achieve fairness among students. ESS was developed using HTML, C# language, Crystal Report and ASP.NET through Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 as developing tools with integrated SQL server database. This application can produce some benefits such as reducing the time spent in creating an exam schedule and achieving fairness among students
87
69652
Linearly Polarized Single Photon Emission from Nonpolar, Semipolar and Polar Quantum Dots in GaN/InGaN Nanowires
Abstract:
The study reports how the pencil-like morphology of a homoepitaxially grown GaN nanowire can be exploited for the fabrication of a thin conformal InGaN nanoshell, hosting nonpolar, semipolar and polar single photon sources (SPSs). All three SPS types exhibit narrow emission lines (FWHM~0.35 - 2 meV) and high degrees of linear optical polarization (P > 70%) in the low-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) experiments and are characterized by a pronounced antibunching in the photon correlation measurements (gcorrected(2)(0) < 0.3). The quantum-dot-like exciton localization centers induced by compositional fluctuations within the InGaN nanoshell are identified as the driving mechanism for the single photon emission. As confirmed by the low-temperature transmission electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (TEM-CL) study, the crystal region (i.e. non-polar m-, semi-polar r- and polar c-facets) hosting the single photon emitters strongly affects their emission wavelength, which ranges from ultra-violet for the non-polar to visible for the polar SPSs. The photon emission lifetime is also found to be facet-dependent and varies from sub-nanosecond time scales for the non- and semi-polar SPSs to a few nanoseconds for the polar ones. These differences are mainly attributed to facet-dependent indium content and electric field distribution across the hosting InGaN nanoshell. The hereby reported pencil-like InGaN nanoshell is the first single nanostructure able to host all three types of single photon emitters and is thus a promising building block for tunable quantum light devices integrated into future photonic and optoelectronic circuits.
86
41987
Quartz Crystal Microbalance Holder Design for On-Line Sensing in Liquid Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, the design of a QCM sensor for liquid media measurements in vertical position is described. A rugged and low-cost proof holder has been designed, the cost of which is significantly lower than those of traditional commercial holders. The crystal is not replaceable but it can be easily cleaned. Its small volume permits to be used by dipping it in the liquid with the desired location and orientation. The developed design has been experimentally validated by measuring changes in the resonance frequency and resistance of the QCM sensor immersed vertically in different calibrated aqueous glycerol solutions. The obtained results show a great agreement with the Kanazawa theoretical expression. Consequently, the designed QCM sensor would be appropriate for sensing applications in liquids, and might take part of a future on-line multichannel low-cost QCM-based measurement system.
85
46707
Optical Parametric Oscillators Lidar Sounding of Trace Atmospheric Gases in the 3-4 µm Spectral Range
Abstract:
Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3&ndash;4 &micro;m is studied in this work. A technique based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases.
84
25259
Effect of Dust on Performances of Single Crystal Photovoltaic Solar Module
Abstract:
Photovoltaic system is established as a reliable and economical source of electricity in rural and Sahara areas, especially in developing countries where the population is dispersed, has low consumption of energy and the grid power is not extended to these areas due to viability and financial problems. The production of energy by the photovoltaic system fluctuates and depend on meteorological conditions. Wind is a very important and often neglected parameter in the behavior of the solar module. The electric performances of a solar module to the silicon are very appreciable to the blows; in the present work, we have studied the behavior of multi-crystal solar module according to the density of dust, and the principals electric feature of the solar module. An evaluation permits to affirm that a solar module under the effect of sand will collect a lower flux to the normal conditions.
83
61288
Development of Excellent Water-Repellent Coatings for Metallic and Ceramic Surfaces
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the most fascinating properties of various insects and plant surfaces in nature is their water-repellent (superhydrophobicity) capability. The nature offers new insights to learn and replicate the same in designing artificial superhydrophobic structures for a wide range of applications such as micro-fluidics, micro-electronics, textiles, self-cleaning surfaces, anti-corrosion, anti-fingerprint, oil/water separation, etc. In general, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces are synthesized by creating roughness and then treating the surface with low surface energy materials. In this work, various super-hydrophobic coatings on metallic surfaces (aluminum, steel, copper, steel mesh) were synthesized by chemical etching process using different etchants and fatty acid. Also, SiO2 nano/micro-particles embedded polyethylene, polystyrene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) superhydrophobic coatings were synthesized on glass substrates. Also, the effect of process parameters such as etching time, etchant concentration, and particle concentration on wettability was studied. To know the applications of the coatings, surface morphology, contact angle, self-cleaning, corrosion-resistance, and water-repellent characteristics were investigated at various conditions. Furthermore, durabilities of coatings were also studied by performing thermal, ultra-violet, and mechanical stability tests. The surface morphology confirms the creation of rough microstructures by chemical etching or by embedding particles, and the contact angle measurements reveal the superhydrophobic nature. Experimentally it is found that the coatings have excellent self-cleaning, anti-corrosion and water-repellent nature. These coatings also withstand mechanical disturbances such surface bending, adhesive peeling, and abrasion. Coatings are also found to be thermal and ultra-violet stable. Additionally, coatings are also reproducible. Hence aforesaid durable superhydrophobic surfaces have many potential industrial applications.
82
23333
Structural, Electrochemical and Electrocatalysis Studies of a New 2D Metal-Organic Coordination Polymer of Ni (II) Constructed by Naphthalene-1,4-Dicarboxylic Acid; Oxidation and Determination of Fructose
Abstract:
One new 2D metal-organic coordination polymer of Ni(II) namely [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, where ndc = naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and DMSO= dimethyl sulfoxide has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear nickel(II) building blocks in which two crystallographically independent Ni2+ ions are bridged by ndc2– ligands and water molecule. The ndc2– ligands adopt μ3 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a two-dimensional coordination framework. The two independent NiII cations are surrounded by dimethyl sulfoxide and naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylate molecules in distorted octahedron geometry. In the crystal structures of 1 there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements and C-H–π stacking interactions. Electrochemical behavior of [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, (Ni-NDA) on the surface of carbon nanotube (CNTs) glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidation of fructose on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results showed that the Ni-NDA/CNTs film displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards fructose oxidation.
81
36230
Analytical Study Of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method
Abstract:
In this research, we have studied and analyzed the modulation of light and liquid crystal in HPDLCs using Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) method. HPDLCs are modeled as a mixture of polymer and liquid crystals (LCs) that categorized as an anisotropic medium. FDTD method is directly solves Maxwell’s equation with less approximation, so this method can analyze more flexible and general approach for the arbitrary anisotropic media. As the results from FDTD simulation, the highest diffraction efficiency occurred at ±19 degrees (Bragg angle) using p polarization incident beam to Bragg grating, Q > 10 when the pitch is 1µm. Therefore, the liquid crystal is assumed to be aligned parallel to the grating constant vector during these parameters.
80
36639
Effect of Synthesis Parameters on Crystal Size and Perfection of Mordenite and Analcime
Abstract:
The aim of this work was to obtain small crystalline size and high crystallinity of mordenites and analcimes, by modifying the aging time, agitation, water content, crystallization temperature and crystallization time. Two different hydrothermal methods were studied. Both methods used Na2SiO3 as the silica source, NaAlO2 as the aluminum source, and NaOH as the alkali source. The first method used HMI as the template while the second method did not use the template. Mordenite crystals with spherical shape and bimodal in size of about 1 and 5 µm were obtained from the first method using conditions of 24 hr aging time, 170°C and 24 hr crystallization. Modernites with high crystallinity were formed using agitation system in the crystallization process. It was also found that the aging time of 2 hr and 24 hr did not much affect the formation of mordenite crystals. Analcime crystals were formed in spherical shape and facet on surface with the size between 13-15 µm by the second method using the conditions of 30 minutes aging time, 170°C and 24 hr crystallization without calcination. By increasing water content, the crystallization process was slowed down and resulted in smaller analcime crystals. Larger size of analcime crystals were observed when the samples were calcined at 300°C and 580°C. Higher calcination temperature led to higher crystal growth and resulted in larger crystal size. Finally, mordenite and analcime was used as fillers in zeolite/Nafion composite membrane to solve the fuel cross over problem in direct alcohol fuel cell.
79
46063
Experimental Study of Sahara Climat Effect in Photovoltaic Solar Module
Abstract:
Photovoltaic system is established as a reliable and economical source of electricity in rural and Sahara areas, especially in developing countries where the population is dispersed, has low consumption of energy and the grid power is not extended to these areas due to viability and financial problems. The production of energy by the photovoltaic system is very fluctuates and depend of meteorological conditions. Wind is a very important and often neglected parameter in the behavior of the solar module. The electric performances of a solar module to the silicon are very appreciable to the blows; in the present work we have studies the behavior of multi-crystal solar module according to the density of dust, and the principals electric feature of the solar module. An evaluation permits to affirm that a solar module under the effect of sand will collect a lower flux to the normal conditions.
78
95848
The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense in Liquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods
Abstract:
The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.
77
99624
Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Crystal Structural and Transport Properties of Bi₂Te₃ Thin Films Grown by Thermal Evaporation
Abstract:
In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the structural and transport properties of Bismuth Telluride (Bi₂Te₃) thin films was investigated. Bi₂Te₃ thin films with thicknesses varying from 100 nm to 500 nm were grown using thermal evaporation in vacuum 10⁻⁵ Torr. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (50, 200, and 500 kGy). The crystal structure of Bi₂Te₃ thin films was studied by XRD diffraction. It was showed that the degree of crystallinity of films increases as the doses increase. Furthermore, it was found that the electrical conductivity of Bi₂Te₃ increase as the doses increase. From these results, it can be concluding that the effect of radiation on the structural and transport properties was positive at the levels of irradiation used.
76
60836
Conventional Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconium Molybdate, Nd2Zr3(MoO4)9
Abstract:
Rare earths containing complex metal oxides have drawn much attention due to physical, chemical and optical properties which make them feasible in so many areas such as non-linear optical materials and ion exchanger. We have researched a systematic study to obtain rare earth containing zirconium molybdate compound, characterization, investigation of crystal system and calculation of unit cell parameters.&nbsp; After a successful synthesis of Nd2Zr3(MoO4)9 which is a member of rare earth metal containing complex oxides family, X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Score Plus/Rietveld refinement analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were completed to determine the crystal structure. Morphological properties and elemental composition were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Thermal properties were observed via Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).
75
41494
Detection of Nanotoxic Material Using DNA Based QCM
Abstract:
Sensing of nanotoxic materials is strongly important, as their engineering applications are growing recently and results in that nanotoxic material can harmfully influence human health and environment. In current study we report the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based, in situ and real-time sensing of nanotoxic-material by frequency shift. We propose the in situ detection of nanotoxic material of zinc oxice by using QCM functionalized with a taget-specific DNA. Since the mass of a target material is comparable to that of an atom, the mass change caused by target binding to DNA on the quartz electrode is so small that it is practically difficult to detect the ions at low concentrations. In our study, we have demonstrated the in-situ and fast detection of zinc oxide using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The detection was derived from the DNA hybridization between the DNA on the quartz electrode. The results suggest that QCM-based detection opens a new avenue for the development of a practical water-testing sensor.
74
72299
Ammonia Sensing Properties of Nanostructured Hybrid Halide Perovskite Thin Film
Abstract:
Hybrid perovskite is new class of material which has gained much attention due to their different crystal structure and interesting optical and electrical properties. Easy fabrication, high absorption coefficient, and photoluminescence properties make them a strong candidate for various applications such as sensors, photovoltaics, photodetectors, etc. In perovskites, ions arrange themselves in a special type of crystal structure with chemical formula ABX3, where A is organic species like CH3NH3+, B is metal ion (e.g., Pb, Sn, etc.) and X is halide (Cl-, Br-, I-). In crystal structure, A is present at corner position, B at center of the crystal lattice and halide ions at the face centers. High stability and sensitivity of nanostructured perovskite make them suitable for chemical sensors. Researchers have studied sensing properties of perovskites for number of analytes such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, ethanol and other hazardous chemical compounds. Ammonia being highly toxic agent makes it a reason of concern for the environment. Thus the detection of ammonia is extremely important. Our present investigation deals with organic inorganic hybrid perovskite based ammonia sensor. Various methods like sol-gel, solid state synthesis, thermal vapor deposition etc can be used to synthesize Different hybrid perovskites. In the present work, a novel hybrid perovskite has been synthesized by a single step method. Ethylenediammnedihalide and lead halide were used as precursor. Formation of hybrid perovskite was confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. Morphological characterization of the synthesized material was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed the formation of one dimensional nanowire perovskite with mean diameter of 200 nm. Measurements for sensing properties of halide perovskite for ammonia vapor were carried out. Perovskite thin films showed a color change from yellow to orange on exposure of ammonia vapor. Electro-optical measurements show that sensor based on lead halide perovskite has high sensitivity towards ammonia with effective selectivity and reversibility. Sensor exhibited rapid response time of less than 20 seconds.
73
71089
Synthesis and Characterization of Chiral Dopant Based on Schiff's Base Structure
Abstract:
CLCs (Cholesteric liquid crystals) draw tremendous interest due to their potential in various applications such as cholesteric color filters in LCD devices. CLC possesses helical molecular orientation which is induced by a chiral dopant molecules mixed with nematic liquid crystals. The efficiency of a chiral dopant is quantified by the HTP (helical twisting power). In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of new chiral dopants having a Schiff’s base imine structure with different alkyl chain lengths (butyl, hexyl and octyl) from chiral naphthyl amine by two-step reaction. The structures of new chiral dopants were confirmed by 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy. The properties were investigated by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry calorimetry), POM (polarized optical microscopy) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. These solid state chiral dopants showed excellent solubility in nematic LC (MLC-6845-000) higher than 17wt%. We prepared the CLC(Cholesteric Liquid Crystal) cell by mixing nematic LC (MLC-6845-000) with different concentrations of chiral dopants and injecting into the sandwich cell of 5μm cell gap with antiparallel alignment. The cholesteric liquid crystal phase was confirmed from POM, in which all the samples showed planar phase, a typical phase of the cholesteric liquid crystals. The HTP (helical twisting power) is one of the most important properties of CLC. We measured the HTP values from the UV-Vis transmittance spectra of CLC cells with varies chiral dopant concentration. The HTP values with different alkyl chains are as follows: butyl chiral dopant=29.8μm-1; hexyl chiral dopant= 31.8μm-1; octyl chiral dopant=27.7μm-1. We obtained the red, green and blue reflection color from CLC cells, which can be used as color filters in LCDs applications.
72
101942
Using the Timepix Detector at CERN Accelerator Facilities
Abstract:
The UA9 collaboration in the last two years has installed two different types of detectors to investigate the channeling effect in the bent silicon crystals with high-energy particles beam on the CERN accelerator facilities: Cherenkov detector CpFM and silicon pixel detector Timepix. In the current work, we describe the main performances of the Timepix detector operation at the SPS and H8 extracted beamline at CERN. We are presenting some detector calibration results and tuning. Our research topics also cover a cluster analysis algorithm for the particle hits reconstruction. We describe the optimal acquisition setup for the Timepix device and the edges of its functionality for the high energy and flux beam monitoring. The measurements of the crystal parameters are very important for the future bent crystal applications and needs a track reconstruction apparatus. Thus, it was decided to construct a short range (1.2 m long) particle telescope based on the Timepix sensors and test it at H8 SPS extraction beamline. The obtained results will be shown as well.
71
25466
Electro-Optic Parameters of Ferroelectric Particles- Liquid Crystal Composites
Abstract:
Influence of barium titanate particles on electro-optic properties of liquid crystal 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) with positive dielectric anisotropy and the liquid crystalline (LC) mixture Н-37 consisting of 4-methoxybezylidene-4'–butylaniline and 4-ethoxybezylidene-4'–butylaniline with negative dielectric anisotropy was investigated. It was shown that a presence of particles inside 5СВ and H-37 decreased the clearing temperature from 35.2 °С to 32.5°С and from 61.2 oC to 60.1oC, correspondingly. The threshold voltage of the Fredericksz effect became 0.3 V for the BaTiO3-5CB colloid while the beginning of this effect of the pure 5СВ was observed at 2.1 V. Threshold voltage of the Fredericksz effect increased from 2.8 V to up 3.1 V at additive of particles into H-37. A rise time of the BaTiO3-5CB colloid improved while a decay time worsened in comparison with the pure 5CB at all applied voltages. The inverse trends were observed for the H-37 matrix, namely, a rise time worsened and a decay time improved. Among other things, the effect of fast light modulation was studied at application of the rectangular impulse with direct bias to an electro-optical cell with the BaTiO3 particles+5CB and the pure 5CB. At this case, a rise time of the composite worsened, a decay time improved in comparison with the pure 5CB. The pecularities of electrohydrodynamic instability (EHDI) formation was also investigated into the composite with the H-37 matrix. It was found that the voltage of the EHDI formation decreased, a rise time increased and a decay time decreased in comparison with the pure H-37. First of all, experimental results are explained by appearance of local electric fields near the polarized ferroelectric particles at application of external electric field and an existence of the additional obstacles (particles) for movement of ions.
70
94547
Beam Deflection with Unidirectionality Due to Zeroth Order and Evanescent Wave Coupling in a Photonic Crystal with a Defect Layer without Corrugations under Oblique Incidence
Abstract:
Single beam deflection and unidirectional transmission are examined for oblique incidence in a Photonic Crystal (PC) structure which employs defect layer instead of surface corrugations at the interfaces. In all of the studied cases, the defect layer is placed such that the symmetry is broken. Two types of deflection are observed depending on whether the zeroth order is coupled or not. These two scenarios can be distinguished from each other by considering the simulated field distribution in PC. In the first deflection type, Floquet-Bloch mode enables zeroth order coupling. The energy of the zeroth order is redistributed between the diffraction orders at the defect layer, providing deflection. In the second type, when zeroth order is not coupled, strong diffractions cause blazing and the evanescent waves deliver energy to higher order diffraction modes. Simulated isofrequency contours can be utilized to estimate the coupling behavior. The defect layer is placed at varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC while evancescent waves can still couple to higher order modes. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission and beam deflection are still encountered when the zeroth order is not coupled. We assume ε=11.4 (refractive index close to that of GaAs and Si) for the PC rods. A possible operation wavelength can be within microwave and infrared range. Since the suggested material is low loss, the structure can be scaled down to operate higher frequencies. Thus, a sample operation wavelength is selected as 1.5μm. Although the structure employs no surface corrugations transmission value T≈0.97 can be achieved by means of diffraction order m=-1. Moreover, utilizing an extra line defect, T value can be increased upto 0.99, under oblique incidence even if the line defect layer is deeply embedded in the photonic crystal. The latter configuration can be used to obtain deflection in one frequency range and can also be utilized for the realization of another functionality like defect-mode wave guiding in another frequency range but still using the same structure.
69
24720
Economic and Environmental Benefits of the Indium Recycling from the Waste Liquid Crystal Displays in China
Abstract:
Indium is one the scarce resources which can be only used less than 30 years, and more than 70% of the indium is used for the production of the LCD. The benefit of recycling Indium from waste LCD is large. Take the LCD-TV for example, the yield of which was close to 90 million units in 2010. If it was available to recycle the indium effectively, the yield of the secondary-indium could reach up to 110 metric ton, which accounted for one third of the primary indium production in China. And compared with the dispersion and long process extraction of the primary indium resources, secondary indium concentrates in the waste LCD, the exploitation has great economic and environmental benefits. However, the potential benefits were indefinite, resulting in China’s government did not pay enough attention to the indium recycling industry. In our study, an estimation model was constructed to analyze the potential of the indium in the waste LCD. The different types of LCD were detected to find out the content of indium. Then, the potential of the indium in the waste LCD was estimated in China. Furthermore, the pollution emissions of the product process of the primary and secondary indium was analyzed respectively to calculate the economic and environmental benefits of the indium recycling from the waste LCD in China.
68
75206
Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ Codoped Hydroxyapatite Nanorods: Fabrication and Microstructure Analysis
Abstract:
In this study, nanorods of Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ codoped hydroxyapatite (Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻-HA) were synthesized successfully and rapidly through microwave irradiation technique, using (Ca(NO₃)₂•4H₂O), ((NH₄)₂HPO₄), (SiC₈H₂₀O₄) and (Cr(NO₃)₃.9H₂O) as source materials for Ca²⁺, PO₄³⁻, SiO₄⁴⁻ and Cr³⁺ ions, respectively. The impact of dopants on the phase formation and microstructure of the powders were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis (FT-IR) and Field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. XRD analysis showed that with an incorporation of Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ ions into HA structure resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the existence of the different vibrational modes matching to phosphates and hydroxyl groups. The FESEM analysis showed a change in the crystal shape from spherical to rod shaped particles upon Cr³⁺ doping into the crystal structure. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by Karabük University (Project no. KBÜBAP-17-YD-144). The authors would like to thank for support.
67
40173
Sensitivity Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor
Abstract:
The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used due to its high sensitivity with molecular labels free. The commercial SPR sensors depend on the conventional prism-coupled configuration. However, this type of configuration suffers from miniaturization and integration. Therefore, the search for compact, portable and highly sensitive SPR sensors becomes mandatory.In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a novel photonic crystal fiber biosensoris introduced and studied. The suggested design has microstructure of air holes in the core region surrounded by two large semicircular metallized channels filled with the analyte. The inner surfaces of the two channels are coated by a silver layer followed by a gold layer.The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite element methodwith perfect matched layer (PML) boundary conditions. The proposed design depends on bimetallic configuration to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, the suggested biosensor can be used for multi-channel/multi-analyte sensing. In this study, the sensor geometrical parameters are studied to maximize the sensitivity for the two polarized modes. The numerical results show that high refractive index sensitivity of 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU can be achieved for the quasi (transverse magnetic) TM and quasi (transverse electric) TE modes of the proposed biosensor, respectively. The reportedbiosensor has advantages of integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide and metallic layers into a single structure. As a result, compact biosensor with better integration compared to conventional optical fiber SPR biosensors can be obtained.
66
93128
Effect of Si/Al Ratio on SSZ-13 Crystallization and Its Methanol-To-Olefins Catalytic Properties
Abstract:
SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were prepared by varying the composition of aluminosilicate precursor solutions upon hydrothermal treatment at 150&nbsp;&deg;C. The Si/Al ratio of the initial system was systematically changed from 12.5 to infinity in order to study the limits of Al composition in precursor solutions for constructing CHA structure. The intermediates and final products were investigated by complementary techniques such as XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, and chemical analysis. NH3-TPD was used to study the Br&oslash;nsted acidity of SSZ-13 samples with different Si/Al ratios. The effect of the Si/Al ratio on the precursor species, ultimate crystal size, morphology and yield was investigated. The results revealed that Al species determine the nucleation rate and the number of nuclei, which is tied to the morphology and yield of SSZ-13. The size of SSZ-13 increased and the yield decreased as the Si/Al ratio was improved. Varying Si/Al ratio of the initial system is a facile, commercially viable method of tailoring SSZ-13 crystal size and morphology. Furthermore, SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were tested as catalysts for the methanol to olefins (MTO) reaction at 350 &deg;C. SSZ-13 with the Si/Al ratio of 35 shows the best MTO catalytic performance.
65
23064
Preparation and Electro-Optic Characteristics of Polymer Network Liquid Crystals Based On Polymethylvinilpirydine and Polyethylene Glycol
Abstract:
The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals Н37 and 5CB with polymethylvinilpirydine (PMVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been developed. Mesogene substance 4-n-heptyoxibenzoic acid (HOBA) is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 % and 9 %, correspondingly. At slow cooling, the system separates into a liquid crystal –rich phase and a liquid crystal-poor phase. At this case, transition of these phases in the H-37 + PMVP + HOBA (87 % + 12 % + 1 %) composite to an anisotropic state occurs at 49 оС and и 41 оС, accordingly, while the composite 5CB+PEG+HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) passes to anisotropic state at 36 оС corresponding to the isotropic-nematic transition of pure 5CB. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. It is shown that the threshold voltage of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA increase in comparison with pure H-37 and, accordingly, there is a shift of voltage dependence of rise times to the high voltage region. The contrast ratio worsens while decay time improves in comparison with the pure liquid crystal at all applied voltage. The switching times of the composite 5CB + PEG + HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) show anomalous behavior connected with incompleteness of the transition to an anisotropic state. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with the high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration.
64
23123
Nanoindentation Behaviour and Microstructural Evolution of Annealed Single-Crystal Silicon
Abstract:
The nanoindentation behaviour and phase transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined. The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and 450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases. The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.
63
24618
Interesting Behavior of Non-Thermal Plasma Photonic Crystals
Abstract:
In this research, the effect of non-thermal micro plasma with non-Maxwellian distribution function on the one dimensional plasma photonic crystals containing alternate plasma-dielectric layers, has been studied. By using Kronig Penny model, the dispersion relation of electromagnetic modes for such a periodic structure is obtained. In this study we take two plasma photonic crystals with different dielectric layers: the first one with Silicon monoxide named PPCI, and the second one with Tellurium dioxide named PPCII. The effects of the plasma layer thickness and the material of the dielectric layer on the plasma photonic crystal band gaps have been illustrated in the dispersion relation and the group velocity figures. Results revealed that in such a system, the non-thermal plasma exerts stronger limit on the wave’s propagation. In another word, for the non-thermal plasma photonic crystals (NPPC), there are two distinct regions in the dispersion plot. The upper region consists of alternate band gaps in such a way that both width and length of the bands decrease gradually as the band gaps order increases. Whereas in the lower region where v_ph > 20 c (for PPCI), waves will not be allowed to propagate.
62
36308
Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions
Abstract:
Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycles present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.
61
70597
Investigations into the in situ Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Removal Efficacies of Passive and Active Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigant Delivered into Lateral Canal of a Simulated Root Canal Model
Abstract:
The issue of apical periodontitis has received considerable critical attention. Bacteria is integrated into communities, attached to surfaces and consequently form biofilm. The biofilm structure provides bacteria with a series protection skills against, antimicrobial agents and enhances pathogenicity (e.g. apical periodontitis). Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has become the irrigant of choice for elimination of bacteria from the root canal system based on its antimicrobial findings. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different agitation techniques on the efficacy of 2.5% NaOCl to eliminate the biofilm from the surface of the lateral canal using the residual biofilm, and removal rate of biofilm as outcome measures. The effect of canal complexity (lateral canal) on the efficacy of the irrigation procedure was also assessed. Forty root canal models (n = 10 per group) were manufactured using 3D printing and resin materials. Each model consisted of two halves of an 18 mm length root canal with apical size 30 and taper 0.06, and a lateral canal of 3 mm length, 0.3 mm diameter located at 3 mm from the apical terminus. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm and lateral canal of the models for 10 days in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Biofilms were stained using crystal violet for visualisation. The model halves were reassembled, attached to an apparatus and tested under a fluorescence microscope. Syringe and needle irrigation protocol was performed using 9 mL of 2.5% NaOCl irrigant for 60 seconds. The irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or activated for 30 seconds using manual (gutta-percha), sonic and ultrasonic methods. Images were then captured every second using an external camera. The percentages of residual biofilm were measured using image analysis software. The data were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The greatest removal was associated with the ultrasonic group (66.76%) followed by sonic (45.49%), manual (43.97%), and passive irrigation group (control) (38.67%) respectively. No marked reduction in the efficiency of NaOCl to remove biofilm was found between the simple and complex anatomy models (p = 0.098). The removal efficacy of NaOCl on the biofilm was limited to the 1 mm level of the lateral canal. The agitation of NaOCl results in better penetration of the irrigant into the lateral canals. Ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl improved the removal of bacterial biofilm.
60
76943
Rare Earth Doped Alkali Halide Crystals for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Application
Abstract:
The Europium (Eu) doped (0.02-0.1 wt %) lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal in the form of multicrystalline sheet was gown by the edge defined film fed growth (EFG) technique. Crystals were grown in argon gas atmosphere using graphite crucible and stainless steel die. The systematic incorporation of Eu inside the host LiF lattice was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve was recorded on annealed (AN) crystals after irradiation with a gamma dose of 15 Gy. The effect of different concentration of Eu in enhancing the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of LiF was studied. The normalized peak height of the Eu-doped LiF crystal was nearly 12 times that of the LiF crystals. The optimized concentration of Eu in LiF was found to be 0.05wt% at which maximum TL intensity was observed with main TL peak positioned at 185 °C. At higher concentration TL intensity decreases due to the formation of precipitates in the form of clusters or aggregates. The nature of the energy traps in Eu doped LiF was analysed through glow curve deconvolution. The trap depth was found to be in the range of 0.2 – 0.5 eV. These results showed that doping with Eu enhances the TL intensity by creating more defect sites for capturing of electron and holes during irradiation which might be useful for dosimetry application.
59
67733
A Comparative Study of a Defective Superconductor/ Semiconductor-Dielectric Photonic Crystal
Abstract:
Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.
58
64230
Anti-Scale Magnetic Method as a Prevention Method for Calcium Carbonate Scaling
Abstract:
The effect of anti-scale magnetic method (AMM) in retarding scaling deposition is confirmed by many researchers, to result in new crystal morphology, the crystal which has the tendency to remain suspended more than precipitated. AMM is considered as an economic method when compared to other common methods used for scale prevention in desalination plant as acid treatment and addition of antiscalant. The current project was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of AMM in preventing calcium carbonate scaling. The AMM was tested at different flow velocities (1.0, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.003 m/s), different operating temperatures (50, 70, and 90°C), different feed pH and different magnetic field strength. The results showed that AMM was effective in retarding calcium carbonate scaling deposition, and the performance of AMM depends strongly on the flow velocity. The scaling retention time was found to be affected by the operating temperatures, flow velocity, and magnetic strength (MS), and in general, it was found that as the operating temperatures increased the effectiveness of the AMM in retarding calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) scaling increased.
57
6667
Enhancement in Seebeck Coefficient of MBE Grown Un-Doped ZnO by Thermal Annealing
Abstract:
In this paper, we have reported an enhancement in Seebeck coefficient of un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on silicon (001) substrate by annealing treatment. The grown ZnO thin films were annealed in oxygen environment at 500°C – 800°C, keeping a step of 100°C for one hour. Room temperature Seebeck measurements showed that Seebeck coefficient and power factor increased from 222 to 510 µV/K and 8.8×10^-6 to 2.6×10^-4 Wm^-1K^-2 as annealing temperature increased from 500°C to 800°C respectively. This is the highest value of Seebeck coefficient ever reported for un-doped MBE grown ZnO according to best of our knowledge. This observation was related with the improvement of crystal structure of grown films with annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrated that full width half maximum (FWHM) of ZnO (002) plane decreased and crystalline size increased as the annealing temperature increased. Photoluminescence study revealed that the intensity of band edge emission increased and defect emission decreased as annealing temperature increased because the density of oxygen vacancy related donor defects decreased with annealing temperature. This argument was further justified by the Hall measurements which showed a decreasing trend of carrier concentration with annealing temperature.
56
51231
Topochemical Synthesis of Epitaxial Silicon Carbide on Silicon
Abstract:
A method is developed for the solid-phase synthesis of epitaxial layers when the substrate itself is involved into a topochemical reaction and the reaction product grows in the interior of substrate layer. It opens up new possibilities for the relaxation of the elastic energy due to the attraction of point defects formed during the topochemical reaction in anisotropic media. The presented method of silicon carbide (SiC) formation employs a topochemical reaction between the single-crystalline silicon (Si) substrate and gaseous carbon monoxide (CO). The corresponding theory of interaction of point dilatation centers in anisotropic crystals is developed. It is eliminated that the most advantageous location of the point defects is the direction (111) in crystals with cubic symmetry. The single-crystal SiC films with the thickness up to 200 nm have been grown on Si (111) substrates owing to the topochemical reaction with CO. Grown high-quality single-crystal SiC films do not contain misfit dislocations despite the huge lattice mismatch value of ~20%. Also the possibility of growing of thick wide-gap semiconductor films on these templates SiC/Si(111) and, accordingly, its integration into Si electronics, is demonstrated. Finally, the ab initio theory of SiC formation due to the topochemical reaction has been developed.
55
19035
Numerical Design and Characterization of MOVPE Grown Nitride Based Semiconductors
Abstract:
In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S are addressed. The aim of this study was to design the optimal fluid flow and thermal conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product. Since there are many agents influencing reactions on the crystal growth area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. Variations of process pressure and hydrogen mass flow rates have been considered. According to the fact that it’s impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, detailed 3D modeling has been used to get an insight of the process conditions. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in the numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate. The present approach has been applied to enhance the performance of AIX-200/4RF-S reactor.
54
96316
Performance and Damage Detection of Composite Structural Insulated Panels Subjected to Shock Wave Loading
Abstract:
In the current study, a new type of Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) is developed and investigated its performance against shock loading which can replace the conventional wooden structural materials. The CSIPs is made of Fibre Cement Board (FCB)/aluminum as the facesheet and the expanded polystyrene foam as the core material. As tornadoes are very often in the western countries, it is suggestable to monitor the health of the CSIPs during its lifetime. So, the composite structure is installed with three smart sensors located randomly at definite locations. Each smart sensor is fabricated with an embedded half stainless phononic crystal sensor attached to both ends of the nylon shaft that can resist the shock and impact on facesheet as well as polystyrene foam core and safeguards the system. In addition to the granular crystal sensors, the accelerometers are used in the horizontal spanning and vertical spanning with a definite offset distance. To estimate the health and damage of the CSIP panel using granular crystal sensor, shock wave loading experiments are conducted. During the experiments, the time of flight response from the granular sensors is measured. The main objective of conducting shock wave loading experiments on the CSIP panels is to study the effect and the sustaining capacity of the CSIP panels in the extreme hazardous situations like tornados and hurricanes which are very common in western countries. The effects have been replicated using a shock tube, an instrument that can be used to create the same wind and pressure intensity of tornado for the experimental study. Numerous experiments have been conducted to investigate the flexural strength of the CSIP. Furthermore, the study includes the damage detection using three smart sensors embedded in the CSIPs during the shock wave loading.
53
28451
Standard Gibbs Energy of Formation and Entropy of Lanthanide-Iron Oxides of Garnet Crystal Structure
Abstract:
Standard Gibbs energy of formation ΔGfor(298.15) of lanthanide-iron double oxides of garnet-type crystal structure R3Fe5O12 - RIG (R – are rare earth ions) from initial oxides are evaluated. The calculation is based on the data of standard entropies S298.15 and standard enthalpies ΔH298.15 of formation of compounds which are involved in the process of garnets synthesis. Gibbs energy of formation is presented as temperature function ΔGfor(T) for the range 300-1600K. The necessary starting thermodynamic data were obtained from calorimetric study of heat capacity and by using the semi-empirical method for calculation of ΔH298.15 (formation). Thermodynamic functions for standard temperature – enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy - are recommended as reference data for technological evaluations. Through the isostructural series of rare earth-iron garnets the correlation between thermodynamic properties and characteristics of lanthanide ions are elucidated.
52
54969
Theoretical Approach to Kinetic of Heat Transfer under Irradiation
Abstract:
A theoretical approach to describe kinetic of heat transfer between an irradiated sample and environment is developed via formalism of the Complex systems and kinetic equations. The irradiated material is a metastable system with non-linear feedbacks, which can give rise to different regimes of buildup and annealing of radiation-induced defects, heating and heat transfer with environment. Irradiation with energetic particles heats the sample and produces defects of the crystal lattice of the sample. The crystal with defects accumulates extra (non-thermal) energy, which is transformed into heat during the defect annealing. Any increase of temperature leads to acceleration of defect annealing, to additional transformation of non-thermal energy into heat and to further growth of the temperature. Thus a non-linear feedback is formed. It is shown that at certain conditions of irradiation this non-linear feedback leads to self-oscillations of the defect density, the temperature of the irradiated sample and the heat transfer between the sample and environment. Simulation and analysis of these phenomena is performed. The frequency of the self-oscillations is obtained. It is determined that the period of the self-oscillations is varied from minutes to several hours depending on conditions of irradiation and properties of the sample. Obtaining results are compared with experimental ones.
51
94548
Design of Photonic Crystal with Defect Layer to Eliminate Interface Corrugations for Obtaining Unidirectional and Bidirectional Beam Splitting under Normal Incidence
Abstract:
Working with a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) structure which does not include surface corrugations, unidirectional transmission and dual-beam splitting are observed under normal incidence as a result of the strong diffractions caused by the embedded defect layer. The defect layer has twice the period of the regular PC segments which sandwich the defect layer. Although the PC has even number of rows, the structural symmetry is broken due to the asymmetric placement of the defect layer with respect to the symmetry axis of the regular PC. The simulations verify that efficient splitting and occurrence of strong diffractions are related to the dispersion properties of the Floquet-Bloch modes of the photonic crystal. Unidirectional and bi-directional splitting, which are associated with asymmetric transmission, arise due to the dominant contribution of the first positive and first negative diffraction orders. The effect of the depth of the defect layer is examined by placing single defect layer in varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission is still valid even if the zeroth order is not coupled. This transmission is due to evanescent waves which reach to the deeply embedded defect layer and couple to higher order modes. In an additional selected performance, whichever surface is illuminated, i.e., in both upper and lower surface illumination cases, incident beam is split into two beams of equal intensity at the output surface where the intensity of the out-going beams are equal for both illumination cases. That is, although the structure is asymmetric, symmetric bidirectional transmission with equal transmission values is demonstrated and the structure mimics the behavior of symmetric structures. Finally, simulation studies including the examination of a coupled-cavity defect for two different permittivity values (close to the permittivity values of GaAs or Si and alumina) reveal unidirectional splitting for a wider band of operation in comparison to the bandwidth obtained in the case of a single embedded defect layer. Since the dielectric materials that are utilized are low-loss and weakly dispersive in a wide frequency range including microwave and optical frequencies, the studied structures should be scalable to the mentioned ranges.
50
18002
A Slip Transmission through Alpha/Beta Boundaries in a Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Abstract:
Single alpha-beta colony micro-pillars have been manufactured from a polycrystalline commercial Ti-6Al-4V sample using Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Each pillar contained two alpha lamellae separated by a thin fillet of beta phase. A nano-indenter was then used to conduct uniaxial micro-compression tests on Ti alloy single crystals, using a diamond flat tip as a compression platen. By controlling the crystal orientation along the micro-pillar using Electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) different slip systems have been selectively activated. The advantage of the micro-compression method over conventional mechanical testing techniques is the ability to localize a single crystal volume which is characterizable after deformation. By matching the stress-strain relations resulting from micro-compression experiments to TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) studies of slip transmission mechanisms through the α-β interfaces, some proper constitutive material parameters such as the role of these interfaces in determining yield, strain-hardening behaviour, initial dislocation density and the critical resolved shear stress are suggested.
49
26057
A Machining Method of Cross-Shape Nano Channel and Experiments for Silicon Substrate
Abstract:
The paper innovatively proposes using the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) and AFM machine to establish a machining method of cross-shape nanochannel on single-crystal silicon substrate. As for machining a cross-shape nanochannel by AFM machine, the paper develop a method of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove at a fixed down force by using SDFE theory and combining the planned cutting path of cross-shape nanochannel up to 5th machining layer it finally achieves a cross-shape nanochannel at a cutting depth of around 20nm. Since there may be standing burr at the machined cross-shape nanochannel edge, the paper uses a smaller down force to cut the edge of the cross-shape nanochannel in order to lower the height of standing burr and converge the height of standing burr at the edge to below 0.54nm as set by the paper. Finally, the paper conducts experiments of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove on single-crystal silicon by AFM probe, and compares the simulation and experimental results. It is proved that this proposed machining method of cross-shape nanochannel is feasible.
48
113573
Semiconductor Properties of Natural Phosphate Application to Photodegradation of Basic Dyes in Single and Binary Systems
Abstract:
Heterogeneous photocatalysis over semiconductors has proved its effectiveness in the treatment of wastewaters since it works under soft conditions. It has emerged as a promising technique, giving rise to less toxic effluents and offering the opportunity of using sunlight as a sustainable and renewable source of energy. Many compounds have been used as photocatalysts. Though synthesized ones are intensively used, they remain expensive, and their synthesis involves special conditions. We thus thought of implementing a natural material, a phosphate ore, due to its low cost and great availability. Our work is devoted to the removal of hazardous organic pollutants, which cause several environmental problems and health risks. Among them, dye pollutants occupy a large place. This work relates to the study of the photodegradation of methyl violet (MV) and rhodamine B (RhB), in single and binary systems, under UV light and sunlight irradiation. Methyl violet is a triarylmethane dye, while RhB is a heteropolyaromatic dye belonging to the Xanthene family. In the first part of this work, the natural compound was characterized using several physicochemical and photo-electrochemical (PEC) techniques: X-Ray diffraction, chemical, and thermal analyses scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance measurements, and FTIR spectroscopy. The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical studies were performed with a Voltalab PGZ 301 potentiostat/galvanostat at room temperature. The structure of the phosphate material was well characterized. The photo-electrochemical (PEC) properties are crucial for drawing the energy band diagram, in order to suggest the formation of radicals and the reactions involved in the dyes photo-oxidation mechanism. The PEC characterization of the natural phosphate was investigated in neutral solution (Na₂SO₄, 0.5 M). The study revealed the semiconducting behavior of the phosphate rock. Indeed, the thermal evolution of the electrical conductivity was well fitted by an exponential type law, and the electrical conductivity increases with raising the temperature. The Mott–Schottky plot and current-potential J(V) curves recorded in the dark and under illumination clearly indicate n-type behavior. From the results of photocatalysis, in single solutions, the changes in MV and RhB absorbance in the function of time show that practically all of the MV was removed after 240 mn irradiation. For RhB, the complete degradation was achieved after 330 mn. This is due to its complex and resistant structure. In binary systems, it is only after 120 mn that RhB begins to be slowly removed, while about 60% of MV is already degraded. Once nearly all of the content of MV in the solution has disappeared (after about 250 mn), the remaining RhB is degraded rapidly. This behaviour is different from that observed in single solutions where both dyes are degraded since the first minutes of irradiation.
47
27975
Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Analysis on Transformer Oil by Correlating It with Various Oil Parameters
Abstract:
Power transformer is one of the most important devices that are used in power station. Due to several fault impending upon it or due to ageing, etc its life gets lowered. So, it becomes necessary to have diagnosis of oil for fault analysis. Due to the chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical stress the insulating material in the power transformer degraded. It is important to regularly assess the condition of oil and the remaining life of the power transformer. In this paper UV-VIS absorption graph area is correlated with moisture content, Flash point, IFT and Density of Transformer oil. Since UV-VIS absorption graph area varies accordingly with the variation in different transformer parameters. So by obtaining the correlation among different oil parameters for oil with respect to UV-VIS absorption area, decay contents of transformer oil can be predicted
46
74197
Synthesis of Rare-Earth Pyrazolate Compounds
Abstract:
Since coordination behavior of pyrazoles and pyrazolate ions are widely versatile towards a great range of metals such as d-block, f-block as well as main group elements; they attract interest as ligands for preparing compounds. A variety of rare-earth pyrazolate complexes have been synthesized by redox transmetalation/protolysis (RTP) previously, therefore, a variety of rare-earth pyrazolate complexes using two pyrazoles, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (Me₂pzH) and 3,5-di-tert -butylpyrazolate (t-Bu₂pzH), in which the structures span the whole La-Lu array beside Sc and Y has been synthesized by RTP reaction. There have been further developments in this study: Synthesizing structure of [Tb(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ which is isomorphous with those of the previously reported [Dy(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ and [Lu(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ analogous that has two µ-1(N):2(Nʹ)-Me2pz ligands (the most common pyrazolate ligation for non-rare-earth complexes). Previously most of the reported compounds using t-Bu2pzH were monomeric compounds however the lanthanum derivative [La(Me₂pz)₃thf₂] ,which has been reported previously without crystal structure, has now been structurally characterized, along with cerium and lutetium analogue. Also a polymeric structure with samarium has now been synthesized which the neodymium analogue has been reported previously and comparing these polymeric structures can support the idea that the geometry of Sm(tBu₂pz)₃ affect the coordination of the solvent. Also, by using 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) instead of tetrahydrofuran (THF) new [Er(tBu₂pz)₃ (dme)₂] has now been reported.
45
36334
Growth and Characterization of Bis-Thiourea Nickel Barium Chloride Single Crystals
Abstract:
Metal bis-thiourea type organo-metallic crystals are popular as non-linear optical materials. Bis-thiourea nickel barium chloride was synthesized and crystals were grown by slow aqueous solvent evaporation technique. The transparent and colorless crystals having maximum dimensions of 13 mm x 8 mm x 2.2 mm were obtained. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the content of nickel and barium in the grown crystals. The powder XRD analysis suggested orthorhombic crystal structure with unit cell parameters as: a= 9.70 Å, b= 10.68 Å and c= 17.95 Å. The FTIR spectroscopy study confirmed the presence of various functional groups. The UV-vis spectroscopy study indicated that the crystals were transparent in the visible region with 90% transmittance level further optical parameters were studied. From the TGA it was found that the crystals remained stable up to 170 0C and then decomposed through two decomposition stages. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations of dielectric constant, dielectric loss were studied with frequency. It was found that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decreased as the frequency of applied field increased. The results are discussed.
44
13404
Purification and Pre-Crystallization of Recombinant PhoR Cytoplasmic Domain Protein from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37Rv
Abstract:
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and extensively drug-resistant strains have become a major public concern. One of the potential candidates for drug target is the cytoplasmic domain of PhoR Histidine Kinase, a part of the Two Component System (TCS) PhoR-PhoP in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TCS PhoR-PhoP relay extracellular signal to control the expression of 114 virulent associated genes in Mtb. The 3D structure of PhoR cytoplasmic domain is needed to screen novel drugs using structure based drug discovery. The PhoR cytoplasmic domain from Mtb H37Rv was overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), then purified using IMAC Ni-NTA Agarose his-tag affinity column and DEAE-ion exchange column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified protein was estimated to be 37 kDa after SDS-PAGE analysis. This sample was used for pre-crystallization screening by applying sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Natrix (HR2-116) 48 solutions crystal screen kit at 25ºC. Needle-like crystals were observed after the seventh day of incubation in test solution No.47 (0.1 M KCl, 0.01 M MgCl2.6H2O, 0.05 M Tris-Cl pH 8.5, 30% v/v PEG 4000). Further testing is required for confirming the crystal.
43
81581
Analysis of Thermal Damage Characteristics of High Pressure Turbine Blade According to Off-Design Operating Conditions
Abstract:
Gas turbines are heat engines that convert chemical energy into electrical energy through mechanical energy. Since their high energy density per unit volume and low pollutant emissions, gas turbines are classified as clean energy. In order to obtain better performance, the turbine inlet temperature of the current gas turbine is operated at about 1600℃, and thermal damage is a very serious problem. Especially, these thermal damages are more prominent in off-design conditions than in design conditions. In this study, the thermal damage characteristics of high temperature components of a gas turbine made of a single crystal material are studied numerically for the off-design operating conditions. The target gas turbine is configured as a reheat cycle and is operated in peak load operation mode, not normal operation. In particular, the target gas turbine features a lot of low-load operation. In this study, a commercial code, ANSYS 18.2, was used for analyzing the thermal-flow coupling problems. As a result, the flow separation phenomenon on the pressure side due to the flow reduction was remarkable at the off-design condition, and the high heat transfer coefficient at the upper end of the suction surface due to the tip leakage flow was appeared.
42
104332
Using Surface Entropy Reduction to Improve the Crystallization Properties of a Recombinant Antibody Fragment RNA Crystallization Chaperone
Abstract:
Phage displaying synthetic Fab libraries have been used to obtain Fabs that bind to specific RNA targets with high affinity and specificity. These Fabs have been demonstrated to facilitate RNA crystallization. However, the antibody framework used in the construction of these phage display libraries contains numerous bulky, flexible, and charged residues, which facilitate solubility and hinder aggregation. These residues can interfere with crystallization due to the entropic cost associated with burying them within crystal contacts. To systematically reduce the surface entropy of the Fabs and improve their crystallization properties, a protein engineering strategy termed surface entropy reduction (SER) is being applied to the Fab framework. In this approach, high entropy residues are mutated to smaller ones such as alanine or serine. Focusing initially on Fab BL3-6, which binds an RNA AAACA pentaloop with 20nM affinity, the SER P server (http://services.mbi.ucla.edu/SER/) was used and analysis was performed on existing RNA-Fab BL3-6 co-crystal structures. From this analysis twelve surface entropy reduced mutants were designed. These SER mutants were expressed and are now being measured for their crystallization and diffraction performance with various RNA targets. So far, one mutant has generated 3.02 angstrom diffraction with the yjdF riboswitch RNA. Ultimately, the most productive mutations will be combined into a new Fab framework to be used in a optimized phage displayed Fab library.
41
39191
Alloy Design of Single Crystal Ni-base Superalloys by Combined Method of Neural Network and CALPHAD
Abstract:
The neural network (NN) method is applied to alloy development of single crystal Ni-base Superalloys with low density and improved mechanical strength. A set of 1200 dataset which includes chemical composition of the alloys, applied stress and temperature as inputs and density and time to rupture as outputs is used for training and testing the network. Thermodynamic phase diagram modeling of the screened alloys is performed with Thermocalc software to model the equilibrium phases and also microsegregation in solidification processing. The model is first trained by 80% of the data and the 20% rest is used to test it. Comparing the predicted values and the experimental ones showed that a well-trained network is capable of accurately predicting the density and time to rupture strength of the Ni-base superalloys. Modeling results is used to determine the effect of alloying elements, stress, temperature and gamma-prime phase volume fraction on rupture strength of the Ni-base superalloys. This approach is in line with the materials genome initiative and integrated computed materials engineering approaches promoted recently with the aim of reducing the cost and time for development of new alloys for critical aerospace components. This work has been funded by TUBITAK under grant number 112M783.
40
23259
Determination of Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies on Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Nanosensors
Abstract:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is the most common autoimmune disorder of the body's own immune system attacking healthy cells. RA has both articular and systemic effects.Until now romatiod factor (RF) assay is used the most commonly diagnosed RA but it is not specific. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are IgG autoantibodies which recognize citrullinated peptides and offer improved specificity in early diagnosis of RA compared to RF. Anti-CCP antibodies have specificity for the diagnosis of RA from 91 to 98% and the sensitivity rate of 41-68%. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are materials that are easy to prepare, less expensive, stable have a talent for molecular recognition and also can be manufactured in large quantities with good reproducibility. Molecular recognition-based adsorption techniques have received much attention in several fields because of their high selectivity for target molecules. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is an effective, simple, inexpensive approach mass changes that can be converted into an electrical signal. The applications for specific determination of chemical substances or biomolecules, crystal electrodes, cover by the thin films for bind or adsorption of molecules. In this study, we have focused our attention on combining of molecular imprinting into nanofilms and QCM nanosensor approaches and producing QCM nanosensor for anti-CCP, chosen as a model protein, using anti-CCP imprinted nanofilms. For this aim, anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry. The non-imprinted nanosensor was also prepared to evaluate the selectivity of the imprinted nanosensor. Anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was tested for real-time detection of anti-CCP from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using anti-CCP solutions with different concentrations. The responses related with mass shifts (Δm) and frequency shifts (Δf) were used to evaluate adsorption properties and to calculate binding (Ka) and dissociation (Kd) constants. To show the selectivity of the anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor, competitive adsorption of anti-CCP and IgM was investigated.The results indicate that anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor has a higher adsorption capabilities for anti-CCP than for IgM, due to selective cavities in the polymer structure.
39
41432
Synthesis, Crystallography and Anti-TB Activity of Substituted Benzothiazole Analogues
Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) infection is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and it is one of the most threatening and wide spread infectious diseases in the world. Benzothiazole derivatives are found to have diverse chemical reactivity and broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. Some of the important pharmacological activities shown by the benzothiazole analogues are antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tubercular, anti-leishmanial, anticonvulsant and anti-HIV properties. Keeping all these facts in mind in the present investigation it was envisaged to synthesize a series of novel {2-(benzo[d]-thiazol-2-yl-methoxy)-substitutedaryl}-(substitutedaryl)-methanones (4a-f) and characterize by IR, NMR (1H and 13C), HRMS and single crystal x-ray studies. The title compounds are investigated for in vitro anti-tubercular activity against two TB strains such as H37Rv (ATCC 25177) and MDR-MTB (multi drug resistant MTB resistant to Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol) by agar diffusion method. Among the synthesized compounds in the series, test compound {2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-methoxy)-5-fluorophenyl}-(4-chlorophenyl)-methanone (2c) was found to exhibit significant activity with MICs of 1 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL against H37Rv and MDR-MTB, respectively when compared to standard drugs. Single crystal x-ray studies was used to study intra and intermolecular interactions, including polymorphism behavior of the test compounds, but none of the compounds exhibited polymorphism behavior.
38
46137
Effect of Oxygen Ion Irradiation on the Structural, Spectral and Optical Properties of L-Arginine Acetate Single Crystals
Abstract:
Ion beams play a significant role in the process of tuning the properties of materials. Based on the radiation behavior, the engineering materials are categorized into two different types. The first one comprises organic solids which are sensitive to the energy deposited in their electronic system and the second one comprises metals which are insensitive to the energy deposited in their electronic system. However, exposure to swift heavy ions alters this general behavior. Depending on the mass, kinetic energy and nuclear charge, an ion can produce modifications within a thin surface layer or it can penetrate deeply to produce long and narrow distorted area along its path. When a high energetic ion beam impinges on a material, it causes two different types of changes in the material due to the columbic interaction between the target atom and the energetic ion beam: (i) inelastic collisions of the energetic ion with the atomic electrons of the material; and (ii) elastic scattering from the nuclei of the atoms of the material, which is extremely responsible for relocating the atoms of matter from their lattice position. The exposure of the heavy ions renders the material return to equilibrium state during which the material undergoes surface and bulk modifications which depends on the mass of the projectile ion, physical properties of the target material, its energy, and beam dimension. It is well established that electronic stopping power plays a major role in the defect creation mechanism provided it exceeds a threshold which strongly depends on the nature of the target material. There are reports available on heavy ion irradiation especially on crystalline materials to tune their physical and chemical properties. L-Arginine Acetate [LAA] is a potential semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal and its optical, mechanical and thermal properties have already been reported The main objective of the present work is to enhance or tune the structural and optical properties of LAA single crystals by heavy ion irradiation. In the present study, a potential nonlinear optical single crystal, L-arginine acetate (LAA) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown LAA single crystal was irradiated with oxygen ions at the dose rate of 600 krad and 1M rad in order to tune the structural and optical properties. The structural properties of pristine and oxygen ions irradiated LAA single crystals were studied using Powder X- ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectral studies which reveal the structural changes that are generated due to irradiation. Optical behavior of pristine and oxygen ions irradiated crystals is studied by UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence analyses. From this investigation we can concluded that oxygen ions irradiation modifies the structural and optical properties of LAA single crystals.
37
55840
Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter
Abstract:
Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.
36
99868
Spin-Flip and Magnetoelectric Coupling in Acentric and Non-Polar Pb₂MnO₄
Abstract:
Stress-mediated coupling of electrical and magnetic dipoles in a single phase multiferroic is rare. Pb₂MnO₄ belong to multi-piezo crystal class with the space group P⁻42₁
35
45067
Describing the Fine Electronic Structure and Predicting Properties of Materials with ATOMIC MATTERS Computation System
Abstract:
We present the concept and scientific methods and algorithms of our computation system called ATOMIC MATTERS. This is the first presentation of the new computer package, that allows its user to describe physical properties of atomic localized electron systems subject to electromagnetic interactions. Our solution applies to situations where an unclosed electron 2p/3p/3d/4d/5d/4f/5f subshell interacts with an electrostatic potential of definable symmetry and external magnetic field. Our methods are based on Crystal Electric Field (CEF) approach, which takes into consideration the electrostatic ligands field as well as the magnetic Zeeman effect. The application allowed us to predict macroscopic properties of materials such as: Magnetic, spectral and calorimetric as a result of physical properties of their fine electronic structure. We emphasize the importance of symmetry of charge surroundings of atom/ion, spin-orbit interactions (spin-orbit coupling) and the use of complex number matrices in the definition of the Hamiltonian. Calculation methods, algorithms and convention recalculation tools collected in ATOMIC MATTERS were chosen to permit the prediction of magnetic and spectral properties of materials in isostructural series.
34
76404
Antimicrobial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Non-Thermal Plasma
Abstract:
Microbial colonization of medical instruments, catheters, implants, etc. is a serious problem in the spread of nosocomial infections. Biofilms exhibit enormous resistance to environment. The resistance of biofilm populations to antibiotic or biocides often increases by two to three orders of magnitude in comparison with suspension populations. Subjects of interests are substances or physical processes that primarily cause the destruction of biofilm, while the released cells can be killed by existing antibiotics. In addition, agents that do not have a strong lethal effect do not cause such a significant selection pressure to further enhance resistance. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is defined as neutral, ionized gas composed of particles (photons, electrons, positive and negative ions, free radicals and excited or non-excited molecules) which are in permanent interaction. In this work, the effect of NTP generated by the cometary corona with a metallic grid on the formation and stability of biofilm and metabolic activity of cells in biofilm was studied. NTP was applied on biofilm populations of Staphylococcus epidermidis DBM 3179, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DBM 3081, DBM 3777, ATCC 15442 and ATCC 10145, Escherichia coli DBM 3125 and Candida albicans DBM 2164 grown on solid media on Petri dishes and on the titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surface used for the production joint replacements. Erythromycin (for S. epidermidis), polymyxin B (for E. coli and P. aeruginosa), amphotericin B (for C. albicans) and ceftazidime (for P. aeruginosa) were used to study the combined effect of NTP and antibiotics. Biofilms were quantified by crystal violet assay. Metabolic activity of the cells in biofilm was measured using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) colorimetric test based on the reduction of MTT into formazan by the dehydrogenase system of living cells. Fluorescence microscopy was applied to visualize the biofilm on the surface of the titanium alloy; SYTO 13 was used as a fluorescence probe to stain cells in the biofilm. It has been shown that biofilm populations of all studied microorganisms are very sensitive to the type of used NTP. The inhibition zone of biofilm recorded after 60 minutes exposure to NTP exceeded 20 cm², except P. aeruginosa DBM 3777 and ATCC 10145, where it was about 9 cm². Also metabolic activity of cells in biofilm differed for individual microbial strains. High sensitivity to NTP was observed in S. epidermidis, in which the metabolic activity of biofilm decreased after 30 minutes of NTP exposure to 15% and after 60 minutes to 1%. Conversely, the metabolic activity of cells of C. albicans decreased to 53% after 30 minutes of NTP exposure. Nevertheless, this result can be considered very good. Suitable combinations of exposure time of NTP and the concentration of antibiotic achieved in most cases a remarkable synergic effect on the reduction of the metabolic activity of the cells of the biofilm. For example, in the case of P. aeruginosa DBM 3777, a combination of 30 minutes of NTP with 1 mg/l of ceftazidime resulted in a decrease metabolic activity below 4%.
33
59022
Single Crystal Growth in Floating-Zone Method and Properties of Spin Ladders: Quantum Magnets
Abstract:
Materials in which the electrons are strongly correlated provide some of the most challenging and exciting problems in condensed matter physics today. After the discovery of high critical temperature superconductivity in layered or two-dimensional copper oxides, many physicists got attention in cuprates and it led to an upsurge of interest in the synthesis and physical properties of copper-oxide based material. The quest to understand superconducting mechanism in high-temperature cuprates, drew physicist’s attention to somewhat simpler compounds consisting of spin-chains or one-dimensional lattice of coupled spins. Low-dimensional quantum magnets are of huge contemporary interest in basic sciences as well emerging technologies such as quantum computing and quantum information theory, and heat management in microelectronic devices. Spin ladder is an example of quasi one-dimensional quantum magnets which provides a bridge between one and two dimensional materials. One of the examples of quasi one-dimensional spin-ladder compounds is Sr14Cu24O41, which exhibits a lot of interesting and exciting physical phenomena in low dimensional systems. Very recently, the ladder compound Sr14Cu24O41 was shown to exhibit long-distance quantum entanglement crucial to quantum information theory. Also, it is well known that hole-compensation in this material results in very high (metal-like) anisotropic thermal conductivity at room temperature. These observations suggest that Sr14Cu24O41 is a potential multifunctional material which invites further detailed investigations. To investigate these properties one must needs a large and high quality of single crystal. But these systems are showing incongruently melting behavior, which brings many difficulties to grow a large and quality of single crystals. Hence, we are using TSFZ (Travelling Solvent Floating Zone) method to grow the high quality of single crystals of the low dimensional magnets. Apart from this, it has unique crystal structure (alternating stacks of plane containing edge-sharing CuO2 chains, and the plane containing two-leg Cu2O3 ladder with intermediate Sr layers along the b- axis), which is also incommensurate in nature. It exhibits abundant physical phenomenon such as spin dimerization, crystallization of charge holes and charge density wave. The maximum focus of research so far involved in introducing defects on A-site (Sr). However, apart from the A-site (Sr) doping, there are only few studies in which the B-site (Cu) doping of polycrystalline Sr14Cu24O41 have been discussed and the reason behind this is the possibility of two doping sites for Cu (CuO2 chain and Cu2O3 ladder). Therefore, in our present work, the crystals (pristine and Cu-site doped) were grown by using TSFZ method by tuning the growth parameters. The Laue diffraction images, optical polarized microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images confirm the quality of the grown crystals. Here, we report the single crystal growth, magnetic and transport properties of Sr14Cu24O41 and its lightly doped variants (magnetic and non-magnetic) containing less than 1% of Co, Ni, Al and Zn impurities. Since, any real system will have some amount of weak disorder, our studies on these ladder compounds with controlled dilute disorder would be significant in the present context.
32
47969
Understanding Magnetic Properties of Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 Using Local Structure Probes
Abstract:
Co-existence of long-range ferromagnetism and semi-conductivity with correlated behavior of structural, magnetic, optical and electrical properties in various sites doping at CdCr2Se4 makes it a most promising candidate for spin-based electronic applications and magnetic devices. It orders ferromagnetically below TC = 130 K with a direct band gap of ~ 1.5 eV. The magnetic ordering is believed to result from strong competition between the direct antiferromagnetic Cr-Cr spin couplings and the ferromagnetic Cr-Se-Cr exchange interactions. With an aim of understanding the influence of crystal structure on its magnetic properties without disturbing the magnetic site, we investigated four compositions with 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% of Sn-substitution at Cd-site. Partial substitution of Cd2+ (0.78Å) by small sized nonmagnetic ion, Sn4+ (0.55Å), is expected to bring about local lattice distortion as well as a change in electronic charge distribution. The structural disorder would affect the Cd/Sn – Se bonds thus affecting the Cr-Cr and Cr-Se-Cr bonds. Whereas, the charge imbalance created due to Sn4+ substitution at Cd2+ leads to the possibility of Cr mixed valence state. Our investigation of the local crystal structure using the EXAFS, Raman spectroscopy and magnetic properties using SQUID magnetometry of the Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 series reflects this premise. All compositions maintain the Fd3m cubic symmetry with tetrahedral distribution of Sn at Cd-site, as confirmed by XRD analysis. Lattice parameters were determined from the Rietveld refinement technique of the XRD data and further confirmed from the EXAFS spectra recorded at Cr K-edge. Presence of five Raman-active phonon vibrational modes viz. (T2g (1), T2g (2), T2g (3), Eg, A1g) in the Raman spectra further confirms the crystal symmetry. Temperature dependence of the Raman data provides interesting insight to the spin– phonon coupling, known to dominate the magneto-capacitive properties in the parent compound. Below the magnetic ordering temperature, the longitudinal damping of Eg mode associated with Se-Cd/Sn-Se bending and T2g (2) mode associated to Cr-Se-Cr interaction, show interesting deviations with respect to increase in Sn substitution. Besides providing the estimate of TC, the magnetic measurements recorded as a function of field provide the values of total magnetic moment for all the studied compositions indicative of formation of multiple Cr valences.
31
97825
Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxins
Abstract:
Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of Bacilli and it produces ICP (insecticidal crystal protein) Cry toxins or Cysts toxins. Spores are produced as parasporal crystalline inclusions bodies (also known as endotoxins) at the onset of sporulation during the stationary growth phase. During vegetative growth that does not form crystals and is called vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and secreted an insecticidal protein (SIP). Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is important for pest management either in the form of insecticides or through incorporated in the gene of the crop. Bioassays were conducted on the F2 generation of 1st instar larvae of H. armigera by the diet incorporation method to determine the susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.11 to 1.06 µg/ml and moult inhibitory concentration (MIC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.05 to 0.25 µg/ml. Cry1Ac was found most toxic to 1st instar larvae of H. armigera as compared to other Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The experimental results are important to policy-makers and technology providers to develop strategies for the exploitation of transgenic Bt cotton varieties as a component of integrated pest management.
30
27150
Social Media as a Distribution Channel for Thailand’s Rice Berry Product
Abstract:
Nowadays, it is a globalization era which social media plays an important role to the lifestyle as an information source, tools to connect people together and etc. This research is object to find out about the significant level of the social media as a distribution channel to the agriculture product of Thailand. In this research, the agriculture product is the Rice Berry which is the cross-bred unmilled rice producing dark violet grain, is a combination of Hom Nin Rice and Thai Jasmine/ Fragrant Rice 105. Rice Berry has a very high nutrition and nice aroma so the product is in the growth stage of the product cycle. The problem for the Rice Berry product in Thailand is the production and the distribution channel. This study is to confirm that the social media is another option as the distribution channel for the product which is not a mass production product. This will be the role model for the other niche market product to select the distribution channel.
29
37502
Insight into Structure and Functions of of Acyl CoA Binding Protein of Leishmania major
Abstract:
Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a housekeeping protein which functions as an intracellular carrier of acyl-CoA esters. Given the fact that the amastigote stage (blood stage) of Leishmania depends largely on fatty acids as the energy source, of which a large part is derived from its host, these proteins might have an important role in its survival. In Leishmania major, genome sequencing suggests the presence of six ACBPs, whose function remains largely unknown. For functional and structural characterization, one of the ACBP genes was cloned, and the protein was expressed and purified heterologously. Acyl-CoA ester binding and stoichiometry were analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry and Dynamic light scattering. Our results shed light on high affinity of ACBP towards longer acyl-CoA esters, such as myristoyl-CoA to arachidonoyl-CoA with single binding site. To understand the binding mechanism & dynamics, Nuclear magnetic resonance assignments of this protein are being done. The protein's crystal structure was determined at 1.5Å resolution and revealed a classical topology for ACBP, containing four alpha-helical bundles. In the binding pocket, the loop between the first and the second helix (16 – 26AA) is four residues longer from other extensively studied ACBPs (PfACBP) and it curls upwards towards the pantothenate moiety of CoA to provide a large tunnel space for long acyl chain insertion.
28
73507
Reentrant Spin-Glass State Formation in Polycrystalline Er₂NiSi₃
Abstract:
Magnetically frustrated systems are of great interest and one of the most adorable topics for the researcher of condensed matter physics, due to their various interesting properties, viz. ground state degeneracy, finite entropy at zero temperature, lowering of ordering temperature, etc. Ternary intermetallics with the composition RE₂TX₃ (RE = rare-earth element, T= d electron transition metal and X= p electron element) crystallize in hexagonal AlB₂ type crystal structure (space group P6/mmm). In a hexagonal crystal structure with the antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments, the center moment is geometrically frustrated. Magnetic frustration along with disorder arrangements of non-magnetic ions are the building blocks for metastable spin-glass ground state formation for most of the compounds of this stoichiometry. The newly synthesized compound Er₂NiSi₃ compound forms in single phase in AlB₂ type structure with space group P6/mmm. The compound orders antiferromagnetically below 5.4 K and spin freezing of the frustrated magnetic moments occurs below 3 K for the compound. The compound shows magnetic relaxation behavior and magnetic memory effect below its freezing temperature. Neutron diffraction patterns for temperatures below the spin freezing temperature have been analyzed using FULLPROF software package. Diffuse magnetic scattering at low temperatures yields spin glass state formation for the compound.
27
29753
A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures
Abstract:
Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of monofunctional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiateor, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.
26
53935
Enhanced Magnetoelastic Response near Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnetic Materials: Experimental and Theoretical Analysis
Abstract:
The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) recently has attracted constant interest in ferromagnetic systems for obtaining enhanced large magnetoelastic response. In the present study, structural and magnetoelastic properties of MPB involved ferromagnetic Tb1-xGdxFe2 (0&le;x&le;1) system has been investigated. The change of easy magnetic direction from &lt;111&gt; to &lt;100&gt; with increasing x up MPB composition of x=0.9 is detected by step-scanned [440] synchrotron X-ray diffraction reflections. The Gd substitution for Tb changes the composition for the anisotropy compensation near MPB composition of x=0.9, which was confirmed by the analysis of detailed scanned XRD, magnetization curves and the calculation of the first anisotropy constant K1. The spin configuration diagram accompanied with different crystal structures for Tb1-xGdxFe2 was designed. The calculated first anisotropy constant K1 shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.9. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction, and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant │&lambda;S∕K1│ appears at MPB composition, which makes it a potential material for magnetostrictive application. Based on experimental results, a theoretically approach was also proposed to signify that the facilitated magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic effect near MPB composition are a consequence of the anisotropic flattening of free energy of ferromagnetic crystal. Our work specifies the universal existence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials which is important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties and may provide a new route to develop advanced functional materials.
25
31313
Effect of UV Radiation to Change the Properties of the Composite PA+GF
Abstract:
The development of composite materials and the related design and manufacturing technologies is one of the most important advances in the history of materials. Composites are multifunctional materials having unprecedented mechanical and physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a particular application. Some composites also exhibit great resistance to high-temperature corrosion, oxidation, and wear. Polymers are widely used indoors and outdoors, therefore they are exposed to a chemical environment which may include atmospheric oxygen, acidic fumes, acidic rain, moisture heat and thermal shock, ultra-violet light, high energy radiation, etc. Different polymers are affected differently by these factors even though the amorphous polymers are more sensitive. Ageing is also important and it is defined as the process of deterioration of engineering materials resulting from the combined effects of atmospheric radiation, heat, oxygen, water, micro-organisms and other atmospheric factors.
24
27717
Synthesis, Structural and Vibrational Studies of a New Lacunar Apatite: LIPB2CA2(PO4)3
Abstract:
The phosphate is a natural resource of great importance in Morocco. In order to exploit this wealth, synthesis and studies of new a material based phosphate, were carried out. The apatite structure present o lot of characteristics, One of the main characteristics is to allow large and various substitutions for both cations and anions. Beside their biological importance in hard tissue (bone and teeth), apatites have been extensively studied for their potential use as fluorescent lamp phosphors or laser host materials.The apatite have interesting possible application fields such as in medicine as materials of bone filling, coating of dental implants, agro chemicals as artificial fertilizers. The LiPb2Ca2(PO4)3 was synthesized by the solid-state method, its crystal structure was investigated by Rietveld analysis using XRPD data. This material crystallizes with a structure of lacunar apatite anion deficit. The LiPb2Ca2(PO4)3 is hexagonal apatite at room temperature, adopting the space group P63/m (ITA No. 176), Rietveld refinements showed that the site 4f is shared by three cations Ca, Pb and Li. While the 6h is occupied by the Pb and Li cations. The structure can be described as built up from the PO4 tetrahedra and the sixfold coordination cavities, which delimit hexagonal tunnels along the c-axis direction. These tunnels are linked by the cations occupying the 4 f sites. Raman and Infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out. The observed frequencies were assigned and discussed on the basis of unit-cell group analysis and by comparison to other apatite-type materials.
23
105253
Ultrastrong Coupling of CdZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots and Breathing Plasmons in Aluminum Metal-Insulator-Metal Nanocavities in Near-Ultraviolet Spectrum
Abstract:
Strong coupling between excitons of quantum dots and plasmons in nanocavites can be realized at room temperature due to the strong confinement of the plasmon fields, which offers building blocks for quantum information systems or ultralow-power switches and lasers. In this work, by using cathodoluminescence, ultrastrong coupling with Rabi splitting above 1 eV between breathing plasmons in Aluminum metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and excited state of CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots was reported in near-UV spectrum. Analytic analysis and full-wave electromagnetic simulations provide the evidence for the strong coupling and confirm the hybridization of the QDs exciton and LSP breathing mode. This study opens the way for new emerging applications based on strongly coupled light-matter states all over the visible region down to ultra-violet frequencies.
22
52128
Non-Steroidal Microtubule Disrupting Analogues Induce Programmed Cell Death in Breast and Lung Cancer Cell Lines
Abstract:
A tetrahydroisoquinolinone (THIQ) core can be used to mimic the A,B-ring of colchicine site-binding microtubule disruptors such as 2-methoxyestradiol in the design of anti-cancer agents. Steroidomimeric microtubule disruptors were synthesized by introducing C'2 and C'3 of the steroidal A-ring to C'6 and C'7 of the THIQ core and by introducing a decorated hydrogen bond acceptor motif projecting from the steroidal D-ring to N'2. For this in vitro study, four non-steroidal THIQ-based analogues were investigated and comparative studies were done between the non-sulphamoylated compound STX 3450 and the sulphamoylated compounds STX 2895, STX 3329 and STX 3451. The objective of this study was to investigate the modes of cell death induced by these four THIQ-based analogues in A549 lung carcinoma epithelial cells and metastatic breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. Cytotoxicity studies to determine the half maximal growth inhibitory concentrations were done using spectrophotometric quantification via crystal violet staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Microtubule integrity and morphologic changes of exposed cells were investigated using polarization-optical transmitted light differential interference contrast microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometric quantification was used to determine apoptosis induction and the effect that THIQ-based analogues have on cell cycle progression. Signal transduction pathways were elucidated by quantification of the mitochondrial membrane integrity, cytochrome c release and caspase 3, -6 and -8 activation. Induction of autophagic cell death by the THIQ-based analogues was investigated by morphological assessment of fluorescent monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining of acidic vacuoles and by quantifying aggresome formation via flow cytometry. Results revealed that these non-steroidal microtubule disrupting analogues inhibited 50% of cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated microtubule depolarization and the resultant mitotic arrest was further confirmed through cell cycle analysis. Apoptosis induction via the intrinsic pathway was observed due to depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, induction of cytochrome c release as well as, caspase 3 activation. Potential involvement of programmed cell death type II was observed due to the presence of acidic vacuoles and aggresome formation. Necrotic cell death did not contribute significantly, indicated by stable LDH levels. This in vitro study revealed the induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway as well as possible involvement of autophagy after exposure to these THIQ-based analogues in both MDA-MB-231- and A549 cells. Further investigation of this series of anticancer drugs still needs to be conducted to elucidate the temporal, mechanistic and functional crosstalk mechanisms between the two observed programmed cell deaths pathways.
21
33349
A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerisation of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures
Abstract:
Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of mono functional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiator, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.
20
47629
Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA)-Differentiated THP-1 Monocytes as a Validated Microglial-Like Model in Vitro
Abstract:
Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS), contributing to both innate and adaptive immune response, and brain homeostasis. Activation of microglia occurs in response to a multitude of pathogenic stimuli in their microenvironment; this induces morphological and functional changes, resulting in a state of acute neuroinflammation which facilitates injury resolution. Adequate microglial function is essential for the health of the neuroparenchyma, with microglial dysfunction implicated in numerous CNS pathologies. Given the critical role that these macrophage-derived cells play in CNS homeostasis, there is a high demand for microglial models suitable for use in neuroscience research. The isolation of primary human microglia, however, is both difficult and costly, with microglial activation an unwanted but inevitable result of the extraction process. Consequently, there is a need for the development of alternative experimental models which exhibit morphological, biochemical and functional characteristics of human microglia without the difficulties associated with primary cell lines. In this study, our aim was to evaluate whether THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes would display microglial-like qualities following an induced differentiation, and, therefore, be suitable for use as surrogate microglia. To achieve this aim, THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes from acute monocytic leukaemia were differentiated with a range of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) concentrations (50-200 nM) using two different protocols: a 5-day continuous PMA exposure or a 3-day continuous PMA exposure followed by a 5-day rest in normal media. In each protocol and at each PMA concentration, microglial-like cell morphology was assessed through crystal violet staining and the presence of CD-14 microglial / macrophage cell surface marker. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (055: B5) was then added at a range of concentrations from 0-10 mcg/mL to activate the PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Functional microglial-like behavior was evaluated by quantifying the release of prostaglandin (PG)-E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α using mediator-specific ELISAs. Furthermore, production of global reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined fluorometrically using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2-DA) respectively. Following PMA-treatment, it was observed both differentiation protocols resulted in cells displaying distinct microglial morphology from 10 nM PMA. Activation of differentiated cells using LPS significantly augmented IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 release at all LPS concentrations under both differentiation protocols. Similarly, a significant increase in DCFH-DA and DAF-2-DA fluorescence was observed, indicative of increases in ROS and NO production. For all endpoints, the 5-day continuous PMA treatment protocol yielded significantly higher mediator levels than the 3-day treatment and 5-day rest protocol. Our data, therefore, suggests that the differentiation of THP-1 human monocyte cells with PMA yields a homogenous microglial-like population which, following stimulation with LPS, undergo activation to release a range of pro-inflammatory mediators associated with microglial activation. Thus, the use of PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells represents a suitable microglial model for in vitro research.
19
80548
Performance of a Lytic Bacteriophage Cocktail against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Conditions That Simulate the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment
Abstract:
Objectives: The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is a unique microbiological niche, wherein harmful bacteria persist for many years despite antibiotic therapy. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), the major culprit leading to lung decline and increased mortality, thrives in the lungs of patients with CF due to several factors that have been linked with poor antibiotic performance. Our group is investigating alternative therapies including bacteriophage cocktails with which we have previously demonstrated efficacy against planktonic organisms. In this study, we explored the effects of a 4-phage cocktail on Pa grown in two different conditions, intended to mirror the CF lung: a) alongside standard antibiotic treatment in pre-formed biofilms (structures formed by Pa-secreted exopolysaccharides which provide both physical and cell division barriers to antimicrobials and host defenses and b) in an acidic environment postulated to be present in the CF airway due both to the primary defect in bicarbonate secretion and secondary effects of inflammation. Methods: 16 Pa strains from CF patients at the Royal Brompton Hospital were selected based on sensitivity to a) ceftazidime/ tobramycin and b) the phage cocktail in a conventional plaque assay. To assess efficacy of phage in biofilms, 96 well plates with Pa (5x10⁷ CFU/ ml) were incubated in static conditions, allowing adherent bacterial colonies to form for 24 hr. Ceftazidime and tobramycin (both at 2 × MIC) were added, +/- bacteriophage (4x10⁸ PFU/mL) for a further 24 hr. Cell viability and biomass were estimated using fluorescent resazurin and crystal violet assays, respectively. To evaluate the effect of pH, strains were grown planktonically in shaking 96 well plates at pH 6.0, 6.6, 7.0 and 7.5 with tobramycin or phage, at varying concentrations. Cell viability was quantified by fluorescent resazurin assay. Results: For the biofilm assay, treatment groups were compared with untreated controls and expressed as percent reduction in cell viability and biomass. Addition of the 4-phage cocktail resulted in a 1.3-fold reduction in cell viability and 1.7-fold reduction in biomass (p < 0.001) when compared to standard antibiotic treatment alone. Notably, there was a 50 ± 15% reduction in cell viability and 60 ± 12% reduction in biomass (95% CI) for the 4 biofilms demonstrating the most resistance to antibiotic treatment. 83% of strains tested (n=6) showed decreased bacterial killing by tobramycin at acidic pHs (p < 0.01). However, 25% of strains (n=12) showed improved phage killing at acidic pHs (p < 0.05), with none showing the pattern of reduced efficacy at acidic pH demonstrated by tobramycin. Conclusion: The 4-phage anti-Pa cocktail tested against Pa performs well in pre-formed biofilms and in acidic environments; two conditions intended to mimic the CF lung. To our knowledge, these are the first data looking at the effects of subtle pH changes on phage-mediated bacterial killing in the context of Pa infection. These findings contribute to a growing body of evidence supporting the use of nebulised lytic bacteriophage as a treatment in the context of lung infection.
18
95083
Mechanical and Optical Properties of Doped Aluminum Nitride Thin Films
Abstract:
Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a potential candidate for semiconductor industry due to its wide band gap (6.2 eV), high thermal conductivity and low thermal coefficient of expansion. A-plane oriented AlN film finds an important role in deep UV-LED with higher isotropic light extraction efficiency. Also, Cr-doped AlN films exhibit dilute magnetic semiconductor property with high Curie temperature (300 K), and thus compatible with modern day microelectronics. In this work, highly a-axis oriented wurtzite AlN and Al1-xMxN (M = Cr, Ti) films have synthesized by reactive co-sputtering technique at different concentration. Crystal structure of these films is studied by Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Identification of binding energy and concentration (x) in these films is carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Local crystal structure around the Cr and Ti atom of these films are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is found that Cr and Ti replace the Al atom in AlN lattice and the bond lengths in first and second coordination sphere with N and Al, respectively, decrease concerning doping concentration due to strong p-d hybridization. The nano-indentation hardness of Cr and Ti-doped AlN films seems to increase from 17.5 GPa (AlN) to around 23 and 27.5 GPa, respectively. An-isotropic optical properties of these films are studied by the Spectroscopic Ellipsometry technique. Refractive index and extinction coefficient of these films are enhanced in normal dispersion region as compared to the parent AlN film. The optical band gap energies also seem to vary between deep UV to UV regions with the addition of Cr, thus by bringing out the usefulness of these films in the area of optoelectronic device applications.
17
36596
Strong Down-Conversion Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength
Abstract:
Studies on Samarium doped glasses possess lot of interest due to their potential applications for high-density optical memory, optical communication device, the design of laser and color display etc. Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The results of physical properties are found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultra violet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm and 706 nm respectively.
16
77202
Structural Investigation of the GAF Domain Protein BPSL2418 from Burkholderia pseudomallei
Abstract:
A new family of methionine-sulfoxide reductase (Msr) was recently discovered and was named free methionine sulfoxide reductase (fRMsr). This family includes enzymes with a reductase activity toward the free R isomer of a methionine sulfoxide substrate. The fRMsrs have a GAF domain topology, a domain, which was previously identified as having in some cases a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. The classification of fRMsrs as GAF domains revealed a new function can be added to the GAF domain family. Interestingly the four members identified in the fRMsr family share the GAF domain structure and the presence of three conserved cysteines in the active site with free R methionine sulfoxide substrate specificity. This thesis presents the crystal structures of reduced, free Met-SO substrate-bound and MES-bound forms of a new fRMsr from Burkholderia pseudomallei (BPSL2418). BPSL2418 was cloned, overexpressed and purified to enable protein crystallization. The crystallization trials for reduced, Met-SO-bound and MES-bound forms of BPSL2418 were prepared and reasonable crystals of each form were produced. The crystal structures of BPSL2418MES, BPSL2418Met-SO and BPSL2418Reduced were solved at 1.18, 1.4 and 2.0Å, respectively by molecular replacement. The BPSL2418MES crystal belongs to space group P 21 21 21 while BPSL2418Met-SO and BPSL2418Reduced crystals belong to space group P 1 21 1. All three forms share the GAF domain structure of six antiparallel β-strands and four α-helices with connecting loops. The antiparallel β-strands (β1, β2, β5 and β6) are located in the center of the BPSL2418 structure flanked on one side by a three α-helices (α1, α2 and α4) and on the other side by a (loop1, β3, loop2, α3, β4 loop4) unit where loop4 forms a capping flap and covers the active site. The structural comparison of the three forms of BPSL2418 indicates that the catalytically important cysteine is CYS109, where the resolving cysteine is CYS75, which forms a disulfide bond with CYS109. They also suggest that the third conserved cysteine in the active site, CYS85, which is located in α3, is a non-essential cysteine for the catalytic function but it may play a role in the binding of the substrate. The structural comparison of the three forms reveals that conformational changes appear in the active site particularly involving loop4 and CYS109 during catalysis. The 3D structure of BPSL2418 shows strong structure similarity to fRMsrs enzymes, which further suggests that BPSL2418 acts as a free Met-R-SO reductase and shares the catalytic mechanism of fRMsr family.
15
80173
Comparison of Effect of Promoter and K Addition of Co₃O₄ for N₂O Decomposition Reaction
Abstract:
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is now distinguished as an environmental pollutant. N2O is one of the representative greenhouse gases and N2O is produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources. So, it is very important to reduce N2O. N2O abatement processes are various processes such as HC-SCR, NH3-SCR and decomposition process. Among them, decomposition process is advantageous because it does not use a reducing agent. N2O decomposition is a reaction in which N2O is decomposed into N2 and O2. There are noble metals, transition metal ion-exchanged zeolites, pure and mixed oxides for N2O decomposition catalyst. Among the various catalysts, cobalt-based catalysts derived from hydrotalcites gathered much attention because spinel catalysts having large surface areas and high thermal stabilities. In this study, the effect of promoter and K addition on the activity was compared and analyzed. Co3O4 catalysts for N2O decomposition were prepared by co- precipitation method. Ce and Zr were added during the preparation of the catalyst as promoter with the molar ratio (Ce or Zr) / Co = 0.05. In addition, 1 wt% K2CO3 was doped to the prepared catalyst with impregnation method to investigate the effect of K on the catalyst performance. Characterizations of catalysts were carried out with SEM, BET, XRD, XPS and H2-TPR. The catalytic activity tests were carried out at a GHSV of 45,000 h-1 and a temperature range of 250 ~ 375 ℃. The Co3O4 catalysts showed a spinel crystal phase, and the addition of the promoter increased the specific surface area and reduced the particle and crystal size. It was exhibited that the doping of K improves the catalytic activity by increasing the concentration of Co2+ in the catalyst which is an active site for catalytic reaction. As a result, the K-doped catalyst showed higher activity than the promoter added. Also, it was found through experiments that Co2+ concentration and reduction temperature greatly affect the reactivity.
14
76406
Effect of Non-Thermal Plasma, Chitosan and Polymyxin B on Quorum Sensing Activity and Biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Abstract:
Increasing the resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to many antibiotics is a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases and cleaning medical instruments. It should be added that the resistance of microbial populations growing in biofilms is often up to 1000 times higher compared to planktonic cells. Biofilm formation in a number of microorganisms is largely influenced by the quorum sensing regulatory mechanism. Finding external factors such as natural substances or physical processes that can interfere effectively with quorum sensing signal molecules should reduce the ability of the cell population to form biofilm and increase the effectiveness of antibiotics. The present work is devoted to the effect of chitosan as a representative of natural substances with anti-biofilm activity and non- thermal plasma (NTP) alone or in combination with polymyxin B on biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Particular attention was paid to the influence of these agents on the level of quorum sensing signal molecules (acyl-homoserine lactones) during planktonic and biofilm cultivations. Opportunistic pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (DBM 3081, DBM 3777, ATCC 10145, ATCC 15442) were used as model microorganisms. Cultivations of planktonic and biofilm populations in 96-well microtiter plates on horizontal shaker were used for determination of antibiotic and anti-biofilm activity of chitosan and polymyxin B. Biofilm-growing cells on titanium alloy, which is used for preparation of joint replacement, were exposed to non-thermal plasma generated by cometary corona with a metallic grid for 15 and 30 minutes. Cultivation followed in fresh LB medium with or without chitosan or polymyxin B for next 24 h. Biofilms were quantified by crystal violet assay. Metabolic activity of the cells in biofilm was measured using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) colorimetric test based on the reduction of MTT into formazan by the dehydrogenase system of living cells. Activity of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) compounds involved in the regulation of biofilm formation was determined using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a traG::lacZ/traR reporter gene responsive to AHLs. The experiments showed that both chitosan and non-thermal plasma reduce the AHLs level and thus the biofilm formation and stability. The effectiveness of both agents was somewhat strain dependent. During the eradication of P. aeruginosa DBM 3081 biofilm on titanium alloy induced by chitosan (45 mg / l) there was an 80% decrease in AHLs. Applying chitosan or NTP on the P. aeruginosa DBM 3777 biofilm did not cause a significant decrease in AHLs, however, in combination with both (chitosan 55 mg / l and NTP 30 min), resulted in a 70% decrease in AHLs. Combined application of NTP and polymyxin B allowed reduce antibiotic concentration to achieve the same level of AHLs inhibition in P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442. The results shown that non-thermal plasma and chitosan have considerable potential for the eradication of highly resistant P. aeruginosa biofilms, for example on medical instruments or joint implants.
13
46158
Enhanced Stability of Piezoelectric Crystalline Phase of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) and Its Copolymer upon Epitaxial Relationships
Abstract:
As an approach to manipulate the performance of polymer thin film, epitaxy crystallization within polymer blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) was studied in this research, which involves the competition between phase separation and crystal growth of constitutive semicrystalline polymers. The unique piezoelectric feature of poly(vinylidene fluoride) crystalline phase is derived from the packing of molecular chains in all-trans conformation, which spatially arranges all the substituted fluorene atoms on one side of the molecular chain and hydrogen atoms on the other side. Therefore, the net dipole moment is induced across the lateral packing of molecular chains. Nevertheless, due to the mutual repulsion among fluorene atoms, this all-trans molecular conformation is not stable, and ready to change above curie temperature, where thermal energy is sufficient to cause segmental rotation. This research attempts to explore whether the epitaxial interactions between piezoelectric crystals and crystal lattice of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) crystalline platelet is able to stabilize this metastable all-trans molecular conformation or not. As an aromatic crystalline compound, the melt of HMB was surprisingly found able to dissolve the poly(vinylidene fluoride), resulting in homogeneous eutectic solution. Thus, after quenching this binary eutectic mixture to room temperature, subsequent heating or annealing processes were designed to explore the involve phase separation and crystallization behavior. The phase transition behaviors were observed in-situ by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The molecular packing was observed via transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the principles of electron diffraction were brought to study the internal crystal structure epitaxially developed within thin films. Obtained results clearly indicated the occurrence of heteroepitaxy of PVDF/PVDF-TrFE on HMB crystalline platelet. Both the concentration of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and the mixing ratios of these two constitutive polymers have been adopted as the influential factors for studying the competition between the epitaxial crystallization of PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) on HMB crystalline. Furthermore, the involved epitaxial relationship is to be deciphered and studied as a potential factor capable of guiding the wide spread of piezoelectric crystalline form.
12
100743
Thermal Hysteresis Activity of Ice Binding Proteins during Ice Crystal Growth in Sucrose Solution
Abstract:
Ice recrystallization (IR) which occurs especially during frozen storage is an undesired process due to the possible influence on the quality of products. As a result of recrystallization, the total volume of ice remains constant, but the size, number, and shape of ice crystals change. For instance, as indicated in the literature, the size of ice crystals in ice cream increases due to recrystallization. This results in texture deterioration. Therefore, the inhibition of ice recrystallization is of great importance, not only for food industry but also for several other areas where sensitive products are stored frozen, like pharmaceutical products or organs and blood in medicine. Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have the unique ability to inhibit ice growth and in consequence inhibit recrystallization. This effect is based on their ice binding affinity. In the presence of IBP in a solution, ice crystal growth is inhibited during temperature decrease until a certain temperature is reached. The melting during temperature increase is not influenced. The gap between melting and freezing points is known as thermal hysteresis (TH). In literature, the TH activity is usually investigated under laboratory conditions in IBP buffer solutions. In product applications (e.g., food) there are many other solutes present which may influence the TH activity. In this study, a subset of IBPs, so-called antifreeze proteins (AFPs), is used for the investigation of the influence of sucrose solution concentration on the TH activity. For the investigation, a polarization microscope (Nikon Eclipse LV100ND) equipped with a digital camera (Nikon DS-Ri1) and a cold stage (Linkam LTS420) was used. In a first step, the equipment was established and validated concerning the accuracy of TH measurements based on literature data.
11
92398
Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Grown by Modified Chemical Surface Deposition Method
Abstract:
We report on deposition of smooth, pinhole-free, low-surface roughness ( < 4nm) and high optical quality cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on glass substrates using our new method based on chemical surface deposition principle. In this method, cadmium acetate and thiourea are used as reactants under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-vis transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. Interestingly, we found that XRD pattern of the deposited films has dramatically changed when the growth temperature was raised during the reaction. Namely, the XRD measurements reveal a structural change of CdS film from Cubic to Hexagonal phase upon increase in the growth temperature from 75 °C to 200 °C. Furthermore, the deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed from observation of both sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Also, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap and crystal structure of the deposited CdS films; can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands alignments between CdS and other light harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of all-solution processed solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.
10
62844
Two-Step Patterning of Microfluidic Structures in Paper by Laser Cutting and Wax Printing for Mass Fabrication of Biosensor
Abstract:
In this paper, we describe two-step micro-pattering by using laser cutting and wax printing. Wax printing is performed only on the bridges for hydrophobic barriers. We prepared 405nm blue-violet laser module and wax pencil module. And, this two modules combine x-y plot. The hollow microstructure formed by laser patterning define the hydrophilic flowing paths. However, bridges are essential to avoid the cutting area being the island. Through the support bridges, microfluidic solution spread out to the unnecessary areas. Chromatography blotting paper was purchased from Whatman. We used 20x20 cm and 46x57 cm of chromatography blotting paper. Axis moving speed of x-y plot was the main parameter of optimization. For aligning between the two patterning, the paper sheet was taped at the bottom. After the two-step patterning, temperature curing step was done at 110-130 °C. The resolution of the fabrication and the potential of the multiplex detection were investigated.
9
14817
Climate Change, Global Warming and Future of Our Planet
Authors:
Abstract:
Climate change and global warming is most burning issue for “our common future”. For this common global interest. Countries organize conferences of government and nongovernment type. Human being destroying the non-renewable resources and polluting the renewable resources of planet for economic growth. Air pollution is mainly responsible for global warming and climate change .Due to global warming ice glaciers are shrinking and melting. Forests are shrinking, deserts expanding and soil eroding. The depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is depleting and hole in ozone layer that protect us from harmful ultra violet radiation. Extreme high temperature in summer and extreme low temperature and smog in winters, floods in rainy season. These all are indication of climate change. The level of carbon dioxide and other heat trapping gases in the atmosphere is increasing at high speed. Nation’s are worried about environmental degradation.
8
86843
Multi-Scale Modeling of Ti-6Al-4V Mechanical Behavior: Size, Dispersion and Crystallographic Texture of Grains Effects
Abstract:
Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is one of the most widely used materials in aeronautical and aerospace industries. Because of its high specific strength, good fatigue, and corrosion resistance, this alloy is very suitable for moderate temperature applications. At room temperature, Ti-6Al-4V mechanical behavior is generally controlled by the behavior of alpha phase (beta phase percent is less than 8%). The plastic strain of this phase notably based on crystallographic slip can be hindered by various obstacles and mechanisms (crystal lattice friction, sessile dislocations, strengthening by solute atoms and grain boundaries…). The grains aspect of alpha phase (its morphology and texture) and the nature of its crystallographic lattice (which is hexagonal compact) give to plastic strain heterogeneous, discontinuous and anisotropic characteristics at the local scale. The aim of this work is to develop a multi-scale model for Ti-6Al-4V mechanical behavior using crystal plasticity approach; this multi-scale model is used then to investigate grains size, dispersion of grains size, crystallographic texture and slip systems activation effects on Ti-6Al-4V mechanical behavior under monotone quasi-static loading. Nine representative elementary volume (REV) are built for taking into account the physical elements (grains size, dispersion and crystallographic) mentioned above, then boundary conditions of tension test are applied. Finally, simulation of the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and study of slip systems activation in alpha phase is reported. The results show that the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V is strongly linked to the active slip systems family (prismatic, basal or pyramidal). The crystallographic texture determines which family of slip systems can be activated; therefore it gives to the plastic strain a heterogeneous character thus an anisotropic macroscopic mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy modeled. The grains size influences also on mechanical proprieties of Ti-6Al-4V, especially on the yield stress; by decreasing of the grain size, the yield strength increases. Finally, the grains' distribution which characterizes the morphology aspect (homogeneous or heterogeneous) gives to the deformation fields distribution enough heterogeneity because the crystallographic slip is easier in large grains compared to small grains, which generates a localization of plastic deformation in certain areas and a concentration of stresses in others.
7
21864
Is [email protected] Core-Shell Nanoparticles Superior to Ag Surface Doped TiO2 Nanostructures?
Abstract:
[email protected] dioxide ([email protected]) core-shell nanostructures and Ag surface doped TiO2 particles ([email protected]) have been designed and synthesized by sol-gel and hydrothermal methods under mild conditions. These two types of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized in terms of their properties by various techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Specifically, the photocatalystic performance and antibacterial behavior of such nanocomposites have been investigated and compared. It was found that The [email protected] core-shell nanostructures exhibit superior photocatalytic property to the Ag surface doped TiO2 particles under the reported conditions. While with UV pre-irradiation, the [email protected] core-shell composites exhibit better bactericidal performance. This is probably because the Ag cores tend to facilitate charge separation for TiO2, producing greater hydroxyl radicals on the surface of the TiO2 particles. These findings would be useful for the design and synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites with desirable photocatalystic and antimicrobial activity for environmental applications.
6
41192
Study on Butterfly Visitation Patterns of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis as a Beneficial Plant for Butterfly Conservation
Abstract:
The butterflies are ecologically very important insects. The adults generally feed on nectar and are important as pollinators of flowering plants. However, these pollinators are under threat with their habitat loss. One reason for habitat loss is spread of invasive plants. However, there are even beneficial exotic plants which can directly support for Butterfly Conservation Action Plan of Sri Lanka by attracting butterflies for nectar. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) is an important nectar plant which attracts a diverse set of butterflies in higher number. It comprises a violet color inflorescence which last for about 37 hours where it attracted a peak of butterflies around 9.00am having around average of 15 butterflies. There were no butterflies in early and late hours where the number goes to very low values as 2 at 1.00pm. it was found that a diverse group of butterflies were attracted from around 15 species including 01 endemic species, 02 endemic subspecies and 02 vulnerable species. Therefore, this is a beneficial exotic plant that could be used in butterfly attraction and conservation however with adequate monitoring of the plant population.
5
56526
Growth Patterns of Pyrite Crystals Studied by Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD)
Abstract:
Natural formed pyrites (FeS2) are frequent sulfides in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Growth textures of idiomorphic pyrite assemblages reflect the conditions during their formation in the geologic sequence, furtheron the local texture analyses of the growth patterns of pyrite assemblages by EBSD reveal the possibility to resolve the growth conditions during the formation of pyrite at the micron scale. The spatial resolution of local texture measurements in the Scanning Electron Microscope used can be in the nanomete scale. Orientation contrasts resulting from domains of smaller misorientations within larger pyrite crystals can be resolved as well. The electron optical studies have been carried out in a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FEI Quanta 200) equipped with a CCD camera to study the orientation contrasts along the surfaces of pyrite. Idiomorphic cubic single crystals of pyrite, polycrystalline assemblages of pyrite, spherically grown spheres of pyrite as well as pyrite-bearing ammonites have been studied by EBSD in the Scanning Electron Microscope. Samples were chosen to show no or minor secondary deformation and an idiomorphic 3D crystal habit, so the local textures of pyrite result mainly from growth and minor from deformation. The samples studied derived from Navajun (Spain), Chalchidiki (Greece), Thüringen (Germany) and Unterkliem (Austria). Chemical analyses by EDAX show pyrite with minor inhomogeneities e.g., single crystals of galena and chalcopyrite along the grain boundaries of larger pyrite crystals. Intergrowth between marcasite and pyrite can be detected in one sample. Pyrite may form intense growth twinning lamellae on {011}. Twinning, e.g., contact twinning is abundant within the crystals studied and the individual twinning lamellaes can be resolved by EBSD. The ammonites studied show a replacement of the shale by newly formed pyrite resulting in an intense intergrowth of calcite and pyrite. EBSD measurements indicate a polycrystalline microfabric of both minerals, still reflecting primary surface structures of the ammonites e.g, the Septen. Discs of pyrite (“pyrite dollar”) as well as pyrite framboids show growth patterns comprising a typical microfabric. EBSD studies reveal an equigranular matrix in the inner part of the discs of pyrite and a fiber growth with larger misorientations in the outer regions between the individual segments. This typical microfabric derived from a formation of pyrite crystals starting at a higher nucleation rate and followed by directional crystal growth. EBSD studies show, that the growth texture of pyrite in the samples studied reveals a correlation between nucleation rate and following growth rate of the pyrites, thus leading to the characteristic crystal habits. Preferential directional growth at lower nucleation rates may lead to the formation of 3D framboids of pyrite. Crystallographic misorientations between the individual fibers are similar. In ammonites studied, primary anisotropies of the substrates like e.g., ammonitic sutures, influence the nucleation, crystal growth and habit of the newly formed pyrites along the surfaces.
4
89113
Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence Intensity of Europium Dinuclear Complex
Abstract:
Quantum computation is a new and exciting field making use of quantum mechanical phenomena. In classical computers, information is represented as bits, with values either 0 or 1, but a quantum computer uses quantum bits in an arbitrary superposition of 0 and 1, enabling it to reach beyond the limits predicted by classical information theory. lanthanide ion quantum computer is an organic crystal, having a lanthanide ion. Europium is a favored lanthanide, since it exhibits nuclear spin coherence times, and Eu(III) is photo-stable and has two stable isotopes. In a europium organic crystal, the key factor is the mutual dipole-dipole interaction between two europium atoms. Crystals of the complex were formed by making a 2 :1 reaction of Eu(fod)3 and bpm. The transparent white crystals formed showed brilliant red luminescence with a 405 nm laser. The photoluminescence spectroscopy was observed both at room and cryogenic temperatures (300-14 K). The luminescence spectrum of [Eu(fod)3(μ-bpm) Eu(fod)3] showed characteristic of Eu(III) emission transitions in the range 570–630 nm, due to the deactivation of 5D0 emissive state to 7Fj. For the application of dinuclear Eu3+ complex to q-bit device, attention was focused on 5D0 -7F0 transition, around 580 nm. The presence of 5D0 -7F0 transition at room temperature revealed that at least one europium symmetry had no inversion center. Since the line was unsplit by the crystal field effect, any multiplicity observed was due to a multiplicity of Eu3+ sites. For q-bit element, more narrow line width of 5D0 → 7F0 PL band in Eu3+ ion was preferable. Cryogenic temperatures (300 K – 14 K) was applicable to reduce inhomogeneous broadening and distinguish between ions. A CCD image sensor was used for low temperature Photoluminescence measurement, and a far better resolved luminescent spectrum was gotten by cooling the complex at 14 K. A red shift by 15 cm-1 in the 5D0 - 7F0 peak position was observed upon cooling, the line shifted towards lower wavenumber. An emission spectrum at the 5D0 - 7F0 transition region was obtained to verify the line width. At this temperature, a peak with magnitude three times that at room temperature was observed. The temperature change of the 5D0 state of Eu(fod)3(μ-bpm)Eu(fod)3 showed a strong dependence in the vicinity of 60 K to 100 K. Thermal quenching was observed at higher temperatures than 100 K, at which point it began to decrease slowly with increasing temperature. The temperature quenching effect of Eu3+ with increase temperature was caused by energy migration. 100 K was the appropriate temperature for the observation of the 5D0 - 7F0 emission peak. Europium dinuclear complex bridged by bpm was successfully prepared and monitored at cryogenic temperatures. At 100 K the Eu3+-dope complex has a good thermal stability and this temperature is appropriate for the observation of the 5D0 - 7F0 emission peak. Sintering the sample above 600o C could also be a method to consider but the Eu3+ ion can be reduced to Eu2+, reasons why cryogenic temperature measurement is preferably over other methods.
3
18242
Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue by Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xs Nanomaterials
Abstract:
Heterogeneous photo catalysis is an alternative method for the removal of organic pollutants in water. The photo excitation of a semi-conductor under ultra violet (UV) irradiation entails the production of hydroxyl radicals, one of the most oxidative chemical species. The objective of this study is the synthesis of nano materials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) and their application in photocatalysis of a cationic dye: methylene blue. The synthesized nano materials and montmorillonite were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Test results of photo catalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nano materials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increase with the increasing of Cu concentration and it is significantly higher compared to that of sodium montmorillonite alone. The application of the kinetic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) to the photocatalytic test results showed that the reaction rate obeys to the first-order kinetic model.
2
91955
Synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ Doped Co, Ni, Cr and Its Characterization as Lithium Battery Cathode
Abstract:
Manganese dioxide (MnO₂) and its derivatives are among the most widely used materials for the positive electrode in both primary and rechargeable lithium batteries. The MnO₂ derivative compound of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) is one of the leading candidates for positive electrode materials in lithium batteries as it is abundant, low cost and environmentally friendly. Over the years, synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) has been carried out using various methods including sol-gel, gas condensation, spray pyrolysis, and ceramics. Problems with these various methods persist including high cost (so commercially inapplicable) and must be done at high temperature (environmentally unfriendly). This research aims to: (1) synthesize LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) by reflux technique; (2) develop microstructure analysis method from XRD Powder LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ data with the two-stage method; (3) study the electrical conductivity of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄. This research developed the synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) with reflux. The materials consisting of Mn(CH₃COOH)₂. 4H₂O and Na₂S₂O₈ were refluxed for 10 hours at 120°C to form β-MnO₂. The doping of Co, Ni and Cr were carried out using solid-state method with LiOH to form LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄. The instruments used included XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, TEM, SAA, TG/DTA, FTIR, LCR meter and eight-channel battery analyzer. Microstructure analysis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ was carried out on XRD powder data by two-stage method using FullProf program integrated into WinPlotR and Oscail Program as well as on binding energy data from XPS. The morphology of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ was studied with SEM-EDX, TEM, and SAA. The thermal stability test was performed with TG/DTA, the electrical conductivity was studied from the LCR meter data. The specific capacity of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ as lithium battery cathode was tested using an eight-channel battery analyzer. The results showed that the synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) was successfully carried out by reflux. The optimal temperature of calcination is 750°C. XRD characterization shows that LiMn₂O₄ has a cubic crystal structure with Fd3m space group. By using the CheckCell in the WinPlotr, the increase of Li/Mn mole ratio does not result in changes in the LiMn₂O₄ crystal structure. The doping of Co, Ni and Cr on LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (x = 0.02; 0.04; 0; 0.6; 0.08; 0.10) does not change the cubic crystal structure of Fd3m. All the formed crystals are polycrystals with the size of 100-450 nm. Characterization of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) microstructure by two-stage method shows the shrinkage of lattice parameter and cell volume. Based on its range of capacitance, the conductivity obtained at LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) is an ionic conductivity with varying capacitance. The specific battery capacity at a voltage of 4799.7 mV for LiMn₂O₄; Li₁.₀₈Mn₁.₉₂O₄; LiCo₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄; LiNi₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄ and LiCr₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄ are 88.62 mAh/g; 2.73 mAh/g; 89.39 mAh/g; 85.15 mAh/g; and 1.48 mAh/g respectively.
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Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend
Abstract:
In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.