Academic Writing vs Creative Writing for Arabic Speaking Students
Many English writing instructors try to avoid creative writing in their classrooms thinking they need to teach essay rules and organization skills. They seem to forget that creative writing has do’s and don’ts as well. While academic writing is different from fiction writing in some important ways (although perhaps the boundaries are fruitfully blurring), there is much that can be writerly selves. The differences between creative writing and academic writing are that creative writing is written mainly to entertain with the creativity of the mind and academic writing is written mainly to inform in a formal manner or to incite the reader to make an action such as purchase the writer’s product. In this research paper, we are going to find out how could Arabic speaking students, who are learning academic writing in universities, benefit from creative writing such as literature, theatrical scripts, music, and poems. Since Arabic language is known as poetic language, students from this culture tend to like writing with creativity. We will investigate the positive influence of creative writing rules on academic essays and paragraphs in universities, and We will prove the importance of using creative writing activities in any academic writing classroom.
Technology Impact in Learning and Teaching English Language Writing
The invention of computer writing programs has changed the way of teaching second language writing. This artificial intelligence engine can provide students with feedback on their essays, on their grammatical and spelling errors, convenient writing and editing tools to facilitate student’s writing process. However, it is not yet proved if this technology is helping students to improve their writing skills. There are several programs that are of great assistance for students concerning their writing skills. New technology provides students with different software programs which enable them to be more creative, to express their opinions and ideas in words, pictures and sounds, but at the end main and most correct feedback should be given by their teachers. No matter how new technology affects in writing skills, always comes from their teachers. This research will try to present some of the advantages and disadvantages that new technology has in writing process for students. The research takes place in the University of Gjakova ‘’Fehmi Agani’’ Faculty of Education-Preschool Program. The research aims to provide random sample response by using questionnaires and observation.
A Comparative Study about the Use of SMS in Formal Writing of the Students in Universities
Technology has revolutionized the way of communication around the globe. Its use and users are multiplying with every passing minute. The current study reveals the effect of SMS on the formal writing of the students. Students are the regular users of this service and have become addict to short language. This short language is understandable to a particular community and not to the whole as it does not adhere to the Standard English writing practices. Data has been collected from quiz, assignments text and through questionaries’ which supports this postulate that students are frequently practicing it in their formal writing. Certain corrosive measures needs to be taken to address the issue. Second language learners have been found it practicing to greater extent.
Culture of Writing and Writing of Culture: Organizational Connections and Pedagogical Implications of ESL Writing in Multilingual Philippine Setting
One recurring issue in ESL writing is the confusing differences in the writing conventions of the first language and the target language. Culture may play an intriguing role in specifying writing features and structures that ESL writers have to follow. Although writing is typically organized in a three-part structure with introduction, body, and conclusion, it is important to analyze the complex nature of ESL writing. This study investigated the organizational features and structures of argumentative essays written in English by thirty college ESL students from three linguistic backgrounds (Cebuano, Chavacao, and Tausug) in a Philippine university. The nature of word order and sentence construction in the students’ essays and the specific components of the introduction, body, and conclusion were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed based on ESL writing models. Focus group discussions were also conducted to help clarify the possible influence of students’ first language on the ways their essays were conceptualized and organized. Results indicate that while there was no significant difference in the overall introduction, body, and conclusion in all essays, the sentence length was interestingly different for each linguistic group of ESL students, and the word order was notably inconsistent with the S-V-O pattern of the target language. The first language was also revealed to have a facilitative role in the cognitive translation process of these ESL students. As such, implications for a multicultural writing pedagogy was discussed and recommended considering both the students’ native resources in their first language and the ESL writing models in their target language.
Error Analysis in English Essays Writing of Thai Students with Different English Language Experiences
The objective of the study is to analyze errors in English essay writing of Thai (Suratthani Rajabhat University)’s students with different English language experiences. 16 subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on their English language experience. The data were collected from English essay writing about 'My daily life'. The finding shows that 275 tokens of errors were found from 240 English sentences. The errors were categorized into 4 types based on frequency counts: grammatical errors, mechanical errors, lexical errors, and structural errors, respectively. The findings support all of the researcher’s hypothesizes, i.e. 1) the students with low English language experience made more errors than those with high English language experience; 2) all errors in English essay writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students, the interlingual errors are more than the intralingual ones; 3) systemic and structural differences between English (target language) and Thai (mother-tongue language) lead to the errors in English essays writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students.
The Influence of Intrinsic Motivation on the Second Language Learners’ Writing Skill: The Case of Third Year Students of English at Constantine 1 University
Researches in the field of foreign language learning have indicated the importance of the mastery of the four language skills; speaking, listening, writing and reading. As far as writing is concerned, recent studies have shown that this skill is unavoidable for learning a second language successfully. Writing is characterized as a complex system not easy to achieve. Writing has been proved to be affected by a variety of factors, particularly psychological ones; anxiety, intrinsic motivation, aptitude, etc. Intrinsic motivation is said to be the most influential factors in the foreign language learning process and is considered as the key factor for success. To investigate these two aspects; writing and intrinsic motivation, and the positive correlation between them, our hypothesis is designed on the basis that the degree of learners’ intrinsic motivation helps in facilitating their engagement in the writing tasks. Two questionnaires, one for teachers and the other for students, have been carried out to check the validity of the research hypothesis. As for the teachers’ questionnaire, the results have indicated their awareness of the importance of intrinsic motivation in the learning process and the role it plays in the mastery of their students’ writing skill. In addition, teachers have mentioned various procedures aiming at raising their students’ intrinsic motivation to write. The students’ questionnaire, on the other hand, has investigated students’ reasons for learning a foreign language with regard to their attitudes towards writing as an important skill that they need to master. Their answers to the questionnaire together with the marks they got in the second term test they have had in the writing module have been compared to see whether students’ writing proficiency can be determined by the degree of their intrinsic motivation. The comparison of the collected data has shown the positive correlation between both aspects.
Factors Influencing International Second Language Student's Perceptions of Academic Writing Practices
English is the accepted lingua franca of the academic world, and English medium higher education institutions host many second-language speakers of English (L2) who wish to pursue their studies through the medium of English. Assessment in higher education institutions is largely done in writing, which makes the mastery of academic writing essential. While such mastery can be, and often is, difficult for students who speak English as a first language, it is undoubtedly more so for L2 students attempting to adopt Anglophone academic written norms. There does not appear to be a great deal of research with regard to L2 students’ perceptions of their academic writing practices. This research investigates the writing practices of international L2 students in their first year of undergraduate study at NZ universities. Qualitative longitudinal data in the form of semi-structured interviews and documentation (assignments’ written instructions, students’ written assignments, tutors’ feedback on the students’ assignments) were collected from 4 undergraduate international L2 students at the beginning, middle, and end of the academic year 2017. Findings reveal that motivation, agency, and self-efficacy impact students’ perceptions of their academic writing practices and define the course of actions learners take under the time constraints which are set for their assignments.
Like Making an Ancient Urn: Metaphor Conceptualization of L2 Writing
Drawing on Lakoff’s theory of metaphor conceptualization, this article explores the conceptualization of language two writing (L2W) of ten students-teachers in Indonesia via metaphors. The ten postgraduate English language teaching students and at the same time (former) English teachers received seven days of intervention in teaching and learning L2. Using introspective log and focus group discussion, the results illuminate us that all participants are unanimous on perceiving L2W as process-oriented rather than product-oriented activity. Specifically, the metaphor conceptualizations exhibit three categories of process-oriented L2W: deliberate process, learning process, and problem-solving process. However, it has to be clarified from the outset that this categorization is not rigid because some of the properties of metaphors might belong to other categories. Results of the study and implications for English language teaching will be further discussed.
University Level Spanish Heritage Language Students' Use of Metaphor in Writing: Exploring Auto-Biographical Linguistic Narratives
The question of heritage language learners in foreign language classrooms has been widely debated in second language education, especially with Spanish in a U.S. Instructors of Spanish as a foreign language have brought pedagogical focus to Spanish heritage language students in order to retain, develop and maintain their first language. This paper proposes a thorough examination of the use of conceptual metaphors within autobiographical linguistic narratives as a key indicator of the writing development of advanced Spanish-language students. By pairing genre theory from Systemic Functional Linguistics with metaphor theory, this paper will examine the metaphors used by 3rd and 4th year university Spanish students within the narrative genre from a corpus of 16, 091 words. The investigation has found that heritage language students use a variety of bicultural metaphors, transferred from both languages to conceptualize their linguistic development, in addition to using metaphor in specific narrative stages as a literary strategy. Since it has been found that the metaphors used were transcultural, the use of conceptual metaphors in heritage language learners can be further examined to help these students achieve their linguistic and academic goals in the Spanish by transferring from their knowledge in English. In conclusion, by closely examining the function of student discourse through their multicultural metaphoric competence, this study provides important insights on how to enable instructors to best further their students’ writing development in the target language.
Exploring SL Writing and SL Sensitivity during Writing Tasks: Poor and Advanced Writing in a Context of Second Language other than English
This study integrates a larger research empirical project that examines second language (SL) learners’ profiles and valid procedures to perform complete and diagnostic assessment in schools. 102 learners of Portuguese as a SL aged 7 and 17 years speakers of distinct home languages were assessed in several linguistic tasks. In this article, we focused on writing performance in the specific task of narrative essay composition. The written outputs were measured using the score in six components adapted from an English SL assessment context (Alberta Education): linguistic vocabulary, grammar, syntax, strategy, socio-linguistic, and discourse. The writing processes and strategies in Portuguese language used by different immigrant students were analysed to determine features and diversity of deficits on authentic texts performed by SL writers. Differentiated performance was based on the diversity of the following variables: grades, previous schooling, home language, instruction in first language, and exposure to Portuguese as Second Language. Indo-Aryan languages speakers showed low writing scores compared to their peers and the type of language and respective cognitive mapping (such as Mandarin and Arabic) was the predictor, not linguistic distance. Home language instruction should also be prominently considered in further research to understand specificities of cognitive academic profile in a Romance languages learning context. Additionally, this study also examined the teachers representations that will be here addressed to understand educational implications of second language teaching in psychological distress of different minorities in schools of specific host countries.
The Impact of Task-Based Language Teaching on Iranian Female Intermediate EFL Learners’ Writing Performance
This article investigated the impact of task-based language teaching (TBLT) on writing performance of the Iranian intermediate EFL learners. There were two groups of forty students of the intermediate female learners studying English in Jahad-e-Daneshgahi language institute, ranging in age from thirteen to nineteen. They participated in their regular classes in the institute and were assigned to two groups including an experimental group of task-based language teaching and a control group for the purpose of homogeneity, all students in two groups took an achievement test before the treatment. As a pre-test; students were assigned to write a task at the beginning of the course. One of the classes was conducted through talking a TBLT approach on their writing, while the other class followed regular patterns of teaching, namely traditional approach for TBLT group. There were some tasks chosen from learners’ textbook. The task selection was in accordance with learning standards for ESL and TOFEL writing sections. At the end of the treatment, a post-test was administered to both experimental group and the control group. Scoring was done on the basis of scoring scale of “expository writing quality scale”. The researcher used paired samples t-test to analyze the effect of TBLT teaching approach on the writing performance of the learners. The data analysis revealed that the subjects in TBLT group performed better on the writing performance post-test than the subjects in control group. The findings of the study also demonstrated that TBLT would enhance writing performance in the group of learners. Moreover, it was indicated that TBLT has been effective in teaching writing performance to Iranian EFL learners
Utilization of Hybrid Teaching Methods to Improve Writing Skills of Undergraduate Students
The paper intends to discover the utility of hybrid teaching methods to aid undergraduate students to improve their English academic writing skills. A total of 45 undergraduate students were selected randomly from three classes from varying language abilities, with the research design of monitoring and rubrics evaluation as a means of measure. Language skills of the students were upgraded with the help of experiential learning methods using reflective writing technique, guided method in which students were merely directed to correct form of writing techniques along with self-guided method for the students to produce a library research-based article measured through a standardized rubrics provided. The progress of the students was monitored and checked through rubrics and self-evaluation and concluded that a change was observed in the students’ writing abilities.
The Influence of Collaboration on Individual Writing Quality: The Case of Iranian vs. Malaysian Freshers
This study purported to comparatively investigate the influence of collaborative writing on the quality of individual writing of four female Iranian and four female Malaysian students. The first semester students at a private university in Malaysia, who were homogeneous in terms of age, gender, study discipline, and language proficiency, were divided into two Iranian and two Malaysian dyads. The dyads performed collaborative writing tasks for 15 sessions; after three consecutive collaborative writing sessions, each participant was asked to individually attempt a writing task. Both collaborative and individual writing tasks comprised isomorphic graphic prompts (IELTS Academic Module task 1). Writing quality of the five individually-produced texts during the study was scored in terms of task achievement (TA), cohesion/coherence (C/C), grammatical range/accuracy (GR/A), and lexical resources (LR). The findings indicated a hierarchy of development in TA and C/C among all the students, while LR showed minor improvement only among three of Malaysian students, and GR/A barely exhibited any progress among all the participants. Intermittent progressions and regressions were also discerned in the trajectory of their writing development. The findings are discussed in the light of the socio-cultural and emergentist perspectives, the typology of tasks used as well as the role of the participants’ level of language proficiency.
Research Writing Anxiety among Engineering Postgraduate Students in Taiwan
Graduate-level writing practices have gained increasing scholarly attention in recent years. Due to its discipline-specific conventions and requirements, research writing can cause various levels of anxiety for native English speaking and English as a second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) postgraduate students. Although many studies have investigated how writing anxiety can negatively affect writing performance, self-efficacy, and disciplinary discourse socialization process, relatively few have examined the impact of writing anxiety from the perspectives of postgraduate students in EFL contexts. This study aims to 1) examine the level of and the relationship between research writing anxiety and self-efficacy among Taiwanese EFL students at the master's and doctoral levels and 2) to uncover the causes of students' research writing anxiety. The data was collected from an adapted version of Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) and Research Writing Self-Efficacy Scale with 218 EFL graduate students in engineering-related fields at two research-oriented universities in Taiwan. A pilot study was conducted to ensure the construct and content validity of the instruments. Semi-structured interviews were also undertaken with 30 survey respondents to better understand the causes of their writing anxiety. The results revealed that while both master's and doctoral students had low to moderate research writing anxiety and self-efficacy, the doctoral students with more experiences in writing research papers in English were more anxious but not necessarily more confident than the master's students. A significantly weak negative correlation was found between the two constructs. The contributing factors for these results include different degree of writing exigency, perceived importance and types of writing tasks, writing for publication as graduation thresholds, and mentoring relationship with thesis/dissertation advisers. The study also identified several causes of graduate-level writing anxiety, of which writing under time constraints and concern on linguistic and rhetorical proficiency appeared to be the major concern. Pedagogical implications regarding facilitating graduate students' writing process and reducing anxiety will also be drawn.
Effectiveness of a Traits Cooperative Learning on Developing Writing Achievement and Composition among Teacher Candidates
This article reports investigations of a study into the effectiveness of a traits cooperative learning (TCL) on teacher candidates’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach and small group learning. Mixed methodologies were used with the participants in a repeated measures quasi-experimental design. Forty-two class teacher candidates, enrolled in the Bahrain Teachers College, completed the pre and post author-developed measures. The results suggest that TCL has a positive effect on the participants’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach, but not on the attitudes towards small group learning. Further implications to teacher education are presented.
Web-Based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI): A Theoretical-and-Pedagogical e-Framework for Language Development
Web-based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI)’s contribution towards language development can be divided into linguistic and non-linguistic perspectives. In linguistic perspective, WeCWI focuses on the literacy and language discoveries, while the cognitive and psychological discoveries are the hubs in non-linguistic perspective. In linguistic perspective, WeCWI draws attention to free reading and enterprises, which are supported by the language acquisition theories. Besides, the adoption of process genre approach as a hybrid guided writing approach fosters literacy development. Literacy and language developments are interconnected in the communication process; hence, WeCWI encourages meaningful discussion based on the interactionist theory that involves input, negotiation, output, and interactional feedback. Rooted in the e-learning interaction-based model, WeCWI promotes online discussion via synchronous and asynchronous communications, which allows interactions happened among the learners, instructor, and digital content. In non-linguistic perspective, WeCWI highlights on the contribution of reading, discussion, and writing towards cognitive development. Based on the inquiry models, learners’ critical thinking is fostered during information exploration process through interaction and questioning. Lastly, to lower writing anxiety, WeCWI develops the instructional tool with supportive features to facilitate the writing process. To bring a positive user experience to the learner, WeCWI aims to create the instructional tool with different interface designs based on two different types of perceptual learning style.
Simplifying Writing Composition to Assist Students in Rural Areas: An Experimental Study for the Comparison of Guided and Unguided Instruction
Method and strategies of teaching instruction highly influence learning of students. In second language teaching, number of ways and methods has been suggested by different scholars and researchers through times. The present article deals with the role of teaching instruction in developing compositional ability of students in writing. It focuses on the secondary level students of rural areas, whose exposure to English language is limited and they face challenges even in simple compositions. The students till high school suffer with their disability in writing formal letter, application, essay, paragraph etc. They face problem in note making, writing answers in examination using their own words and depend fully on rote learning. It becomes difficult for them to give language to their own ideas. Teaching writing composition deserves special attention as writing is an integral part of language learning and students at this level are expected to have sound compositional ability for it is useful in numerous domains. Effective method of instruction could help students to learn expression of self, correct selection of vocabulary and grammar, contextual writing, composition of formal and informal writing. It is not limited to school but continues to be important in various other fields outside the school such as in newspaper and magazine, official work, legislative work, material writing, academic writing, personal writing, etc. The study is based on the experimental method, which hypothesize that guided instruction will be more effective in teaching writing compositions than usual instruction in which students are left to compose by their own without any help. In the test, students of one section are asked to write an essay on the given topic without guidance and another section are asked to write the same but with the assistance of guided instruction in which students have been provided with a few vocabulary and sentence structure. This process is repeated in few more schools to get generalize data. The study shows the difference on students’ performance using both the instructions; guided and unguided. The conclusion of the study is followed by the finding that writing skill of the students is quite poor but with the help of guided instruction they perform better. The students are in need of better teaching instruction to develop their writing skills.
Error Analysis: Examining Written Errors of English as a Second Language (ESL) Spanish Speaking Learners
After the acknowledgment of contrastive analysis, Pit Coder’s establishment of error analysis revolutionized the way instructors analyze and examine students’ writing errors. One question that relates to error analysis with speakers of a first language, in this case, Spanish, who are learning a second language (English), is the type of errors that these learners make along with the causes of these errors. Many studies have looked at the way the native tongue influences second language acquisition, but this method does not take into account other possible sources of students’ errors. This paper examines writing samples from an advanced ESL class whose first language is Spanish at non-profit organization, Learning Quest Stanislaus Literacy Center. Through error analysis, errors in the students’ writing were identified, described, and classified. The purpose of this paper was to discover the type and origin of their errors which generated appropriate treatments. The results in this paper show that the most frequent errors in the advanced ESL students’ writing pertain to interlanguage and a small percentage from an intralanguage source. Lastly, the least type of errors were ones that originate from negative transfer. The results further solidify the idea that there are other errors and sources of errors to account for rather than solely focusing on the difference between the students’ mother and target language. This presentation will bring to light some strategies and techniques that address the issues found in this research. Taking into account the amount of error pertaining to interlanguage, an ESL teacher should provide metalinguistic awareness of the students’ errors.
Designing a Syllabus for an Academic Writing Course Instruction Based on Students' Needs
Needs on academic writing competence as the primary focus in higher education encourage the university institutions around the world to provide academic writing courses to support their students dealing with their tasks pertaining to this competence. However, a pilot study conducted previously in one of the universities in Palopo, a city in South Sulawesi, revealed that even though the institution has provided academic writing courses, supported by some workshops related to academic writing and some supporting facilities at campus, the students still face difficulties in completing their assignments related to academic writing, particularly in writing their theses. The present study focuses on investigating the specific needs of the students in the same institution in terms of competences required in academic writing. It is also carried out to examine whether the syllabus exists and accommodates the students’ needs or not. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect data from sixty students of sixth semester and two lecturers of the academic courses. The results reveal that the students need to learn all aspects of linguistic competence (language features, lexical phrases, academic language and vocabulary, and proper language) and some aspects in discourse competence (how to write introduction, search for appropriate literature, design research method, write coherent paragraphs, refer to sources, summarize and display data, and link sentences smoothly). Regarding the syllabus, it is found that the academic writing courses provided in the institution, where this study takes place, do not have syllabus. This condition is different from other institutions which provide syllabi for all courses. However, at the commencement of the course, the students and the lecturers have negotiated their learning goals, topics discussed, learning activities, and assessment criteria for the course. Therefore, even though the syllabus does not exist, but the elements of the syllabus are there. The negotiation between the students and the lecturers contributes to the students’ attitude toward the courses. The students are contented with the course and they feel that their needs in academic writing have been accommodated. However, some suggestions for the next academic writing courses are stated by the students. Considering the results of this study, a syllabus is then proposed which is expected to accommodate the specific needs of students in that institution.
Content Based Instruction: An Interdisciplinary Approach in Promoting English Language Competence
Content Based Instruction (CBI) in English Language Teaching (ELT) basically helps English as Second Language (ESL) learners of English. At the same time, it fosters multidisciplinary style of learning by promoting collaborative learning style. It is an approach to teaching ESL that attempts to combine language with interdisciplinary learning for bettering language proficiency and facilitating content learning. Hence, the basic purpose of CBI is that language should be taught in conjunction with academic subject matter. It helps in establishing the content as well as developing language competency. This study aims at supporting the potential values of interdisciplinary approach in promoting English Language Learning (ELL) by teaching writing skills to a small group of learners and discussing the findings with the teachers from various disciplines in a workshop. The teachers who are oriented, they use the same approach in their classes collaboratively. The inputs from the learners as well as the teachers hopefully raise positive consciousness with regard to the vast benefits that Content Based Instruction can offer in advancing the language competence of the learners.
Teachers' and Learners' Experiences of Learners' Writing in English First Additional Language
There is an international concern to develop children’s literacy skills. In many parts of the world, the need to become ﬂuent in a second language is essential for gaining meaningful access to education, the labour market and broader social functioning. In spite of these efforts, the problem still continues. The level of English language proficiency is far from satisfactory and these goals are unattainable by others. The issue is more complex in South Africa as learners are immersed in a second language (L2) curriculum. South Africa is a prime example of a country facing the dilemma of how to effectively equip a majority of its population with English as a second language or first additional language (FAL). Given the multilingual nature of South Africa with eleven official languages, and the position and power of English, the study investigates teachers’ and learners’ experiences on isiXhosa and Afrikaans background learners’ writing in English First Additional Language (EFAL). Moreover, possible causes of writing difficulties and teacher’s practices for writing are explored. The theoretical and conceptual framework for the study is provided by studies on constructivist theories and sociocultural theories. In exploring these issues, a qualitative approach through semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis were adopted. This data is analysed by critical discourse analysis (CDA). The study identified a weak correlation between teachers’ beliefs and their actual teaching practices. Although the teachers believe that writing is as important as listening, speaking, reading, grammar and vocabulary, and that it needs regular practice, the data reveal that they fail to put their beliefs into practice. Moreover, the data revealed that learners were disturbed by their home language because when they do not know a word they would write either the isiXhosa or the Afrikaans equivalent. Code-switching seems to have instilled a sense of “dependence on translations” where some learners would not even try to answer English questions but would wait for the teacher to translate the questions into isiXhosa or Afrikaans before they could attempt to give answers. The findings of the study show a marked improvement in the writing performance of learners who used the process approach in writing. These findings demonstrate the need for assisting teachers to shift away from focusing only on learners’ performance (testing and grading) towards a stronger emphasis on the process of writing. The study concludes that the process approach to writing could enable teachers to focus on the various parts of the writing process which can give more freedom to learners to experiment their language proficiency. It would require that teachers develop a deeper understanding of the process/genre approaches to teaching writing advocated by CAPS. All in all, the study shows that both learners and teachers face numerous challenges relating to writing. This means that more work still needs to be done in this area. The present study argues that teachers teaching EFAL learners should approach writing as a critical and core aspect of learners’ education. Learners should be exposed to intensive writing activities throughout their school years.
Creative Application of Cognitive Linguistics and Communicative Methods to Eliminate Common Learners' Mistakes in Academic Essay Writing
This article sums up a six-year experience of teaching English as a foreign language to over 900 university students at MGIMO (Moscow University of International Relations, Russia), all of them native speakers of Russian aged 16 to 23. By combining modern communicative approach to teaching with cognitive linguistics theories, one can deal more effectively with deeply rooted mistakes which particular students have of which conventional methods have failed to eliminate. If language items are understood as concepts and frames, and classroom activities as meaningful parts of language competence development, this might help to solve such problems as incorrect use of words, unsuitable register, and confused tenses - as well as logical or structural mistakes, and even certain psychological issues concerning essay writing. Along with classic teaching methods, such classroom practice includes plenty of interaction between students - playing special classroom games aimed at eliminating particular mistakes, working in pairs and groups, integrating all skills in one class. The main conclusions that the author of the experiment makes consist in an assumption that academic essay writing classes demand a balanced plan. This should not only include writing as such, but additionally feature elements of listening, reading, speaking activities specifically chosen according to the skills and language students will need to write the particular type of essay.
Learners' Perceptions about Teacher Written Feedback in the School of Foreign Languages, Anadolu University
In English language teaching, feedback is considered as one of the main components of writing instruction. Teachers put a lot of time and effort in order to provide learners with written feedback for effective language learning. At Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages (AUSFL) students are given written feedback for their each piece of writing through online platforms such as Edmodo and Turnitin, and traditional methods. However, little is known regarding how learners value and respond to teacher-provided feedback. As the perceptions of the students remarkably affect their learning, this study examines how they perceive the effectiveness of feedback provided by the teacher. Aiming to analyse it, 30 intermediate level (B1+ CEFR level) students were given a questionnaire, which includes Likert scale questions. The results will be discussed in detail.
The Libyc Writing
One of the main features of the Maghreb is its linguistic richness. The multilingualism is a fact which always marked the Maghreb since the beginning of the history up to know. Since the arrival of the Phoenicians, followed by the Carthaginians, Romans, and Arabs, etc, there was a social group in the Maghreb which controlled two kinds of idioms. The libyc one remained, despite everything, the local language used by the major part of the population. This language had a support of written transmission attested by many inscriptions. Among all the forms of the Maghreb writing, this alphabet, however, continues to cause a certain number of questions about the origin and the date of its appearance. The archaeological, linguistic and historical data remain insufficient to answer these questions. This did not prevent the researchers from giving an opinion. In order to answer these questions we will expose here the various assumptions adopted by various authors who are founded on more or less explicit arguments. We will also speak about the various forms taken by the libyc writing during antiquity.
Linguistic Attitudes and Language Learning Needs of Heritage Language Learners of Spanish in the United States
Heritage language learners are students who have been raised in a home where a minority language is spoken, who speaks or merely understand the minority heritage language, but to some degree are bilingual in the majority and the heritage language. In view of the rising university enrollment by Hispanics in the United States who have chosen to study Spanish, university language programs are currently faced with challenges of accommodating the language needs of heritage language learners of Spanish. The present study investigates the heritage language perception and language attitudes by heritage language learners of Spanish, as well as their classroom language learning experiences and needs. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative survey was used to gather data from university students. Analysis of students' responses indicates that heritage learners are motivated to learn the heritage language. In relation to the aspects of focus of a language course for heritage learners, results show that the aspects of interest are accent marks and spelling, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, writing, reading, and culture.
The Impact of Collaborative Writing through Wikis and Blogs on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Achievement
Wikis and blogs, defined as educational tools in line with the objectives of collaborative writing, are regarded as innovative ways of writing addressing the problems of conventional types of writing. Although writing in wikis and blogs step in different contexts, they are both aiming at betterment of collaborative writing procedures. It is believed that due to certain reasons bringing in wikis and blogs to learners' life can lead to better performance of writing. This study aimed at dipping into pedagogical aspects of wikis and blogs in the hope of eliminating prior traditional mistakes and bringing students together in a more constructive L2 context. To this end, three groups of intermediate students were experimented in three settings of wiki-group, blog-group and conventional (control) group. Despite conventional group learners, participants in both experimental groups experienced L2 writing in a new telecollaborative context. An achievement test was administered after the treatment to check learners’ degree of improvement in EFL writing. The results of this study provide a deep insight towards the effectiveness of writing in the contexts of wikis and blogs compared with conventional writing procedures. The overall conclusion drawn from the distinction of conventional writing, on one hand, and wikis and blogs, on the other hand, indicates that the latter channels of writing are more constructive for learners’ writing improvements.
The Reasons for Failure in Writing Essays: Teaching Writing as a Project-Based Enterprise
Studies show that developing writing skills throughout years of formal foreign language instruction does not necessarily result in rewarding accomplishments among learners, nor an affirmative attitude they build towards written assignments. What causes this apparently wide-spread bias to writing might be a diminished relevance students attach to it, as opposed to the other productive skill — speaking, insufficient resources available for them to succeed, or the ways writing is approached by instructors, that is inapt teaching techniques that discourage rather that inflame learners’ engagement. The assumption underlying this presentation is that psychological and psycholinguistic factors constitute a key dimension of every writing process, and hence should be seriously considered in both material design and lesson planning. The author intends to demonstrate research in which writing tasks were conceived of as attitudinal rather than technical operations, and consequently turned into meaningful and socially-oriented incidents that students could relate to and have an active hand in. The instrument employed to achieve this purpose and to make writing even more interactive was the format of a project, a carefully devised series of tasks, which involved students as human beings, not only language learners. The projects rested upon the premise that the presence of peers and the teacher in class could be taken advantage of in a supportive rather than evaluative mode. In fact, the research showed that collaborative work and constant meaning negotiation reinforced not only bonds between learners, but also the language form and structure of the output. Accordingly, the role of the teacher shifted from the assessor to problem barometer, always ready to accept the slightest improvements in students’ language performance. This way, written verbal communication, which usually aims to merely manifest accuracy and coherent content for assessment, became part of the enterprise meant to emphasise its social aspect — the writer in real-life setting. The samples of projects show the spectrum of possibilities teachers have when exploring the domain of writing within school curriculum. The ideas are easy to modify and adjust to all proficiency levels and ages. Initially, however, they were meant to suit teenage and young adult learners of English as a foreign language in both European and Asian contexts.
Use and Relationship of Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in the Quality of Second Language Writing
The current study is a comparative analysis of the use of shell nouns as a cohesive device (CD) in an English for Second Language (ESL) setting in order to identify their use and relationship in the quality of second language (L2) writing. As these nouns were established to anticipate the meaning within, across or outside the text, their use has fascinated writing researchers. The corpus of the study included published articles from reputable journals and graduate students’ papers in order to analyze the frequency of shell nouns using "highly prevalent" nouns in the academic community, to identify the different lexicogrammatical patterns where these nouns occur and to the functions connected with these patterns. The result of the study implies that published authors used more shell nouns in their paper than graduate students. However, the functions of the different lexicogrammatical patterns for the frequently occurring shell nouns are somewhat similar. These results could help students in enhancing the cohesion of their text and in comprehending it.
A Syntactic Errors Analysis in the Malaysian ESL Learners' Written Composition
Syntax error analysis studies have a significant role in English language teaching especially in the second language. This study investigates the syntax errors in written composition by 50 multilingual ESL learners in Politeknik Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia. The subjects speak their own dialect, Malay as their second language and English as their third or foreign language. Data were collected from the written discourse in the form of descriptive essays. The subjects were asked to write in the classroom within 45 minutes. 15 categories of errors were classified into a set of syntactic categories and were analysed based on the five steps of the syntactic analysis procedure. The findings of the study showed that the mother tongue interference, as well as lack of vocabulary and grammar knowledge, were the major sources of syntax errors in the learners’ written composition. Learners should be exposed to the differentiation of Malay and English grammar to avoid interference and effective learning of second language writing.
An Interactive Online Academic Writing Resource for Research Students in Engineering
English academic writing, it has been argued, is an acquired language even for English speakers. For research students whose English is not their first language, however, the acquisition process is often more challenging. Instead of hoping that students would acquire the conventions themselves through extensive reading, there is a need for the explicit teaching of linguistic conventions in academic writing, as explicit teaching could help students to be more aware of the different generic conventions in different disciplines in science. This paper presents an interuniversity effort to develop an online academic writing resource for research students in five subdisciplines in engineering, upon the completion of the needs analysis which indicates that students and faculty members are more concerned about students’ ability to organize an extended text than about grammatical accuracy per se. In particular, this paper focuses on the materials developed for thesis writing (also called dissertation writing in some tertiary institutions), as theses form an essential graduation requirement for all research students and this genre is also expected to demonstrate the writer’s competence in research and contributions to the research community. Drawing on Swalesian move analysis of research articles, this online resource includes authentic materials written by students and faculty members from the participating institutes. Highlight will be given to several aspects and challenges of developing this online resource. First, as the online resource aims at moving beyond providing instructions on academic writing, a range of interactive activities need to be designed to engage the users, which is one feature which differentiates this online resource from other equally informative websites on academic writing. Second, it will also include discussion on divergent textual practices in different subdisciplines, which help to illustrate different practices among these subdisciplines. Third, since theses, probably one of the most extended texts a research student will complete, require effective use of signposting devices to facility readers’ understanding, this online resource will also provide both explanation and activities on different components that contribute to text coherence. Finally results from piloting will also be included to shed light on the effectiveness of the materials, which could be useful for future development.
Discovering the Relationship between Teaching Creativity and Creative Writing in Pakistan
The paper explores teaching of creative writing in Pakistani classroom. The data collected from the questionnaire and focus group interview with a large public sector university’s Master of Arts in English students, who are also in-service school teachers, discovers that English teachers in Pakistan do not teach to develop the creative writing of pupils. The findings show that English teachers can define creative writing but are confused about strategies needed in rousing learners’ interest in creative writing. The teachers make their students memorise compositions from the textbooks to be reproduced in class. English teachers must be encouraged and trained to engage in activities that are essential for enhancing creative writing in schools.
Adopting a Comparative Cultural Studies Approach to Teaching Writing in the Global Classroom
Teaching writing within multicultural and multiethnic communities poses many unique challenges not the least of which is that of intercultural communication. When the writing is in English, pedagogical imperatives often encounter the universalizing tendencies of standardization of both language use and structural parameters which are often at odds with maintaining local practices which preserve cultural pluralism. English often becomes the contact zone within which individual identities of students play out against the standardization imperatives of the larger world. Writing classes can serve as places which become instruments of assimilation of ethnic minorities to a larger globalizing or nationalistic agenda. Hence, for those outside of the standard practices of writing English, adaptability towards a mastery of those practices valued as standard become the focus of teaching taking away from diversity of local English use and other modes of critical thinking. In a very multicultural and multiethnic context such as the US or Singapore, these dynamics become very important. This paper will argue that multiethnic writing classrooms can greatly benefit from taking up a cultural studies approach whereby the students’ lived environments and experiences are analyzed as cultural texts to produce writing. Such an approach eliminates limitations of using both literary texts as foci of discussion as in traditional approaches to teaching writing and the current trend in teaching composition without using texts at all. By bringing in students’ lived experiences into the classroom and analyzing them as cultural compositions stressing the ability to communicate across cultures, cultural competency is valued rather than adaptability while privileging pluralistic experiences as valuable even as universal shared experience are found. Specifically, while teaching writing in English in a multicultural classroom, a cultural studies approach makes both teacher and student aware of the diversity of the English language as it exists in our global context in the students’ experience while making space for diversity in critical thinking, structure and organization of writing effective in an intercultural context.
Applying Dictogloss Technique to Improve Auditory Learners’ Writing Skills in Second Language Learning
There are some common problems that are often faced by students in writing. The problems are related to macro and micro skills of writing, such as incorrect spellings, inappropriate diction, grammatical errors, random ideas, and irrelevant supporting sentences. Therefore, it is needed a teaching technique that can solve those problems. Dictogloss technique is a teaching technique that involves listening practices. So, it is a suitable teaching technique for students with auditory learning style. Dictogloss technique comprises of four basic steps; (1) warm up, (2) dictation, (3) reconstruction and (4) analysis and correction. Warm up is when students find out about topics and do some preparatory vocabulary works. Then, dictation is when the students listen to texts read at normal speed by a teacher. The text is read by the teacher twice where at the first reading the students only listen to the teacher and at the second reading the students listen to the teacher again and take notes. Next, reconstruction is when the students discuss the information from the text read by the teacher and start to write a text. Lastly, analysis and correction are when the students check their writings and revise them. Dictogloss offers some advantages in relation to the efforts of improving writing skills. Through the use of dictogloss technique, students can solve their problems both on macro skills and micro skills. Easier to generate ideas and better writing mechanics are the benefits of dictogloss.
Using Focused Free-Writing to Help English to Speakers of Other Languages Students Generate Ideas for Critical, Academic Writing
This paper describes how the method of focused freewriting can be used to help teachers to foster critical thinking through writing. In this study, we used focused freewriting during the pre-writing stage of our writing course to help our English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students to generate ideas and to think critically about the issues they were to write on. In each of the four classes where we applied this technique, we used pictures or videos to stimulate their thinking during the prewriting stage of writing and then asked them to write non-stop for ten minutes about whatever that came to their minds as a result of being presented with these prompts. We then asked them to focus on the themes that emerged from their brief writing. Using observations, in-depth interviews, and an analysis of their brief essays, our study found that focused freewriting helped our students to generate ideas and think critically about the issues they were writing on. We postulate that by using focused freewriting and discussions during the prewriting stage of writing, instructors can help their students to think critically about various issues and facilitate their efforts at organising their arguments for critical, academic essays.
Harnessing the Power of Feedback to Assist Progress: A Process-Based Approach of Providing Feedback to L2 Composition Students in the United Arab Emirates
Utilising active, process-based learning methods to improve critical thinking and writing skills of second language (L2) writers brings unique challenges. To comprehensively satisfy different learners' needs, when commenting on student work, instructors can embed multiple feedback methods so that the capstone of their abilities as writers can be achieved. This research project assesses faculty and student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of various feedback practices used in process-based writing classrooms with L2 students at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). In addition, the research explores the challenges encountered by faculty during the provision of feedback practices. The quantitative research findings are based on two concurrent electronically distributed anonymous surveys; one aimed at students who have just completed a process-based writing course, and the other at instructors who delivered these courses. The student sample is drawn from multiple sections of Academic Writing I and II, and the faculty survey was distributed among the Department of Writing Studies (DWS) faculty. Our findings strongly suggest that all methods of feedback are deemed equally important by both students and faculty. Students, in particular, find process writing and its feedback practices to have greatly contributed to their writing proficiency.
German for Business Lawyers: A Practical Example of a German University of Applied Sciences
Writing in the disciplines plays a major role at Universities. On the one hand, lectures look at the substance of assignments and on the other hand, they expect students to meet professional standards of layout and proofreading. However, the integration of writing concepts into the range of subjects is new to German Universities of Applied Sciences, which are focused on technical and scientific contexts.
The Westphalian University of Applied Sciences (WH) established a successful program Talente_schreiben (Writing_Talents) that was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research to improve written language skills for first-semester students at the WH. Besides having the main focus on basic language skills on all language levels, we also concentrate on subject-specific programs such as writing in the disciplines and are pioneers in this field in Germany.
Since 2013, we started to include learning-to-write programs since first-semester students of Business Law studies must complete a writing assignment in the form and writing style of a legal opinion in order to fulfill their undergraduate degree requirements. To support our students at its best, our course for business lawyers focuses not only on the writing skills per se, but also on teaching both, the content and the particular discourse of the discipline. Hence, a specialist in German studies and a faculty tutor share the experience of processing, producing and reflecting a text. Whereas the German studies specialist refers to the rhetorical context such as orthography, grammar etc., the tutor acts as a guide on the side referring to the course content itself. In our presentation, we want to give an insight of the practice of a business law discipline, the combination of rhetoric and composition and discuss the methodological and didactic approaches.
The Effectiveness of Genre-Based Pedagogy in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Hong Kong
This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of genre-based pedagogy in teaching Chinese as a foreign language to South Asian ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. South Asian ethnic minority students, as a disadvantaged group of foreign language learners, lack sufficient parental and institutional support in Chinese language learning. The genre-based “Reading to Learn, Learning to Write, R2L” pedagogy derived from Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) is applied in this study to improve Chinese language performance of South Asian ethnic minority students for better chance to participate in mainstream society. In this study, the R2L pedagogy is applied to teach students Chinese writing of different genres in junior secondary level for a year. To determine the effectiveness of the R2L pedagogy, the pre-test and post-test writings were evaluated by R2L assessment criteria and analyzed using Systemic Functional Linguistics framework from the whole-text level, sentence level, and the word level. Besides, semi-structured interviews were conducted to perceive students’ learning expectations via experiencing with R2L pedagogy. The finding shows that after the pedagogic interventions, students are equipped with an increased meta-linguistic awareness of genre-specific writing in improving and facilitating their writing performance. It is hoped that the findings can provide a reference for language teachers in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language to non-Chinese speaking students in Hong Kong and beyond.
The Academic Achievement of Writing via Project-Based Learning
This paper focuses on the use of project work as a pretext for applying the conventions of writing, or the correctness of mechanics, usage, and sentence formation, in a content-based class in a Rajabhat University. Its aim was to explore to what extent the student teachers’ academic achievement of the basic writing features against the 70% attainment target after the use of project is. The organization of work around an agreed theme in which the students reproduce language provided by texts and instructors is expected to enhance students’ correct writing conventions. The sample of the study comprised of 38 fourth-year English major students. The data was collected by means of achievement test and student writing works. The scores in the summative achievement test were analyzed by mean score, standard deviation, and percentage. It was found that the student teachers do more achieve of practicing mechanics and usage, and less in sentence formation. The students benefited from the exposure to texts during conducting the project; however, their automaticity of how and when to form phrases and clauses into simple/complex sentences had room for improvement.
Examining the Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Learners' Writing after L2 Instruction
Research on second-language (L2) learning tends to focus on comparing students with different levels of proficiency at one point in time. However, to understand L2 development, we need more longitudinal research. In this study, we adopt a longitudinal approach to examine changes in three indicators of L2 ability, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF), as reflected in the writing of L2 learners when writing on different tasks before and after a period L2 instruction. Each of 85 Chinese learners of English at three levels of English language proficiency responded to two writing tasks (independent and integrated) before and after nine months of English-language study in China. Each essay (N= 276) was analyzed in terms of numerous CAF indices using both computer coding and human rating: number of words written, number of errors per 100 words, ratings of error severity, global syntactic complexity (MLS), complexity by coordination (T/S), complexity by subordination (C/T), clausal complexity (MLC), phrasal complexity (NP density), syntactic variety, lexical density, lexical variation, lexical sophistication, and lexical bundles. Results were then compared statistically across tasks, L2 proficiency levels, and time. Overall, task type had significant effects on fluency and some syntactic complexity indices (complexity by coordination, structural variety, clausal complexity, phrase complexity) and lexical density, sophistication, and bundles, but not accuracy. L2 proficiency had significant effects on fluency, accuracy, and lexical variation, but not syntactic complexity. Finally, fluency, frequency of errors, but not accuracy ratings, syntactic complexity indices (clausal complexity, global complexity, complexity by subordination, phrase complexity, structural variety) and lexical complexity (lexical density, variation, and sophistication) exhibited significant changes after instruction, particularly for the independent task. We discuss the findings and their implications for assessment, instruction, and research on CAF in the context of L2 writing.
A Study of Flipped Classroom’s Influence on Classroom Environment of College English Reading, Writing and Translating
This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the characteristics of flipped classroom’s influence on classroom environment of college English reading, writing, and translating, and to summarize and reflect on the teaching characteristics of college English Reading, writing, and translating. The results of the study indicated that after the flipped classroom applied to reading, writing, and translating, students’ performance was improved to a certain extent, the classroom environment was improved to some extent, students of the flipped classroom are generally satisfied with the classroom environment; students showed a certain degree of individual differences to the degree of cooperation, participation, self-responsibility, task-orientation, and the teacher leadership and innovation. The study indicated that the implementation of flipped classroom teaching mode can optimize College English reading, writing, and translating classroom environment and realize target－learner as the center in foreign language teaching and learning, but bring a greater challenge to teachers.
Learners’ Reactions to Writing Activities in an Elementary Algebra Classroom
Various research has shown that writing allows students to engage in metacognition and provides them with a venue to communicate their disposition towards what they are learning. However, few studies have explored students’ feelings about the incorporation of such writing activities in their mathematics classes. Through reflection sheets, group discussions, and interviews, this mixed-methods study explored students’ perceptions and insights on supplementary writing activities in their Elementary Algebra class. Findings revealed that while students generally have a positive regard for writing activities, they have conflicting views about how writing activities can help them in their learning. A big majority contend that writing activities can enhance the learning of mathematical content and attitudes towards mathematics if they allow students to explore and synthesize what they have learned and reflected on their emotional disposition towards mathematics. Also, gender does not appear to play a significant role in students’ reactions to writing activities.
Codifying the Creative Self: Conflicts of Theory and Content in Creative Writing
This paper explores the embattled territory of academic creative writing—and most focally, the use of critical theory in the teaching and structuring of creative practice. It places creative writing in contemporary social, cultural, and otherwise anthropological contexts, and evaluates conventional creative writing pedagogies based on how well they serve the updated needs of increasingly diverse student congregations. With continued emphasis on student-centered learning, this paper compares theoretical to practical applications of discipline-specific knowledge, examining and critiquing theory in terms of its relevance, accessibility, and whether or not it is both actionable and beneficial in the creative writing classroom.
Sustaining Language Learning: A Case Study of Multilingual Writers' ePortfolios
This paper examines the use of ePortfolios in a two-course sequence for ESL (English as a Second Language) students at an international branch campus in Doha, Qatar. ePortfolios support the transfer of language learning, but few have examined the sustainability of that transfer across an ESL program. Drawing upon surveys and interviews with students, we analyze three case studies that complicate previous research on metacognition, language learning, and ePortfolios. Our findings have implications for those involved in ESL programs and assessment of student writing.
Effects of Pre-Task Activities on the Writing Performance of Second Language Learners
Based on Rod Ellis’s (2002) the methodology of task-based teaching, this study explored the effects of pre-task activities on the Job Application letter of 102 ESL students (who were female and undergraduate learners). For this purpose, students were divided among three groups (Group A, Group B, and Group C), kept in control and experimental settings as well. Pre-task phase motivates the learners to perform the actual task. Ellis reportedly discussed four pre-task phases: (1) performing a similar task; (2) providing a model; (3) non-task preparation activities and (4) strategic planning. They were taught through above given three pre-task activities. Accordingly, the learners in control setting were supposed to write without any teaching aid while learners in an experimental situation were provided three different pre-task activities in each group. In order to compare the scores of the pre-test and post-test of the three groups, sample paired t-test was utilized. The obtained results of the written job application by the female students revealed that pre-task activities improved their performance in writing. On the other hand, the comparison of the three pre-task activities revealed that 'providing a model' outperformed the other two activities. For this purpose, ANOVA was utilized.
Authentic Visual Resources for the Foreign Language Classroom
Visual resources are all around us, especially in today's media-driven world, which gravitates, more and more, towards the visual. As a result, authentic resources, such as television advertisements, become testaments – authentic cultural materials – that reflect the landscape of certain groups and communities during a specific point in time. Engaging language students with popular advertisements can provide a great opportunity for developing cultural awareness, a component that is sometimes overlooked in the foreign language classroom. This paper will showcase practical examples of using Israeli Television Ads in various Modern Hebrew language courses. Several approaches for combining the study of language and culture, through the use of advertisements, will be included; for example, targeted assignments based on students' proficiency levels, such as: asking to recognize vocabulary words and answer basic information questions, as opposed to commenting on the significance of an ad and analyzing its particular cultural elements. The use of visual resources in the language classroom does not only enable students to learn more about the culture of the target language, but also to combine their language skills. Most often, interacting with an ad requires close listening and some reading (through captions or other data). As students analyze the ad, they employ their writing and speaking skills by answering questions in text or audio form. Hence, these interactions are able to elicit complex language use across the four domains: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. This paper will include examples of practical assignments that were developed for several Modern Hebrew language courses, together with the specific advertisements and questions related to them. Conclusions from the process and recent feedback notes received from students regarding the use of visual resources will be mentioned as well.
Recurrent Patterns of Netspeak among Selected Nigerians on WhatsApp Platform: A Quest for Standardisation
One of the consequences of online communication is the birth of new orthography genres characterised by novel conventions of abbreviation and acronyms usually referred to as Netspeak. Netspeak, also known as internet slang, is a style of writing mainly used in online communication to limit the length of text characters and to save time. The aim of this study is to evaluate how second language users of the English language have internalised this new convention of writing; identify the recurrent patterns of Netspeak; and assess the consistency of the use of the identified patterns in relation to their meanings. The study is corpus-based, and data drawn from WhatsApp chart pages of selected groups of Nigerian English speakers show a large occurrence of inconsistencies in the patterns of Netspeak and their meanings. The study argues that rather than emphasise the negative impact of Netspeak on the communicative competence of second language users, studies should focus on suggesting models as yardsticks for standardising the usage of Netspeak and indeed all other emerging language conventions resulting from online communication. This stance stems from the inevitable global language transformation that is eminent with the coming of age of information technology.
Online Multilingual Dictionary Using Hamburg Notation for Avatar-Based Indian Sign Language Generation System
Sign Language (SL) is used by deaf and other people who cannot speak but can hear or have a problem with spoken languages due to some disability. It is a visual gesture language that makes use of either one hand or both hands, arms, face, body to convey meanings and thoughts. SL automation system is an effective way which provides an interface to communicate with normal people using a computer. In this paper, an avatar based dictionary has been proposed for text to Indian Sign Language (ISL) generation system. This research work will also depict a literature review on SL corpus available for various SL s over the years. For ISL generation system, a written form of SL is required and there are certain techniques available for writing the SL. The system uses Hamburg sign language Notation System (HamNoSys) and Signing Gesture Mark-up Language (SiGML) for ISL generation. It is developed in PHP using Web Graphics Library (WebGL) technology for 3D avatar animation. A multilingual ISL dictionary is developed using HamNoSys for both English and Hindi Language. This dictionary will be used as a database to associate signs with words or phrases of a spoken language. It provides an interface for admin panel to manage the dictionary, i.e., modification, addition, or deletion of a word. Through this interface, HamNoSys can be developed and stored in a database and these notations can be converted into its corresponding SiGML file manually. The system takes natural language input sentence in English and Hindi language and generate 3D sign animation using an avatar. SL generation systems have potential applications in many domains such as healthcare sector, media, educational institutes, commercial sectors, transportation services etc. This research work will help the researchers to understand various techniques used for writing SL and generation of Sign Language systems.
Student's Reluctance in Oral Participation
English language has become a major medium for communication across borders. Nowadays, it is seen as a communicative medium not only for business but also for academic purposes. Some scientists describe English language as a way to enjoy an admired position in many countries. It is neither a national nor an official language in North Africa; it is considered as the most widely taught foreign language at the educational system. In order to achieve mastery of a foreign language, learners must develop the four principal language skills: Reading, writing, listening and speaking. However, being able to interact orally with others, using effectively the target language, is nowadays very important. People who cannot speak a foreign language cannot be considered effective language users, even if they can read and understand it. The teachers’ role in promoting foreign language acquisition is very important, as they are responsible for providing students appropriate contexts to foster communicative situations that allow students to express themselves and interact in the target language. So, we should understand the student’s reasons of their reluctance in oral participation when dealing with oral communicative tasks, in order to get insights about the possible motivating factors that may improve their involvement and participation in the classroom.
Women Writing Group as a Mean for Personal and Social Change
This presentation will explore the main processes identified in women writing group, as an interdisciplinary field with personal and social effects. It is based on the initial findings of a Ph.D. research focus on the intersection of group processes with the element of writing, in the context of gender. Writing as a therapeutic mean has been recognized and found to be highly effective. Additionally, a substantial amount of research reveals the psychological impact of group processes. However, the combination of writing and groups as a therapeutic tool was hardly investigated; this is the contribution of this research. In the following qualitative-phenomenological study, the experiences of eight women participating in a 10-sessions structured writing group were investigated. We used the meetings transcripts, semi-structured interviews, and the texts to analyze and understand the experience of participating in the group. The two significant findings revealed were spiral intersubjectivity and archaic level of semiotic language. We realized that the content and the process are interwoven; participants are writing, reading and discussing their texts in a group setting that enhanced self-dialogue between the participants and their own narratives and texts, as well as dialogue with others. This process includes working through otherness within and between while discovering and creating a multiplicity of narratives. A movement of increasing shared circles from the personal to the group and to the social-cultural environment was identified, forming what we termed as spiral intersubjectivity. An additional layer of findings was revealed while we listened to the resonance of the group-texts, and discourse; during this process, we could trace the semiotic level in addition to the symbolic one. We were witness to the dominant presence of the body, and primal sensuality, expressed by rhythm, sound and movements, signs of pre-verbal language. Those findings led us to a new understanding of the semiotic function as a way to express the fullness of women experience and the enabling role of writing in reviving what was repressed. The poetic language serves as a bridge between the symbolic and the semiotic. Re-reading the group materials, exposed another layer of expression, an old-new language. This approach suggests a feminine expression of subjective experience with personal and social importance. It is a subversive move, encouraging women to write themselves, as a craft that every woman can use, giving voice to the silent and hidden, and experiencing the power of performing 'my story'. We suggest that women writing group is an efficient, powerful yet welcoming way to raise the awareness of researchers and clinicians, and more importantly of the participants, to the uniqueness of the feminine experience, and to gender-sensitive curative approaches.
Development of a Rating Scale for Elementary EFL Writing
In EFL programs, rating scales used in writing assessment are often constructed by intuition. Intuition-based scales tend to provide inaccurate and divisive ratings of learners’ writing performance. Hence, following an empirical approach, this study attempted to develop a rating scale for elementary-level writing at an EFL program in Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 98 students’ essays were scored and then coded using comprehensive taxonomy of writing constructs and their measures. An automatic linear modeling was run to find out which measures would best predict essay scores. A nonparametric ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, was then used to determine which measures could best differentiate among scoring levels. Findings indicated that there were certain measures that could serve as either good predictors of essay scores or differentiators among scoring levels, or both. The main conclusion was that a rating scale can be empirically developed using predictive and discriminative statistical tests.
Design and Realization of Social Responsibility Report Writing System
This paper proposes a guiding tool for companies to write social responsibility report by developing an applicable writing system based on analysis of its functional requirements, writing indicators and roles. The system’s operation and results concerned will be demonstrated as well.
Enhancing Students’ Language Competencies through Cooperative Learning
Language competencies refer to the knowledge and abilities to use English in four inter-related skills: Speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Cooperative learning is a type of instruction where learners are grouped together to work on an assignment, project, or task. To become competent in second language, one needs to actively use English in each of four modalities. Learning English is challenging to second language learners. Sometimes, some students feel demotivated and scared to use English during class discussions and recitations. This paper explores the students’ attitude and perception towards cooperative learning in enhancing their language competencies. The primary method for this research is case study. Thirty-two grade 9 students within a single selected class are used as sample. The instruments used in data collection were questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The finding shows that collaborative learning activities enhance the four skills of the students. The participants consider this approach motivational as they engage and interact with others. This indicates that students develop their language competencies as they rely to one another in doing meaningful language activities.
A Comparison of the First Language Vocabulary Used by Indonesian Year 4 Students and the Vocabulary Taught to Them in English Language Textbooks
This study concerns on the process of making corpus obtained from Indonesian year 4 students’ free writing compared to the vocabulary taught in English language textbooks. 369 students’ sample writings from 19 public elementary schools in Malang, East Java, Indonesia and 5 selected English textbooks were analyzed through corpus in linguistics method using AdTAT -the Adelaide Text Analysis Tool- program. The findings produced wordlists of the top 100 words most frequently used by students and the top 100 words given in English textbooks. There was a 45% match between the two lists. Furthermore, the classifications of the top 100 most frequent words from the two corpora based on part of speech found that both the Indonesian and English languages employed a similar use of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and prepositions. Moreover, to see the contextualizing the vocabulary of learning materials towards the students’ need, a depth-analysis dealing with the content and the cultural views from the vocabulary taught in the textbooks was discussed through the criteria developed from the checklist. Lastly, further suggestions are addressed to language teachers to understand the students’ background such as recognizing the basic words students acquire before teaching them new vocabulary in order to achieve successful learning of the target language.
The Writing Eight Exercise and Its Impact on Kindergartners
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the Writing Eight Exercise, an exercise from the Brain Integration Therapy, with Kindergartners who are struggling with writing tasks in school. With the help of this exercise, children were able to cross the midline, an invisible line running from our brain to our feet, which separates the body’s right from left. Crossing the midline integrates the brain hemispheres, thus encouraging bilateral movement. The study was spread over 15 weeks where the children were required to do the Writing Eight Exercise 4 times a week. The data collection methods included observations, student work samples and feedback from teachers and parents. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Writing Eight Exercise had a positive impact on students’ approach towards writing tasks, letter formation, and fine motor skills.
English Writing Anxiety in Debate Writing among Japanese Senior High School EFL Learners: Sources, Effects and Implication
The debate is an effective tool in cultivating critical thinking skills in English classes. It involves writing evidence-based arguments about a resolution in a form of constructive speech and oral discussion using constructive speech, which will then be attacked and defended. In the process of writing, EFL learners may experience anxiety, an emotional problem that affects writing achievement and cognitive processing. Thus, this study explored the sources and effect of English writing anxiety in the context of debate writing with a view to providing EFL teachers pedagogical suggestions in alleviating English writing anxiety in debate writing. The participants of this study are 95 Japanese senior high school EFL learners and 3 Japanese senior high school English teachers. In selecting the participants, opportunity sampling was employed and consent from Japanese English teachers was sought. Data were collected thru (1) observation (2) open-ended questionnaire and (3) semi-structured interview. This study revealed that not all teachers of English in the context of this study recognize the existence of English writing anxiety among their students and that the very nature of the debate, in general, may also be a source of English writing anxiety in the context of debate writing. The interview revealed that English writing anxiety affects students’ ability to retrieve L2 vocabulary. Further, this study revealed different sources of writing anxiety in debate writing, which can be categorized into four main categories: (1) L2 linguistic ability-related factors (2) instructional –related factors, (3) interpersonal-related factors, and (4) debate- related factors. Based on the findings, recommendations for EFL teachers and EFL learners in managing writing anxiety in debate writing are provided.
The Culture of Journal Writing among Manobo Senior High School Students
This study explored on the culture of journal writing among the Senior High School Manobo students. The purpose of this qualitative morpho-semantic and syntactic study was to discover the morphological, semantic, and syntactic features of the written output through morphological, semantic, and syntactic categories present in their journal writings. Also, beliefs and practices embedded in the norms, values, and ideologies were identified. The study was conducted among the Manobo students in the Senior High Schools of Central Mindanao, particularly in the Division of North Cotabato. Findings revealed that morphologically, the features that flourished are the following: subject-verb concordance, tenses, pronouns, prepositions, articles, and the use of adjectives. Semantically, the features are the following: word choice, idiomatic expression, borrowing, and vernacular. Syntactically, the features are the types of sentences according to structure and function; and the dominance of code switching and run-on sentences. Lastly, as to the beliefs and practices embedded in the norms, values, and ideologies of their journal writing, the major themes are: valuing education, family, and friends as treasure, preservation of culture, and emancipation from the bondage of poverty. This study has shed light on the writing capabilities and weaknesses of the Manobo students when it comes to English language. Further, such an insight into language learning problems is useful to teachers because it provides information on common trouble-spots in language learning, which can be used in the preparation of effective teaching materials.
Ancient Malay and Spice Trade Routes: A Study of Ancient Malay from the Perspectives of Linguistics and Archaeology
This paper discusses the relationship between the distribution of Ancient Malay inscriptions and Spice Trade Route, especially in the relation with material cultures that accompany them, to understand how Malay could spread out around the archipelago beyond its original native-speakers’ region. The archipelago was known as the Spice Islands from the very beginning of the first century due to mace, cloves, and nutmeg that were originally exclusively found there. According to the Indian record, since the 2nd century, there has been a contact established between Indian and Indonesian people. A Chinese document from 3rd Century has mentioned Wangka (now widely known as Bangka) an island near Sumatra where some Chinese expeditions had visited. All of these records supported the existence of a maritime trade system and route between the archipelago and other countries during the first millennium. This paper will discuss first the Ancient Malay inscription spread around the archipelago from the perspectives of language variation and writing system style. Analyzing language variations of inscriptions certainly is not as easy as studying current spoken language variations in modern sociolinguistics. A huge amount of data is available for such kind of studies. On the contrary, in language variation research with inscription texts as an object, data is insufficient. Other resources will be needed to support the linguistic analysis. For this reason, this research made use of epigraphical evidence in the surrounding areas of the inscriptions to explain the variation of language and writing style. The research next expands the analysis to figure out the relationship between language variation and inscriptions distribution to the Spice Trade Route that spreads from the Molucca Sea to Mediterranian Sea. Data in this research consists of six different inscriptions: Kedukan Bukit, Koto Kapur, Dapunta Salendra, Sang Hyang Wintang, Ligor, and Laguna from the 7th-9th Century and found in Sumatra, Jawa, and the Philippines. In addition, as a comparative resource, this research also used Hikayat Tanjung Tanah, the first-founded Ancient Malay manuscript. In language analysis, we conduct a sociolinguistic method to explore the language variation and writing style of the inscriptions. For dealing with archaeological data, we conducted a hermeneutic method to analyze the possible meaning and social uses of the data. Language variations and writing system style in this research can be classified into two main groups. The language, epigraphical, and archaeological evidence explain that Ancient Malay had been widely used in the Eastern area of Spice Trade Route because it played an important role in the region as a lingua franca between people from different ethnic groups with different languages.
Exploring the Experiences of Transnational TESOL Professionals about Their Writing Assessment Practices: A Critical Ethnography in the Saudi EFL Context
This study aims to explore the assessment practices of transnational western teachers in Saudi EFL writing classrooms. The study adopts a critical ethnographic approach to understand the views and the experiences of four transnational TESOL professionals about how they navigate and negotiate their writing assessment practices in the Saudi EFL context. The qualitative data were collected through classroom observations and video recordings of the classroom teaching, which were followed by semi-structured interviews with the four TESOL teachers from Australia, England, USA, and Ireland. The data were analyzed from three perspectives of these transnational TESOL teachers in the Saudi EFL context: as a transnational teacher in monolingual context, as a transitional teacher abides by the prescribed curriculum and assessment instructions, and as a transnational teacher’s vision for monolingual students. The results of the study revealed that owing to the transnational teachers’ lack of understanding of the Saudi monolingual culture, bureaucratic structures, and top-down assessment policies in the institute where they work, their teaching and assessment of writing and other language skills are negatively affected and consequently had to be modified. Also, the Saudi learners’ lack of interest and their lower level of English proficiency pose serious challenges to those transnational teachers’ writing assessment practices. More often, the teachers find the prescribed writing curriculum and assessment tools ineffective in the Saudi EFL context. Because of these experiences, the transnational teachers in this study have exhibited their awareness of their monolingual/monoculture background, Saudi’s cultural and religious values, and institutional structures, which have helped them customize or supplement the writing assessment practices accordingly.
The Use of English Quantifiers in Writing: A Case Study of the NCE I Students of the Federal College of Education, Kano, Nigeria
Academic writing in Nigeria is fraught with a lot of grammatical errors which brings backward to education specifically at the tertiary institution level. This paper deals with the use of English quantifiers in academic writing, with particular emphasis on the use of ‘MANY.’ NCEI students of the Federal College of Education, Kano were used as the case study. The paper attempts to highlight the problems that arise due to incorrect use of quantifiers as well as identifying the causes of difficulties in the use of English quantifiers by some NCE1 students. To achieve this objective, the data was collected through sentence writing test by testing the students’ use of quantifiers, using only one quantifier as the variable of the study, which is MANY. In analyzing the data, the sentence writing tests are analyzed item by item and the scores of the correct responses as well as the wrong responses are converted into percentage forms. The findings revealed that students have difficulty in remembering and grasping the grammatical restrictions that control the use of English quantifiers specifically MANY; mother tongue also affects the use of quantifiers by some NCE1 students to the extent that they use one word to represent about three or four English quantifiers. The causes of difficulty in the use of English quantifiers by the students are attributed to poor background and inadequate use of English language and quantifiers, because we cannot use quantifiers alone and get the desired meaning without putting them in a sentence.
Academic Literacy: Semantic-Discursive Resource and the Relationship with the Constitution of Genre for the Development of Writing
The present study focuses on academic literacy and addresses the impact of semantic-discursive resources on the constitution of genres that are produced in such context. The research considers the development of writing in the academic context in Portuguese. Researches that address academic literacy and the characteristics of the texts produced in this context are rare, mainly with focus on the development of writing, considering three variables: the constitution of the writer, the perception of the reader/interlocutor and the organization of the informational text flow. The research aims to map the semantic-discursive resources of the written register in texts of several genres and produced by students in the first semester of the undergraduate course in letters. The hypothesis raised is that writing in the academic environment is not a recurrent literacy practice for these learners and can be explained by the ontogenetic and phylogenetic nature of language development. Qualitative in nature, the present research has as empirical data texts produced in a half-yearly course of Reading and Textual Production; these data result from the proposition of four different writing proposals, in a total of 600 texts. The corpus is analyzed based on semantic-discursive resources, seeking to contemplate relevant aspects of language (grammar, discourse and social context) that reveal the choices made in the reader/writer interrelationship and the organizational flow of the text. Among the semantic-discursive resources, the analysis includes three resources, including (a) appraisal and negotiation to understand the attitudes negotiated (roles of the participants of the discourse and their relationship with the other); (b) ideation to explain the construction of the experience (activities performed and participants); and (c) periodicity to outline the flow of information in the organization of the text according to the genre it instantiates. The results indicate the organizational difficulties of the flow of the text information. Cartography contributes to the understanding of the way writers use language in an effort to present themselves, evaluate someone else’s work, and communicate with readers.
Literacy in First and Second Language: Implication for Language Education
One of the challenges of African states in the development of education in the past and the present is the problem of literacy. Literacy in the first language is seen as a strong base for the development of second language; they are mostly the language of education. Language development is an offshoot of language planning; so the need to develop literacy in both first and second language affects language education and predicts the extent of achievement of the entire education sector. The need to balance literacy acquisition in first language for good conditioning the acquisition of second language is paramount. Likely constraints that includes; non-standardization, underdeveloped and undeveloped first languages are among many. Solutions to some of these include the development of materials and use of the stages and levels of literacy acquisition. This is with believed that a child writes well in second language if he has literacy in the first language.
Teaching English Language through Religious English Literature
This article intends to show how literature may be used in language classes to develop student’s knowledge of English. First, we examine the evolution of literature in the language classroom, then we give account of some reasons that justify its use in language classes, of the role of reading in language development, and of the way poetry is treated in the ESL classroom. This paper aims to emphasize the use of literature as a popular tool to teach language skills (i.e. reading, writing, listening and speaking), language areas (i.e. vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation) as well as moral teachings, which is the necessity in present time. Reason for using religious literary texts in foreign language classroom and main criteria for selecting suitable religious literary texts in foreign language classes are stressed so as to make the reader familiar with the underlying reasons and criteria for language teachers, using and selecting religious literary texts. Moreover, religious literature and teaching of language skills, benefits the different genres of religious literature (i.e. poetry, fiction and drama), and also gaining knowledge of a particular religion through language teaching but some problems had been observed by language teachers within the area of English through religious literature (i.e. lack of preparation in the area of literature teaching in TESL/TEFL programs, absence of clarity in objectives defining the role of literature in ESL/EFL), language teachers not having the background, training and appropriate knowledge in religious literature, lack of pedagogically-designed teaching material that can be used by language teachers in a classroom.
Developing Kazakh Language Fluency Test in Nazarbayev University
The Kazakh Language Fluency Test, based on the IELTS exam, was implemented in 2012 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. We would like to share our experience in developing this exam and some exam results with other language instructors. In this paper, we will cover all these peculiarities and their related issues. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test is a young exam. During its development, we faced many difficulties. One of the goals of the university and the country is to encourage fluency in the Kazakh language for all citizens of the Republic. Nazarbayev University has introduced a Kazakh language program to assist in achieving this goal. This policy is one-step in ensuring that NU students have a thorough understanding of the Kazakh language through a fluency test based on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). The Kazakh Language Fluency Test exam aims to determine student’s knowledge of Kazakh language. The fact is that there are three types of students at Nazarbayev University: Kazakh-speaking heritage learners, Russian-speaking and English-speaking students. Unfortunately, we have Kazakh students who do not speak Kazakh. All students who finished school with Russian language instruction are given Kazakh Language Fluency Test in order to determine their Kazakh level. After the test exam, all students can choose appropriate Kazakh course: Basic Kazakh, Intermediate Kazakh and Upper-Intermediate Kazakh. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test consists of four parts: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. They are taken on the same day in the abovementioned order.
A Practical Guide to Collaborative Writing Assignments as a Pedagogical Technique in Higher Education Implemented in an Economics Course
Collaborative writing is now an established pedagogical technique in higher education. Since most educators do not have training in the design, execution, and evaluation of writing assignments, implementing such tasks has proven difficult. This paper firstly proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment based on a literature study and adopting a writing-to-learn concept. It then describes the research undertaken and shows how this framework is implemented in an economics course, at an Algerian university, with undergraduate students. Finally, using a mixed methods design, it examines the students’ perceptions of what they have learned about collaborative writing. Preliminary results show that group assignments will always be a challenge, but with careful planning and structure, a collaborative writing assignment can be used effectively to help students improve their analytical and critical thinking abilities, research and group work skills, as well as writing proficiency. Students have a positive experience of working in a team and identified a wide variety of different team skills that they have learned through the process.
Expression of Stance in Lower- and Upper- Level Students’ Writing in Business Administration at English-Medium University in Burundi
The expression of stance is highly expected in writing at tertiary level. Through a selection of linguistic and rhetorical elements, writers express commitment, critical distance and build a critically discerning reader in texts. Despite many studies on patterns of stance in students’ academic writing, little may not be known about how English as a Foreign Language students learns to build a critically discerning reader in their texts. Therefore, this study examines patterns of stance in essays written by students majoring in business administration at English-medium University in Burundi as part of classroom assignments. It draws on systemic functional linguistics to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the data. The quantitative analysis is used to identify the differences in frequency of stance patterns in the essays. The results show a significant difference in the use of boosters by lower- and upper-level students. Lower-level students’ writing contains more boosters and many idiosyncratic sentence structures than do upper-level students’ writing, and upper-level students’ essays contain more hedging and few grammatical mistakes than do lower-level students’ essays. No significant difference in the use of attitude markers and concessive and contrastive expressions. Students in lower- and upper-level do not use attitude markers and disclaimer markers appropriately and accurately. These findings suggest that students should be taught the use of stance patterns in academic writing.
Influence of Spelling Errors on English Language Performance among Learners with Dysgraphia in Public Primary Schools in Embu County, Kenya
This study dealt with the influence of spelling errors on English language performance among learners with dysgraphia in public primary schools in West Embu, Embu County, Kenya. The study purposed to investigate the influence of spelling errors on the English language performance among the class three pupils with dysgraphia in public primary schools. The objectives of the study were to identify the spelling errors that learners with dysgraphia make when writing English words and classify the spelling errors they make. Further, the study will establish how the spelling errors affect the performance of the language among the study participants, and suggest the remediation strategies that teachers could use to address the errors. The study could provide the stakeholders with relevant information in writing skills that could help in developing a responsive curriculum to accommodate the teaching and learning needs of learners with dysgraphia, and probably ensure training of teachers in teacher training colleges is tailored within the writing needs of the pupils with dysgraphia. The study was carried out in Embu county because the researcher did not find any study in related literature review concerning the influence of spelling errors on English language performance among learners with dysgraphia in public primary schools done in the area. Moreover, besides being relatively populated enough for a sample population of the study, the area was fairly cosmopolitan to allow a generalization of the study findings. The study assumed the sampled schools will had class three pupils with dysgraphia who exhibited written spelling errors. The study was guided by two spelling approaches: the connectionist stimulation of spelling process and orthographic autonomy hypothesis with a view to explain how participants with learning disabilities spell written words. Data were collected through interviews, pupils’ exercise books, and progress records, and a spelling test made by the researcher based on the spelling scope set for class three pupils by the ministry of education in the primary education syllabus. The study relied on random sampling techniques in identifying general and specific participants. Since the study used children in schools as participants, voluntary consent was sought from themselves, their teachers and the school head teachers who were their caretakers in a school setting.
'You’re Not Alone': Peer Feedback Practices for Cross-Cultural Writing Classrooms and Centers
As writing instructors and writing center administrators at a large research university with a significant population of English language learners (ELLs), we are interested in how peer feedback pedagogy can be effectively translated for writing center purposes, as well as how various modes of peer feedback can enrich the learning experiences of L1 and L2 writers in these spaces. Although peer feedback is widely used in classrooms and centers, instructor, student, and researcher opinions vary in respect to its effectiveness. We argue that peer feedback - traditional and digital, synchronous and asynchronous - is an indispensable element for both classrooms and centers and emphasize that it should occur with both L1 and L2 students to further develop an array of reading and writing skills. We also believe that further understanding of the best practices of peer feedback in such cross-cultural spaces, like the classroom and center, can optimize the benefits of peer feedback. After a critical review of the literature, we implemented an embedded tutoring program in our university’s writing center in collaboration with its First-Year Composition (FYC) program and Language Institute. The embedded tutoring program matches a graduate writing consultant with L1 and L2 writers enrolled in controlled-matriculation composition courses where ELLs make up at least 50% of each class. Furthermore, this program is informed by what we argue to be some best practices of peer feedback for both classroom and center purposes, including expectation-based training through rubrics, modeling effective feedback, hybridizing traditional and digital modes of feedback, recognizing the significance the body in composition (what we call writer embodiment), and maximizing digital technologies to exploit extended cognition. After conducting surveys and follow-up interviews with students, instructors, and writing consultants in the embedded tutoring program, we found that not only did students see an increased value in peer feedback, but also instructors saw an improvement in both writing style and critical thinking skills. Our L2 participants noted improvements in language acquisition while our L1 students recognized a broadening of their worldviews. We believe that both L1 and L2 students developed self-efficacy and agency in their identities as writers because they gained confidence in their abilities to offer feedback, as well as in the legitimacy of feedback they received from peers. We also argue that these best practices situate novice writers as experts, as writers become a valued and integral part of the revision process with their own and their peers’ papers. Finally, the use of iPads in embedded tutoring recovered the importance of the body and its senses in writing; the highly sensory feedback from these multi-modal sessions that offer audio and visual input underscores the significant role both the body and mind play in compositional practices. After beginning with a brief review of the literature that sparked this research, this paper will discuss the embedded tutoring program in detail, report on the results of the pilot program, and will conclude with a discussion of the pedagogical implications that arise from this research for both classroom and center.
Using Blackboard to Enhance Academic Writing Classes
Academic writing is one of the most important class a freshman will take, as it provides the skill needed to formulate an academic essay in any discipline. Written assignments are the most common form of assessment in higher education and thus it is of paramount importance for students to master the skill of academic writing. This presentation aims to give practitioners multiple ways to enhance their academic writing classes using the Blackboard environment, with a view to improving student performance. The presentation will include ways to improve assessment and give corrective feedback. It will also provide ideas on how to increase variety in teaching lessons, assigning homework and on organizing materials.
Teaching Creative Thinking and Writing to Simultaneous Bilinguals: A Longitudinal Study of 6-7 Years Old English and Punjabi Language Learners
This paper documents the results of a longitudinal study done on two bilingual children who speak English and Punjabi simultaneously. Their father is a native English speaker whereas their mother speaks Punjabi. Their mother can speak both the languages (English and Punjabi) whereas their father only speaks English. At the age of six, these children have difficulty in creative thinking and of course creative writing. So, the first task for the researcher is to impress and entice the children to think creatively. Various and different methodologies and techniques were used to entice them to start thinking creatively. Creative thinking leads to creative writing. These children were exposed to numerous sources including videos, photographs, texts and audios at first place in order to have a taste of creative genres (stories in this case). The children were encouraged to create their own stories sometimes with photographs and sometimes by using their favorite toys. At a second stage, they were asked to write about an event or incident. After that, they were motivated to create new stories and write them. Length of their creative writing varies from a few sentences to a two standard page. After this six months’ study, the researcher was able to develop a ten steps methodology for creating and improving/enhancing creative thinking and creative writing skills of the subjects understudy. This ten-step methodology entices and motivates the learner to think creatively for producing a creative piece.
The Comparative Effect of Practicing Self-Assessment and Critical Thinking Skills on EFL Learners’ Writing Ability
The purpose of the present study was to discover which of the two writing activities, a self-assessment questioner or a critical thinking skills handout, is more effective on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a sample of 120 undergraduate students of English SAT for a standardized sample of PET. Eighty-two students whose scores fell one standard deviation above and below the sample mean were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups. One group practiced self-assessment and the other group practiced critical thinking skills while they were learning process writing. A writing posttest was finally administered to the students in both groups and the mean rank scores were compared by t-test. The result led to the rejection of the null hypothesis, indicating that practicing critical thinking skills had a significantly higher effect on the writing ability. The implications of the study for students and teachers as well as course book designers are discussed.
Post-Secondary Faculty Treatment of Non-Native English-Speaking Student Writing Errors in Academic Subject Courses
As more non-native English-speaking students enroll in English-medium universities, even more faculty will instruct students who are unprepared for the rigors of post-secondary academic writing in English. Many faculty members lack training and knowledge regarding the assessment of non-native English-speaking students’ writing, as well as the ability to provide effective feedback. This quantitative study investigated the possible attitudinal factors, including demographics, which might affect faculty preparedness and grading practices for both native and non-native English-speaking students’ academic writing and plagiarism, as well as the reasons faculty do not deduct points from both populations’ writing errors. Structural equation modeling and SPSS Statistics were employed to analyze the results of a faculty questionnaire disseminated to individuals who had taught non-native English-speaking students in academic subject courses. The findings from this study illustrated that faculty’s native language, years taught, and institution type were significant factors in not deducting points for academic writing errors and plagiarism, and the major reasons for not deducting points for errors were that faculty had too many students to grade, not enough training in assessing student written errors and plagiarism and that the errors and plagiarism would have taken too long to explain. The practical implications gleaned from these results can be applied to most departments in English-medium post-secondary institutions regarding faculty preparedness and training in student academic writing errors and plagiarism, and recommendations for future research are given for similar types of preparation and guidance for post-secondary faculty, regardless of degree path or academic subject.
Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment: The Case of Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II
The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent
English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and
Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the
results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective
feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year
English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha
Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson
plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic
Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of
short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English
writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical
errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong
form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons
sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure.
Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by
using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal
the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the
increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with
the significance at .05.
The Oral Production of University EFL Students: An Analysis of Tasks, Format, and Quality in Foreign Language Development
The present study focuses on academic literacy and addresses the impact of semantic-discursive resources on the constitution of genres that are produced in such context. The research considers the development of writing in the academic context in Portuguese. Researches that address academic literacy and the characteristics of the texts produced in this context are rare, mainly with focus on the development of writing, considering three variables: the constitution of the writer, the perception of the reader/interlocutor and the organization of the informational text flow. The research aims to map the semantic-discursive resources of the written register in texts of several genres and produced by students in the first semester of the undergraduate course in Letters. The hypothesis raised is that writing in the academic environment is not a recurrent literacy practice for these learners and can be explained by the ontogenetic and phylogenetic nature of language development. Qualitative in nature, the present research has as empirical data texts produced in a half-yearly course of Reading and Textual Production; these data result from the proposition of four different writing proposals, in a total of 600 texts. The corpus is analyzed based on semantic-discursive resources, seeking to contemplate relevant aspects of language (grammar, discourse and social context) that reveal the choices made in the reader/writer interrelationship and the organizational flow of the Text. Among the semantic-discursive resources, the analysis includes three resources, including (a) appraisal and negotiation to understand the attitudes negotiated (roles of the participants of the discourse and their relationship with the other); (b) ideation to explain the construction of the experience (activities performed and participants); and (c) periodicity to outline the flow of information in the organization of the text according to the genre it instantiates. The results indicate the organizational difficulties of the flow of the text information. Cartography contributes to the understanding of the way writers use language in an effort to present themselves, evaluate someone else’s work, and communicate with readers.
Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment
The purposes of this study are: 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.
Algerian EFL Students' Perceptions towards the Development of Writing through Weblog Storytelling
Weblog as a form of internet-based resources has become popular as an authentic and constructive learning tool, especially in the language classroom. This research explores the use of weblog storytelling as a pedagogical tool to develop Algerian EFL students’ creative writing. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of weblog- writing and the attitudes of both Algerian EFL students and teachers towards weblog storytelling. It also seeks to explore the potential benefits and problems that may affect the use of weblog and investigate the possible solutions to overcome the problems encountered. The research work relies on a mixed-method approach which combines both qualitative and quantitative methods. A questionnaire will be applied to both EFL teachers and students as a means to obtain preliminary data. Interviews will be integrated in accordance with the primary data that will be gathered from the questionnaire with the aim of validating its accuracy or as a strategy to follow up any unexpected results. An intervention will take place on the integration of weblog- writing among 15 Algerian EFL students for a period of two months where students are required to write five narrative essays about their personal experiences, give feedback through the use of a rubric to two or three of their peers, and edit their work based on the feedback. After completion, questionnaires and interviews will also take place as a medium to obtain both the students’ perspectives towards the use of weblog as an innovative teaching approach. This study is interesting because weblog storytelling has recently been emerged as a new form of digital communication and it is a new concept within Algerian context. Furthermore, the students will not just develop their writing skill through weblog storytelling but it can also serve as a tool to develop students’ critical thinking, creativity, and autonomy.
A Comparative Genre-Based Study of Research Articles' Method and Results Sections Authored by Iranian and English Native Speakers
The present genre-driven study aims at comparing moves and sub-moves deployed by Iranian and English medical writers while writing their research articles in English. To obtain the goals of the study, the researchers randomly selected a number of medical articles and compared them using Nwogu (1997)’s model. The results of relevant statistical tests, Chi-square tests for goodness of fit, used for comparing the two groups of the articles dubbed IrISI (Iranian ISI articles) and EISI (English ISI articles) have shown that no significant difference exists between the two groups of the articles in terms of the moves and sub-moves used in the method and results sections of them. The findings can be beneficial for people interested in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and medical experts. The findings can also increase language awareness and genre awareness among researchers who are interested in publishing their research outcomes in ISI-indexed journals in the Islamic Republic of Iran and some other world countries.
Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Written Corrective Feedback in a Wiki-Based Environment
This paper explores Chilean pre-service teachers' perceptions about the provision of corrective feedback in a wiki environment during the collaborative writing of an argumentative essay. After conducting a semi-structured interview on 22 participants, the data were processed through the content analysis technique. The results show that students have positive perceptions about corrective feedback, provided through a wiki virtual environment, which in turn facilitates feedback provision and impacts language learning effectively. Some of the positive perceptions about virtual feedback refer to permanent access, efficiency, simultaneous revision and immediacy. It would then be advisable to integrate wiki-based feedback as a methodology for the language classroom and collaborative writing tasks.
Investigating the Body Paragraphs of English as a Second Language Students' English Academic Essays: Genre Analysis and Needs Analysis
The present study has two objectives. Firstly, it investigates the rhetorical strategies employed in the body paragraphs of ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students’ English academic essays. Peacock’s (2002) model of the discussion section was used as the starting points in this study to investigate the rhetorical moves employed in the data. Secondly, it investigates the writing problems as perceived by these ESL students through an interview. Interview responses serve as accompanying data to the move analysis. Apart from this, students’ English academic writing problems are diagnosed. The findings have pedagogical implications in an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) classroom.
A Teaching Method for Improving Sentence Fluency in Writing
Although writing is a multifaceted task, teaching writing is a demanding task basically for two reasons: Grammar and Syntax. This article provides a method of teaching writing that was found to be effective in improving students’ academic writing composition skill. The article explains the concepts of ‘guided-discovery’ and ‘guided-construction’ upon which a method of teaching writing is grounded and developed. Providing a brief commentary on what the core could mean primarily, the article presents an exposition of understanding and identifying the core and building upon the core that can demonstrate the way a teacher can make use of the concepts in teaching for improving the writing skills of their students. The method is an adaptation of grammar translation method that has been improvised to suit to a student-centered classroom environment. An intervention of teaching writing through this method was tried out with positive outcomes in formal classroom research setup, and in view of the content’s quality that relates more to the classroom practices and also in consideration of its usefulness to the practicing teachers the process and the findings are presented in a narrative form along with the results in tabular form.
Developing Writing Skills of Learners with Persistent Literacy Difficulties through the Explicit Teaching of Grammar in Context: Action Research in a Welsh Secondary School
Background: The benefits of grammar instruction in the teaching of writing is contested in most English speaking countries. A majority of Anglophone countries abandoned the teaching of grammar in the 1950s based on the conclusions that it had no positive impact on learners’ development of reading, writing, and language. Although the decontextualised teaching of grammar is not helpful in improving writing, a curriculum with a focus on grammar in an embedded and meaningful way can help learners develop their understanding of the mechanisms of language. Although British learners are generally not taught grammar rules explicitly, learners in schools in France, the Netherlands, and Germany are taught explicitly about the structure of their own language. Exposing learners to grammatical analysis can help them develop their understanding of language. Indeed, if learners are taught that each part of speech has an identified role in the sentence. This means that rather than have to memorise lists of words or spelling patterns, they can focus on determining each word or phrase’s task in the sentence. These processes of categorisation and deduction are higher order thinking skills. When considering definitions of dyslexia available in Great Britain, the explicit teaching of grammar in context could help learners with persistent literacy difficulties. Indeed, learners with dyslexia often develop strengths in problem solving; the teaching of grammar could, therefore, help them develop their understanding of language by using analytical and logical thinking. Aims: This study aims at gaining a further understanding of how the explicit teaching of grammar in context can benefit learners with persistent literacy difficulties. The project is designed to identify ways of adapting existing grammar focussed teaching materials so that learners with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia can use them to further develop their writing skills. It intends to improve educational practice through action, analysis and reflection. Research Design/Methods: The project, therefore, uses an action research design and multiple sources of evidence. The data collection tools used were standardised test data, teacher assessment data, semi-structured interviews, learners’ before and after attempts at a writing task at the beginning and end of the cycle, documentary data and lesson observation carried out by a specialist teacher. Existing teaching materials were adapted for use with five Year 9 learners who had experienced persistent literacy difficulties from primary school onwards. The initial adaptations included reducing the amount of content to be taught in each lesson, and pre teaching some of the metalanguage needed. Findings: Learners’ before and after attempts at the writing task were scored by a colleague who did not know the order of the attempts. All five learners’ scores were higher on the second writing task. Learners reported that they had enjoyed the teaching approach. They also made suggestions to be included in the second cycle, as did the colleague who carried out observations. Conclusions: Although this is a very small exploratory study, these results suggest that adapting grammar focused teaching materials shows promise for helping learners with persistent literacy difficulties develop their writing skills.
Bilingual Gaming Kit to Teach English Language through Collaborative Learning
This paper aims to teach English (secondary language) by bridging the understanding between the Regional language (primary language) and the English Language (secondary language). Here primary language is the one a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, while secondary language would be any other language one learns or speaks. The paper also focuses on evolving old teaching methods to a contemporary participatory model of learning and teaching. Pilot studies were conducted to gauge an understanding of student’s knowledge of the English language. Teachers and students were interviewed and their academic curriculum was assessed as a part of the initial study. Extensive literature study and design thinking principles were used to devise a solution to the problem. The objective is met using a holistic learning kit/card game to teach children word recognition, word pronunciation, word spelling and writing words. Implication of the paper is a noticeable improvement in the understanding and grasping of English language. With increasing usage and applicability of English as a second language (ESL) world over, the paper becomes relevant due to its easy replicability to any other primary or secondary language. Future scope of this paper would be transforming the idea of participatory learning into self-regulated learning methods. With the upcoming govt. learning centres in rural areas and provision of smart devices such as tablets, the development of the card games into digital applications seems very feasible.
Composition Writing of the Associate in Hospitality Management Freshman Students of Cebu Technological University Tuburan Campus: Proposed Writing Skill Exercises.
The aim of the study was to determine the levels of performance in Composition Writing of English 122: Writing in the Discipline of the Associate in Hospitality Management Freshman Students in relation to their reading and writing experiences at the Cebu Technological University Tuburan Campus, Academic Year 2009-2010 as basis for a proposed skill exercises. Specifically, this research answers the following questions: Firstly, based on the students’ written compositions, what the students’ levels of performance in the following are: Composition Topic with subcomponents of Topic Development, Organizational or Logical Conclusions, Accurate, Relevant Evidence or Detail, Voice/Tone/Style, and the Composition Conventions with subcomponents of Structure, Grammar and Usage, Spelling, Capitalization, Punctuation. Secondly, what the students’ extents of experiences in view of Writing and Reading Experiences are.
Teachers’ Attitudes and Techniques in EFL Writing in Secondary Schools in Egypt
In 2008, the Egyptian Ministry of Education introduced a new national coursebook ‘Hello for Secondary Schools, which recommends a shift in EFL teachers’ instructional practices. Since then, very little attention has been paid to teachers’ techniques in EFL writing classes. Hence, this study aimed at investigating teaching writing practices in secondary schools and exploring the teachers’ attitudes towards EFL writing skill in addition to exploring the difficulties that teachers encountered in EFL writing lessons. The study depended on data triangulation through administering two questionnaires: one to 44 teachers and the other to 24 students, and conducting semi-structured interviews with 11 teachers. Both teachers and students were asked to describe teaching practices in EFL writing classes while the open-ended questions and interviews collected data about the teachers’ difficulties in writing lessons. The questionnaires indicate that teachers have negative attitudes towards teaching writing, and most of their practices are still traditional. Five factors have influenced teachers’ practices: backwash of the test, teachers’ professional development, students’ culture of reading and large classes. The study recommends there has to be a necessary change in the students’ examination system, and ongoing teachers’ professional development should be considered. Finally, a teaching model and implications are suggested.
Effects of the Supplementary for Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism on EFL Students’ Writing
As the Internet is recognized as a high potential and powerful educational tool to access sources of knowledge, plagiarism is an increasing unethical issue found in students’ writing. This paper is deriving from the 1st phase of an on-going study investigating the effects of the supplementary on citing sources on undergraduate students’ writing. The 40 participants were divided into 1 experimental group and 1 control group. Both groups were administered with a questionnaire on knowledge and an interview on attitude related to using sources in writing. Only the experimental group undertook the 4 lessons focusing on using outside sources and citing the original work (quoting, synthesizing, summarizing and paraphrasing) were delivered to them via e-learning tools throughout a semester. Participants were required to produce 4 writing tasks after each lesson. The results were concerned with types and factors on using outside sources in writing of Thai undergraduate EFL students from the survey. The interview results supported and clarified the survey result. In addition, the writing rubrics confirmed the types of plagiarism frequently occurred in students’ writing. The results revealed the types and factors on plagiarism including their perceptions on using the outside sources in their writing from the interview. The discussion shed the lights on cultural dimensions of plagiarism in student writing, roles of teachers, library, and university policy on the rate of plagiarism. Also, the findings promoted the awareness on ethics in writing and prevented the rate of potential unintentional plagiarism. Additionally, the results of this phase of study could lead to the appropriate contents to be considered for inclusion in the supplementary on using sources for writing for future research.
Dislocation and Writing: A Process of Remaking Identity
Creative writers have long followed the tradition of romantic exile, looking inward in an attempt to construct new viewpoints through the power of imagination. The writer, who attempts to resist uncertainty and locate her place in the new country through writing, resists creativity itself. For a writer, certain satisfaction can be achieved through producing a creative art away from the anxiety of the sense of dislocation. Dislocation, whether enforced or self-inflicted, could in many ways be a disaster but it could also cultivate a greater creative capacity and be a source of creative expression. This paper will investigate the idea of the creative writer as exiled self through reflections on the relationship between dislocation and writing.
Transportation Language Register as One of Language Community
Language register refers to a variety of a language used for particular purpose or in a particular social setting. Language register also means as a concept of adapting one’s use of language to conform to standards or tradition in a given professional or social situation. This descriptive study tends to discuss about the form of language register in transportation aspect, factors, also the function of use it. Mostly, language register in transportation aspect uses short sentences in form of informal register. The factor caused language register used are speaker, word choice, background of language. The functions of language register in transportations aspect are to make communication between crew easily, also to keep safety when they were in bad condition. Transportation language register developed naturally as one of variety of language used.
Web Quest as the Tool for Business Writing Skills Enhancement at Technical University EFL Classes
Under the current trend of globalization, economic and technological dynamics information and the means by which it is delivered and renewed becomes out-of-date rapidly. Thus, educational systems as well as higher education are being seriously tested. New strategies’ developing that is supported by Information and Communication Technology is urgently required. The essential educators’ mission is to meet the demands of the future by preparing our young learners with proper knowledge, skills and innovation capabilities necessary to advance our competitiveness globally. In response to the modern society and future demands, the oldest Siberian Tomsk Polytechnic University has wisely proposed several initiatives to promote the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education, and increase the competitiveness of graduates by emphasizing inquiry-based learning, higher order thinking and problem solving. This paper gives a brief overview of how Web Quest as ICT device is being used for language teaching and describes its use advantages for teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), in particular business writing skills. This study proposes to use Web Quest to promote higher order thinking and ICT integration in the process of engineers training in Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia.
Analyzing the Importance of Technical Writing in Professional Industry of Pakistan
No matter how much perfect we become in our practical skills regarding the implementation of learned ideas, the need of technical writing capability cannot be neglected to be a professional. Technical writing is a way of communicating the ideas in written which, otherwise, need to be presented orally. Technical writing skills have always been the need of the time, as they are required for internal, as well as external official communication in both formal and informal manner. Moreover, they are the best way to capture the attention of your customers by presenting information in an effective manner. This paper aims to analyze the importance of technical writing skills in professional industries of Pakistan by conducting a survey. Survey results presented in this paper clearly depicts the importance of formal and informal written communication media used in different professional industries in Pakistan. Analysis and discussion of the extent to which the alternative ways of communication besides technical writing have got importance in Pakistan is also an important aspect of this survey.
Impact of Natural Language Processing in Educational Setting: An Effective Approach towards Improved Learning
Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an effective approach for bringing improvement in educational setting. This involves initiating the process of learning through the natural acquisition in the educational systems. It is based on following effective approaches for providing the solution for various problems and issues in education. Natural Language Processing provides solution in a variety of different fields associated with the social and cultural context of language learning. It is based on involving various tools and techniques such as grammar, syntax, and structure of text. It is effective approach for teachers, students, authors, and educators for providing assistance for writing, analysis, and assessment procedure. Natural Language Processing is widely integrated in the large number of educational contexts such as research, science, linguistics, e-learning, evaluations system, and various other educational settings such as schools, higher education system, and universities. Natural Language Processing is based on applying scientific approach in the educational settings. In the educational settings, NLP is an effective approach to ensure that students can learn easily in the same way as they acquired language in the natural settings.
Self-Regulation in Composition Writing: The Case of Variation of Self-Regulation Dispositions in Opinion Essay and Technical Writing
The present study determines whether there will be differences in the self-regulation dispositions that learners utilize when writing different types of composition. There were 7 self-regulation factors that were used to develop a scale in this study such as memory strategy, goal setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, learning responsibility, environmental structuring, and organizing. The scale was made specific for writing a composition. The researcher-made scale was administered to 150 participants who all came from a university in the Philippines. The participants were asked to write two compositions namely opinion essay and research introduction/review of related literature. The zero-order correlation revealed that all the factors of self-regulation are correlated with one another. However, only seeking assistance and self-evaluation are correlated with opinion essay and technical writing is not correlated to any of the self-regulation factors. However, when path analysis was used, it was shown that seeking assistance can predict opinion essay scores whereas memory strategy, self-evaluation, and organizing can predict technical writing scores.
A Conundrum of Teachability and Learnability of Deaf Adult English as Second Language Learners in Pakistani Mainstream Classrooms: Integration or Elimination
Teaching a second language to deaf learners has always been a challenge in Pakistan. Different approaches and strategies have been followed, but they have been resulted into partial or complete failure. The study aims to investigate the language problems faced by adult deaf learners of English as second language in mainstream classrooms. Moreover, the study also determines the factors which are very much involved in language teaching and learning in mainstream classes. To investigate the language problems, data will be collected through writing samples of ten deaf adult learners and ten normal ESL learners of the same class; whereas, observation in inclusive language teaching classrooms and interviews from five ESL teachers in inclusive classes will be conducted to know the factors which are directly or indirectly involved in inclusive language education. Keeping in view this study, qualitative research paradigm will be applied to analyse the corpus. The study figures out that deaf ESL learners face severe language issues such as; odd sentence structures, subject and verb agreement violation, misappropriation of verb forms and tenses as compared to normal ESL learners. The study also predicts that in mainstream classrooms there are multiple factors which are affecting the smoothness of teaching and learning procedure; role of mediator, level of deaf learners, empathy of normal learners towards deaf learners and language teacher’s training.
Evaluating the Needs of PhD Students in Preparation of a Genre-Based English for Academic Purposes Course
Academic writing in the tertiary education has always been a challenge to EFL learners. This proposed study aims at investigating the academic English language needs for PhD students and candidates studying humanities and social sciences at Cairo University. The research problem arises from the fact that most of them study English as a Foreign Language (EFL) or for specific purposes (ESP) in their undergraduate years. They are hardly familiarized with the different academic genres, despite the fact that they use academic resources written in English, and they are required to publish a paper internationally. Upon understanding the conventions and constraints of academic writing, postgraduates will have the opportunity to interact with the international academic spheres conveniently. There is, thus, a need to be acquainted with the generally accepted features of the academic genres, such as academic papers and their part-genres, such as writing abstracts, in addition to other occluded genres, such as personal statements and recommendation letters. The lack of practicing many of these genres is caused by the fact that there are clear differences between the rhetoric and conventions of the students' native language, i.e., Arabic, and the target language they are learning in the academic context, i.e., English. Moreover, apart from the general culture represented ethno-linguistically, the learners' 'small' culture represented in a national setting like Cairo University is more defining than their general cultural affiliations that are associated with their nationality, race, or religion, for instance. The main research question of this proposed study is: What is the effect of teaching a genre-based EAP course on the research writing competence of PhD candidates? To reach an answer to this question, the study will attempt to answer the following sub-questions: 1. What are the Egyptian PhD candidates' EAP perceived needs? 2. What are the requisite academic research skills for Egyptian scholars? The study intends to assess the students’ needs, as a step to design and evaluate an EAP course that is based on explaining and scrutinizing a variety of academic genres. Adopting a diagnostic approach, the needs assessment uses quantitative data collected through questionnaires, and qualitative data assembled from semi-structured interviews with the students and their teachers, in addition to non-participant observations of a convenience sample.
Phonetics Problems and Solutions for 5th Grade Students of Turkish Language as a Foreign Language in Demirel College in 2015-2016 Academic Year
Foreign language learners are able to make mistakes in their pronunciation and writing when they encounter with alphabetical indications that are not available in their own language. The fifth-grade students who learn Turkish language at Demirel College in Georgia constitute the concrete example. ‘F’, ‘y’, ‘ö’, ‘ü’ letters in the Turkish alphabet are the most common mistakes they make. After a careful comparative linguistic study, it was found out that the mistakes caused by the fact that these signs were not available in Georgian. These problems have been tried to be solved through comparative language teaching method by using the pronunciation possibilities in other languages, which are spoken or known by students. First of all, other languages known by students are identified, the similar pronunciation difficulties in Turkish are also found in those languages in order to minimize the pronunciation problem in Turkish, pronunciation possibilities are that are available in those language are utilized. In this context, visual animations are made for pronunciation of English words such as year (yr), earn (örn), fair (fêir) and made student familiar with pronunciation with these words through repetition. With this study, it is observed that student’s motivation has been increased and with these indications, student’s mistakes are minimized.
A Review of Blog Assisted Language Learning Research: Based on Bibliometric Analysis
Blog assisted language learning (BALL) has been trialed by educators in language teaching with the development of Web 2.0 technology. Understanding the development trend of related research helps grasp the whole picture of the use of blog in language education. This paper reviews current research related to blogs enhanced language learning based on bibliometric analysis, aiming at (1) identifying the most frequently used keywords and their co-occurrence, (2) clustering research topics based on co-citation analysis, (3) finding the most frequently cited studies and authors and (4) constructing the co-authorship network. 330 articles were searched out in Web of Science, 225 peer-viewed journal papers were finally collected according to selection criteria. Bibexcel and VOSviewer were used to visualize the results. Studies reviewed were published between 2005 to 2016, most in the year of 2014 and 2015 (35 papers respectively). The top 10 most frequently appeared keywords are learning, language, blog, teaching, writing, social, web 2.0, technology, English, communication. 8 research themes could be clustered by co-citation analysis: blogging for collaborative learning, blogging for writing skills, blogging in higher education, feedback via blogs, blogging for self-regulated learning, implementation of using blogs in classroom, comparative studies and audio/video blogs. Early studies focused on the introduction of the classroom implementation while recent studies moved to the audio/video blogs from their traditional usage. By reviewing the research related to BALL quantitatively and objectively, this paper reveals the evolution and development trends as well as identifies influential research, helping researchers and educators quickly grasp this field overall and conducting further studies.
Designing Presentational Writing Assessments for the Advanced Placement World Language and Culture Exams
This paper outlines the criteria that assessment specialists use when they design the 'Persuasive Essay' task for the four Advanced Placement World Language and Culture Exams (AP French, German, Italian, and Spanish). The 'Persuasive Essay' is a free-response, source-based, standardized measure of presentational writing. Each 'Persuasive Essay' item consists of three sources (an article, a chart, and an audio) and a prompt, which is a statement of the topic phrased as an interrogative sentence. Due to its richness of source materials and due to the amount of time that test takers are given to prepare for and write their responses (a total of 55 minutes), the 'Persuasive Essay' is the free-response task on the AP World Language and Culture Exams that goes to the greatest lengths to unleash the test takers' proficiency potential. The author focuses on the work that goes into designing the 'Persuasive Essay' task, outlining best practices for the selection of topics and sources, the interplay that needs to be present among the sources and the thinking behind the articulation of prompts for the 'Persuasive Essay' task. Using released 'Persuasive Essay' items from the AP World Language and Culture Exams and accompanying data on test taker performance, the author shows how different passages, and features of passages, have succeeded (and sometimes not succeeded) in eliciting writing proficiency among test takers over time. Data from approximately 215.000 test takers per year from 2014 to 2017 and approximately 35.000 test takers per year from 2012 to 2013 form the basis of this analysis. The conclusion of the study is that test taker performance improves significantly when the sources that test takers are presented with express directly opposing viewpoints. Test taker performance also improves when the interrogative prompt that the test takers respond to is phrased as a yes/no question. Finally, an analysis of linguistic difficulty and complexity levels of the printed sources reveals that test taker performance does not decrease when the complexity level of the article of the 'Persuasive Essay' increases. This last text complexity analysis is performed with the help of the 'ETS TextEvaluator' tool and the 'Complexity Scale for Information Texts (Scale)', two tools, which, in combination, provide a rubric and a fully-automated technology for evaluating nonfiction and informational texts in English translation.
Reimagining Writing as a Healing Art: A Case Study on Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence as an essential job skill is growing in popularity among human resource professionals and hiring managers. Companies value those who have high emotional intelligence because of their personal competences (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation) and social competences (empathy, social skills). In implementing any training system to teach emotional intelligence, the best methodologies for acquiring and/or improving these competences should be taken into consideration. This study focuses on how students perceived the art of writing as a tool for self-improvement. During this session, participants will engage in a brief activity designed to help students develop emotional intelligence. As a part of the discussion, participants will learn the results of a junior-level literary seminar conducted to better understand students’ thoughts and views about the effectiveness of writing as a tool for emotional healing. An analysis of qualitative textual data is presented. The outcomes indicated that students found using writing as a tool for emotional intelligence development as highly effective. The findings also revealed that students have positive perceptions of using writing as a self-healing art that leads to increased emotional intelligence and believe that writing courses of this nature enhance students’ appreciation of the value of the liberal arts.
Tibyan Automated Arabic Correction Using Machine-Learning in Detecting Syntactical Mistakes
The Arabic language is one of the most important languages. Learning it is so important for many people around the world because of its religious and economic importance and the real challenge lies in practicing it without grammatical or syntactical mistakes. This research focused on detecting and correcting the syntactic mistakes of Arabic syntax according to their position in the sentence and focused on two of the main syntactical rules in Arabic: Dual and Plural. It analyzes each sentence in the text, using Stanford CoreNLP morphological analyzer and machine-learning approach in order to detect the syntactical mistakes and then correct it. A prototype of the proposed system was implemented and evaluated. It uses support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to detect Arabic grammatical errors and correct them using the rule-based approach. The prototype system has a far accuracy 81%. In general, it shows a set of useful grammatical suggestions that the user may forget about while writing due to lack of familiarity with grammar or as a result of the speed of writing such as alerting the user when using a plural term to indicate one person.
Using Assessment Criteria as a Pedagogic Tool to Develop Argumentative Essay Writing
Assessment criteria are mostly used for assessing skills like writing and speaking. However, they could be used as a pedagogic tool to develop writing skills. A study was conducted with higher secondary learners (Class XII Kendriya Vidyalaya) to investigate the effectiveness of assessment criteria to develop argumentative essay writing. In order to raise awareness about the features of argumentative essay, assessment criteria were shared with the learners. Along with that, self-evaluation checklists were given to the learners to guide them through the writing process. During the study learners wrote multiple drafts with the help of assessment criteria, self-evaluation checklists and teacher feedback at different stages of their writing. It was observed that learners became more aware of the features of argumentative essay which in turn improved their argumentative essay writing. In addition the self evaluation checklists imporved their ability to reflect on their work there by increasing learner autonomy in the class. Hence, it can be claimed that both assessment criteria and self evaluation checklists are effective pedagogic tools to develop argumentative essay writing. Thus, teachers can be trained to create and use tools like assessment criteria and self-evaluation checklists to develop learners’ writing skills in an effective way. The presentation would discuss the approach adopted in the study to teach argumentative essay writing along with the rationale. The tools used in the study would be shared and the data collected in the form of written scripts, self-evaluation checklists and student interviews will be analyzed to validate the claims. Finally, the practical implication of the study like the ways of using assessment criteria and checklists to raise learner awareness and autonomy, using such tools to keep the learners informed about the task requirements and genre features, and the like will be put forward.
Investigating the Stylistic Features of Advertising: Ad Design and Creation
Language has a powerful influence over people and their actions. The language of advertising has a very great impact on the consumer. It makes use of different features from the linguistic continuum. The present paper attempts to apply the theories of stylistics to the analysis of advertising texts. In order to decipher the stylistic features of the advertising discourse, 30 advertising text samples designed by MA Business students have been selected. These samples have been analyzed at the level of design and content. The study brings insights into the use of stylistic devices in advertising, and it reveals that both linguistic and non-linguistic features of advertisements are frequently employed to develop a well-thought-out design and content. The practical significance of the study is to highlight the specificities of the advertising genre so that people interested in the language of advertising (Business students and ESP teachers) will have a better understanding of the nature of the language used and the techniques of writing and designing ads. Similarly, those working in the advertising sphere (ad designers) will appreciate the specificities of the advertising discourse.
Read-Aloud with Multimedia Enhancement Strategy as an Effective Strategy to Use in the Classroom
This study identifies six different articles to explain which strategies are most effective for kindergarten English Language Learners. The literature review project has information about six different research articles, purpose of the studies, and results of the studies. There are several strategies can be used for ELL students to help them to develop their English language skills. Some articles mention technology as a multimedia integrated into the curriculum, some of them mention writing as a method of learning English as a second language. However, they all have a common strategy that is shared reading. According to these six articles, shared reading has a big role of ELL students’ language developmental process. All in all, read-aloud with multimedia enhancement strategy is the best strategy to use in the classroom, because this strategy is based on shared reading and also integrated with technology.
The Use of Project to Enhance Learning Domains Stated by National Qualifications Framework: TQF
This paper explores the use of project work in a content-based instruction in a Rajabhat University, Thailand. The use of project is to promote kinds of learning expected of student teachers as stated by Thailand Quality Framework: TQF. The kinds of learning are grouped into five domains: Ethical and moral development, knowledge, cognitive skill, interpersonal skills and responsibility, and analytical and communication skills. The content taught in class is used to lead the student teachers to relate their previously-acquired linguistic knowledge to meaningful realizations of the language system in passages of immediate relevance to their professional interests, teaching methods in particular. Two research questions are formulate to guide this study: 1) To what degree are the five domains of learning expected of student teachers after the use of project in a content class?, and 2) What is the academic achievement of the students’ writing skills, as part of the learning domains stated by TQF, against the 70% attainment target after the use of project to enhance the skill? The sample of the study comprised of 38 fourth-year English major students. The data was collected by means of a summative achievement test, student writing works, an observation checklist, and project diary. The scores in the summative achievement test were analyzed by mean score, standard deviation, and t-test. Project diary serves as students’ record of the language acquired during the project. List of structures and vocabulary noted in the diary has shown students’ ability to attend to, recognize, and focus on meaningful patterns of language forms.
Language Skills in the Emergent Literacy of Spanish-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Learning to read and write is a complex process involving several cognitive skills, contextual, and cultural environments. The basis of this development is linguistic skills, such as the ability to name and understand vocabulary, retell a story, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, among others. In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the main concerns is related to language disorders. Nevertheless, most of the children with ASD are able to decode written information but have difficulties in reading comprehension. The research of these processes in the Spanish-speaking population is limited. However, the increasing prevalence of this diagnosis (1 in 115 children) in Mexico has implications at different levels. Educational research is an important area of interest in ASD children, such as emergent literacy. Reading and writing expand the possibilities of academic, cultural, and social information access. Taking this information into account, the objective of this research was to identify the relationship between language skills, alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and early reading and writing in ASD Spanish-speaking children. The method used for this research was based on tasks that were selected, adapted and in some cases designed to measure initial reading and writing, as well as language skills (naming, receptive vocabulary, and narrative skills), phonological awareness (similar phonological word pairs, beginning sound awareness and spelling) and letter knowledge, in a sample of 45 children (38 boys and 7 girls) with prior diagnosis of ASD. Descriptive analyses, as well as bivariate correlations, cluster analysis, and canonical correspondence, were obtained for the data results. Results showed that variability was large; however, it was possible to characterize the sample in low, medium, and high score groups regarding children performance. The low score group (46.7% of the sample), had a null or deficient performance in language skills and phonological awareness, some could identify up to five letters of the alphabet, showed no early reading skills but they could scribble. The middle score group was characterized by a highly variable performance in different tasks, with better language skills in receptive and naming vocabulary, some narrative, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness (beginning sound awareness) skills. The high score group, (24.4% of the sample) had the best performance in language skills in relation to the sample data, as well as in the rest of the measured skills. Finally, scores were canonically correlated between naming, receptive vocabulary, narrative, phonological awareness, letter knowledge and initial learning of reading and writing skills for the high score group and letter knowledge, naming and receptive vocabulary for the lower score group, which is consistent with previous research in typical and ASD children. In conclusion, the obtained data is consistent with previous studies. Despite large variability, it was possible to identify performance profiles and relations based on linguistic, phonological awareness, and letter knowledge skills. These skills were predictor variables of the initial development of reading and writing. The above has implications for a future program and strategies development that may benefit the acquisition of reading and writing in ASD children.
Behavioral and EEG Reactions in Native Turkic-Speaking Inhabitants of Siberia and Siberian Russians during Recognition of Syntactic Errors in Sentences in Native and Foreign Languages
Tatiana N. Astakhova
, Alexander E. Saprygin
, Tatyana A. Golovko
, Alexander N. Savostyanov
, Mikhail S. Vlasov
, Natalia V. Borisova
, Alexandera G. Karpova
, Urana N. Kavai-ool
, Elena D. Mokur-ool
, Nikolay A. Kolchanov
, Lubomir I. Aftanas
The aim of the study is to compare behaviorally and EEG reactions in Turkic-speaking inhabitants of Siberia (Tuvinians and Yakuts) and Russians during the recognition of syntax errors in native and foreign languages. 63 healthy aboriginals of the Tyva Republic, 29 inhabitants of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and 55 Russians from Novosibirsk participated in the study. All participants completed a linguistic task, in which they had to find a syntax error in the written sentences. Russian participants completed the task in Russian and in English. Tuvinian and Yakut participants completed the task in Russian, English, and Tuvinian or Yakut, respectively. EEG’s were recorded during the solving of tasks. For Russian participants, EEG's were recorded using 128-channels. The electrodes were placed according to the extended International 10-10 system, and the signals were amplified using ‘Neuroscan (USA)’ amplifiers. For Tuvinians and Yakuts EEG's were recorded using 64-channels and amplifiers Brain Products, Germany. In all groups 0.3-100 Hz analog filtering, sampling rate 1000 Hz were used. Response speed and the accuracy of recognition error were used as parameters of behavioral reactions. Event-related potentials (ERP) responses P300 and P600 were used as indicators of brain activity. The accuracy of solving tasks and response speed in Russians were higher for Russian than for English. The P300 amplitudes in Russians were higher for English; the P600 amplitudes in the left temporal cortex were higher for the Russian language. Both Tuvinians and Yakuts have no difference in accuracy of solving tasks in Russian and in their respective national languages (Tuvinian and Yakut). However, the response speed was faster for tasks in Russian than for tasks in their national language. Tuvinians and Yakuts showed bad accuracy in English, but the response speed was higher for English than for Russian and the national languages. With Tuvinians, there were no differences in the P300 and P600 amplitudes and in cortical topology for Russian and Tuvinian, but there was a difference for English. In Yakuts, the P300 and P600 amplitudes and topology of ERP for Russian were the same as Russians had for Russian. In Yakuts, brain reactions during Yakut and English comprehension had no difference and were reflected foreign language comprehension -while the Russian language comprehension was reflected native language comprehension. We found out that the Tuvinians recognized both Russian and Tuvinian as native languages, and English as a foreign language. The Yakuts recognized both English and Yakut as a foreign language, only Russian as a native language. According to the inquirer, both Tuvinians and Yakuts use the national language as a spoken language, whereas they don’t use it for writing. It can well be a reason that Yakuts perceive the Yakut writing language as a foreign language while writing Russian as their native.
Enhancing Creative Writing Skill through the Implementation of Creative Thinking Process
The creative writing skill of Thai fourth year university learners majoring in English at Khon Kaen University, Thailand has been enhanced in an English creative writing course through the implementation of creative thinking process. The creative writing assignments cover writing a variety of short poems and a short story, bibliography and short play scripts. However, this study focuses mainly on writing short poems and short stories through the implementation of creative thinking process via action research design with on-going needs analysis and feedbacks to meet their learning needs for 45 hours. At the end of the course, forty two learners’ creative writing skill appeared to be significantly improved. Through the research instruments such as the tasks assigned both inside and outside the class as self –study including class observation, semi-conversational interviews and teacher feedback both in persons and on line including peer feedbacks. The research findings show that the target learners could produce better short poems and short story assessed by the set of criteria such as the creative and innovative short poems and short stories with complete and interesting elements of a short story like plot, theme, setting, symbolism and so on. This includes a higher level of the awareness of the pragmatic use of English writing in terms of word choices, grammar rules and writing styles. All of these outcomes reflect positive trends of success in terms of the learners’ improved creative writing skill as well as better attitudes to and motivation for learning to write English for pleasure. More interestingly, many learners claimed that this innovative teaching method through the implementation of creative thinking process integrated with creative writing help stretch their imaginations and inspire them to become a writer in the future.
Blogging vs Paper-and-Pencil Writing: Evidences from an Iranian Academic L2 Setting
Second language (L2) classrooms in academic contexts usually consist of learners with diverse L2 proficiency levels. One solution for managing such heterogeneous classes and addressing individual needs of students is to improve learner autonomy by using technological innovations such as blogging. The focus of this study is on investigating the effects of blogging on improving the quality of Iranian university students' writings. For this aim, twenty-six Iranian university students participated in the study. Students in the experimental group (n=13) were required to blog daily while the students in the control group (n=13) were asked to write a daily schedule using paper and pencil. After a 3-month period of instruction, the five last writings of the students from both groups were rated by two experienced raters. Also, students' attitudes toward the traditional method and blogging were surveyed using a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The research results showed evidences in favor of the students who used blogging in their writing program. Also, although students in the experimental group found blogging more demanding than the traditional method, they showed an overall positive attitude toward the use of blogging as a way of improving their writing skills. The findings of the study have implications for the incorporation of computer-assisted learning in L2 academic contexts.
Collocation Errors in English as Second Language (ESL) Essay Writing
In language learning, Second language learners like their native speaker counter parts, commit errors in their attempt to achieve competence in the target language. The realm of Collocation has to do with meaning relation between lexical items. In all human language, there is a kind of ‘natural order’ in which words are arranged or relate to one another in sentences so much so that when a word occurs in a given context, the related or naturally co -occurring word will automatically come to the mind. It becomes an error, therefore, if students inappropriately pair or arrange such ‘naturally’ co – occurring lexical items in a text. It has been observed that most of the second language learners in this research group commit collocational errors. A study of this kind is very significant as it gives insight into the kinds of errors committed by learners. This will help the language teacher to be able to identify the sources and causes of such errors as well as correct them thereby guiding, helping and leading the learners towards achieving some level of competence in the language. The aim of the study is to understand the nature of these errors as stumbling blocks to effective essay writing. The objective of the study is to identify the errors, analyse their structural compositions so as to determine whether there are similarities between students in this regard and to find out whether there are patterns to these kinds of errors which will enable the researcher to understand their sources and causes. As a descriptive research, the researcher samples some nine hundred essays collected from three hundred undergraduate learners of English as a second language in the Federal College of Education, Kano, North- West Nigeria, i.e. three essays per each student. The essays which were given on three different lecture times were of similar thematic preoccupations (i.e. same topics) and length (i.e. same number of words). The essays were written during the lecture hour at three different lecture occasions. The errors were identified in a systematic manner whereby errors so identified were recorded only once even if they occur severally in students’ essays. The data was collated using percentages in which the identified number of occurrences were converted accordingly in percentages. The findings from the study indicates that there are similarities as well as regular and repeated errors which provided a pattern. Based on the pattern identified, the conclusion is that students’ collocational errors are attributable to poor teaching and learning which resulted in wrong generalisation of rules.
Mechanisms in Regulating Language Practices in Electronics Engineering: A Program Plan for Outcomes-Based Education
The underlying principle behind the harmonization in international education does not solely aim for the comparability but also the compatibility of outputs produced. The international standard in the different professions particularly in engineering defines the required graduate attributes to attain suitable qualifications and recognitions. This study described the language practices of the Electronics Engineering students of Bulacan State University, Philippines who will be deployed for their internship program. The purpose of the study was achieved by determining the language proficiency of the students in terms of speaking, listening, reading, and writing, and checking the adherence of the University to the commitment of intensifying community building for the Association of Southeast Asian Nation Vision 2020. The analysis of variance of the variables defined the significance between the causal variables and dependent variables. Thus, this study identified the mechanism that would regulate language practices in the Electronics Engineering program.
Impact of Expressive Writing on Creativity
Negative emotions are rather seen as creativity inhibitor. On the other hand, it is worth noting that negative emotions may be good for our functioning. Negative emotions enhance cognitive resources and improve evaluative processes. Moreover maintaining a negative emotional state allow for cognitive reinterpretation of the emotional stimuli, what is good for our creativity, especially cognitive flexibility. Writing a diary or writing about difficult emotional experiences in general can be the way to not only improve psychical health, but also – enhance creative behaviors. Thanks to translating difficult emotions to the verbal level and giving them ‘a name’ or ‘a label’, we can get easier access to both emotional content of an experience and to the semantic content, without the need of speaking out loud. Expressive writing improves academic results and the efficiency of working memory. The classical method of writing about emotions consists in a long-term process of describing negative experiences. Present research demonstrate the efficiency of this process over a shorter period of time - one writing session, on school children sample. Participants performed writing task. Writing task had two different topics: emotions connected with their negative emotions (expressive writing) and content not connected with negative emotional state (writing about one’s typical day). Creativity was measured by Guilford’s Alternative Uses Task. Results have shown that writing about negative emotions results in the higher level of divergent thinking in all three parameters: fluency, flexibility and originality. After the writing task mood of expressive writing participants remained negative more than the mood of the controls. Taking an expressive action after a difficult emotional experience can support functioning, which can be observed in enhancement of divergent thinking. Writing about emotions connected with negative experience makes one more creative, than writing about something unrelated with difficult emotional moments. Research has shown that young people should not demonize negative emotions. Sometimes, properly applied, negative emotions can be the basis of creation. Preparation was supported by a The Young Scientist University grant titled ‘Dynamics of emotions in the creative process’ from The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
The Effect of Explicit Focus on Form on Second Language Learning Writing Performance
Investigating the effectiveness of explicit focus on form on the written performance of the EFL learners was the aim of this study. To provide empirical support for this study, sixty male English learners were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of explicit focus on form and meaning focused. Narrative writing was employed for data collection. To measure writing performance, participants were required to narrate a story. They were given 20 minutes to finish the task and were asked to write at least 150 words. The participants’ output was coded then analyzed utilizing Independent t-test for grammatical accuracy and fluency of learners’ performance. Results indicated that learners in explicit focus on form group appear to benefit from error correction and rule explanation as two pedagogical techniques of explicit focus on form with respect to accuracy, but regarding fluency they did not yield any significant differences compared to the participants of meaning-focused group.
An Exploration of Gender Differences in Academic Writing in Science
Underrepresentation of women in academia, particularly in science, has been discussed by many scholars for decades. The causes of this underrepresentation are debated to this day. Publication is an important aspect of success in academia, and publication and citation rates are significant metrics in performance review, promotion, and employment. It has been established that men’s and women’s language use in general, both spoken and written, is different. However, no one, to our knowledge, has looked at whether men’s and women’s writing in science is different. If there are significant differences in the writing of men and women, then these differences may affect women’s ability to succeed in science. This study is part of a larger project to explore whether differences can be recognized in the academic science writing of men and women. Mono authored articles from high ranking physics, biology and psychology journals by men and women authors were compared in terms of readability statistics. In particular, the abstract and introduction sections were compared, as these are the first sections encountered by a reviewer, and so may have an important effect on their impression of the work. The Flesch Reading Ease, the percentage of passive sentences and the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level were calculated for each section of each article, along with counts of numbers of sentences, words per sentence and sentences per paragraph. Significance of differences was tested using the Behrens statistic. It was found that for both physics and biology papers there were no significant differences in the complexity or verbosity of the writing of men and women authors. However, there was a significant difference between the two disciplines, with physics articles being generally more readable (higher readability score) while also more passive (higher number of passive sentences). In contrast, the psychology articles showed a difference between men and women authors which may be significant. The average readability for introductions in women’s articles was 28 which was higher than for men’s articles, which was 19 (higher values indicate more readable). Women’s articles in psychology also had a greater proportion of passive sentences. It can be concluded that, at least in the more traditional sciences, men and women have adopted similar ways of writing, and that disciplinary differences are greater than gender differences. This may not be the case in psychology, which many consider to be more closely aligned with the humanities. Whether the lack of differences is because women have adapted to a masculine way of writing, or whether the genre itself is gender neutral needs further investigation.
Japanese Language Learning Strategies : Case study student in Japanese subject part, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
The research aimed to study the use of learning strategies for Japanese language among college students with different learning achievements who study Japanese as a foreign language in the Higher Education’s level. The survey was conducted by using a questionnaire adapted from Strategy Inventory for language Learning or SILL (Oxford, 1990), consisting of two parts: questions about personal data and questions about the use of learning strategies for Japanese language. The samples of college students in the Japanese language program were purposively selected from Suansunandha Rajabhat University. The data from the questionnaire was statistically analyzed by using mean scores and one-way ANOVA. The results showed that Social Strategies was used by the greatest number of college students, whereas Memory Strategies was used by the least number of students. The students in different levels used various strategies, including Memory Strategies, Cognitive Strategies, Metacognitive Strategies and Social Strategies, at the significance level of 0.05. In addition, the students with different learning achievements also used different strategies at the significance level of 0.05. Further studies can explore learning strategies of other groups of Japanese learners, such as university students or company employees. Moreover, learning strategies for language skills, including listening, speaking, reading and writing, can be analyzed for better understanding of learners’ characteristics and for teaching applications.
An Analytical Study of Organizational Implication in EFL Writing Experienced by Iranian Students with Learning Difficulties
This present study concentrates on the organizational implication the Iranian students with learning difficulties (LD) experience when they write an English essay. Particularly, the present study aims at exploring students' structural problems in EFL essay writing. A mixed method research design was employed including a questionnaire and a semi-structured in-depth interview. Technical Data Analysis of findings exposed that students experience a number of difficulties in the structure of EFL essay writing. Discussion and implications of these findings are presented respectively.
Web-Based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI): A Hybrid e-Framework for Instructional Design
Web-based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI) is a hybrid e-framework that consolidates instructional design and language development towards the development of a web-based instruction (WBI). WeCWI divides instructional design into macro and micro perspectives. In macro perspective, a 21st century educator is encouraged to disseminate knowledge and share ideas with in-class and global learners. By leveraging the virtue of technology, WeCWI aims to transform the educator into an aggregator, curator, publisher, social networker and finally, a web-based instructor. Since the most notable contribution of integrating technology is being a tool of teaching as well as a stimulus for learning, WeCWI focuses on the use of contemporary web tools based on the multiple roles played by the 21st century educator. The micro perspective draws attention to the pedagogical approaches focussing on three main aspects: reading, discussion, and writing. With the effective use of pedagogical approaches, technology adds new dimensions and expands the bounds of learning capacity. Lastly, WeCWI also imparts the fundamental theoretical concepts for web-based instructors’ awareness such as interactionism, e-learning interactional-based model, computer-mediated communication (CMC), cognitive theories, and learning style model.
Candid Panchali's Unheard Womanhood: A Study of Chitra Divakurani's the Palace of Illusions
Silence has been 'scriptured' in women within dominating social structures, as the modes of speaking and behaving which deny women free investiture to language. A woman becomes the product of ideological constructions as language substantiates andro-centric bias. Constrained from writing/speaking in the public sphere, women have traditionally been confined to expressing themselves in writing private poetry, letters or diaries. The helplessness of a woman is revealed in the ways in which she is expected to speak a language, which, in fact, is man-made. There are visible binaries of coloniser- colonised; Western-Eastern; White-Black, Nature-Culture, even Male-Female that contribute significantly to our understanding of the concept of representation and its resultant politics. Normally, an author is labeled as feminist, humanist, or propagandist and this process of labeling correspond to a sense of politics besides his inclination to a particular field. One cannot even think of contemporary literature without this representational politics. Thus, each and every bit of analysis of a work of literature demands a political angle to be dealt with. Besides literature, the historical facts and manuscripts are also subject to this politics. The image of woman as someone either dependent on man or is exploited by him only provides half the picture of this representational politics. The present paper is an attempt to study Panchali’s (Draupadi of Mahabharata) voiceless articulation and her representation as a strong woman in Chitra Divakurani’s The Palace of Illusions.
Building in Language Support in a Hong Kong Chemistry Classroom with English as a Medium of Instruction: An Exploratory Study
Science writing has played a crucial part in science assessments. This paper reports a study in an area that has received little research attention – how Language across the Curriculum (LAC, i.e. science language and literacy) learning activities in science lessons can increase the science knowledge development of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in Hong Kong. The data comes from a school-based interventional study in chemistry classrooms, with written data from questionnaires, assessments and teachers’ logs and verbal data from interviews and classroom observations. The effectiveness of the LAC teaching and learning activities in various chemistry classrooms were compared and evaluated, with discussion of some implications. Students in the treatment group with lower achieving students received LAC learning and teaching activities while students in the control group with higher achieving students received conventional learning and teaching activities. After the study, they performed better in control group in formative assessments. Moreover, they had a better attitude to learning chemistry content with a richer language support. The paper concludes that LAC teaching and learning activities yielded positive learning outcomes among chemistry learners with low English ability.
The Post-Colonial Yoruba Poets as Agents of Political and Economic Emancipation in Nigeria
One of the major peculiarities of man is the ability to communicate and interact with language. The original Yoruba society, before the advent of the Europeans, was purely oral. That is the major means of inter- personal communication was through speaking. The abolition of slave trade by Britain marked the beginning of development of Yoruba alphabet and introduction of writing around 1800. However, most of the writing was Christian religion-focused. Later, the introduction of British colonial rule led to the introduction of writing that dwelt on political and economic emancipation. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria was granted independence by the British colonial masters and self-rule started in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the military and civilian administrations brought about political and economic oppression instead of comfort. The discomfort brought about by Nigerian political and military rulers turned the Yoruba poets to activists, reactionaries and critics. This paper will give a brief preamble on the history of Nigeria and how she got her political independence from the British in 1960. It will thereafter go further to mention some political and economic hardship brought about by Nigerian leaders. Using literary theories called semiotics and structuralism, the reactions and criticisms of some Yoruba poets will be mentioned and analyzed vis-à-vis the counter reactions of the governments in power. Moreover, the paper will bring about a conclusion on how to create a conducive atmosphere for the Yoruba poets to operate in Nigeria. Finally, suggestions will be offered on how the Nigerian government and Yoruba poets can co-exist positively to bring about a better standard of living to Nigerians and also promote good governance
Genre Analysis and Interview: Body Paragraphs of Student English Academic Essays
This study reports on a study examining the body paragraphs of English academic essays written by some ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students. These students took English for Academic Purposes course for one semester at a public university in Malaysia. In addition to analyzing the communicative purposes employed in the sample, for triangulation of data, student participants were interviewed on their academic writing experience in their English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classroom. The present study has pedagogical implications in an EAP classroom.
Increasing the Ability of State Senior High School 12 Pekanbaru Students in Writing an Analytical Exposition Text through Comic Strips
This research aimed at describing and testing whether the students’ ability in writing analytical exposition text is increased by using comic strips at SMAN 12 Pekanbaru. The respondents of this study were the second-grade students, especially XI Science 3 academic year 2011-2012. The total number of students in this class was forty-two (42) students. The quantitative and qualitative data was collected by using writing test and observation sheets. The research finding reveals that there is a significant increase of students’ writing ability in writing analytical exposition text through comic strips. It can be proved by the average score of pre-test was 43.7 and the average score of post-test was 65.37. Besides, the students’ interest and motivation in learning are also improved. These can be seen from the increasing of students’ awareness and activeness in learning process based on observation sheets. The findings draw attention to the use of comic strips in teaching and learning is beneficial for better learning outcome.
Peer Corrective Feedback on Written Errors in Computer-Mediated Communication
This paper aims to explore the role of peer Corrective Feedback (CF) in improving written productions by English-as-a- foreign-language (EFL) learners who work together via Wikispaces. It attempted to determine the effect of peer CF on form accuracy in English, such as grammar and lexis. Thirty-four EFL learners at the tertiary level were randomly assigned into the experimental (with peer feedback) or the control (without peer feedback) group; each group was subdivided into small groups of two or three. This resulted in six and seven small groups in the experimental and control groups, respectively. In the experimental group, each learner played a role as an assessor (providing feedback to others), as well as an assessee (receiving feedback from others). Each participant was asked to compose his/her written work and revise it based on the feedback. In the control group, on the other hand, learners neither provided nor received feedback but composed and revised their written work on their own. Data collected from learners’ compositions and post-task interviews were analyzed and reported in this study. Following the completeness of three writing tasks, 10 participants were selected and interviewed individually regarding their perception of collaborative learning in the Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environment. Language aspects to be analyzed included lexis (e.g., appropriate use of words), verb tenses (e.g., present and past simple), prepositions (e.g., in, on, and between), nouns, and articles (e.g., a/an). Feedback types consisted of CF, affective, suggestive, and didactic. Frequencies of feedback types and the accuracy of the language aspects were calculated. The results first suggested that accurate items were found more in the experimental group than in the control group. Such results entail that those who worked collaboratively outperformed those who worked non-collaboratively on the accuracy of linguistic aspects. Furthermore, the first type of CF (e.g., corrections directly related to linguistic errors) was found to be the most frequently employed type, whereas affective and didactic were the least used by the experimental group. The results further indicated that most participants perceived that peer CF was helpful in improving the language accuracy, and they demonstrated a favorable attitude toward working with others in the CMC environment. Moreover, some participants stated that when they provided feedback to their peers, they tended to pay attention to linguistic errors in their peers’ work but overlook their own errors (e.g., past simple tense) when writing. Finally, L2 or FL teachers or practitioners are encouraged to employ CMC technologies to train their students to give each other feedback in writing to improve the accuracy of the language and to motivate them to attend to the language system.
Affective Attributes and Second Language Performance of Third Year Maritime Students: A Teacher's Compass
Learning a second language calls for a total commitment from the learner whose response is necessary to successfully send and receive linguistic messages. It is relevant to virtually every aspect of human behaviour which is even more challenging when the components on -affective domains- are involved in second language learning. This study investigated the association between the identified affective attributes and second language performance of the one hundred seventeen (117) randomly selected third year maritime students. A descriptive-correlational method was utilized to generate data on their affective attributes while composition writing (2 series) and IELTS-based interview was done for speaking test. Additionally, to establish the respondents’ English language profile, data on their high school grades (GPA), entrance exam results in English subject (written) as well as in the interview was extracted as baseline information. Data were subjected to various statistical treatment (average means, percentages and pearson-r moment coefficient correlation) and found out that, Nautical Science and Marine Engineering students were found to have average high school grade, entrance test results, both written and in the interview turned out to be very satisfactory at 50% passing percentage. Varied results were manifested in their affective attributes towards learning the second language. On attitude, nautical science students had true positive attitude while marine engineering had only a moderate positive one. Secondly, the former were positively motivated to learn English while the latter were just moderately motivated. As regards anxiety, both groups embodied a moderate level of anxiety in the English language. Finally, data showed that nautical science students exuded real confidence while the marine engineering group had only moderate confidence with the second language. Respondents’ English academic achievement (GWA) was significantly correlated with confidence and speaking with anxiety towards the second language among the students from the nautical science group with moderate positive and low negative degree of correlation, respectively. On the other hand, the marine engineering students’ speaking test result was significantly correlated with anxiety and self-confidence with a moderate negative and low positive degree of correlation, respectively while writing was significantly correlated with motivation bearing a low positive degree of correlation.
Event-Related Potentials and Behavioral Reactions during Native and Foreign Languages Comprehension in Bilingual Inhabitants of Siberia
Tatiana N. Astakhova
, Alexander E. Saprygin
, Tatyana A. Golovko
, Alexander N. Savostyanov
, Mikhail S. Vlasov
, Natalia V. Borisova
, Alexandera G. Karpova
, Urana N. Kavai-ool
, Elena D. Mokur-ool
, Nikolay A. Kolchanov
, Lubomir I. Aftanas
The study is dedicated to the research of brain activity in bilingual inhabitants of Siberia. We compared behavioral reactions and event-related potentials in Turkic-speaking inhabitants of Siberia (Tuvinians and Yakuts) and Russians. 63 healthy aboriginals of the Tyva Republic, 29 inhabitants of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and 55 Russians from Novosibirsk participated in the study. All the healthy and right-handed participants, matched on age and sex, were students of different universities. EEG’s were recorded during the solving of linguistic tasks. In these tasks, participants had to find a syntax error in the written sentences. There were four groups of sentences: Russian, English, Tuvinian, and Yakut. All participants completed the tasks in Russian and English. Additionally, Tuvinians and Yakuts completed the tasks in Tuvinian or Yakut respectively. For Russians, EEG's were recorded using 128-channels according to the extended International 10-10 system, and the signals were amplified using “Neuroscan (USA)” amplifiers. For Tuvinians and Yakuts, EEG's were recorded using 64-channels and amplifiers Brain Products, Germany. In all groups, 0.3-100 Hz analog filtering and sampling rate 1000 Hz were used. As parameters of behavioral reactions, response speed and the accuracy of recognition were used. Event-related potentials (ERP) responses P300 and P600 were used as indicators of brain activity. The behavioral reactions showed that in Russians, the response speed for Russian was faster than for English. Also, the accuracy of solving tasks was higher for Russian than for English. The peak P300 in Russians were higher for English, the peak P600 in the left temporal cortex were higher for the Russian language. Both Tuvinians and Yakuts have no difference in accuracy of solving tasks in Russian and in their respective national languages. However, the response speed was faster for tasks in Russian than for tasks in their national language. Tuvinians and Yakuts showed bad accuracy in English, but the response speed was higher for English than for Russian and the national languages. This can be explained by the fact that they did not think carefully and gave a random answer for English. In Tuvinians, The P300 and P600 amplitudes and cortical topology were the same for Russian and Tuvinian and different for English. In Yakuts, the P300 and P600 amplitudes and topology of ERP for Russian were the same as what Russians had for Russian. In Yakuts, brain reactions during Yakut and English comprehension had no difference, and were reflected to foreign language comprehension - while the Russian language comprehension was reflected to native language comprehension. We found out that the Tuvinians recognized both Russian and Tuvinian as native languages, and English as a foreign language. The Yakuts recognized both English and Yakut as a foreign language, and only Russian as a native language. According to the inquirer, both Tuvinians and Yakuts use the national language as a spoken language, whereas they don’t use it for writing. It can well be a reason that Yakuts perceive the Yakut writing language as a foreign language while writing Russian as their native.
Developing a Model of Teaching Writing Based On Reading Approach through Reflection Strategy for EFL Students of STKIP YPUP
The purpose of recent study was to develop a learning model on writing, based on the reading texts which will be read by the students using reflection strategy. The strategy would allow the students to read the text and then they would write back the main idea and to develop the text by using their own sentences. So, the writing practice was begun by reading an interesting text, then the students would develop the text which has been read into their writing. The problem questions are (1) what kind of learning model that can develop the students writing ability? (2) what is the achievement of the students of STKIP YPUP through reflection strategy? (3) is the using of the strategy effective to develop students competence In writing? (4) in what level are the students interest toward the using of a strategy In writing subject? This development research consisted of some steps, they are (1) need analysis (2) model design (3) implementation (4) model evaluation. The need analysis was applied through discussion among the writing lecturers to create a learning model for writing subject. To see the effectiveness of the model, an experiment would be delivered for one class. The instrument and learning material would be validated by the experts. In every steps of material development, there was a learning process, where would be validated by an expert. The research used development design. These Principles and procedures or research design and development .This study, researcher would do need analysis, creating prototype, content validation, and limited empiric experiment to the sample. In each steps, there should be an assessment and revision to the drafts before continue to the next steps. The second year, the prototype would be tested empirically to four classes in STKIP YPUP for English department. Implementing the test greatly was done through the action research and followed by evaluation and validation from the experts.
Enhancing English Language Learning through Learners Cultural Background
Language and culture are two concepts which are closely related that one affects the other. This paper attempts to examine the definition of language and culture by discussing the relationship between them. The paper further presents some instructional strategies for the teaching of language and culture as well as the influence of culture on language. It also looks at its implication to language education and finally some recommendation and conclusion were drawn.
Aspects of Diglossia in Arabic Language Learning
Diglossia emerges in a situation where two distinctive varieties of a language are used alongside within a certain community. In this case, one is considered as a high or standard variety and the second one as a low or colloquial variety. Arabic is an extreme example of a highly diglossic language. This diglossity is due to the fact that Arabic is one of the most spoken languages and spread over 22 Countries in two continents as a mother tongue, and it is also widely spoken in many other Islamic countries as a second language or simply the language of Quran. The geographical variation between the countries where the language is spoken and the duality of the classical Arabic and daily spoken dialects in the Arab world on the other hand; makes the Arabic language one of the most diglossic languages. This paper tries to investigate this phenomena and its relation to learning Arabic as a first and second language.
American Slang: Perception and Connotations – Issues of Translation
The English language that is taught in school or used in media nowadays is defined as 'standard English,' although unstandardized Englishes, or 'parallel' Englishes, are practiced throughout the world. The existence of these 'parallel' Englishes has challenged standardization by imposing its own specific vocabulary or grammar. These non-standard languages tend to be regarded as inferior and, therefore, pose a problem regarding their translation. In the USA, 'slanguage', or slang, is a good example of a 'parallel' language. It consists of a particular set of vocabulary, used mostly in speech, and rarely in writing. Qualified as vulgar, often reduced to an urban language spoken by young people from lower classes, slanguage – or the language that is often first spoken between youths – is still the most common language used in the English-speaking world. Moreover, it appears that the prime meaning of 'informal' (as in an informal language) – a language that is spoken with persons the speaker knows – has been put aside and replaced in the general mind by the idea of vulgarity and non-appropriateness, when in fact informality is a sign of intimacy, not of vulgarity. When it comes to translating American slang, the main problem a translator encounters is the image and the cultural background usually associated with this 'parallel' language. Indeed, one will have, unwillingly, a predisposition to categorize a speaker of a 'parallel' language as being part of a particular group of people. The way one sees a speaker using it is paramount, and needs to be transposed into the target language. This paper will conduct an analysis of American slang – its use, perception and the image it gives of its speakers – and its translation into French, using the novel Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (and other concerns) by way of example. In her autobiography/personal essay book, comedy writer, actress and author Mindy Kaling speaks with a very familiar English, including slang, which participates in the construction of her own voice and style, and enables a deeper connection with her readers.
Models and Metamodels for Computer-Assisted Natural Language Grammar Learning
The paper follows a discourse on computer-assisted language learning. We examine problems of foreign language teaching and learning and introduce a metamodel that can be used to define learning models of language grammar structures in order to support teacher/student interaction. Special attention is paid to the concept of a virtual language lab. Our approach to language education assumes to encourage learners to experiment with a language and to learn by discovering patterns of grammatically correct structures created and managed by a language expert.
Representation of Self and the Client in Social Work Students’ Report
New forms of academic writing such as apprenticeship genres are developing in the field of applied linguistics. However, these perspectives have not adequately addressed the issue of social work students in Botswana. The paper addresses the issue of academic writing with special attention to the types of documents written by University of Botswana (UB) social work students on their fieldwork placement. The research method for this study combines two major research tools in the qualitative inquiry which are text analysis and interviews in order to investigate the context in which the texts are produced. 12 students were consulted and gave their consent for the study. 26 case reports were collected from the Department of Social work at the University of Botswana. The findings show that the case reports students write during their fieldwork placements have 6 moves, which focus on the clients’ story and describe what the students have done and achieved. The significance is that the discrepancy between professional writing and students writing raise questions about the extent to which students are being prepared for professional writing. Students have indicated that their academic writing varies according to the preferences of individual lecturers rather than the requirement of the work situation.
The Queer Language: A Case Study of the Hyderabadi Queers
Although the term third gender is relatively new, the language that is in use has already made its way to the concept of identity. With the vast recognition and the transparency in expressing their identity without a tint of embarrassment, it is highly essential to take into account the idea of “identity” and “language”. The community however picks up language as a tool to assert their presence in the “mainstream”, albeit contradictory practices. The paper is an attempt to see how Koti claims and tries to be a language just like any other language. With that, it also identifies how the community wants to be identified as a unique group, but yet want to remain grounded to the ‘mainstream’. The work is an attempt to bring out the secret language of the LGBT community and understand their desire to be recognized as "main stream." The paper is also an attempt to bring into light this language and see if it qualifies to be a language at all.
Constructions of Teaching English as a Second Language Teacher Trainees’ Professional Identities
The main purpose of this paper is to deepen the current understanding of how a Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) teacher trainee self is constructed. The present aim of Malaysian TESL teacher education is to train teacher trainees with established English Language Teaching methodologies of the four main language skills (listening, reading, writing and speaking) apart from building them up holistically. Therefore, it is crucial to learn more of the ways on how these teacher trainees construct their professional selves during their undergraduate years. The participants come from a class of 17 Semester 6 TESL students who had undergone a 3-month’s practicum practice during their fifth semester and going for their final 3 month’s practicum period from July 2018 onwards. Findings from a survey, interviews with the participants and lecturers, documentations such as the participants’ practicum record-books would be consolidated with the supervisory notes and comments. The findings suggest that these teacher trainees negotiate their identities and emotions that react with the socio-cultural factors. Periodical reflections on the teacher trainees’ practicum practices influence transformation.The findings will be further aligned to the courses that these teacher trainees have to take in order to equip them as future second language practitioners. It is hoped that the findings will be able to fill the gap from the teacher trainees’ perspectives on identity construction dealing. This study is much more significant now, in view of the new English Language Curriculum for Primary School (widely known as KSSR, its Malay acronym) which had been introduced and implemented in Malaysian primary schools recently. This research will benefit second language practitioners who is in the language education field, as well as, TESL undergraduates, on the knowledge of how teacher trainees respond to and negotiate their professional teaching identities as future second language educators.
2L1, a Bridge between L1 and L2
There are two major categories of language acquisition: first and second language acquisition, which distinguish themselves in their learning process and in their ultimate attainment. However, in the case of a bilingual child, one of the languages he grows up with receives gradually the features of a second language. This phenomenon characterizes the successive first language acquisition, when the initial state of the child is already marked by another language. Nevertheless, the dominance of the languages can change throughout the life, if the exposure to language and the quality of the input are better in 2L1. Related to the exposure to language and the quality of the input, there are cases even at the simultaneous bilingualism, where the two languages although learned from birth one, differ from one another at some point. This paper aims to see, what makes a 2L1 to become a second language and under what circumstances can a L2 learner reach a native or a near native speaker level.
Automated User Story Driven Approach for Web-Based Functional Testing
Manual writing of test cases from functional requirements is a time-consuming task. Such test cases are not only difficult to write but are also challenging to maintain. Test cases can be drawn from the functional requirements that are expressed in natural language. However, manual test case generation is inefficient and subject to errors. In this paper, we have presented a systematic procedure that could automatically derive test cases from user stories. The user stories are specified in a restricted natural language using a well-defined template. We have also presented a detailed methodology for writing our test ready user stories. Our tool "Test-o-Matic" automatically generates the test cases by processing the restricted user stories. The generated test cases are executed by using open source Selenium IDE. We evaluate our approach on a case study, which is an open source web based application. Effectiveness of our approach is evaluated by seeding faults in the open source case study using known mutation operators. Results show that the test case generation from restricted user stories is a viable approach for automated testing of web applications.
Classroom Discourse and English Language Teaching: Issues, Importance, and Implications
Classroom discourse is important, and it is worth examining what the phenomena is and how it helps both the teacher and students in a classroom situation. This paper looks at the classroom as a traditional social setting which has its own norms and values. The paper also explains what discourse is, as extended communication in speech or writing often interactively dealing with some particular topics. It also discusses classroom discourse as the language which teachers and students use to communicate with each other in a classroom situation. The paper also looks at some strategies for effective classroom discourse. Finally, implications and recommendations were drawn.
Innovative Strategies for Improving Writing Skills of Secondary Level Students
This research study examined the application of innovative strategies for improving writing skills of Secondary level students. It also examined the steps taken by Secondary level teachers for the improvement of writing skills of their students. Effective written communication is the problem faced by all the ESL students at secondary level. The objective of the study was to help the secondary level students to overcome this problem. More specifically, this research study aimed to guide the teachers, teaching at secondary level, to bring innovation in their teaching by showing the results of innovative strategies. In order to know about the practices of the teachers, inside the classroom, data was calculated through rating scale questionnaire. After that experimental study was carried out. For the experimental study a 10th grade class was selected. Results were drawn by analyzing the pre and post-tests of the students with the help of independent sample t-test. The results showed that a significant change occurred in the writing skills of the students, belonging to Treatment group. No improvement was observed in the writing skills of the students, belonging to Control group. Thus this research study proved to be a great contribution by guiding the teachers to bring a significant change in the writing skills of the students.
Links and Blocks: the Role of Language in Samuel Beckett’s Selected Plays
This article explores the language in the four plays of Samuel Beckett–Waiting for Godot, Endgame, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Footfalls. It considers the way in which Beckett uses language, especially through fragmentation utterances, repetitions, monologues, contradictions, and silence. It discusses the function of language in modern society, in the theater of the absurd, and in the plays. Paradoxically enough, his plays attempts to communicate the incommunicability of language.
Building Intercultural Competence in English Language Learners: Practices and Materials of Cultural-Based Language Teaching
Because the world has become a global village, English is not only used by native speakers, but also by non-native speakers from culturally diverse backgrounds. Even though learning a second/foreign language requires development of the four skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking, there is also an intertwined relationship between language and culture, making it difficult to teach language without knowing the cultural context in which it is to be used. In the past decade, the number of international students enrolled in universities around the world has increased significantly. Having the urge to communicate effectively would serve as a motivation for both international and domestic students. The teaching of culture is important because linguistic competence is not enough for successful communication with speakers of other languages. Therefore, whether teaching natives or non-natives, students need to improve their cross-cultural communication skills and become culturally prepared to communicate successfully with people from other cultures. Teachers can equip their students for this environment by giving them appropriate knowledge and skills for effective intercultural communication. This paper will focus on the importance of intercultural communicative competence and its role in developing students’ understanding of diverse cultures as part of learning foreign/second languages. It will also explain how teachers can decide which culture should be taught: the target culture, the learners’ culture, or both. Moreover, practical and effective techniques that can be used in cultural-based language teaching will be shared.
Moving toward Language Acquisition: A Case Study Adapting and Applying Laban Movement Analysis in the International English as an Additional Language Classroom
The purpose of this research project is to understand how focusing on movement can help English language learners acquire better reading, writing, and speaking skills. More specifically, this case study tests how Laban movement analysis, a tool often used in dance and physical education classes, contributes to advanced-level high school students’ English language acquisition at an international Swiss boarding school. This article shares theoretical bases for and findings from a teaching experiment in which LMA categories (body, effort, space, and shape) were adapted and introduced to students to encourage basic language acquisition and also cultural awareness and sensitivity. As part of the participatory action research process, data collection included pseudonym-protected questionnaires and written/video-taped responses to LMA language and task prompts. Responses from 43 participants were evaluated to determine the efficacy of using this system. Participants (ages 16-19) were enrolled in advanced English as an Additional Language (EAL) courses at a private, co-educational Swiss international boarding school. Final data analysis revealed that drawing attention to movement using LMA language as a stimulus creates better self-awareness and understanding/retention of key literary concepts and vocabulary but does not necessarily contribute to greater cultural sensitivity or eliminate the use of problematic (sexist, racist, or classist) language. Possibilities for future exploration and development are also explored.
Teaching Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC): Hybrid French/English Courses and their Dual Impact on Interdisciplinarity and L2 Competency
French Curricula across the US have recently suffered low enrollment and have experienced difficulties with retention, thus resulting in fewer students minoring and majoring in French and enrolling in upper-level classes. Successful undergraduate programs offer French courses with a strong cultural and interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary component. The World Language Curriculum in liberal arts colleges in America needs to take into account the cultural aspects of the language and encourage students to think critically about the country or countries they are studying. Limiting the critical inquiry to language or literature narrowly defined provides and incomplete and stagnant picture of France and the Francophone world in today's global community. This essay discusses the creation and implementation of a hybrid interdisciplinary L1/L2 course titled "Topics in Francophone Cinema" (subtitle "Francophone Women on Screen and Behind the Camera"). Content-based interdisciplinary courses undoubtedly increase the profile of French and Francophone cultural Studies by introducing students of other disciplines to fundamental questions relating to the French and Francophone cultures (in this case, women's rights in the Francophone world). At the same time, this study determines that through targeted reading and writing assignments, sustained aural exposure to L2 through film,and student participation in a one-credit supplementary weekly practicum (creative film writing workshop), significant advances in L2 competence are achieved with students' oral and written production levels evolving from Advanced Low to Advanced-mid, as defined by the ACFL guidelines. Use of differentiated assessment methods for L1/L2 and student learning outcomes for both groups will also be addressed.
Improving the Students’ Writing Skill by Using Brainstorming Technique
This research is aimed to know the improvement of students’ English writing skill by using brainstorming technique. The technique used in writing is able to help the students’ difficulties in generating ideas and to lead the students to arrange the ideas well as well as to focus on the topic developed in writing. The research method used is classroom action research. The data sources of the research are an English teacher who acts as an observer and the students of class X.MIA5 consist of 35 students. The test result and observation are collected as the data in this research. Based on the research result in cycle one, the percentage of students who reach minimum accomplishment criteria (MAC) is 76.31%. It shows that the cycle must be continued to cycle two because the aim of the research has not accomplished, all of the students’ scores have not reached MAC yet. After continuing the research to cycle two and the weaknesses are improved, the process of teaching and learning runs better. At the test which is conducted in the end of learning process in cycle two, all of the students reach the minimum score and above 76 based on the minimum accomplishment criteria. It means the research has been successful and the percentage of students who reach minimum accomplishment criteria is 100%. Therefore, the writer concludes that brainstorming technique is able to improve the students’ English writing skill at the tenth grade of SMAN 2 Jember.
A Problem-Based Learning Approach in a Writing Classroom: Tutors’ Experiences and Perceptions
This study investigated tutors’ experiences and perceptions of a problem-based learning approach (PBL) in a writing classroom. The study involved two Nigerian lecturers who facilitated an intact class of second-year students in an English composition course for the period of 12 weeks. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data of the study. The lecturers were interviewed before and after the implementation of the PBL process. The overall findings of the study show that the lecturers had positive perceptions of the use of PBL in a writing classroom. Specifically, the findings reveal the lecturers’ positive experiences and perception of the group activities. Finally, the paper gives some pedagogical implications which would give insight for better implementation of the PBL approach.
Effectiveness of Language Learning Strategy Instruction Based on CALLA on Iranian EFL Language Strategy Use
Ever since the importance of language learning strategy instruction (LLS) has been distinguished, there has been growing interest on how to teach LLS in language learning classrooms. So thus this study attempted to implement language strategy instruction based on CALLA approach for Iranian EFL learners in a real classroom setting. The study was testing the hypothesis that strategy instruction result in improved linguistic strategy of students. The participant of the study were 240 EFL learners who received language learning instruction for four months. The data collected using Oxford strategy inventory for language learning. The results indicated the instruction had statistically significant effect on language strategy use of intervention group who received instruction.
Towards an Indigenous Language Policy for National Integration
The paper is about the need for an indigenous language in order to meaningfully harness both our human and material resources for the nation’s integration. It then examines the notty issue of the national language question and advocates a piece meal approach in solving the problem. This approach allows for the development and use of local languages in minority areas, especially in Benue State, as a way of preparing them for consideration as possible replacement for English language as Nigeria’s national or official language. Finally, an arrangement to follow to prepare the languages for such competition at the national level is presented.
Differential Approach to Technology Aided English Language Teaching: A Case Study in a Multilingual Setting
Rapid evolution of technology has changed language pedagogy as well as perspectives on language use, leading to strategic changes in discourse studies. We are now firmly embedded in a time when digital technologies have become an integral part of our daily lives. This has led to generalized approaches to English Language Teaching (ELT) which has raised two-pronged concerns in linguistically diverse settings: a) the diverse linguistic background of the learner might interfere/ intervene with the learning process and b) the differential level of already acquired knowledge of target language might make the classroom practices too easy or too difficult for the target group of learners. ELT needs a more systematic and differential pedagogical approach for greater efficiency and accuracy. The present research analyses the need of identifying learner groups based on different levels of target language proficiency based on a longitudinal study done on 150 undergraduate students. The learners were divided into five groups based on their performance on a twenty point scale in Listening Speaking Reading and Writing (LSRW). The groups were then subjected to varying durations of technology aided language learning sessions and their performance was recorded again on the same scale. Identifying groups and introducing differential teaching and learning strategies led to better results compared to generalized teaching strategies. Language teaching includes different aspects: the organizational, the technological, the sociological, the psychological, the pedagogical and the linguistic. And a facilitator must account for all these aspects in a carefully devised differential approach meeting the challenge of learner diversity. Apart from the justification of the formation of differential groups the paper attempts to devise framework to account for all these aspects in order to make ELT in multilingual setting much more effective.
The First Language of Humanity is Body Language Neither Mother or Native Language
Language acquisition is one of the most striking aspects of human development. It is a startling feat, which has engrossed the attention of linguists for generations. The present study will explore the hidden identities and attributes of nonverbal gestures. The current research will reflect the significant role of body language as not mere body gestures or facial expressions but as the first language of humanity.
Exchanges between Literature and Cinema: Scripted Writing in the Novel "Miguel e os Demônios", by Lourenço Mutarelli
This research looks at the novel Miguel e os demônios (2009), by the contemporary Brazilian author Lourenço Mutarelli. In it, the presence of film language resources is remarkable, creating thus a kind of scripted writing. We intend to analyze the presence of film language in work under study, in which there is a mixture of the characteristics of the novel and screenplay genres, trying to explore which aesthetic and meaning effects of the ownership of a visual language for the creation of a literary text create in the novel. The objective of this research is to identify and analyze the formal and thematic aspects that characterize the hybridity of literature and film in the novel by Lourenço Mutarelli. The method employed comprises reading and production cataloging of theoretical and critical texts, literary and film theory, historical review about the author, and also the realization of an analytical and interpretative reading of novel. In Miguel e os demônios there is a range of formal and thematic elements of popular narrative genres such as the detective story and action film, with a predominance of verb forms in the present and NPs - features that tend to make present the narrated scenes, as in the cinema. The novel, in this sense, is located in an intermediate position between the literary text and the pre-film text, as though filled with proper elements of the language of film, you can not fit it categorically in the genre script, since it does not reduce the script because aspires to be read as a novel. Therefore, the difficulty of fitting the work in a single gender also refused to be extra-textual factors - such as your publication as novel - but, rather, by the binary classifications serve solely to imprison the work on a label, which impoverish not only reading the text, as also the possibility of recognizing literature as a constant dialogue space and interaction with other media. We can say, therefore, that frame the work Miguel e os demônios in one of the two genres (novel or screenplay) proves not enough, since the text is revealed a hybrid narrative, consisting in a kind of scripted writing. In this sense, it is like a text that is born in a society saturated by audiovisual in their daily lives in order to be consumed by readers who, in ascending scale, exchange books by visual narratives. However, the novel uses film's resources without giving up its constitution as literature; on the contrary, it enriches the visual and linguistically, dialoguing with the complex contemporary horizon marked by the cultural industry.
Project Marayum: Creating a Community Built Mobile Phone Based, Online Web Dictionary for Endangered Philippine Languages
Of the 185 languages in the Philippines, 28 are endangered, 11 are dying off, and 4 are extinct. Language documentation, as a prerequisite to language education, can be one of the ways languages can be preserved. Project Marayum is envisioned to be a collaboratively built, mobile phone-based, online dictionary platform for Philippine languages. Although there are many online language dictionaries available on the Internet, Project Marayum aims to give a sense of ownership to the language community's dictionary as it is built and maintained by the community for the community. From a seed dictionary, members of a language community can suggest changes, add new entries, and provide language examples. Going beyond word definitions, the platform can be used to gather sample sentences and even audio samples of word usage. These changes are reviewed by language experts of the community, sourced from the local state universities or local government units. Approved changes are then added to the dictionary and can be viewed instantly through the Marayum website. A companion mobile phone application allows users to browse the dictionary in remote areas where Internet connectivity is nonexistent. The dictionary will automatically be updated once the user regains Internet access. Project Marayum is still a work in progress. At the time of this abstract's writing, the Project has just entered its second year. Prototypes are currently being tested with the Asi language of Romblon island as its initial language testbed. In October 2020, Project Marayum will have both a webpage and mobile application with Asi, Ilocano, and Cebuano language dictionaries available for use online or for download. In addition, the Marayum platform would be then easily expandable for use of the more endangered language communities. Project Marayum is funded by the Philippines Department of Science and Technology.
The Development of Congeneric Elicited Writing Tasks to Capture Language Decline in Alzheimer Patients
People diagnosed with probable Alzheimer disease suffer from an impairment of their language capacities; a gradual impairment which affects both their spoken and written communication. Our study aims at characterising the language decline in DAT patients with the use of congeneric elicited writing tasks. Within these tasks, a descriptive text has to be written based upon images with which the participants are confronted. A randomised set of images allows us to present the participants with a different task on every encounter, thus allowing us to avoid a recognition effect in this iterative study. This method is a revision from previous studies, in which participants were presented with a larger picture depicting an entire scene. In order to create the randomised set of images, existing pictures were adapted following strict criteria (e.g. frequency, AoA, colour, ...). The resulting data set contained 50 images, belonging to several categories (vehicles, animals, humans, and objects). A pre-test was constructed to validate the created picture set; most images had been used before in spoken picture naming tasks. Hence the same reaction times ought to be triggered in the typed picture naming task. Once validated, the effectiveness of the descriptive tasks was assessed. First, the participants (n=60 students, n=40 healthy elderly) performed a typing task, which provided information about the typing speed of each individual. Secondly, two descriptive writing tasks were carried out, one simple and one complex. The simple task contains 4 images (1 animal, 2 objects, 1 vehicle) and only contains elements with high frequency, a young AoA (
Meaningful Habit for EFL Learners
Learning a foreign language needs a big effort from the learner itself to make their language ability grows better day by day. Among those, they also need a support from all around them including teacher, friends, as well as activities which support them to speak the language. When those activities developed well as a habit which are done regularly, it will help improving the students’ language competence. It was a qualitative research which aimed to find out and describe some activities implemented in Pesantren Al Mawaddah, Ponorogo, in order to teach the students a foreign language. In collecting the data, the researcher used interview, questionnaire, and documentation. From the study, it was found that Pesantren Al Mawaddah had successfully built the language habit on the students to speak the target language. More than 15 hours a day students were compelled to speak foreign language, Arabic or English, in turn. It aimed to habituate the students to keep in touch with the target language. The habit was developed through daily language activities, such as dawn vocabs giving, dictionary handling, daily language use, speech training and language intensive course, daily language input, and night vocabs memorizing. That habit then developed the students awareness towards the language learned as well as promoted their language mastery.
Intensive Intercultural English Language Pedagogy among Parents from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds (CALD)
Using Standard Australian English with confidence is a cultural expectation of parents of primary school aged children who want to engage effectively with their children’s teachers and school administration. That confidence in support of their children’s learning at school is seldom experienced by parents whose first language is not English. Sharing language with competence in an intercultural environment is the common denominator for meaningful communication and engagement to occur in a school community. Experience in relevant, interactive sessions is known to enhance engagement and participation. The purpose of this paper is to identify a pedagogy for parents otherwise isolated from daily use of functional Australian cultural language learned to engage effectively in their children’s learning at school. The outcomes measure parents’ intercultural engagement with classroom teachers and attention to the school’s administrative procedures using quantitative and qualitative methods.
A principled communicative task-based language learning approach, combined with intercultural communication strategies provide the theoretical base for intensive English inquiry-based learning and engagement. The quantitative analysis examines data samples collected by classroom teachers and administrators and parents’ writing samples. Interviews and observations qualitatively inform the study.
Currently, significant numbers of projects are active in community centers and schools to enhance English language knowledge of parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English (LBOTE). The study is significant to explore the effects of an intensive English pedagogy with parents of varied English language backgrounds, by targeting inquiry-based language use for social interactions in the school and wider community, specific engagement and cultural interaction with teachers and school activities and procedures.
Developing Students’ Academic Writing Skills through Scientific Reading: Using Questions and Answer Activities
So far, there have been a plethora of attempts to improve learners’ academic writing skills. However, this issue remains to be a real concern among the majority of students, especially those who are standing on their academic life threshold. The purpose of this research is improving students’ academic writing skills through 'Questions and Answer Reading' activities. Using well-prepared and well-chosen reading materials (from textbooks, scientific journals, or magazines) and applying questions and answer activities in the classroom facilitate learners to become great critical readers. Furthermore, it boosts their writing skills, which are the most crucial part of students’ personal and academic developments.
In this activity, the class is divided into small groups of four. Then, the instructor will give students whether one section of the text or full text asking them to read and to find unfamiliar words within the group. After discovering the meaning of unknown words, each group has to share their findings with the class. In the next stage of the activity, students should be asked to create questions in a group based on the given reading material. Follow by each group should ask the other groups their questions which are an excellent opportunity to challenge leads to improve critical thinking skills. In the last part, the students are asked to write the text or article summary, which is the activity core that pilots to the writing skills perfection.
This engaging activity highlights the effectiveness of incorporating reading materials into the classroom when it comes to improving students’ composition writings. Structural writing after every reading activity resulted in improving students’ coherence and cohesion in writing well-organized essays. Having experimented with high school 9th and 11th-grade students, implementing reading activities into the classroom is proved to be a productive tool to enhance one’s academic writing skills. In the future, this method planning to be implemented among university students.
Intensive Intercultural English Language for Enhanced School Community Engagement: An Exploratory Study Applied to Parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English in a Regional Australian Primary School
Using standard Australian English with confidence is a cultural expectation of parents of primary school aged children who want to engage effectively with their children’s teachers and school administration. That confidence in support of their children’s learning at school is seldom experienced by parents whose first language is not English. Sharing language with competence in an intercultural environment is the common denominator for meaningful communication and engagement to occur in a school community. Experience in relevant interactive sessions is known to enhance engagement and participation. The purpose of this paper is to identify interactional settings for which parents who are isolated from the daily use of functional Australian cultural language learned to engage more effectively in their children’s learning at school. The outcomes measured parents’ intercultural engagement with classroom teachers and attention to the school’s administrative procedures. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods. The principles of communicative task-based language learning combined with intercultural communication principles provided the theoretical base for intensive English task-based learning and engagement. The quantitative analysis examined data samples collected by classroom teachers and administrators and parents’ writing samples. Interviews and observations qualitatively informed the study. Currently significant numbers of projects are active in community centres and schools to enhance English language knowledge of parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English (LBOTE). The study was significant to explore the effects of conducting intensive English with parents of varied English language backgrounds by targeting language use for social interactions in the community, specific engagement in school activities, cultural interaction with teachers and responsiveness to complying with school procedures.
Improving Graduate Student Writing Skills: Best Practices and Outcomes
A decline in writing skills and abilities of students entering graduate school has become a focus for university systems within the United States. This decline has become a national trend that requires reflection on the intervention strategies used to address the deficit and unintended consequences as outcomes in the profession. Social work faculty is challenged to increase written scholarship within the academic setting. However, when a large number of students in each course have writing deficits, there is a shift from focus on content, ability to demonstrate competency, and application of core social work concepts. This qualitative study focuses on the experiences of online faculty who support increasing scholarship through writing and are following best practices preparing students academically to see improvements in written presentation in classroom work. This study outlines best practices to improve written academic presentation, especially in an online setting. The research also highlights how a student’s ability to show competency and application of concepts may be overlooked in the online setting. This can lead to new social workers who are prepared academically, but may unable to effectively advocate and document thought presentation in their writing. The intended progression of writing across all levels of higher education moves from summary, to application, and into abstract problem solving. Initial findings indicate that it is important to reflect on practices used to address writing deficits in terms of academic writing, competency, and application. It is equally important to reflect on how these methods of intervention impact a student post-graduation. Specifically, for faculty, it is valuable to assess a social worker’s ability to engage in continuity of documentation and advocacy at micro, mezzo, macro, and international levels of practice.
Communication in the Sciences: A Discourse Analysis of Biology Research Articles and Magazine Articles
Effective communication is widely regarded as an important aspect of any discipline. This particular study deals with written communication in science. Writing conventions and linguistic choices play a key role in conveying the message effectively to a target audience. Scientists are responsible for conveying their findings or research results not only to their discourse community but also to the general public. Recognizing appropriate linguistic choices is crucial since they vary depending on the target audience. The majority of scientists can communicate effectively with their discourse community, but public engagement seems more challenging to them. There is a lack of research into the language use of scientists, and in particular how it varies by discipline and audience (genre). A better understanding of the different linguistic conventions used in effective science writing by scientists for scientists and by scientists for the public will help to guide scientists who are familiar with their discourse community norms to write effectively for the public. This study investigates the differences and similarities of linguistic choices in biology articles written by scientists for their discourse community and biology magazine articles written by scientists and science communicators for the general public. This study is a part of a larger project investigating linguistic differences in different genres of science academic writing. The sample for this particular study is composed of 20 research articles from the journal Biological Reviews and 20 magazine articles from the magazine Australian Popular Science. Differences in the linguistic devices were analyzed using Hyland’s metadiscourse model for academic writing proposed in 2005. The frequency of the usage of interactive resources (transitions, frame markers, endophoric markers, evidentials and code glosses) and interactional resources (hedges, boosters, attitude markers, self-mentions and engagement markers) were compared and contrasted using the NVivo textual analysis tool. The results clearly show the differences in the frequency of usage of interactional and interactive resources in the two disciplines under investigation. The findings of this study provide a reference guide for scientists and science writers to understand the differences in the linguistic choices between the two genres. This will be particularly helpful for scientists who are proficient at writing for their discourse community, but not for the public.
A Fresh Look at Tense System of Qashqaie Dialect of Turkish Language
Turkish language with many dialects is native or official language of great number of people all around the world. The Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language is spoken by the Qashqaie tribe mostly scattered in the southern part of Iran. This paper aims at analyzing the tense system of this dialect to detect the type and number of tense and aspects available to its speakers. To collect a reliable data, a group of 50 old native speakers were randomly chosen as the informants and different techniques such as; Shuy et al interviews, selective listening ,and eavesdropping were used. The results of data analysis showed that the tense system in the Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language includes 3 absolute tenses , 6 aspectual , and 2 subjunctive ones. The interesting part of the study is that Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to make a kind of aspectual opposition through verb structure which seems to be almost impossible through verb forms in any other nonturkish languages. For example in the following examples sentences 1 &2 and 3&4 have the same translation In English although they are different in both meaning and structure.
1. Ali ensha yazirdi. 2. Ali ensha yazirmush. (Ali was writing a composition.)
3. Ali yadmishdi. 4. Ali yadmishimish. ( Ali had slept.)
The changes in the verb structure in Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to say that whether the doer of the action remembers the process of doing the action or not. So, it presents a new aspectual opposition as Observed /nonobserved. The research findings reveal many other regularities and linguistic features that can be useful for linguists interested in Turkish in general and for those interested in tense and aspect and also they can be helpful for different pedagogical purposes including teaching and translating.
An Approach to Improve Pre University Students' Responsible Environmental Behaviour through Science Writing Heuristic in Malaysia
This study investigated the effectiveness of green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) in enhancing matriculation students’ responsible environmental behaviour. For this purpose 207 matriculation students were randomly assigned into experimental (N=118) and control (N=89) group. For the experimental group the chemistry concepts were taught using the instructional approach of green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) while for the control group the same content was taught using green chemistry. The data was analysed using ANCOVA and findings obtained from the quantitative analysis reveals that there is significant changes in responsible environmental behaviour (F 1,204) = 32.13 (ηp² = 0.14) which favours the experimental group. The responses of the qualitative data obtained from an interview with the experimental group also further strengthen and indicated a significant improvement in responsible environmental behaviour. The outcome of the study suggests that using green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) could be an alternative approach to improve students’ responsible environmental behaviour towards the environment.
Development of Beeswax-Discharge Writing Material for Visually Impaired Persons
It has been known that visually impaired persons have some problems in getting visual information. Therefore, information accessibility for the visually impaired persons is very important in a current information society. Some application software with read-aloud function for using personal computer and smartphone are getting more and more popular among visually impaired persons in the world. On the other hand, it is also very important for being able to learn how to read and write characters such as Braille and Visual character. Braille typewriter has been widely used in learning Braille. And also raised-line drawing kits as writing material has been used for decades for especially acquired visually impaired persons. However, there are some drawbacks such as the drawn line cannot be erased. Moreover, visibility of drawing lines is not so good for visually impaired with low vision. We had significant number of requests for developing new writing material for especially acquired visually impaired persons instead of raised-line drawing kits. For conducting development research of novel writing material, we could receive a research grant from ministry of health, labor and welfare in Japanese government. In this research, we developed writing material typed pens and pencils with Beeswax-discharge instead of conventional raised-line drawing kits. This writing material was equipped with cartridge heater for melting beeswax and its heat controller. When this pen users held down the pen tip on the regular paper such as fine paper and so on, the melted beeswax could be discharged from pen tip with valve structure. The beeswax was discharged at 100 gf of holding down force based on results of our previous trial study. The shape of pen tip was semispherical for becoming low friction between pen tip and surface of paper. We conducted one basic experiment to evaluate influence of the curvature of pen tip on ease to write. Concretely, the conditions of curvature was 0.15, 0.35, 0.50, 1.00 mm. The following four interval scales were used as indexes of subjective assessment during writing such as feeling of smooth motion of pen, feeling of comfortable writing, sense of security and feeling of writing fatigue. Ten subjects were asked to participate in this experiment. The results reveal that subjects could draw easily when the radius of the pen tip was 1.00 mm, and lines drawn with beeswax-discharge writing material were easy to perceive.
Language Literacy Attrition: An Empirical Investigation
Our world is now operating under the auspices of globalization with its attendant language of ‘global English.' In many parts of the world, the need for English is often accepted without much thought given to native languages. Indeed, this is the current situation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with English encroaching into all areas of society, and especially forcefully into the education sector, where English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is on the rise. At the same time, Arabic literacy (i.e., the ability to read and write in Arabic) is declining among the UAE youth. Using a mixed-methods design, a study was conducted to gain insights into the use of Arabic by Emirati University students. The study examines how often Emiratis, males and females, use their native language (Arabic) in their daily lives, how they view their reading and writing skills in Arabic vis-à-vis their English literacy skills, and the extent to which they can demonstrate their literacy skills in Arabic. Clear evidence emerged showing that while Arabic as a dialect continues to be spoken on a daily basis, Arabic literacy is unquestionably losing ground. This was found to be motivated by educational, political, societal, and personal forces. These findings and their implications to language policy and existing bilingualism programs will be discussed. Suggestions for further research will also be made.
A Framework for SQL Learning: Linking Learning Taxonomy, Cognitive Model and Cross Cutting Factors
Databases comprise the foundation of most software systems. System developers inevitably write code to query these databases. The de facto language for querying is SQL and this, consequently, is the default language taught by higher education institutions. There is evidence that learners find it hard to master SQL, harder than mastering other programming languages such as Java. Educators do not agree about explanations for this seeming anomaly. Further investigation may well reveal the reasons. In this paper, we report on our investigations into how novices learn SQL, the actual problems they experience when writing SQL, as well as the differences between expert and novice SQL query writers. We conclude by presenting a model of SQL learning that should inform the instructional material design process better to support the SQL learning process.
Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching
The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.
The Impact of Blended Learning on Developing the students' Writing Skills and the Perception of Instructors and Students: Hawassa University in Focus
This study was conducted at Hawassa University (HwU) in the Southern Nation Nationalities Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) of Ethiopia. The prime concern of this study was to examine the writing performances of experimental and control group students, perception of experimental group students, and subject instructors. The course was blended learning (BL). Blended learning is a hybrid of classroom and on-line learning. Participants were eighty students from the School of Computer Science. Forty students attended the BL delivery involved using Face-to-Face (FTF) and campus-based online instruction. All instructors, fifty, of School of Language and Communication Studies along with 10 FGD members participated in the study. The experimental group went to the computer lab two times a week for four months, March-June, 2012, using the local area network (LAN), and software (MOODLE) writing program. On the other hand, the control group, forty students, took the FTF writing course five times a week for four months in similar academic calendar. The three instruments, the attitude questionnaire, tests and FGD were designed to identify views of students, instructors, and FGD participants on BL. At the end of the study, students’ final course scores were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests. A statistically, significant difference was found between the FTF and BL (p< 0.05). The analysis showed that the BL group was more successful than the conventional group. Besides, both instructors and students had positive attitude towards BL. The final section of the thesis showed the potential benefits and challenges, considering the pedagogical implications for the BL, and recommended possible avenues for further works.
Mentoring Writing Skills: A Classroom Friendly Approach
Facilitating writing skill among the young techies seems a bit challenging. Various factors may owe to this difficulty. Inappropriate syllabus, inadequate infrastructure, to some extent, untrained faculty members and above all the background of learners may be treated as the components that make the process challenging. In order to convert/create/prepare writing skill friendly, the focused items will have to be different from the classroom the present day traditional classroom situation. This paper focuses on the multiple contemporary strategies for approaching a wide range of typical problems that the writers face in a specific technical university of Odisha.
Efficacy of Task Based Language Teaching in a Second Language Classroom Context
Various approaches and methods for second language classroom teaching have been proposed since the nineteenth century. Task Based Language Teaching has been prevailing approach in a second language classroom context. It is an approach which immerses students in a naturalistic setting. Tasks are the core unit of planning and instruction. This paper aims at expounding the concept of Task Based Language Teaching and how it has been evolved. In this study, researcher will highlight the usefulness of TBLT and the role it played as a powerful tool for learning and teaching in a second language setting. The article will reflect the implementation of various tasks based activities as well as the roles played by learners and teachers and the problems faced by them. In the end, researcher will discuss how TBLT can be implemented in second language classroom pedagogy.
Functional English: Enhancing Competencies at the Undergraduate Level in Nagaland, India
This paper consolidates and tries to bring out the findings that investigated in Kohima and Mokokchung districts in Nagaland, which is in the northeastern part of India. The aim of this paper is to test the speaking and writing skills of the undergraduate learners who opt functional English as one of their papers. functional English is taught in just two colleges; Fazl Ali College and Kohima Colleges, out of 15 government and 36 private colleges in the state. This research (based on several observations made by Naga researchers) hypothesizes that functional English enhances competencies at the undergraduate level, which would open doors to work, learn more and better prospects. It is expected that learners in Functional English class, which follows the communicative language teaching method, might be the answers to those problems, as to why proficiency level still leaves much to be desired, in spite of the advent of the education over a hundred years ago. This type of teaching follows only in functional English class in these two colleges.
Integrating Blogging into Peer Assessment on College Students’ English Writing
Most of college students in Taiwan do not have sufficient English proficiency to express themselves in written English. Teachers spent a lot of time correcting students’ English writing, but the results are not satisfactory. This study aims to use blogs as a teaching and learning tool in written English. Before applying peer assessment, students should be trained to be good reviewers. The teacher starts the course by posting the error analysis of students’ first English composition on blogs as the comment models for students. Then the students will go through the process of drafting, composing, peer response and last revision on blogs. Evaluation Questionnaires and interviews will be conducted at the end of the course to see the impact and students’ perception for the course.
A Fresh Look at the Tense-Aspect System of the Qashqaie Dialect of Turkish Language
Turkish language with many dialects is native or official language of great number of people all around the world. The Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language is spoken by the Qashqaie tribe mostly scattered in the southern part of Iran. This paper aims at analyzing the tense system of this dialect to detect the type and number of tense and aspects available to its speakers. To collect a reliable data, a group of 50 old native speakers were randomly chosen as the informants and different techniques such as; Shuy et al interviews, selective listening ,and eavesdropping were used. The results of data analysis showed that the tense system in the Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language includes 3 absolute tenses, 6 aspectual, and 2 subjunctive ones. The interesting part of the study is that Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to make a kind of aspectual opposition through verb structure which seems to be almost impossible through verb forms in any other nonturkish languages. For example in the following examples sentences 1&2 and 3&4 have the same translation In English although they are different in both meaning and structure. 1. Ali ensha yazirdi. 2. Ali ensha yazirmush. (Ali was writing a composition.) 3. Ali yadmishdi. 4. Ali yadmishimish. (Ali had slept.). The changes in the verb structure in Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to say that whether the doer of the action remembers the process of doing the action or not. So, it presents a new aspectual opposition as Observed /nonobserved. The research findings reveal many other regularities and linguistic features that can be useful for linguists interested in Turkish in general and for those interested in tense and aspect and also they can be helpful for different pedagogical purposes including teaching and translating.
Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language: Immersion Teaching
This paper discusses the Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language by focusing on Immersion Teaching. Researchers used narrative literature review to describe the current states of both art and science in focused areas of inquiry. Immersion teaching comes with a standard that teachers must reliably meet. Chinese language-immersion instruction consists of language and content lessons, including functional usage of the language, academic language, authentic language, and correct Chinese sociocultural language. Researchers used narrative literature reviews to build a scientific knowledge base. Researchers collected all the important points of discussion, and put them here with reference to the specific field where this paper is originally based on. The findings show that Chinese Language in immersion teaching is not like standard foreign language classroom; immersion setting provides more opportunities to teach students colloquial language than academic. Immersion techniques also introduce a language’s cultural and social contexts in a meaningful and memorable way. It is particularly important that immersion teachers connect classwork with real-life experiences. Immersion also includes more elements of discovery and inquiry based learning than do other kinds of instructional practices. Students are always and consistently interpreted the conclusions and context clues.
Language Switching Errors of Bilinguals: Role of Top down and Bottom up Process
Bilingual speakers generally can speak both languages with the same competency without mixing them intentionally and making mistakes, but sometimes errors occur in language selection. This quantitative study particularly deals with the language errors made by Urdu-English bilinguals. In this research, researchers have given special attention to the part played by bottom-up priming and top-down cognitive control in these errors. Unstable Urdu-English bilingual participants termed pictures and were prompted to shift from one language to another under the pressure of time. Different situations were given to manipulate the participants. The long and short runs trials of the same language were also given before switching to another language. The study is concluded with the findings that bilinguals made more errors when switching to the first language from their second language, and these errors are large in number, especially when a speaker is switching from L2 (second language) to L1 (first language) after a long run. When the switching is reversed, i.e., from L2 to LI, it had no effect at all. These results gave the clear responsibility of all these errors to top-down cognitive control.
Integrating Flipped Instruction to Enhance Second Language Acquisition
This paper analyzes the impact of flipped instruction in adult learners of Spanish as a second language in a face-to-face course at Boston University. Given the limited amount of contact hours devoted to studying world languages in the American higher education system, implementing strategies to free up classroom time for communicative language practice is key to ensure student success in their learning process. In an effort to improve the way adult learners acquire a second language, this paper examines the role that regular pre-class and web-based exposure to Spanish grammar plays in student performance at the end of the academic term. It outlines different types of web-based pre-class activities and compares this approach to more traditional classroom practice. To do so, this study works for three months with two similar groups of adult learners in an intermediate-level Spanish class. Both groups use the same course program and have the same previous language experience, but one receives an additional set of instructor-made online materials containing a variety of grammar explanations and online activities that need to be reviewed before attending class. Since the online activities cover material and concepts that have not yet been studied in class, students' oral and written production in both groups is measured by means of a writing activity and an audio recording at the end of the three-month period. These assessments will ascertain the effects of exposing the control group to the grammar of the target language prior to each lecture throughout and demonstrate where flipped instruction helps adult learners of Spanish achieve higher performance, but also identify potential problems.
Age and Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study from Maldives
The age a child to be exposed to a second language is a controversial issue in communities such as the Maldives where English is taught as a second language. It has been observed that different stakeholders have different viewpoints towards the issue. Some believe that the earlier children are exposed to a second language, the better they learn, while others disagree with the notion. Hence, this case study investigates whether children learn a second language better when they are exposed at an earlier age or not. The spoken and written data collected confirm that earlier exposure helps in mastering the sound pattern and speaking fluency with more native-like accent, while a later age is better for learning more abstract and concrete aspects such as grammar and syntactic rules.
Peer-Review as a Means to Improve Students' Translation Skills
Years ago, faculties and administrators realized that students entering college were not prepared for the academic sphere; however, as a type of collaborative learning, peer-review gave students a social context in which they could learn more efficiently. Peer-review has proven its effectiveness in higher education. Numerous studies have been conducted on peer review and its effects on the quality of students’ writing, and several publications recommended peer-review as part of the feedback process. Student writers showed a tendency towards making significant meaning-level revisions and surface-level revisions. Last but not least, studies reported that peer-review helps students develop their self-assessment skills as well as critical thinking. The use of peer-review has become well known and widely adopted to the L2 classroom environment. However, little is known about peer review on translation students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the students' perspective on peer-review, and whether this method affected the quality of their translation. A mixed method design was adopted. Students were requested to translate two texts from Arabic into English, and they gave and received structured feedback to their classmates' translations. A survey was administered, followed by semi-structured interviews, to examine the students' attitudes toward peer-review. The results of the study showed that peer-review was considered a good proofreading method for most students. The students also showed a positive attitude toward it, and they reported that they benefited from the interaction with their peers. The findings implied that the inclusion of peer-review can be an effective pedagogical practice for teaching translation and writing to foreign language learners.
Maintaining the Formal Type of West Java's Heritage Language with Sundanese Language Lesson in Senior High School
Sundanese language is one of heritage language in Indonesia that must be maintained especially the formal type of it because teenagers nowadays do not speak Sundanese language formally in their daily lives. To maintain it, Cultural and Education Ministry of Indonesia has input Sundanese language lesson at senior high school in West Java area. The aim of this study was to observe whether the existence of Sundanese language lesson in senior high school in the big town of Karawang, West Java - Indonesia give the contribution to the formal type of Sundanese language maintenance or not. For gathering the data, the researcher interviewed the senior high school students who have learned Sundanese language to observe their acquisition of it. As a result of the interview, the data was presented in qualitative research by using the interviewing method. Then, the finding indicated that the existence of Sundanese language in Senior High School also the educational program which is related to it, for instance, Kemis Nyunda seemed to do not effective enough in maintaining the formal type of Sundanese language. Therefore, West Java government must revise the learning strategy of it, including the role of the Sundanese language teacher.
Programming without Code: An Approach and Environment to Conditions-On-Data Programming
This paper presents the concept of an object-based programming language where tests (if... then... else) and control structures (while, repeat, for...) disappear and are replaced by conditions on data. According to the object paradigm, by using this concept, data are still embedded inside objects, as variable-value couples, but object methods are expressed into the form of logical propositions (‘conditions on data’ or COD).For instance : variable1 = value1 AND variable2 > value2 => variable3 = value3. Implementing this approach, a central inference engine turns and examines objects one after another, collecting all CODs of each object. CODs are considered as rules in a rule-based system: the left part of each proposition (left side of the ‘=>‘ sign) is the premise and the right part is the conclusion. So, premises are evaluated and conclusions are fired. Conclusions modify the variable-value couples of the object and the engine goes to examine the next object. The paper develops the principles of writing CODs instead of complex algorithms. Through samples, the paper also presents several hints for implementing a simple mechanism able to process this ‘COD language’. The proposed approach can be used within the context of simulation, process control, industrial systems validation, etc. By writing simple and rigorous conditions on data, instead of using classical and long-to-learn languages, engineers and specialists can easily simulate and validate the functioning of complex systems.
Assessing the Roles Languages Education Plays in Nation Building in Nigeria
Nations stay together when citizens share enough values and preferences and can communicate with each other. Homogeneity among people can be built with education, teaching a common language to facilitate communication, infrastructure for easier travel, but also by brute force such as prohibiting local cultures. This paper discusses the role of language education in nation building. It defines education, highlights the functions of language. Furthermore, it expresses socialization agents that aid culture which are all embodied in language, problems of nation building.
The Effects of SMS on the Formal Writings of the Students: A Comparative Study among the Students of Different Departments of IUB
This study reveals that the use of SMS effect the formal writing of the students. SMS is in vogue sine the last decade but its detrimental effects are effecting not only to the set norms but also deviant forms of expressions have come into the community to which all are not acquainted and it creates a hurdle in effective communication. It also determines the reasons behind the usage of SMS practices in the formal writings like in assignments and examinations. For this study a questionnaire was designed for faculty and students the data was collected from The Islamia University Bahawalpur and the formal work of the students was also collected to check the manifestation of SMS practices in writings. Data was analysed on excel sheet and the tables and graphs are used to explain the ratios and percentages of SMS usage. The results show that the usage of SMS has very strong effect upon the students writing.
Stimulus-Response and the Innateness Hypothesis: Childhood Language Acquisition of “Genie”
Scholars have long disputed the relationship between the origins of language and human behavior. Historically, behaviorist psychologist B. F. Skinner argued that language is one instance of the general stimulus-response phenomenon that characterizes the essence of human behavior. Another, more recent approach argues, by contrast, that language is an innate cognitive faculty and does not arise from behavior, which might develop and reinforce linguistic facility but is not its source. Pinker, among others, proposes that linguistic defects arise from damage to the brain, both congenital and acquired in life. Much of his argument is based on case studies in which damage to the Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas of the brain results in loss of the ability to produce coherent grammatical expressions when speaking or writing; though affected speakers often utter quite fluent streams of sentences, the words articulated lack discernible semantic content. Pinker concludes on this basis that language is an innate component of specific, classically language-correlated regions of the human brain. Taking a notorious 1970s case of linguistic maladaptation, this paper queries the dominant materialist paradigm of language-correlated regions. Susan “Genie” Wiley was physically isolated from language interaction in her home and beaten by her father when she attempted to make any sort of sound. Though without any measurable resulting damage to the brain, Wiley was never able to develop the level of linguistic facility normally achieved in adulthood. Having received a negative reinforcement of language acquisition from her father and lacking the usual language acquisition period, in adulthood Wiley was able to develop language only at a quite limited level in later life. From a contemporary behaviorist perspective, this case confirms the possibility of language deficiency without brain pathology. Wiley’s potential language-determining areas in the brain were intact, and she was exposed to language later in her life, but she was unable to achieve the normal level of communication skills, deterring socialization. This phenomenon and others like it in the case limited literature on linguistic maladaptation pose serious clinical, scientific, and indeed philosophical difficulties for both of the major competing theories of language acquisition, innateness, and linguistic stimulus-response. The implications of such cases for future research in language acquisition are explored, with a particular emphasis on the interaction of innate capacity and stimulus-based development in early childhood.
Curriculum Based Measurement and Precision Teaching in Writing Empowerment Enhancement: Results from an Italian Learning Center
We present the improvement in writing skills obtained by 94 participants (aged between six and 10 years) with special educational needs through a writing enhancement program based on fluency principles. The study was planned and conducted with a single-subject experimental plan for each of the participants, in order to confirm the results in the literature. These results were obtained using precision teaching (PT) methodology to increase the number of written graphemes per minute in the pre- and post-test, by curriculum based measurement (CBM). Results indicated an increase in the number of written graphemes for all participants. The average overall duration of the intervention is 144 minutes in five months of treatment. These considerations have been analyzed taking account of the complexity of the implementation of measurement systems in real operational contexts (an Italian learning center) and important aspects of replicability and cost-effectiveness of such interventions.
The Investigation of Students’ Learning Preference from Native English Speaking Instructor and Non-Native Speaking Instructor
Most current research has been focused on whether NESTs have advantages over NNESTs in English language Teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate English learners’ preferences toward native English speaking teachers and non-English speaking teachers in four skills of English language learning. This qualitative study consists of 12 participants. Two open-ended questions were investigated and analyzed. The findings revealed that the participants held an overall preference for NESTs over NNESTs in reading, writing, and listening English skills; nevertheless, they believed both NESTs and NNESTs offered learning experiences strengths, and weaknesses to satisfy students’ need in their English instruction.
Evaluation Means in English and Russian Academic Discourse: Through Comparative Analysis towards Translation
Given the culture- and language-specific nature of evaluation, this phenomenon is widely studied around the linguistic world and may be regarded as a challenge for translators. Evaluation penetrates all the levels of a scientific text, influences its composition and the reader’s attitude towards the information presented. One of the most challenging and rarely studied phenomena is the individual style of the scientific writer, which is mostly reflected in the use of evaluative language means. The evaluative and expressive potential of a scientific text is becoming more and more welcoming area for researchers, which stems in the shift towards anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics. Other reasons include: the cognitive and psycholinguistic processes that accompany knowledge acquisition, a genre-determined nature of a scientific text, the increasing public concern about the quality of scientific papers and some such. One more important issue, is the fact that linguists all over the world still argue about the definition of evaluation and its functions in the text. The author analyzes various approaches towards the study of evaluation and scientific texts. A comparative analysis of English and Russian dissertations and other scientific papers with regard to evaluative language means reveals major differences and similarities between English and Russian scientific style. Though standardized and genre-specific, English scientific texts contain more figurative and expressive evaluative means than the Russian ones, which should be taken into account while translating scientific papers. The processes that evaluation undergoes while being expressed by means of a target language are also analyzed. The author offers a target-language-dependent strategy for the translation of evaluation in English and Russian scientific texts. The findings may contribute to the theory and practice of translation and can increase scientific writers’ awareness of inter-language and intercultural differences in evaluative language means.
Acid Fuchsin Dye Based PMMA Film for Holographic Investigations
In view of a possible application in optical data storage devices, diffraction grating efficiency of an organic dye, Acid Fuchsin doped in PMMA matrix was studied under excitation with CW diode pumped Nd: YAG laser at 532 nm. The open aperture Z-scan of dye doped polymer displayed saturable absorption and the closed aperture Z-scan of the samples exhibited negative nonlinearity. The diffraction efficiency of the grating is the ratio of the intensity of the first order diffracted power to the incident read beam power. The dye doped polymer films were found to be good media for recording. It is observed that the formation of gratings strongly depend on the concentration of dye in the polymer film, the intensity ratios of the writing beams and the angle between the writing beams. It has been found that efficient writing can be made at an angle of 20° and when the intensity ratio of the writing beams is unity.
The Impact of Using Authentic Materials on Students' Motivation in Learning Indonesian Language as a Foreign Language
Motivation is a very important factor since it contributes a lot to the students’ success in learning a language. Using authentic materials is believed as a mean of increasing the motivation. The materials define as authentic if they are not specifically written for the purpose of language teaching. They are genuine spoken or written language data which are drawn from many different sources. The intention of this study is to investigate the impact of using of authentic materials on students’ motivation. A single case study is conducted to the grade 9 students who learn Indonesian Language as a Foreign Language (ILFL) at an international school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Questionnaires are also distributed to the students to know their perceptions on the using of authentic materials. The results show that the using of authentic materials has increased the students’ motivation in learning the language.
A Socio-Pragmatic Investigation of Gender Enactment in New Month Text Messages
This paper undertakes a socio-pragmatic investigation of gender enactment in new month text messages. This study employs Gumperz’s Interactional Sociolinguistics as its theoretical point of reference to investigate how people create meaning through social interaction. This theory attempts to analyse any social interaction based on contextualization cues and presuppositions. This study explores the appropriateness of language used in texting. The text messages are collected from different mobile phones from different genders, which form the data for this paper. The study observes remarkable differences between genders in the use of informal language. The study reveals that men and women differ remarkably in conversational interaction as well as in writing. While it is observed that women are emotional, orderly, and meticulous, detailed and observed certain grammatical rules, men are casual, brief and appear to show evidence that less attention is paid to grammatical rules. Also, the study shows women as relaxing, showing love, care, concern with their emotive, spirit-raising and touching language, while mean are direct, short, and straight to the point. It is discovered through the study that women behave this way because of their brain-wiring. That is why language and communication matter more to women than to men and this reflects in their new month text messages.
The Influence of Educational Board Games on Chinese Learning Motivation and Flow Experience
Flow theory implies that people are persuaded by happiness. By focusing on an activity, people turn a blind eye to external factors. This study explores the influence of educational board games and fundamental Chinese language teaching on students’ learning motivation and flow experience. Fifty-three students studying Chinese language fundamental courses were used in the study. These students were divided into three groups: (1) flash card teaching group; (2) educational original board game teaching group; and (3) educational Chinese board game teaching group. Chinese language teaching was integrated with the educational board game titled ‘Transportation GO.’ The students were observed playing this game as the teacher collected quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected from the learning motivation scale and flow experience scale. Qualitative data was collected through observing, recording, and visiting. The first result found that the three groups integrated with Chinese language teaching could maintain students’ high learning motivation and high flow experience. Second, there was no significant difference between the flow experience of the flash card group and the educational original board game group. Third, there was a significant difference in the flow experience and learning motivation of the educational Chinese board game group vs. the other groups. This study suggests that the experimental model can be applied to advanced Chinese language teaching. Apart from oral and literacy skills, the study of educational board games integrated with Chinese language teaching to enforce student writing skills will be continued.
‘Non-Legitimate’ Voices as L2 Models: Towards Becoming a Legitimate L2 Speaker
Based on a Multiliteracies-inspired and sociolinguistically-informed advanced French composition class, this study employed autobiographical narratives from speakers traditionally considered non-legitimate models for L2 teaching purposes of inspiring students to develop an authentic L2 voice and to see themselves as legitimate L2 speakers. Students explored their L2 identities in French through a self-inspired fictional character. Two autobiographical narratives of identity quest by non-traditional French speakers provided them guidance through this process: the novel Le Bleu des Abeilles (2013) and the film Qu’Allah Bénisse la France (2014). Written and French oral productions for different genres, as well as metalinguistic reflections in English, were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that ideas and materials that were relatable to students, namely relatable experiences and relatable language, were most useful to them in developing their L2 voices and achieving authentic and legitimate L2 speakership. These results point towards the benefits of using non-traditional speakers as pedagogical models, as they serve to legitimize students’ sense of their own L2-speakership, which ultimately leads them towards a better, more informed, mastery of the language.
Sentence Variation in Academic Writing: A Contrastive Study of the Variation of Sentence Types between Male and Female ESL Writers
This paper focuses on the variation of sentence types in English academic writing. The major focus is on whether variation in sentence types can be attributable to the linguistic and most of all the gender of the writers. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sentence types produced by Male and Female ESL writers and to determine whether writers vary the frequency and use of sentence types across the text depending on the rhetorical choices of the writers to construct identity. This study is hinged on the functionalist approach to analyzing academic writing in use. For the purpose of this study, a corpus of 20 academic papers was created and the use of sentences types was analyzed. The data for the study was collated using percentages. In this case, the number of occurrences of the different sentence types were analyzed, calculated and then converted to percentages for each group i.e., male and female ESL writers. The results from these analyses were compared and contrasted in order to determine whether Male and Female ESL writer vary their sentence types, and, or employed the same or different sentence types in their texts. The conclusion is that Male and Female ESL writers not only vary in their use of sentence types in academic writings but also differ.
Teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language Under Humanistic and Sociocultural Psychology
This research paper, sets out to draw some traditional english language teaching practices and to suggest ways for their improvement under the light of humanistic and socio-cultural psychology. This is going to aid language teachers by applying principled psychological methods on the field of education in order to introduce a reciprocal mode of teaching where teacher and learner begin with a mutual effort. However the teacher, after initiating most of the work, gradually passes on more and more responsibility to the learners resulting in their independent endeavors.
The Content-Based Classroom: Perspectives on Integrating Language and Content
Views of language and language learning have undergone a tremendous change over the last decades. Language is no longer seen as a set of structured rules. It is rather viewed as a tool of interaction and communication. This shift in views has resulted in change in viewing language learning, which gave birth to various approaches and methodologies of language teaching. Two of these approaches are content-based instruction and content and language integrated learning (CLIL). These are similar approaches which integrate content and foreign/second language learning through various methodologies and models as a result of different implementations around the world. This presentation deals with sociocultural view of CBI and CLIL. It also defines language and content as vital components of CBI and CLIL. Next it reviews the origins of CBI and the continuum perspectives and CLIL definitions and models featured in the literature. Finally it summarizes current aspects around research in program evaluation with a focus on the benefits and challenges of these innovative approaches for second language teaching.
Raising Linguistic Awareness through Metalinguistic Written Corrective Feedback
Grammar has traditionally been taught for its own sake, emphasizing rules and drills. However, in recent years, more emphasis is given to communicative competence. Current research suggests that form-focused instruction is notably efficient when incorporated in a meaningful communicative context. It is maintained that writing tasks related to the students’ academic fields will encourage them to express themselves openly in topics that are close to their hearts, without feeling too uneasy about grammatical forms. The teacher can further reduce students’ apprehension of grammar by announcing that credit will be given for merely doing the task and that grammar mistakes will not affect the grade. Students’ linguistic errors can then be corrected by giving metalinguistic feedback which involves providing learners with some kind of explicit remark about the nature of the errors they have made. Research has also shown that learners’ developmental readiness is an important factor influencing the effectiveness of written corrective feedback. Larger effect sizes appear as the proficiency level is higher. The purposes of this paper are to demonstrate how grammar can be taught indirectly through writing tasks, and more specifically, how the use of metalinguistic written corrective feedback given to advanced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students can raise their linguistic awareness. Since errors are not directly corrected, the students have to work out the corrections needed through exploring grammar books and websites. Longitudinal studies of metalinguistic written corrective feedback comparing the number of errors in students’ first and fourth compositions have shown a decrease in errors.
Comparative Study of Urdu and Hindko Language
Language is a source of communicating the ideas, emotions and feelings to others. Languages are different from one another on the basis of symbols and articulation. Regional languages play a role of unification in any country. National language of any country gives strength to its masses as it evaporates the mutual indifferences. There are various regional languages in Pakistan like Sindhi, Pushto, Hindko and Balochi. Hindko language dates back to the ancient times and the Hindko speakers can also easily understand and speak Urdu language. Urdu language is an amalgam of various languages. These languages are interconnected. Thus we can draw an analogy between the two languages under discussion on the basis of the pronunciation. The research will show that there are so many words in both the languages which have the similar pronunciation. It will further tell that the roots of Urdu language lie in Hindko. The reason behind this resemblance is that Urdu has got extracted from Hindko and other languages. Hindko language has played a prominent role in the development of Urdu language. Thus the role of Hindko language in the emergence and development of Urdu cannot be denied. This article will use the qualitative and comparative study as methodology. The research will highlight that there is close resemblance in both the languages on the basis of pronunciation, signifying that Urdu language has been extracted from Hindkon language.
Gesture in the Arabic and Malay Languages a Comparative Study
The Arabic and Malay languages belong to different language’s families; while the Arabic language descends from the Semitic language, Malay belongs to the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) family. Hence, the grammatical systems of the two languages differ from each other. Arabic, being a language found in the heart of the dessert, and Malay is the language found in the heart of thick equatorial forests, is another source of vital cultural differences. Consequently, it is expected that this situation will create differences in the ways of how speakers of the two languages perceive the world around them, convey and understand their messages. On the other hand, as the majority of the speakers of Malay language are Muslims, Arabic language found its way in this region; currently, Arabic is widely taught in school, some terms of it found their way in the Malay language. Accordingly, the Arabic language and culture have widely penetrated into the Malay language. This study is proposed with the aim to find out the differences and similarities between the two languages, in the term of the nonverbal communication. The result of this study will be of high significance, as it will help in enhancing the mutual understanding between the speakers of these languages. The comparative analysis approach will be utilized in this study.
Language Factor in the Formation of National and Cultural Identity of Kazakhstan
This article attempts to give an overview of the language situation and language planning in Kazakhstan. Statistical data is given and excursion to history of languages in Kazakhstan is done. Particular emphasis is placed on the national- cultural component of the Kazakh people, namely the impact of the specificity of the Kazakh language on ethnic identity. Language is one of the basic aspects of national identity. Recently, in the Republic of Kazakhstan purposeful work on language development has been conducted. Optimal solution of language problems is a factor of interethnic relations harmonization, strengthening and consolidation of the peoples and public consent. Development of languages - one of the important directions of the state policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The problem of the state language, as part of national (civil) identification play a huge role in the successful integration process of Kazakh society. And quite rightly assume that one of the foundations of a new civic identity is knowing Kazakh language by all citizens of Kazakhstan. The article is an analysis of the language situation in Kazakhstan in close connection with the peculiarities of cultural identity.
Anxiety Caused by the Single Mode of Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms: The Case of African Language Learners
For learning to take place effectively, learners have to use language. Language becomes a critical tool by which to communicate, to express feelings, desires and thoughts, and most of all to learn. However, each individual’s capacity to use language is unique. In multilingual countries, classrooms usually comprise learners from different language backgrounds, and therefore the language used for teaching and learning requires rethinking. Interaction in the classroom, if done in a language that is understood by the learners, could maximise the outcomes of learning. This paper explores the extent to which the use of a single code becomes a source of anxiety to learners in multilingual classrooms in South African schools. It contends that a multilingual approach in the learning process should be explored in order to promote learner autonomy in the learning process.
3D Writing on Photosensitive Glass-Ceramics
Optical lithography is a key technique in the development of sub-5 nm patterns for the semiconductor industry. We have already reported that the best results obtained with respect to direct laser writing process on active media, such as glass-ceramics, are achieved only when the energy of the laser radiation is absorbed in discrete quantities. Further, we need to clarify the role of active centers concentration in silver nanocrystals natural generation, as well as in fluorescent rare-earth nanostructures formation. As a consequence, samples with different compositions were prepared. SEM, AFM, TEM and STEM investigations were employed in order to demonstrate that few nm width lines can be written on fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics, these being efficient absorbers. Moreover, we believe that the experimental data will lead to the best choice in terms of active centers amount, laser power and glass-ceramic matrix.
Learning to Learn: A Course on Language Learning Strategies
In an increasingly global world, more and more international students attend academic courses and programs in a second or foreign language, and local students register in language learning classes in order to improve their employability. These students need to quickly become proficient in the new language. How can we, as administrators, curriculum developers and teachers, make sure that they have the tools they need in order to develop their language skills in an academic context? This paper will describe the development and implementation of a new course, Learning to learn, as part of the Major in French/English as a Second Language at the University of Ottawa. This academic program was recently completely overhauled in order to reflect the current approaches in language learning (more specifically, the action-oriented approach as embodied in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, and the concept of life-long autonomous learning). The course itself is based on research on language learning strategies, with a particular focus on the characteristics of the “good language learner”. We will present the methodological and pedagogical foundations, describe the course objectives and learning outcomes, the language learning strategies, and the classroom activities. The paper will conclude with students’ feedback and suggest avenues for further exploration.
Coherence and Cohesion in IELTS Academic Writing: Helping Students to Improve
More universities and third level institutions now require at least an IELTS Band 6 for entry into courses of study for non-native speakers of English. This presentation focuses on IELTS Academic Writing Tasks 1 and 2 and in particular on the marking criterion of Coherence and Cohesion. A requirement for candidates aiming at Band 6 and above is that they produce answers which show a clear, overall progression of information and ideas and which use cohesive devices effectively. With this in mind, the presenter will examine what exactly is meant by coherence and cohesion and various strategies which can be used to assist students in improving their scores in this area. A number of classroom teaching ideas will be introduced, and participants will have the opportunity to compare and discuss sample answers written by candidates for this examination with a specific focus on coherence and cohesion. Intended audience: Teachers of IELTS Academic Writing.
STML: Service Type-Checking Markup Language for Services of Web Components
Language and Political Manipulation: A Critical Analysis of Okediran's Tenants of the House
Language is a veritable tool in the hands of politicians. They use it to shape social realities; create new meanings and ultimately to acquire, exercise and sustain power in the society. Language and politics both share a symbiotic relationship. The former is the medium through which members of the society communicate and cohabitate while the later is used to gain and exercise power in the society. Language therefore is the epicenter of every human activity and politicians explore, deploy and manipulate it to advance their personal interests. This paper examines the ideological use of language in Okediran’s Tenants of the House. The study further shows that language is used as an instrument of political domination and manipulation through the display of emotiveness. The study concludes that politicians do not innocently use language but deliberately employ them to foreground their ideological position.
An Analysis of Discourse Markers Awareness in Writing Undergraduate Thesis of English Education Student in Sebelas Maret University
An undergraduate thesis is one of the academic writings which should fulfill some characteristics, one of them is coherency. Moreover, a coherence of a text depends on the usage of discourse markers. In other word, discourse markers take an essential role in writing. Therefore, the researchers aim to know the awareness of the discourse markers usage in writing the under-graduate thesis of an English Education student at Sebelas Maret University. This research uses a qualitative case study in order to obtain a deep analysis. The sample of this research is an under-graduate thesis of English Education student in Sebelas Maret University which chosen based on some criteria. Additionally, the researchers were guided by some literature attempted to group the discourse markers based on their functions. Afterward, the analysis was held based on it. From the analysis, it found that the awareness of discourse markers usage is moderate. The last point, the researcher suggest undergraduate students to familiarize themselves with discourse markers, especially for those who want to write thesis.
The Instruction of Imagination: A Theory of Language as a Social Communication Technology
The research presents a new general theory of language as a socially-constructed communication technology, designed by cultural evolution for a very specific function: the instruction of imagination. As opposed to all the other systems of intentional communication, which provide materials for the interlocutors to experience, language allows speakers to instruct their interlocutors in the process of imagining the intended meaning-instead of experiencing it. It is thus the only system that bridges the experiential gaps between speakers. This is the key to its enormous success.
Challenges of Teaching English Language in Polytechnics
The 21st century is marked by increased industrialization and a great spurt of technical institutes in almost all parts of the country. In this changing scenario, teaching English language to the students of polytechnic institutes, situated in the small towns of the country is a great challenge as well as responsibility. The learners have very strong vernacular roots and their adaptation to the English language is really slow, as a result teaching English language to them is a herculean task. The students of polytechnics get admission despite of low grades, the base of English has to be prepared at the plus two level, the influence of the local language looms large and the reluctance to learn the English language is obvious. However, the needs of the industries have to be kept in mind and the prospective engineers have to be taught the language. There is an urgent need to devise new ways of teaching the language keeping in mind the requirements of the industry, the capability of the students and maintaining the sanctity of the language. A way has to be carved out.
Using Happening Performance in Vocabulary Teaching
It is believed that drama can be used in language classes to create a positive atmosphere for students to use the target language in an interactive way. Thus, drama has been extensively used in many settings in language classes. Although happening has been generally used as a performance art of theatre, this new kind of performance has not been widely known in language teaching area. Therefore, it can be an innovative idea to use happening in language classes, and thus a positive environment can be created for students to use the language in an interactive way. Happening can be defined as an art performance that puts emphasis on interaction in an audience. Because of its interactive feature, happening can also be used in language classes to motivate students to use the language in an interactive environment. The present study aims to explain how a happening performance can be applied to a learning environment to teach vocabulary in English. In line with this purpose, a learning environment was designed for a vocabulary presentation lesson. At the end of the performance, students were asked to compare the traditional way of teaching and happening performance in terms of effectiveness. It was found that happening performance provided the students with a more creative and interactive environment to use the language. Therefore, happening can be used in language classrooms as an innovative tool for education.
A Study on Pre-Service English Language Teacher's Language Self-Efficacy and Goal Orientation
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is on the front burner of many countries in the world, in particular for English Language Teaching departments that train EFL teachers. Under the head of motivational theories in foreign language education, there are numerous researches in literature. However; researches comprising English Language Self-Efficacy and Teachers’ Learning Goal Orientation which has a positive impact on learning teachings skills are scarce. Examination of these English Language self-efficacy beliefs and Learning Goal Orientations of Pre-Service EFL Teachers may broaden the horizons, in consideration the importance of self-efficacy and goal orientation on learning and teaching activities. At this juncture, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between English Language Self-Efficacy and Teachers’ Learning Goal Orientation from Turkish context.