Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62319

200
16781
Shell Lime: An Eco-Friendly and Cost-Efficient Alternative for Agricultural Lime
Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the lime potential of 3 mollusks, namely: Crassostrea iredalei (Oyster shell), Turritella terebra (Turret shell), and Anodontia edentula (Mangrove clam shell) as alternative for commercially produced agricultural lime. The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and the lime concentration using Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) of each shellfish species were measured and tested for the enhancement of an acidic soil. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment A- 100 g agricultural lime; B- 100 g oyster shell lime; C- 100 g turret shell lime; and D- 100 g mangrove clam shell lime. Each treatment was combined to the acidic soil sample. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Square Difference (LSD) at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. Results revealed that lime produced from the 3 selected mollusks can be a potential source of alternative and/or supplement materials for agricultural lime in dealing with soil acidity, entailing lower cost of farm production.
199
86643
Calcium Uptake and Yield of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated in Rice Straw-Based Substrate Enriched with Natural Sources
Abstract:
Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms, is an excellent source of protein and other minerals but inherently contains low calcium level. Calcium plays several vital functions in human health; therefore, adequate daily intake is necessary. Supplementation of growth substrate is a significant approach in mushroom production to improve nutritional content and yield. This study focused on the influence of varying concentrations of Ca supplementation derived from natural sources including agricultural lime, eggshell and oyster shell in rice straw-based formulation for the production of P. ostreatus. The effect of Ca supplementation on the total yield and Ca content were obtained. Results revealed that these natural sources increased both the yield and Ca of P. ostreatus. Mushroom grown in substrate with 8-10% agricultural lime and 6% eggshell powder produced the highest yields while using oyster shell powder did not vary with the control. Meanwhile, substrate supplementation using agricultural lime and eggshell powder in all concentrations have increased Ca in fruiting bodies. However, Ca was not absorbed in the oyster shell powder-supplemented substrate. These findings imply the potential of agricultural lime and eggshell powder in the production of Ca-enriched mushrooms resulting in higher yield.
198
93366
Mechanical and Hydraulic Behavior of Arid Zone Soils Treated with Lime: Case of Abadla, Bechar Clays, South of Algeria
Abstract:
Stabilization of clay with lime as bearing stratum is an alternative to replacement of original soil. By adding lime to clay soil, the soil workability is improved due to the combination of calcium ions to the clay minerals, which means, modified soil properties. The paper investigates the effect of hydrated lime on the behaviour of lime treated, arid zones clay (Abadla Clay). A number of mechanical and hydraulic tests were performed to identify the effect of lime dosage and compaction water content on the compressibility, permeability, and shear strength parameters of the soil. Test results show that the soil parameters can be improved through additives such as lime. Overall, the addition percentages of 6% and 9% lime give the best desired results. Also, results revealed that the compressibility behavior of lime-treated soil strongly affected by lime content. The results are presented in terms of modern interpretation of the behaviour of treated soils, in comparison with the parameters of the untreated soil.
197
1849
Use of Biomass as Co-Fuel in Briquetting of Low-Rank Coal: Strengthen the Energy Supply and Save the Environment
Abstract:
In order to fulfill world energy demand, several efforts have been done to look for new and renewable energy candidates to substitute oil and gas. Biomass is one of new and renewable energy sources, which is abundant in Indonesia. Palm kernel shell is a kind of biomass discharge from palm oil industries as a waste. On the other hand, Jatropha curcas that is easy to grow in Indonesia is also a typical energy source either for bio-diesel or biomass. In this study, biomass was used as co-fuel in briquetting of low-rank coal to suppress the release of emission (such as CO, NOx and SOx) during coal combustion. Desulfurizer, CaO-base, was also added to ensure the SOx capture is effectively occurred. Ratio of coal to palm kernel shell (w/w) in the bio-briquette were 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10, while ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S) in mole/mole were 1:1; 1.25:1; 1.5:1; 1.75:1 and 2:1. The bio-briquette then subjected to physical characterization and combustion test. The results show that the maximum weight loss in the durability measurement was ±6%. In addition, the highest stove efficiency for each desulfurizer was observed at the coal/PKS ratio of 90:10 and Ca/S ratio of 1:1 (except for the scallop shell desulfurizer that appeared at two Ca/S ratios; 1.25:1 and 1.5:1, respectively), i.e. 13.8% for the lime; 15.86% for the oyster shell; 14.54% for the scallop shell and 15.84% for the green mussel shell desulfurizers.
196
92730
Extraction of Essential Oil and Pectin from Lime and Waste Technology Development
Abstract:
Lime is one of the economically important produced in Thailand. The objective of this research is to increase utilization in food and cosmetic. Extraction of essential oil and pectin from lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm & Panz ) Swing) have been studied. Extraction of essential oil has been made by using hydro-distillation .The essential oil ranged from 1.72-2.20%. The chemical composition of essential oil composed of alpha-pinene , beta-pinene , D-limonene , comphene , a-phellandrene , g-terpinene , a-ocimene , O-cymene , 2-carene , Linalool , trans-ocimenol , Geraniol , Citral , Isogeraniol , Verbinol , and others when analyzed by using GC-MS method. Pectin extraction from lime waste , boiled water after essential oil extraction. Pectin extraction were found 40.11-65.81 g /100g of lime peel. The best extraction condition was found to be higher in yield by using ethanol extraction. The potential of this study had satisfactory results to improve lime processing system for value-added . The present study was also focused on Lime powder production as source of vitamin C or ascorbic acid and the potential of lime waste as a source of essential oil and pectin. Lime powder produced from Spray Dryer . Lime juice with 2 different level of maltodextrins DE 10 , 30 and 50% w/w was sprayed at 150 degrees celsius inlet air temperature and at 90-degree celsius outlet temperature. Lime powder with 50% maltodextrin gave the most desirable quality product. This product has vitamin C contents of 25 mg/100g (w/w).
195
80378
Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix
Abstract:
The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.
194
3923
Field Application of Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime
Abstract:
Gypsum is being applied to ameliorate subsoil acidity and to overcome the problem of very slow lime movement from surface lime applications. Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime (RCCSL) containing anhydrite was evaluated for use as a liming material with specific consideration given to the movement of sulfate into the acid subsoil. Agricultural lime and RCCSL were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the lime requirement of 6.72 Mg ha-1 to an acid Trappist silt loam (Typic Hapuldult). Corn [Zea mays (L.)]was grown following lime material application and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]was grown in the second year. Soil pH increased rapidly with the addition of the RCCSL material. Over time there was no difference in soil pH between the materials but there was with increasing rate. None of the observed changes in plant nutrient concentration had an impact on yield. Grain yield was higher for the RCCSL amended treatments in the first year but not in the second. There was a significant increase in soybean grain yield from the full lime requirement treatments over no lime.
193
91218
The Influence of Partial Replacement of Hydrated Lime by Pozzolans on Properties of Lime Mortars
Abstract:
Hydrated lime, because of the life cycle (return to its natural form as a result of the setting and hardening) has a positive environmental impact. The lime binder is used in mortars. Lime is a slow setting binder with low mechanical properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of improving the properties of the lime binder by using different pozzolanic materials as partial replacement of hydrated lime binder. Pozzolan materials are the natural or industrial waste, so do not affect the environmental impact of the lime binder. The following laboratory tests were performed: the analysis of the physical characteristics of the tested samples of lime mortars (bulk density, porosity), flexural and compressive strength, water absorption and the capillary rise of samples and consistency of fresh mortars. As a partial replacement of hydrated lime (in the amount of 10%, 20%, 30% by weight of lime) a metakaolin, silica fume, and zeolite were used. The shortest setting and hardening time showed mortars with the addition of metakaolin. All additives noticeably improved strength characteristic of lime mortars. With the increase in the amount of additive, the increase in strength was also observed. The highest flexural strength was obtained by using the addition of metakaolin in an amount of 20% by weight of lime (2.08 MPa). The highest compressive strength was obtained by using also the addition of metakaolin but in an amount of 30% by weight of lime (9.43 MPa). The addition of pozzolan caused an increase in the mortar tightness which contributed to the limitation of absorbability. Due to the different surface area, pozzolanic additives affected the consistency of fresh mortars. Initial consistency was assumed as plastic. Only the addition of silica fume an amount of 20 and 30% by weight of lime changed the consistency to the thick-plastic. The conducted study demonstrated the possibility of applying lime mortar with satisfactory properties. The features of lime mortars do not differ significantly from cement-based mortar properties and show a lower environmental impact due to CO₂ absorption during lime hardening. Taking into consideration the setting time, strength and consistency, the best results can be obtained with metakaolin addition to the lime mortar.
192
71041
Partial Replacement for Cement and Coarse Aggregate in Concrete by Using Egg Shell Powder and Coconut Shell
Abstract:
The production of cement leads to the emission of large amounts of carbon-dioxide gas into the atmosphere which is a major contributor for the greenhouse effect and the global warming; hence it is mandatory either to quest for another material or partly replace it with some other material. According to the practical demonstrations and reports, Egg Shell Powder (ESP) can be used as a binding material for different field applications as it contains some of the properties of lime. It can partially replace the cement and further; it can be used in different proportion for enhancing the performance of cement. It can be used as a first-class alternative, for material reuse and waste recycling practices. Eggshell is calcium rich and analogous to limestone in chemical composition. Therefore, use of eggshell waste for partial replacement of cement in concrete is feasible. Different studies reveal that plasticity index of the soil can be improved by adding eggshell wastes in all the clay soil and it has wider application in construction projects including earth canals and earthen dams. The scarcity of aggregates is also increasing nowadays. Utilization of industrial waste or secondary materials is increasing in different construction applications. Coconut shell was successfully used in the construction industry for partial or full replacement for coarse aggregates. The use of coconut shell gives advantage of using waste material to partially replace the coarse aggregate. Studies carried on coconut shell indicate that it can partially replace the aggregate. It has good strength and modulus properties along with the advantage of high lignin content. It absorbs relatively low moisture due to its low cellulose content. In the paper, study carried out on eggshell powder and coconut shell will be discussed. Optimum proportions of these materials to be used for partial replacement of cement and aggregate will also be discussed.
191
56496
Influence of Nano Copper Slag in Strength Behavior of Lime Stabilized Soil
Abstract:
Nanotechnology has been widely used in many applications such as medical, electronics, robotics and also in geotechnical engineering area through stabilization of bore holes, grouting etc. In this paper, an attempt is made for understanding the influence of nano copper slag (1%, 2% & 3%) on the index, compaction and UCC strength properties of natural soil (CH type) with and without lime stabilization for immediate and 7 days curing period. Results indicated that upto 1% of Nano copper slag, there is an increment in UC strength of virgin soil and lime stabilised soil. Beyond 1% nano copper slag, there is a steep reduction in UC strength and increase of plasticity both in lime stabilised soil and virgin soil. The effect of lime is found to show more influence on large surface area of nano copper slag in natural soil. For both immediate and curing effect, with 1% of Nano copper slag, the maximum unconfined compressive strength was 38% and 106% higher than that of the virgin soil strength.
190
87827
Effect of Lime and Leaf Ash on Engineering Properties of Red Mud
Abstract:
Red mud is a byproduct of aluminum extraction from Bauxite industry. It is dumped in a pond which not only uses thousands of acres of land but having very high pH, it pollutes the ground water and the soil also. Leaves are yet another big waste especially during autumn when they contribute immensely to the blockage of drains and can easily catch fire, among other risks hence also needs to be utilized effectively. The use of leaf ash and red mud in highway construction as a filling material may be an efficient way to dispose of leaf ash and red mud. In this study, leaf ash and lime were used as admixtures to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of red mud. The red mud was taken from National Aluminum Company Limited, Odisha, and leaf ash was locally collected. The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of lime and leaf ash on compaction characteristics and strength characteristics of red mud. California Bearing Ratio and Unconfined Compression Strength tests were performed on red mud by varying different percentages of lime and leaf ash. Leaf ash was added in proportion 2%,4%,6%,8% and 10% whereas lime was added in proportions of 5% to 15%. Optimized value of lime was decided with respect to maximum CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of red mud mixed with different proportions of lime. An increase of 300% in California Bearing ratio of red mud and an increase of 125% in Unconfined Compression Strength values were observed. It may, therefore, be concluded that red mud may be effectively utilized in the highway industry as a filler material.
189
3307
Modeling Thin Shell Structures by a New Flat Shell Finite Element
Abstract:
In this paper, a new computationally-efficient rectangular flat shell finite element named 'ACM_RSBEC' is presented. The formulated element is obtained by superposition of a new rectangular membrane element 'RSBEC' based on the strain approach and the well known plate bending element 'ACM'. This element can be used for the analysis of thin shell structures, no matter how the geometrical shape might be. Tests on standard problems have been examined. The convergence of the new formulated element is also compared to other types of quadrilateral shell elements. The presented shell element ‘ACM_RSBEC’ has been demonstrated to be effective and useful in analysing thin shell structures.
188
15737
Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil
Authors:
Abstract:
Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.
187
10849
A Study of Soft Soil Improvement by Using Lime Grit
Abstract:
This paper presents an idea to improve the soft soil by using lime grits which are normally produced as waste product in the paper manufacturing industries. This waste material cannot be used as a construction material because of its light weight, uniform size and poor compaction control. With scarcity in land, effective disposal of lime grit is a major concern of all paper manufacturing industries. Considering its non-plasticity and high permeability characteristics the lime grit may suitably be used as a drainage material for speedy consolidation of cohesive soil. It can also be used to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay. An attempt has been made in this paper to show the usefulness of lime grit in improving the bearing capacity of shallow foundation resting on soft clayey soil. A series of undrained unconsolidated cyclic triaxial tests performed at different area ratios and at three different water contents shows that dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio can be substantially improved with lime grit. Improvement is observed to be more in case of higher area ratio and higher water content. Static triaxial tests were also conducted on lime grit reinforced clayey soil after application of 50 load cycles to determine the effect of lime grit columns on cyclically loaded clayey soils. It is observed that the degradation is less for lime grit stabilized soil. A study of model test with different area ratio of lime column installation is also included to see the field behaviour of lime grit reinforced soil.
186
62996
Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation
Abstract:
Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.
185
56368
The Effectivity of Lime Juice on the Cooked Rice's Shelf-Life
Abstract:
The effectivity of lime juice on the cooked rice’s shelf-life was investigated. This research was proposed to get the optimal condition, such as concentration lime juice as the preservatives, and shelf-life cooked rice’s container to store using rice warmer. The effectivity was analysed total colony bacteriology, and physically. The variation of lime juice’s concentration that have been used were 0%, 0,46%, 0,93%, 1,40%, and 1,87%. The observation of cooked rice’s quality was done every 12 hours, including colour, smell, flavour, and total colony every 24 hours. Based on the result of the research considered from the cooked rice’s quality through observing the total of the colony bacteriology and physically, it showed the optimum concentrate which is effective preserve the cooked rise’s level concentrate was 0.93%.
184
49520
Structural and Optical Characterization of [email protected] Core–Shell Nanoparticles
Abstract:
The present work describes the preparation and characterization of nanosized [email protected] core-shell particles by using a simple wet chemical route. This method utilizes silica spheres formation followed by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method assisted lead sulphide shell layer formation. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopic, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. The morphological studies revealed the uniformity in size distribution with core size of 250 nm and shell thickness of 18 nm. The electron microscopic images also indicate the irregular morphology of lead sulphide shell layer. The structural studies indicate the face-centered cubic system of PbS shell with no other trace for impurities in the crystal structure.
183
35165
Durability of Lime Treated Soil Reinforced by Natural Fibre under Bending Force
Abstract:
Earth structures constructed of marine clay soils have tendency to crack. In order to improve the flexural strength and brittleness, a technique of mixing short fibers is introduced to the soil lime mixture. Coir fiber was used in this study as reinforcing elements. An experimental investigation consisting primarily of flexural tensile tests was conducted to examine the influence of coir fibers on the flexural behaviour of the reinforced soils. The test results demonstrated that the coir fibers were effective in improving the flexural strength and young’s modulus of all soils were examined and ductility after peak strength for reinforced marine clay soil was treated by lime. 5% lime treated soil and 1% coir fiber reinforced soil specimen’s demonstrated good strength and durability when submerged in water and retained 45% of their air-cured strengths.
182
53905
Study of the Potential of Raw Sediments and Sediments Treated with Lime or Cement for Use in a Foundation Layer and the Base Layer of a Roadway
Abstract:
In this work, firstly we have studied the potential of raw sediments and sediments treated with lime or cement for use in a foundation layer and the base layer of a roadway. Secondly, we have examined mineral changes caused by the addition of lime or cement in order to explain the mechanical performance of stabilized sediments. After determining the amount of lime and cement required stabilizing the sediments, the compaction characteristics and Immediate Bearing Capacity (IBI) were studied using the Modified Proctor method. Then, the evolution of the three parameters, which are optimum water content, maximum dry density and IBI, were determined. Mechanical performances can be evaluated through resistance to compression, resistance under traction and the elasticity modulus. The resistances of the formulations treated with ROLAC®645 increase with the amount of ROLAC®645. Traction resistance and the elastic modulus were used to evaluate the potential of the formulations as road construction materials using the classification diagram. The results show that all the other formulations with ROLAC®645 can be used in subgrades and foundation layers for roads.
181
87297
Geo-Engineering Properties of Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil with Shredded Waste Tyre
Abstract:
The compaction properties, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), soaked California bearing ratio (CBR), hydraulic conductivity, and swelling pressure of lime stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes have been discussed in this paper. Shredded waste tyres, passing 4.75 mm Indian Standard (IS) sieve and retained on 75µ IS sieve have been used in the experimental programme. First of all expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes were prepared by adding shredded waste tyre from 0 to 20% at an increment of 5%.Standard Proctor compaction, UCS and soaked CBR tests were conducted on these mixes. The optimum percentage of shredded waste tyre found out was 10%.In the second phase of the experiment, lime was added to sample having optimum percentage of expansive soil and shredded waste tyre from 2 to 6% at an increment of 1%.Compaction, UCS, soaked CBR, hydraulic conductivity, and swelling pressure tests were conducted on lime stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes. The optimum percentage of lime for stabilization was found out to be 5%.At the optimum percentage of lime the stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mix had increased strength, reduced hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure.
180
33444
Effects of Palm Kernel Expeller Processing on the Ileal Populations of Lactobacilli and Escherichia Coli in Broiler Chickens
Authors:
Abstract:
The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of enzymatic treatment and shell content of palm kernel expeller (PKE) on the ileal Lactobacilli and Escherichia coli populations in broiler chickens. At the finisher phase, one hundred male broiler chickens (Cobb-500) were fed a control diet or the diets containing 200 g/kg of normal PKE (70 g/kg shell), low shell PKE (30 g/kg shell), enzymatic treated PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE. The quantitative real-time PCR were used to determine the ileal bacteria populations. The lowest ileal Lactobacilli population was found in the chickens fed the low shell PKE diet. Dietary normal PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE decreased the Escherichia coli population compared to the control diet. The results suggested that PKE could be included up to 200 g/kg in the finisher diet, however, any screening practice to reduce the shell content of PKE without enzymatic degradation of β-mannan, decrease ileal Lactobacilli population.
179
41339
Decarboxylation of Waste Coconut Oil and Comparison of Acid Values
Abstract:
Green diesel is an upcoming category of biofuels, which has more practical advantages than biodiesel. Production of green diesel involves production of hydrocarbons from various fatty acid sources. Though green diesel is chemically similar to fossil fuel hydrocarbons, it is more environmentally friendly. Decarboxylation of fatty acid sources is one of green diesel production methods and is less expensive and more energy efficient compared to hydrodeoxygenation. Free fatty acids (FFA), undergo decarboxylation readily than triglycerides. Waste coconut oil, which is a rich source of FFA, can be easily decarboxylated than other oils which have lower FFA contents. These free fatty acids can be converted to hydrocarbons by decarboxylation. Experiments were conducted to carry out decarboxylation of waste coconut oil in a high pressure hastealloy reactor (Toption Goup LTD), in the presence of soda lime and mixtures of soda lime and alumina. Acid value (AV) correlates to the amount of FFA available in a sample of oil. It can be shown that with the decreasing of AV, FFAs have converted to hydrocarbons. First, waste coconut oil was reacted with soda lime alone, at 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C and 1.2 MPa pressure for 2 hours. AVs of products at different temperatures were compared. AV of products decreased with increasing temperature. Thereafter, different mixtures of soda lime and alumina (100% Soda lime, 1:1 soda lime and alumina and 100% alumina) were employed at temperatures 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C and 1.2 MPa pressure. The lowest AV of 2.99±0.03 was obtained when 1:1 soda lime and alumina were employed at 250 °C. It can be concluded with respect to the AV that the amount of FFA decreased when decarboxylation temperature was increased. Soda lime:alumina 1:1 mixture showed the lowest AV among the compositions studied. These findings lead to formulate a method to successfully synthesize hydrocarbons by decarboxylating waste coconut oil in the presence of soda lime and alumina (1:1) at elevated tempertaures such as 250 °C.
178
78196
Investigation on Strength Properties of Concrete Using Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious Material
Abstract:
The use of industrial waste in making concrete reduce the consumption of natural resources and pollution of the environment. These materials possess problems of disposal and health hazards. An attempt has been made to use paper and thermal industrial wastes such as lime sludge and flyash. Present investigation is aimed at the utilization of Lime Sludge and Flyash as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and influence of these materials on strength properties of concrete. Thermal industry waste fly ash is mixed with lime sludge and used as a replacement to cement at different proportions to obtain the strength properties and compared with ordinary concrete prepared without any additives. Grade of concrete prepared was M₂₅ designed according to Indian standard method. Cement has been replaced by paper industry waste and fly ash in different proportions such as 0% (normal concrete), 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength were assessed. Test results indicated that the use of lime sludge and Fly ash in concrete had improved the properties of concrete. Better results were observed at 20% replacement of cement with these additives.
177
83817
Study on the Application of Lime to Improve the Rheological Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen
Abstract:
Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique viscoelastic properties, especially when it mixes with polymer. In this study, to figure out the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer modified with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e. 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with PMB and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to raised resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. The addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by the addition of the lime to the PMB.
176
31050
Research on Static and Dynamic Behavior of New Combination of Aluminum Honeycomb Panel and Rod Single-Layer Latticed Shell
Abstract:
In addition to the advantages of light weight, resistant corrosion and ease of processing, aluminum is also applied to the long-span spatial structures. However, the elastic modulus of aluminum is lower than that of the steel. This paper combines the high performance aluminum honeycomb panel with the aluminum latticed shell, forming a new panel-and-rod composite shell structure. Through comparative analysis between the static and dynamic performance, the conclusion that the structure of composite shell is noticeably superior to the structure combined before.
175
14646
Production Process of Coconut-Shell Product in Amphawa District
Abstract:
The study of the production process of coconut-shell product in Amphawa, Samutsongkram Province is objected to study the pattern of the process of coconut-shell product by focusing in the 3 main processes which are inbound logistics process, production process and outbound process. The result of the research: There were 4 main results from the study. Firstly, most of the manufacturer of coconut-shell product is usually owned by a single owner and the quantity of the finished product is quite low and the main labor group is local people. Secondly, the production process can be divided into 4 stages which are pre-production process, production process, packaging process and distribution process. Thirdly, each 3 of the logistics process of coconut shell will find process which may cause the problem to the business but the process which finds the most problem is the production process because the production process needs the skilled labor and the quantity of the labor does not match with the demand from the customers. Lastly, the factors which affect the production process of the coconut shell can be founded in almost every process of the process such as production design, packaging design, sourcing supply and distribution management.
174
88745
The Interactions between Phosphorus Leaching and Lime Application in Undisturbed Soil Columns with Different Soil Textures
Abstract:
Phosphorus losses from agricultural fields through leaching is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of lakes in Quebec as well as North America. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the application of high calcium hydrated lime as a soil amendment in reducing the subsurface transport of phosphorus to water bodies by studying the interactions between phosphorus leaching and lime application in three common agricultural soil textures (sandy loam, loam and clay loam) in Quebec. For this purpose, 6 intact soil columns of 10 cm diameter and 20 cm deep were taken from each of the three different soil textured agricultural fields. Lime (high calcium hydrated lime) was applied to the top 5 cm of half of the intact soil columns while the rest were left as controls. The columns were leached with artificial rainwater in-consecutively at a rate of 3 mm h-1 over a 90-day period. The total amount of water added was equal to the average total rainfall of the region in fall. The leachate samples were collected daily and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. The results showed that lime was able to significantly reduce dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations in the leachates by 70 and 40 percent in sandy loam and loam soil columns, respectively, while phosphorus concentration in the clay loam soil leachates were increased by 40 percent. The calcium in lime has P-binding capabilities. Soil chemical properties in sandy and loamy soils can affect phosphorus leaching, whereas, transport mechanisms in clay soils with macropores dominate phosphorus leaching behaviors. The presence of preferential pathways and cracks in the clay soil columns has led to a quick transport of phosphorus through the soil and the less contact time with the soil matrix, therefore, causing less opportunity for P sorption and larger P release. Application of lime to agricultural fields can be considered as a promising measure in mitigating phosphorus loss from sandy loam and loam soils.
173
24627
Predictions of Values in a Causticizing Process
Abstract:
An industrial system for the production of white liquor of a paper industry, Klabin Paraná Papé is, formed by ten reactors was modeled, simulated, and analyzed. The developed model considered possible water losses by evaporation and reaction, in addition to variations in volumetric flow of lime mud across the reactors due to composition variations. The model predictions agreed well with the process measurements at the plant and the results showed that the slaking reaction is nearly complete at the third causticizing reactor, while causticizing ends by the seventh reactor. Water loss due to slaking reaction and evaporation occurs more pronouncedly in the slaking reaction than in the final causticizing reactors; nevertheless, the lime mud flow remains nearly constant across the reactors.
172
28882
Chitosan Functionalized [email protected] Core-Shell Nanomaterials for Targeted Drug Delivery
Abstract:
Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4-Au core shell nanoparticles have been prepared using a two step wet chemical approach using NaBH4 as reducing agent for formation of Au inethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction studies shows individual phases of Fe3O4 and Au in the as prepared samples with crystallite size of 5.9 and 11.4 nm respectively. The functionalization of the core-shell nanostructure with Chitosan has been confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with signatures of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of Fe3O4 below 600cm-1. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows decrease in particle-particle interaction in presence of Au shell (72% sextet) than pure oleic coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (88% sextet) at room temperature. At 80K, oleic acid coated Fe3O4 shows only sextets whereas the Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4 and Chitosan functionalized [email protected] core shell show presence of 5 and 11% doublet, respectively.
171
100854
Improvement of Soft Clay Using Floating Cement Dust-Lime Columns
Abstract:
The two main criteria that control the design and performance of footings are bearing capacity and settlement of soil. In soft soils, the construction of buildings, storage tanks, warehouse, etc. on weak soils usually involves excessive settlement problems. To solve bearing capacity or reduce settlement problems, soil improvement may be considered by using different techniques, including encased cement dust–lime columns. The proposed research studies the effect of adding floating encased cement dust and lime mix columns to soft clay on the clay-bearing capacity. Four experimental tests were carried out. Columns diameters of 3.0 cm, 4.0 cm, and 5.0 cm and columns length of 60% of the clay layer thickness were used. Numerical model was constructed and verified using commercial finite element package (PLAXIS 2D, V8.5). The verified model was used to study the effect of distributing columns around the footing at different distances. The study showed that the floating cement dust lime columns enhanced the clay-bearing capacity with 262%. The numerical model showed that the columns around the footing have a limit effect on the clay improvement.
170
2647
Clinical Study of the Prunus dulcis (Almond) Shell Extract on Tinea capitis Infection
Abstract:
Prunus dulcis (Almond) shell extract is demonstrated for its biomedical applications. Shell extract prepared by soxhlet method and further characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), FTIR, GC-MS techniques. In this study, the antifungal activity of almond shell extract was observed against clinically isolated pathogenic fungi by strip method. The antioxidant potential of crude shell extract of was evaluated by using DPPH (2-2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl) and radical scavenging system. The possibility of short term therapy was only 20 days. The total antioxidant activity varied from 94.38 to 95.49% and total phenolic content was found as 4.455 mg/gm in almond shell extract. Finally the results provide a great therapeutic potential against Tinea capitis infection of scalp. Included in this study of shell extract that show scientific evidence for clinical efficacy, as well as found to be more useful in the treatment of dermatologic disorders and without any doubt it can be recommended to be Patent.
169
28332
Effect of Mineral Additives on Improving the Geotechnical Properties of Soils in Chlef
Abstract:
The reduction of available land resources and the increased cout associated with the use of hight quality materials have led to the need for local soils to be used in geotecgnical construction however, poor engineering properties of these soils pose difficulties for constructions project and need to be stabilized to improve their properties in oyher works unsuitable soils with low bearing capacity, high plasticity coupled with high insatbility are frequently encountered hense, there is a need to improve the physical and mechanical charateristics of these soils to make theme more suitable for construction this can be done by using different mechanical and chemical methods clayey soil stabilization has been practiced for quite sometime bu mixing additives, such us cement, lime and fly ash to the soil to increase its strength. The aim of this project is to study the effect of using lime, natural pozzolana or combination of both on the geotecgnical cherateristics of clayey soil. Test specimen were subjected to atterberg limits test, compaction test, box shear test and uncomfined compression test Lime or natural pozzolana was added to clayey soil at rangs of 0-8% and 0-20% respectively. In addition combinations of lime –natural pozzolana were added to clayey soil at the same ranges specimen were cured for 1-7, and 28 days after which they were tested for uncofined compression tests. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded that an important decrease of plasticity index was observed for thr samples stabilized with the combinition lime-natural pozzolana in addition, the use of the combination lime-natural pozzolana modifies the clayey soil classification according to casagrand plasiticity chart. Moreover, based on the favourable results of shear and compression strength obtained, it can be concluded that clayey soil can be successfuly stabilized by combined action of lime and natural pozzolana also this combination showed an appreciable improvement of the shear parameters. Finally, since natural pozzolana is much cheaper than lime ,the addition of natural pozzolana in lime soil mix may particulary become attractive and can result in cost reduction of construction.
168
23135
Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization
Abstract:
The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.
167
79282
Use and Relationship of Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in the Quality of Second Language Writing
Abstract:
The current study is a comparative analysis of the use of shell nouns as a cohesive device (CD) in an English for Second Language (ESL) setting in order to identify their use and relationship in the quality of second language (L2) writing. As these nouns were established to anticipate the meaning within, across or outside the text, their use has fascinated writing researchers. The corpus of the study included published articles from reputable journals and graduate students’ papers in order to analyze the frequency of shell nouns using "highly prevalent" nouns in the academic community, to identify the different lexicogrammatical patterns where these nouns occur and to the functions connected with these patterns. The result of the study implies that published authors used more shell nouns in their paper than graduate students. However, the functions of the different lexicogrammatical patterns for the frequently occurring shell nouns are somewhat similar. These results could help students in enhancing the cohesion of their text and in comprehending it.
166
67117
ReS, Resonant String Shell: Development of an Acoustic Shell for Outdoor Chamber Music Concerts
Abstract:
ReS is a sustainable hand-built temporary acoustic shell, developed since 2011 and built during the architectural workshop at Villa Pennisi in Musica in Acireale, Sicily, each year since 2012. The design concept aims to provide a portable structure by reducing the on-site construction problems and the skills required by the builders together with maximizing the acoustic performance for the audience and the musicians. The shell is built using only wood, recycled for the most part, and can be built and dismantled by non-specialized workers in just three days. This paper describes the research process, which spans over four years and presents the final results in form of acoustic simulations performed by acoustic modeling software and real world measurements. ReS is developed by the ReS team who has been presented with the Peter Lord Award in 2015 by the Institute of Acoustics in the UK.
165
56638
Biocompatibility and Sensing Ability of Highly Luminescent Synthesized Core-Shell Quantum Dots
Abstract:
CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4 nm were developed by using chemical route and following successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods. The prepared QDs have been examined by using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases with respect to the core, indicating that the radiative rate increases by the formation of shell around core, as evident by the measurement of PL lifetime. Further, the PL of bovine serum albumin is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shall QDs and follow the Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among all the QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity hence most biocompatibility.
164
1975
Axisymmetric Nonlinear Analysis of Point Supported Shallow Spherical Shells
Abstract:
Geometrically nonlinear axisymmetric bending of a shallow spherical shell with a point support at the apex under linearly varying axisymmetric load was investigated numerically. The edge of the shell was assumed to be simply supported or clamped. The solution was obtained by the finite difference and the Newton-Raphson methods. The thickness of the shell was considered to be uniform and the material was assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. Sensitivity analysis was made for two geometrical parameters. The accuracy of the algorithm was checked by comparing the deflection with the solution of point supported circular plates and good agreement was obtained.
163
53605
Effect of Baking Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Clayey Soil
Abstract:
Thermal treatment changes the physical and mechanical properties of clayey soils. Thermally treated soils have been used since ancient times for making trails for access and bricks for residence. In this study, it has been focused to observe and analyze the effect of baking (burning) temperature on the mechanical properties of clayey soils usually used for the construction of adobe houses in the rural areas of many of the developing countries. In the first stage of experimental work, a series of tests on clayey soil moulds (100 mm height and 50 mm diameter in size) added different percentages of lime and wheat straw (typically 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) were conducted. In the second stage; samples were made of clayey soils and were subjected to six level of temperatures i.e., 25, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500⁰C. In the third stage, the moulds of clayey soil were submerged in water prior to testing in order to investigate the flood resilience of the moulds prepared with and without the addition of lime and wheat straw. The experimental results suggest that samples with 6% of lime content and on 2% of wheat straw contents have shown the maximum value of compressive strength. The effect of baking temperature on the clayey soils has shown that maximum UCS is obtained at 200⁰C. The results also suggest reinforcement with 2% wheat straw, give 70.8% increase in the compressive strength compared to soil only, whereas the flooding resilience can be better resist by adding 6% lime and 2% wheat straw.
162
106577
The Effect of Curing Temperature and Rice Husk Ash Addition on the Behaviour of Sulfate-Rich Clay after Lime Stabilization
Abstract:
In the western region of Paraguay, the poor condition of the roads has negatively affected the development of this zone, where the absence of petrous material has led engineers to opt for the stabilization of soils with lime or cement as the main structure for bases and subbases of these roads. In several areas of this region, high sulfate contents have been found both in groundwater and in soils, which, when reacted with lime or cement, generate a new problem instead of solving it. On the other hand, the use of industrial waste as granulated slag and fly ash proved to be a sustainable practice widely used in the manufacture of cement, and now also, in the stabilization of soils worldwide. Works related to soils containing sulfates stabilized either with granulated slag or fly ash and lime shown a good performance in their mechanical behaviour. This research seeks to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of soils with high contents of sulfates stabilized with lime by curing them both, at the normalized temperature (23 ± 2 °C) and at 40 ± 2 °C. Moreover, it attempts to asses if the addition of rice husk ash has a positive influence on the new geomaterial. The 40 ± 2 °C curing temperature was selected trying to simulate the average local temperature in summer and part of spring session whereas rice husk ash is an affordable waste produced in the region. An extensive experimental work, which includes unconfined compression, durability and free swell tests were carried out considering different dry unit weights, lime content and the addition of 20% of rice husk ash. The results showed that the addition of rice husk ash increases the resistance and durability of the material and decreases the expansion of this, moreover, the specimens cured at a temperature of 40 ± 2 °C showed higher resistance, better durability and lower expansion compared to those cured at the normalized temperature of 23 ± 2 °C.
161
20390
Some Investigations of Primary Slurry Used for Production of Ceramic Shells
Abstract:
In the current competitive environment, casting industry has several challenges such as production of intricate castings, near net shape castings, decrease lead-time from product design to production, improved casting quality and to control costs. The raw materials used to make ceramic shell play an important role in determining the overall final ceramic shell characteristics. In this work, primary slurries were formulated using various combinations of zircon flour, fused silica and aluminosilicate powders as filler, colloidal silica as binder along with wetting and antifoaming agents (Catalyst). Taguchi’s parameter design strategy has been applied to investigate the effect of primary slurry parameters on the viscosity of the slurry and primary coating of shell. The result reveals that primary coating with low viscosity slurry has produced a rough surface of the shell due to stucco penetration.
160
43082
Characterization of Biocomposites Based on Mussel Shell Wastes
Abstract:
Shell wastes represent a considerable quantity of byproducts in the shellfish aquaculture. From the viewpoint of ecofriendly and economical disposal, it is highly desirable to convert these residues into high value-added products for industrial applications. So far, the utilization of shell wastes was confined at relatively lower levels, e.g. wastewater decontaminant, soil conditioner, fertilizer constituent, feed additive and liming agent. Shell wastes consist of calcium carbonate and organic matrices, with the former accounting for 95-99% by weight. Being the richest source of biogenic CaCO3, shell wastes are suitable to prepare high purity CaCO3 powders, which have been extensively applied in various industrial products, such as paper, rubber, paints and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the shell waste could be further processed to be the filler of polymer composites. This paper presents a study on the potential use of mussel shell waste as biofiller to produce the composite materials with different epoxy matrices, such as bisphenol-A type, CTBN modified and polyurethane modified epoxy resins. Morphology and mechanical properties of shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material. The effects of shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. It was shown that in all composites, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values increase with the increase of mussel shell particles content from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, while the elongation at break decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. The highest Young’s modulus values were determined for bisphenol-A type epoxy composites.
159
11228
Optimal Design of Composite Cylindrical Shell Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
Abstract:
The present research is an attempt to figure out the best configuration of composite cylindrical shells of the sandwich type, i.e. the lightest design of such shells required to sustain a certain load over a certain area. The optimization is based on elastic-plastic geometrically nonlinear incremental-iterative finite element analysis. The nine-node degenerated curved shell element is used in which five degrees of freedom are specified at each nodal point, with a layered model. The formulation of the geometrical nonlinearity problem is carried out using the well-known total Lagrangian principle. For the structural optimization problem, which is dealt with as a constrained nonlinear optimization, the so-called Modified Hooke and Jeeves method is employed by considering the weight of the shell as the objective function with stress and geometrical constraints. It was concluded that the optimum design of composite sandwich cylindrical shell that have a rigid polyurethane foam core and steel facing occurs when the area covered by the shell becomes almost square with a ratio of core thickness to facing thickness lies between 45 and 49, while the optimum height to length ration varies from 0.03 to 0.08 depending on the aspect ratio of the shell and its boundary conditions.
158
50205
Using Sugar Mill Waste for Biobased Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
In this study, precipitated calcium carbonate lime waste (LW) from sugar beet process was recycled as the raw material for the preparation of composite materials. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt% with DGEBA type epoxy resin (ER). XRD was used for characterization of composites. Effects of ESO and LW filler amounts on mechanical properties of neat ER were investigated. Modification of ER with ESO remarkably enhanced plasticity of ER.
157
90699
Acoustic Radiation from an Infinite Cylindrical Shell with Periodic Lengthwise Ribs
Abstract:
The vibroacoustic behavior of an immersed infinite cylindrical shell with periodic lengthwise ribs has been studied in this paper. The motions of the shell are described by the Donnell equations. Each lengthwise rib is modeled as an elastic beam. The motions of the bulkheads are decomposed into the longitudinal motions and flexural motions. The analytical expressions of the shell motions can be obtained through circumferential mode expansion, Fourier Transform and periodic boundary condition in the circumferential direction. Furthermore, the far-field radiated pressure has been obtained using the stationary phase. The analysis of wavenumber domain shows that periodic lengthwise stiffeners in the circumferential direction can produce flexural Bloch waves. The dominant feature in far-field pressure amplitude is the resonance of the supersonic components of the flexural Bloch waves in the circumferential direction.
156
71759
Optimization and Validation for Determination of VOCs from Lime Fruit Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) with and without California Red Scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) Infested by Using HS-SPME-GC-FID/MS
Abstract:
An optimum technic has been developed for extracting volatile organic compounds which contribute to the aroma of lime fruit (Citrus aurantifolia). The volatile organic compounds of healthy and infested lime fruit with California red scale Aonidiella aurantii were characterized using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography (GC) coupled flame ionization detection (FID) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a very simple, efficient and nondestructive extraction method. A three-phase 50/30 μm PDV/DVB/CAR fibre was used for the extraction process. The optimal sealing and fibre exposure time for volatiles reaching equilibrium from whole lime fruit in the headspace of the chamber was 16 and 4 hours respectively. 5 min was selected as desorption time of the three-phase fibre. Herbivorous activity induces indirect plant defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which could be used by natural enemies for host location. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy lime fruit. The GC-MS analysis allowed the initial identification of 18 compounds, with similarities higher than 85%, in accordance with the NIST mass spectral library. One of these were increased by A. aurantii infestation, D-limonene, and three were decreased, Undecane, α-Farnesene and 7-epi-α-selinene. From an applied point of view, the application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help boost the efficiency of biocontrol programs and natural enemies’ production techniques.
155
3408
Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production
Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4 % of sulphuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28 % ammonia solution. Then the EFB biomass was subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.
154
54487
Microbial Activity and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Recovery Process in a Grassland of China
Authors:
Abstract:
The nitrogen (N) is an important limiting factor of various ecosystems, and the N deposition rate is increasing unprecedentedly due to anthropogenic activities. The N deposition altered the microbial growth and activity, and microbial mediated N cycling through changing soil pH, the availability of N and carbon (C). The CO2, CH4 and N2O are important greenhouse gas which threaten the sustainability and function of the ecosystem. With the prolonged and increasing N enrichment, the soil acidification and C limitation will be aggravated, and the microbial biomass will be further declined. The soil acidification and lack of C induced by N addition are argued as two important factors regulating the microbial activity and growth, and the studies combined soil acidification with lack of C on microbial community are scarce. In order to restore the ecosystem affected by chronic N loading, we determined the responses of microbial activity and GHG emssions to lime and glucose (control, 1‰ lime, 2‰ lime, glucose, 1‰ lime×glucose and 2‰ lime×glucose) addition which was used to alleviate the soil acidification and supply C resource into soils with N addition rates 0-50 g N m–2yr–1. The results showed no significant responses of soil respiration and microbial biomass (MBC and MBN) to lime addition, however, the glucose substantially improved the soil respiration and microbial biomass (MBC and MBN); the cumulative CO2 emission and microbial biomass of lime×glucose treatments were not significantly higher than those of only glucose treatment. The glucose and lime×glucose treatments reduced the net mineralization and nitrification rate, due to inspired microbial growth via C supply incorporating more inorganic N to the biomass, and mineralization of organic N was relatively reduced. The glucose addition also increased the CH4 and N2O emissions, CH4 emissions was regulated mainly by C resource as a substrate for methanogen. However, the N2O emissions were regulated by both C resources and soil pH, the C was important energy and the increased soil pH could benefit the nitrifiers and denitrifiers which were primary producers of N2O. The soil respiration and N2O emissions increased with increasing N addition rates in all glucose treatments, as the external C resource improved microbial N utilization. Compared with alleviated soil acidification, the improved availability of C substantially increased microbial activity, therefore, the C should be the main limiting factor in long-term N loading soils. The most important, when we use the organic C fertilization to improve the production of the ecosystems, the GHG emissions and consequent warming potentials should be carefully considered.
153
25253
Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents
Abstract:
Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation, and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 1500C. Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.
152
91392
Phytoextraction of Copper and Zinc by Willow Varieties in a Pot Experiment
Abstract:
Soil and water contamination by heavy metals is a major challenging issue for the environment. Phytoextraction is an emerging, environmentally friendly and cost-efficient technology in which plants are used to eliminate pollutants from the soil and water. We aimed to assess the copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal efficiency by two willow varieties such as Klara (S. viminalis x S. schwerinii x S. dasyclados) and Karin ((S.schwerinii x S. viminalis) x (S. viminalis x S.burjatica)) under different soil treatments (control/unpolluted, polluted, lime with polluted, wood ash with polluted). In 180 days of pot experiment, these willow varieties were grown in a highly polluted soil collected from Pyhasalmi mining area in Finland. The lime and wood ash were added to the polluted soil to improve the soil pH and observe their effects on metals accumulation in plant biomass. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ELAN 6000 ICP-EOS, Perkin-Elmer Corporation) was used in this study to assess the heavy metals concentration in the plant biomass. The result shows that both varieties of willow have the capability to accumulate the considerable amount of Cu and Zn varying from 36.95 to 314.80 mg kg⁻¹ and 260.66 to 858.70 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. The application of lime and wood ash substantially affected the stimulation of the plant height, dry biomass and deposition of Cu and Zn into total plant biomass. Besides, the lime application appeared to upsurge Cu and Zn concentrations in the shoots and leaves in both willow varieties when planted in polluted soil. However, wood ash application was found more efficient to mobilize the metals in the roots of both varieties. The study recommends willow plantations to rehabilitate the Cu and Zn polluted soils.
151
38084
Evaluation of Growth Performance and Survival Rate of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fed with Graded Levels of Egg Shell Substituted Ration
Abstract:
An eight (8) weeks study was carried out on Four hundred and five (405) African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles to examine the effect of graded levels of egg shell on their growth performance and survival rates. They were acclimatized for two (2) weeks after which they were weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments of three (3) replicates each and 27 fishes per replicate making a total number of eighty-one (81) fishes per treatment. The dietary treatments contained 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100(%) egg shell inclusion from treatment one to treatment five respectively. Parameter on daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, and daily mortalities were recorded. The result of the experiment indicated that treatment four (4) with 75% inclusion of egg shell was the best in terms of weight gain and survival rates and was significantly different (P< 0.05) when compared with the other treatments. For Catfish farming to remain viable in the nearest future, lower feed cost and increased profit are required; it is therefore recommended that diets of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) be supplemented with well processed egg shell at 75% level of inclusion to achieve this.
150
23740
Anticandidal and Antibacterial Silver and Silver(Core)-Gold(Shell) Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Fusarium graminearum
Abstract:
Nanotechnology has experienced significant developments in engineered nanomaterials in the core-shell arrangement. Nanomaterials having nanolayers of silver and gold are of primary interest due to their wide applications in catalytical and biomedical fields. Further, mycosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proved as a sustainable synthetic approach of nanobiotechnology. In this context, we have synthesized silver and silver (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles using a fungal extract of Fusarium graminearum by sequential reduction. The core-shell deposition of nanoparticles was confirmed by the red shift in the surface plasmon resonance from 434 nm to 530 nm with the aid of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle size of Ag and Ag-Au nanoparticles was confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis as 37 nm and 50 nm respectively. Quite polydispersed and spherical nanoparticles are evident by TEM analysis. These mycosynthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were tested against some pathogenic bacteria and Candida sp. The antimicrobial analysis confirmed enhanced anticandidal and antibacterial potential of bimetallic nanoparticles over their monometallic counterparts.
149
94264
Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Aluminum Alloy ADC 10 Produced through Ceramic Shell Investment Casting
Abstract:
Castings are produced by using aluminum alloy ADC 10 through the process of Ceramic Shell Investment Casting. Experiments are conducted as per the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as mould preheat temperature, preheat time, firing temperature and pouring temperature on surface roughness of ceramic shell investment castings, the Taguchi parameter design and optimization approach is used. Plots of means of significant factors and S/N ratios have been used to determine the best relationship between the responses and model parameters. It is found that the pouring temperature is the most significant factor. The best tensile strength of aluminum alloy ADC 10 is given by 150 ºC shell preheat temperature, 45 minutes preheat time, 900 ºC firing temperature, 650 ºC pouring temperature.
148
39924
Synthesis of Nano Iron Copper Core-Shell by Using K-M Reactor
Abstract:
In this study, Nano iron-copper core-shell was synthesized by using Kinetic energy micro reactor ( K-M reactor). The reaction between nano-pure iron with copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) beside NaCMC as a stabilizer at K-M reactor gives many advantages in comparison with the traditional chemical method for production of nano iron-Copper core-shell in batch reactor. Many factors were investigated for its effect on the process performance such as initial concentrations of nano iron and copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. Different techniques were used for investigation and characterization of the produced nano iron particles such as SEM, XRD, UV-Vis, XPS, TEM and PSD. The produced Nano iron-copper core-shell particle using micro mixer showed better characteristics than those produced using batch reactor in different aspects such as homogeneity of the produced particles, particle size distribution and size, as core diameter 10nm particle size were obtained. The results showed that 10 nm core diameter were obtained using Micro mixer as compared to 80 nm core diameter in one-fourth the time required by using traditional batch reactor and high thickness of copper shell and good stability.
147
18973
Study of the Influence of the Different Treatments in Almond Shell-Based Masterbatches
Abstract:
This article is focused on the development of a series of biodegradable and eco-friendly masterbatches based on polylactic acid (PLA) filled with almond shell to study the influence of almond shell in the properties of injected biodegradable parts. These innovative masterbatches have 20 wt % of the almond shell. Different treatments were carried out with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and maleic anhydride (MA) to obtain better interfacial bonding between fibre and matrix. The masterbatches were produced by varying the fibre treatments (type of treatment, concentration and temperature). The masterbatches have been injected to obtain standardised test samples in order to study mechanical properties. The results show that, the some of the treated fibres present slightly higher flexural modulus and impact strength than untreated fibres. This study is part of a LIFE project (MASTALMOND) aimed to create and test at preindustrial level new coloured masterbatches based on biodegradable polymers and containing in its formulation a high percentage of almond shell, a natural waste material, which firstly will permit to cover technical requirements of two traditional industrial sectors: toy and furniture, although the results achieved could be extended to other industrial sectors.
146
21864
Is [email protected] Core-Shell Nanoparticles Superior to Ag Surface Doped TiO2 Nanostructures?
Abstract:
[email protected] dioxide ([email protected]) core-shell nanostructures and Ag surface doped TiO2 particles ([email protected]) have been designed and synthesized by sol-gel and hydrothermal methods under mild conditions. These two types of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized in terms of their properties by various techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Specifically, the photocatalystic performance and antibacterial behavior of such nanocomposites have been investigated and compared. It was found that The [email protected] core-shell nanostructures exhibit superior photocatalytic property to the Ag surface doped TiO2 particles under the reported conditions. While with UV pre-irradiation, the [email protected] core-shell composites exhibit better bactericidal performance. This is probably because the Ag cores tend to facilitate charge separation for TiO2, producing greater hydroxyl radicals on the surface of the TiO2 particles. These findings would be useful for the design and synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites with desirable photocatalystic and antimicrobial activity for environmental applications.
145
10801
A Comparative Study between Displacement and Strain Based Formulated Finite Elements Applied to the Analysis of Thin Shell Structures
Abstract:
The analysis and design of thin shell structures is a topic of interest in a variety of engineering applications. In structural mechanics problems the analyst seeks to determine the distribution of stresses throughout the structure to be designed. It is also necessary to calculate the displacements of certain points of the structure to ensure that specified allowable values are not exceeded. In this paper a comparative study between displacement and strain based finite elements applied to the analysis of some thin shell structures is presented. The results obtained from some examples show the efficiency and the performance of the strain based approach compared to the well known displacement formulation.
144
30656
Stabilization of Expansive Soils by Additions Binders Hydraulic Lime and Cement
Abstract:
A literature review was conducted to gather as much information. Concerns the phenomenon of swelling clays, as well as a presentation of some bibliographic findings on factors affecting the swelling potential. Citing the various techniques of stabilization of clays as well as a presentation of some literature results on the stabilization of swelling. Then a characterization of the materials was carried out at basic bibliographic study. These are standard mechanical geotechnical testing. Simple practical, economical and efficient to minimize the phenomenon swelling.
143
15605
Effect of Moringa Oleifera on Liveweight Reproductive Tract Dimention of Giant African Land Snail (Archachatina marginata)
Abstract:
A study was conducted on the effect of Moringa oleifera on liveweight and reproductive tract dimension of Giant African Land Snail (Archachatina marginata). Thirty two snails (32) with weight range of 100 – 150 g were used for this study. Eight snails (8) were subjected to each of the four treatments which were: Concentrate only, concentrate + 100g of Moringa oleifera, concentrate + 200g of Moringa oleifera and concentrate + 300g of Moringa oleifera. Parameters monitored were: Shell length, shell width, shell circumference and weekly live weight. Reproductive tract dimension taken include: Organ weight (ORGWT), reproductive tract weight (REPTWT), reproductive tract length (REPTLNT), ovo-tesis weight (OVOWT), edible part weight (EDPTWT), albumen weight (ALBWT) and albumen length (ALBLNT). Shell dimensions and the live weight were measured and recorded on a weekly basis with a tape rule and a sensitive weighing scale. After nine weeks, six snails were randomly selected from each treatment and dissected. Their reproductive tracts were removed and dimensions were taken. The result showed that ORGWT, OVOWT, ALBWT, ALBLNT, REPTLNT and REPTWT were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by different levels of Moringa oleifera inclusions with concentrate. However, Moringa oleifera inclusion with concentrate at different levels had significant effect (P< 0.001) on Live weight, shell length and shell diameters of the animal. Snails given 300 g of Moringa oleifera per kilogramme of concentrate gave the highest live weight and shell length together with shell diameter. It was however recommended from this study that inclusion of Moringa oleifera leave meal into snail feed at 300 g per kg of concentrate would enhance live weight and shell parameters (length and width).
142
42132
Agronomic Value of Wastewater and Sugar Beet Lime Sludge Compost on Radish Crop
Abstract:
Wastewater treatment stations create large quantities of sludge, whose treatment is poorly underestimated in the draft installation. However, chemical analysis of sludge reveals their important concentration in fertilizer elements including nitrogen and phosphorus. The direct application of sludge can reveal contamination of the food chain because of their chemical and organic micropollutants load. Therefore, there is a need of treatment process before use. The treatment by composting of this sludge mixed with three different proportions of sugar beet lime sludge (0%, 20%,30%) and green waste permits to obtain a stable compost rich in mineral elements, having a pleasant smell and relatively hygienic. In addition, the use of compost in agriculture positively affects the plant-soil system. Thus, this study shows that the supply of compost improves the physical properties of the soil and its agronomic quality, which results in an increase in the biomass of cultivated radish plants and a larger crop.
141
26301
The Use of Palm Kernel Shell and Ash for Concrete Production
Abstract:
This work reports the potential of using Palm Kernel (PK) ash and shell as a partial substitute for Portland Cement (PC) and coarse aggregate in the development of mortar and concrete. PK ash and shell are agro-waste materials from palm oil mills, the disposal of PK ash and shell is an environmental problem of concern. The PK ash has pozzolanic properties that enables it as a partial replacement for cement and also plays an important role in the strength and durability of concrete, its use in concrete will alleviate the increasing challenges of scarcity and high cost of cement. In order to investigate the PC replacement potential of PK ash, three types of PK ash were produced at varying temperature (350-750 degrees) and they were used to replace up to 50% PC. The PK shell was used to replace up to 100% coarse aggregate in order to study its aggregate replacement potential. The testing programme included material characterisation, the determination of compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and chemical durability in aggressive sulfate-bearing exposure conditions. The 90 day compressive results showed a significant strength gain (up to 26.2 N/mm2). The Portland cement and conventional coarse aggregate has significantly higher influence in the strength gain compared to the equivalent PK ash and PK shell. The chemical durability results demonstrated that after a prolonged period of exposure, significant strength losses in all the concretes were observed. This phenomenon is explained, due to lower change in concrete morphology and inhibition of reaction species and the final disruption of the aggregate cement paste matrix.
140
2592
Chemical Amelioration of Expansive Soils
Abstract:
Expansive soils swell when they absorb water and shrink when water evaporates from them. Hence, lightly loaded civil engineering structures found in these soils are subjected to severe distress. Therefore, there is a need to ameliorate or improve these swelling soils through some innovative methods. This paper discusses chemical stabilisation of expansive soils, a technique in which chemical reagents such as lime and calcium chloride are added to expansive soils to reduce the volumetric changes occurring in expansive soils and also to improve their engineering behaviour.
139
18393
Numerical Modelling of Laminated Shells Made of Functionally Graded Elastic and Piezoelectric Materials
Abstract:
This paper focuses on implementation of the sampling surfaces (SaS) method for the three-dimensional (3D) stress analysis of functionally graded (FG) laminated elastic and piezoelectric shells. The SaS formulation is based on choosing inside the nth layer In not equally spaced SaS parallel to the middle surface of the shell in order to introduce the electric potentials and displacements of these surfaces as basic shell variables. Such choice of unknowns permits the presentation of the proposed FG piezoelectric shell formulation in a very compact form. The SaS are located inside each layer at Chebyshev polynomial nodes that improves the convergence of the SaS method significantly. As a result, the SaS formulation can be applied efficiently to 3D solutions for FG piezoelectric laminated shells, which asymptotically approach the exact solutions of piezoelectricity as the number of SaS In goes to infinity.
138
76858
Promotional Effects of Zn in Cu-Zn/Core-Shell Al-MCM-41 for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3: Acidic Properties, NOx Adsorption Properties, and Nature of Copper
Abstract:
Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst with various copper species, prepared by a combination of three methods—substitution, ion-exchange, and impregnation, was studied for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at 300 °C for 150 min. In order to investigate the effects of Zn introduction on the nature of the catalyst, Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 and Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalysts were also studied. The roles of Zn promoter in the acidity and the NOx adsorption properties of the catalysts were investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of NH3 and NOx adsorption, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of NH3 and NOx. The results demonstrated that the acidity of the catalyst was enhanced by the Zn introduction, as exchanged Zn(II) cations loosely bonded with Al-O-Si framework could create Brønsted acid sites by interacting with OH groups. Moreover, Zn species also provided the additional sites for NO adsorption in the form of nitrite (NO2–) and nitrate (NO3–) species, which are the key intermediates for SCR reaction. In addition, the effect of Zn on the nature of copper was studied by in situ FTIR of CO adsorption and in situ X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES). It was found that Zn species hindered the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(0), resulting in higher Cu(I) species in the Zn promoted catalyst. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with that of the Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 for the whole reaction time, as it possesses the highest amount of Cu(I) sites, which are responsible for SCR catalytic activity. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst also reached the maximum NO conversion of 100% with the average NO conversion of 76 %. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was further improved by using Zn promoter in the form of ZnO instead of reduced Zn species. The Cu-ZnO/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst showed better catalytic performance with longer working reaction time, and achieved the average NO conversion of 81%.
137
47858
Design and Development of a Prototype Vehicle for Shell Eco-Marathon
Authors:
Abstract:
Improvement in vehicle efficiency can reduce global fossil fuels consumptions. For that sole reason, Shell Global Corporation introduces Shell Eco-marathon where student teams require to design, build and test energy-efficient vehicles. Hence, this paper will focus on design processes and the development of a fuel economic vehicle which satisfying the requirements of the competition. In this project, three components are designed and analyzed, which are the body, chassis and powertrain of the vehicle. Optimum design for each component is produced through simulation analysis and theoretical calculation in which improvement is made as the project progresses.
136
31854
Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage
Authors:
Abstract:
The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constraints. Therefore, the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.
135
79269
Shear Strength Envelope Characteristics of LimeTreated Clays
Abstract:
The effectiveness of lime treatment of soils has been commonly evaluated in terms of improved workability and increased undrained unconfined compressive strength in connection to road and airfield construction. The most common method of strength measurement has been the unconfined compression test. However, if the objective of lime treatment is to improve long-term stability of first-time or reactivated landslides in stiff clays and shales, permanent changes in the size and shape of clay particles must be realized to increase drained frictional resistance. Lime-soil interactions that may produce less platy and larger soil particles begin and continue with time under the highly alkaline pH environment. In this research, pH measurements are used to monitor chemical environment and progress of reactions. Atterberg limits are measured to identify changes in particle size and shape indirectly. Also, fully softened and residual strength measurements are used to examine an improvement in frictional resistance due to lime-soil interactions. The main variables are soil plasticity and mineralogy, lime content, water content, and curing period. Lime effect on frictional resistance is examined using samples of clays with different mineralogy and characteristics which may react with lime to various extents. Drained direct shear tests on reconstituted lime-treated clay specimens with various properties have been performed to measure fully softened shear strength. To measure residual shear strength, drained multiple reversal direct shear tests on precut specimens were conducted. This way, soil particles are oriented along the direction of shearing to the maximum possible extent and provide minimum frictional resistance. This is applicable to reactivated and part of first-time landslides. The Brenna clay, which is the highly plastic lacustrine clay of Lake Agassiz causing slope instability along the banks of the Red River, is one of the soil samples used in this study. The Brenna Formation characterized as a uniform, soft to firm, dark grey, glaciolacustrine clay with little or no visible stratification, is full of slickensided surfaces. The major source of sediment for the Brenna Formation was the highly plastic montmorillonitic Pierre Shale bedrock. The other soil used in this study is one of the main sources of slope instability in Harris County Flood Control District (HCFCD), i.e. the Beaumont clay. The shear strengths of untreated and treated clays were obtained under various normal pressures to evaluate the shear envelope nonlinearity.
134
30316
E-Bike FE Model Analysis: Connection Stiffness of Elements with Different DOFs
Abstract:
Finite Element (FE) model of simplified e-bike structure was generated by main frame with two tiers, which consisted of pipe, mass, beam, and shell elements (pipe 289, beam188, shell 181, shell 281, combin14, link11, mass21). These elements would be introduced and demonstrated using mathematical formulas. Based on coupling theory, constrain equations was proposed. Exporting all the parameters obtained from theory part, the connection stiffness matrix of the whole e-bike structure between each of these elements was detected.
133
18828
Simulation of Heat Exchanger Behavior during LOCA Accident in THTL Test Loop
Abstract:
In nuclear power plants, loss of coolant from the primary system is the type of reduced removed capacity that is given most attention; such an accident is referred as Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In the current study, investigation of shell and tube THTL heat exchanger behavior during LOCA is implemented by ANSYS CFX simulation software in both steady state and transient mode of turbulent fluid flow according to experimental conditions. Numerical results obtained from ANSYS CFX simulation show good agreement with experimental data of THTL heat exchanger. The results illustrate that in large break LOCA as short term accident, heat exchanger could not fast response to temperature variables but in the long term, the temperature of shell side of heat exchanger will be increase.
132
28662
Optical and Structural Properties of ZnO Quantum Dots Functionalized with 3-Aminopropylsiloxane Prepared by Sol-gel Method
Abstract:
In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared by a simple route. The growth parameters for ZnO QDs were systematically studied inside a SiO2 shell; this shell acts as a capping agent and also enhances stability of the nanoparticles in water. ZnO QDs in silica shell could be produced by initially synthesizing a ZnO colloid (containing ZnO nanoparticles in methanol solution) and then was mixed with 3-aminopropylsiloxane used as SiO2 precursor. ZnO QDs were deposited onto silicon substrates (100) orientation by spin-coating technique. ZnO QDs into a SiO2 shell were pre-heated at 300 °C for 10 min after each coating, that procedure was repeated five times. The films were subsequently annealing in air atmosphere at 500 °C for 2 h to remove the trapped fluid inside the amorphous silica cage. ZnO QDs showed hexagonal wurtzite structure and about 5 nm in diameter. The composition of the films at the surface and in the bulk was obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), the spectra revealed the presence of Zn- and Si- related clusters associated to the chemical species in the solid matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra under 325 nm of excitation only show a strong UV emission band corresponding to ZnO QDs, such emission is enhanced with annealing. Our results showed that the method is appropriate for the preparation of ZnO QDs films embedded in a SiO2 shell with high UV photoluminescence.
131
81423
Three-Dimensional Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Semi-Spherical Shell
Abstract:
Piezoelectric circular plates can provide out-of-plane vibrational displacements on low frequency and in-plane vibrational displacements on high frequency. Piezoelectric semi-spherical shell, which is double-curvature structure, can induce three-dimensional vibrational displacements over a large frequency range. In this study, three-dimensional vibrational characteristics of piezoelectric semi-spherical shells with free boundary conditions are investigated using three experimental methods and finite element numerical modeling. For the experimental measurements, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) is used to obtain resonant frequencies and radial and azimuthal mode shapes. This optical technique utilizes a full-field and non-contact optical system that measures both the natural frequency and corresponding vibration mode shape simultaneously in real time. The second experimental technique used, laser displacement meter is a point-wise displacement measurement method that determines the resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric shell. An impedance analyzer is used to determine the in-plane resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric semi-spherical shell. The experimental results of the resonant frequencies and mode shapes for the piezoelectric shell are verified with the result from finite element analysis. Excellent agreement between the experimental measurements and numerical calculation is presented on the three-dimensional vibrational characteristics of the piezoelectric semi-spherical shell.
130
3727
Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties
Abstract:
The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.
129
96546
Design and Production of Thin-Walled UHPFRC Footbridge
Abstract:
The paper presents design and production of thin-walled U-profile footbridge made of UHPFRC. The main structure of the bridge is one prefabricated shell structure made of UHPFRC with dispersed steel fibers without any conventional reinforcement. The span of the bridge structure is 10 m and the clear width of 1.5 m. The thickness of the UHPFRC shell structure oscillated in an interval of 30-45 mm. Several calculations were made during the bridge design and compared with the experiments. For the purpose of verifying the calculations, a segment of 1.5 m was first produced, followed by the whole footbridge for testing. After the load tests were done, the design was optimized to cast the final footbridge.
128
36277
Searching the Stabilizing Effects of Neutron Shell Closure via Fusion Evaporation Residue Studies
Abstract:
Searching the "Island of stability" is a topic of extreme interest in theoretical as well as experimental modern physics today. This "island of stability" is spanned by superheavy elements (SHE&#39;s) that are produced in the laboratory. SHE&#39;s are believed to exist primarily due to the "magic" stabilizing effects of nuclear shell structure. SHE synthesis is extremely difficult due to their very low production cross section, often of the order of pico barns or less. Stabilizing effects of shell closures at proton number Z=82 and neutron number N=126 are predicted theoretically. Though stabilizing effects of Z=82 have been experimentally verified, no concluding observations have been made with N=126, so far. We measured and analyzed the total evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for a number of systems with neutron number around 126 to explore possible shell closure effects in ER cross sections, in this work.
127
58374
Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier
Abstract:
In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.
126
41095
Development of Non-Structural Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete
Abstract:
In the published literature, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), an agricultural waste has largely been used as a large aggregate in PKS concrete production. In this paper, the development of Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete (CPKSFAC) with crushed PKS (CPKS) as the fine aggregate and granite as the coarse aggregate is presented. 100mm x 100mm x 100mm 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC and River Sand Fine Aggregate Concrete (RSFAC) cubes were molded, cured for 28 days and subjected to a compressive strength test. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 2240kg/m3 and 2335kg/m3 respectively. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 RSFAC cubes are 2606kg/m3 and 2553kg/m3 respectively. The average compressive strengths of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 15.40MPa and 14.30MPa respectively. This study demonstrates that CPKSFA is suitable for the production of non-structural C8/10 and C12/15 concrete specified in BS EN 206-1:2000.
125
15453
Unique NiO Based 1 D Core/Shell Nano-Heterostructure Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitor
Abstract:
Unique one-dimensional (1D) Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures are fabricated by combining the electrochemical deposition and annealing. The high-performance pseudo-capacitor electrode based on the Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures is designed and demonstrated. The Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures exhibit high specific capacitance (2013 Fg-1 at 2.5 Ag-1), high energy and power density (23 Wh kg-1 and 5.5 kW kg-1, at the discharge current density of 20.8 A g-1.), good capacitance retention, and long cyclicality. The remarkable electrochemical property of the large surface area nano-heterostructures is demonstrated based on the novel nano-architectural design of the electrode with the coexistence of the two highly redox active materials at the surface supported by highly conducting metal alloy channel at the core for faster charge transport.
124
22132
Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material
Abstract:
A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.
123
111744
Thermal and Hydraulic Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Abstract:
Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat between two fluids. These devices are utilized in many engineering and industrial applications such as heating, cooling, condensation and boiling processes. The fluids might be in direct contact (mixed), or they separated by a solid wall to avoid mixing. In the present paper, interactive computer-aided design of shell and tube heat exchangers is developed using Visual Basic computer code as a framework. This design is based on the Bell-Delaware method, which is one of the very well known methods reported in the literature for the design of shell and tube heat exchangers. Physical properties for either the tube or the shell side fluids are internally evaluated by calling on an enormous data bank composed of more than a hundred fluid compounds. This contributes to increase the accuracy of the present design. The international system of units is considered in the developed computer program. The present design has an added feature of being capable of performing modification based upon a preset design criterion, such that an optimum design is obtained at satisfying constraints set either by the user or by the method itself. Also, the present code is capable of giving an estimate of the approximate cost of the heat exchanger based on the predicted surface area of the exchanger evaluated by the program. Finally, the present thermal and hydraulic design code is tested for accuracy and consistency against some of existed and approved designs of shell and tube heat exchangers.
122
71426
Optimization of the Enzymatic Synthesis of the Silver Core-Shell Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Considering an enormous increase of the use of metal nanoparticles with the exactly defined characteristics, the main goal of this research was to found the optimal and environmental friendly method of their synthesis. The synthesis of the inorganic core-shell nanoparticles was optimized as a model. The core-shell nanoparticles are composed of the enzyme core belted with the metal ions, oxides or salts as a shell. In this research, enzyme urease was the core catalyst and the shell nanoparticle was made of silver. Silver nanoparticles are widespread utilized and some of their common uses are: as an addition to disinfectants to ensure an aseptic environment for the patients, as a surface coating for neurosurgical shunts and venous catheters, as an addition to implants, in production of socks for diabetics and athletic clothing where they improve antibacterial characteristics, etc. Characteristics of synthesized nanoparticles directly depend on of their size, so the special care during this optimization was given to the determination of the size of the synthesized nanoparticles. For the purpose of the above mentioned optimization, sixteen experiments were generated by the Design of Experiments (DoE) method and conducted under various temperatures, with different initial concentration of the silver nitrate and constant concentration of the urease of two separate manufacturers. Synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) method on Malvern NanoSight NS300. Results showed that the initial concentration of the silver ions does not affect the concentration of the synthesized silver nanoparticles neither their size distribution. On the other hand, temperature of the experiments has affected both of the mentioned values.
121
90353
Investigation of Free Vibrations of Opened Shells from Alloy D19: Assistance of the Associated Mass System
Abstract:
Cylindrical shells are widely used in the construction of buildings and structures, as well as in the air structure. Thin-walled casings made of aluminum alloys are an effective substitute for reinforced concrete and steel structures in construction. The correspondence of theoretical calculations and the actual behavior of aluminum alloy structures is to ensure their trouble-free operation. In the laboratory of our university, "Building Constructions" conducted an experimental study to determine the effect of the system of attached masses on the natural oscillations of shallow cylindrical shells of aluminum alloys, the results of which were compared with theoretical calculations. The purpose of the experiment is to measure the free oscillations of an open, sloping cylindrical shell for various variations of the attached masses. Oscillations of an open, slender, thin-walled cylindrical shell, rectangular in plan, were measured using induction accelerometers. The theoretical calculation of the shell was carried out on the basis of the equations of motion of the theory of shallow shells, using the Bubnov-Galerkin method. A significant splitting of the flexural frequency spectrum is found, influenced not only by the systems of attached маsses but also by the values of the wave formation parameters, which depend on the relative geometric dimensions of the shell. The correspondence of analytical and experimental data is found, using the example of an open shell of alloy D19, which allows us to speak about the high quality of the study. A qualitative new analytical solution of the problem of determining the value of the oscillation frequency of the shell, carrying a system of attached masses is shown.
120
38679
Adsorption Studies of Lead from Aqueos Solutions on Cocount Shell Activated Carbon
Abstract:
Activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell (ACS); a discarded agricultural waste was used to produce bioadsorbent through easy and environmental friendly processes. This activated carbon based biosorbent was evaluated for adsorptive removal of lead from water. The characterisation results showed this biosorbent had very high specific surface area and functional groups. The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by Langmuir, whilst kinetics data by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption process could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic.
119
110109
Mechanical Contribution of Silica Fume and Hydrated Lime Addition in Mortars Assessed by Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Tests
Abstract:
The aim of the present study is to investigate the changes in the mechanical properties of mortars including additions of Condensed Silica Fume (CSF), Hydrated Lime (CH) or both at various amounts (5% to 15% of cement replacement) and high water ratios (w/b) (0.4 to 0.7). The physical and mechanical changes in the mixes were evaluated using non-destructive tests (Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV)) and destructive tests (crushing tests) on 28 day-long specimens consecutively, in order to assess CSF and CH replacement rate influence on the mechanical and physical properties of the mortars, as well as CSF-CH pre-mixing on the improvement of these properties. A significant improvement of the mechanical properties of the CSF, CSF-CH mortars, has been noted. CSF-CH mixes showed the best improvements exceeding 50% improvement, showing the sizable pozzolanic reaction contribution to the specimen strength development. UPV tests have shown increased velocities for CSF and CSH mixes, however no proportional evolution with compressive strengths could be noted. The results of the study show that CSF-CH addition could represent a suitable solution to significantly increase the mechanical properties of mortars.
118
37213
Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar
Abstract:
There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.
117
85600
Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells
Abstract:
Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. &szlig;-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.
116
26681
Nanoscale Metal-Organic Framework Coated Carbon Nitride Nanosheet for Combination Cancer Therapy
Abstract:
In the past couple of decades, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have been highlighted as promising delivery platforms for biomedical applications, which combine many potent features such as high loading capacity, progressive biodegradability and low cytotoxicity. While NMOF has been extensively used as carriers for drugs of different modalities, so far there is no report on exploiting the advantages of NMOF for combination therapy. Herein, we prepared core-shell nanoparticles, where each nanoparticle contains a single graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet encapsulated by a zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) shell. The g-C3N4 nanosheets are effective visible-light photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). When hosting DOX (doxorubicin), the as-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles could realize combinational photo-chemo therapy and provide dual-color fluorescence imaging. Therefore, we expect NMOFs-based core-shell nanoparticles could provide a new way to achieve much-enhanced cancer therapy.
115
102041
Effects of Lime and N100 on the Growth and Phytoextraction Capability of a Willow Variety (S. Viminalis × S. Schwerinii × S. Dasyclados) Grown in Contaminated Soils
Abstract:
Soil and water pollution caused by extensive mining practices can adversely affect environmental components, such as humans, animals, and plants. Despite a generally positive contribution to society, mining practices have become a serious threat to biological systems. As metals do not degrade completely, they require immobilization, toxicity reduction, or removal. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of lime and N100 (11-amino-1-hydroxyundecylidene) chelate amendment on the growth and phytoextraction potential of the willow variety Klara (S. viminalis × S. schwerinii × S. dasyclados) grown in soils heavily contaminated with copper (Cu). The plants were irrigated with tap or processed water (mine wastewater). The sequential extraction technique and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) tool were used to determine the extractable metals and evaluate the fraction of metals in the soil that could be potentially available for plant uptake. The results suggest that the combined effects of the contaminated soil and processed water inhibited growth parameter values. In contrast, the accumulation of Cu in the plant tissues was increased compared to the control. When the soil was supplemented with lime and N100; growth parameter and resistance capacity were significantly higher compared to unamended soil treatments, especially in the contaminated soil treatments. The combined lime- and N100-amended soil treatment produced higher growth rate of biomass, resistance capacity and phytoextraction efficiency levels relative to either the lime-amended or the N100-amended soil treatments. This study provides practical evidence of the efficient chelate-assisted phytoextraction capability of Klara and highlights its potential as a viable and inexpensive novel approach for in-situ remediation of Cu-contaminated soils and mine wastewaters. Abandoned agricultural, industrial and mining sites can also be utilized by a Salix afforestation program without conflict with the production of food crops. This kind of program may create opportunities for bioenergy production and economic development, but contamination levels should be examined before bioenergy products are used.
114
18303
Effect of Number of Baffles on Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Abstract:
In this paper for a given heat duty, study of number of baffles on pressure drop and heat transfer is considered in a STHX (Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger) with single segmental baffles. The effect of number of baffles from 9 to 52 baffles (baffle spacing variations from 4 to 24 inches) over OHTC (Overall Heat Hransfer Coefficient) to pressure drop ratio (U/Δp ratio). The results show that U/Δp ratio is low when baffle spacing is minimum (4 inches) because pressure drop is high; however, heat transfer coefficient is very significant. Then, with the increase of baffle spacing, pressure drop rapidly decreases and OHTC also decreases, but the decrease of OHTC is lower than pressure drop, so (U/Δp) ratio increases. After increasing baffles more than 12 inches, variation in pressure drop is gradual and approximately constant and OHTC decreases; Consequently, U/Δp ratio decreases again. If baffle spacing reaches to 24 inches, STHX will have minimum pressure drop, but OHTC decreases, so required heat transfer surface increases and U/Δp ratio decreases. After baffle spacing more than 12 inches, variation of shell side pressure drop is negligible. So optimum baffle spacing is suggested between 8 to 12 inches (43 to 63 percent of inside shell diameter) for a sufficient heat duty and low pressure drop.
113
63525
The Impact of Glass Additives on the Functional and Microstructural Properties of Sand-Lime Bricks
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper presents the results of research on modifications of sand-lime bricks, especially using glass additives (glass fiber and glass sand) and other additives (e.g.:basalt&barite aggregate, lithium silicate and microsilica) as well. The main goal of this paper is to answer the question ‘How to use glass additives in the sand-lime mass and get a better bricks?’ The article contains information on modification of sand-lime bricks using glass fiber, glass sand, microsilica (different structure of silica). It also presents the results of the conducted compression tests, which were focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density, and their microstructure. The Scanning Electron Microscope, spectrum EDS, X-ray diffractometry and DTA analysis helped to define the microstructural changes of modified products. The interpretation of the products structure revealed the existence of diversified phases i.e.the C-S-H and tobermorite. CaO-SiO2-H2O system is the object of intensive research due to its meaning in chemistry and technologies of mineral binding materials. Because the blocks are the autoclaving materials, the temperature of hydrothermal treatment of the products is around 200°C, the pressure - 1,6-1,8 MPa and the time - up to 8hours (it means: 1h heating + 6h autoclaving + 1h cooling). The microstructure of the products consists mostly of hydrated calcium silicates with a different level of structural arrangement. The X-ray diffraction indicated that the type of used sand is an important factor in the manufacturing of sand-lime elements. Quartz sand of a high hardness is also a substrate hardly reacting with other possible modifiers, which may cause deterioration of certain physical and mechanical properties. TG and DTA curves show the changes in the weight loss of the sand-lime bricks specimen against time as well as the endo- and exothermic reactions that took place. The endothermic effect with the maximum at T=573°C is related to isomorphic transformation of quartz. This effect is not accompanied by a change of the specimen weight. The next endothermic effect with the maximum at T=730-760°C is related to the decomposition of the calcium carbonates. The bulk density of the brick it is 1,73kg/dm3, the presence of xonotlite in the microstructure and significant weight loss during DTA and TG tests (around 0,6% after 70 minutes) have been noticed. Silicate elements were assessed on the basis of their compressive property. Orthogonal compositional plan type 3k (with k=2), i.e.full two-factor experiment was applied in order to carry out the experiments both, in the compression strength test and bulk density test. Some modification (e.g.products with barite and basalt aggregate) have improved the compressive strength around 41.3 MPa and water absorption due to capillary raising have been limited to 12%. The next modification was adding glass fiber to sand-lime mass, then glass sand. The results show that the compressive strength was higher than in the case of traditional bricks, while modified bricks were lighter.
112
84897
Pyrolysis and Combustion Kinetics of Palm Kernel Shell Using Thermogravimetric Analysis
Abstract:
The combustion and pyrolysis behavior of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A 10 mg sample of each biomass was heated from 30 °C to 800 °C at four heating rates (within 5, 10, 15 and 30 °C/min) in nitrogen and dry air flow of 20 ml/min instead of pyrolysis and combustion process respectively. During pyrolysis, thermal decomposition occurred on three different stages include dehydration, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin decomposition on each temperature range. The TG/DTG curves showed the degradation behavior and the pyrolysis/combustion characteristics of the PKS samples which led to apply in thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetic factors including activation energy and pre-exponential factor were determined by the Coats-Redfern method. The obtained kinetic factors are used to simulate the thermal decomposition and compare with experimental data. Rising heating rate leads to shift the mass loss towards higher temperature.
111
10413
Effect of High Volume processed Fly Ash on Engineering Properties of Concrete
Abstract:
As everyone knows, fly ash is a residual material we get upon energy production using coal. It has found numerous advantages for use in the concrete industry like improved workability, increased ultimate strength, reduced bleeding, reduced permeability, better finish and reduced heat of hydration. Types of fly ash depend on the type of coal and the coal combustion process. It is a pozzolanic material and has mainly two classes, F and C, based on the chemical composition. The fly ash used for this experimental work contains significant amount of lime and would be categorized as type F fly ash. Generally all types of fly ash have particle size less than 0.075mm. The fineness and lime content of fly ash are very important as they will affect the air content and water demand of the concrete, thereby affecting the durability and strength of the concrete. The present work has been done to optimize the use of fly ash to produce concrete with improved results and added benefits. A series of tests are carried out, analyzed and compared with concrete manufactured using only Portland cement as a binder. The present study is carried out for concrete mix with replacement of cement with different proportions of fly ash. Two concrete mixes M25 and M30 were studied with six replacements of cement with fly ash i.e. 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60% and 65% for 7-day, 14-day, 28-day, 56-day and 90-day. Study focused on compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture of concrete. Study clearly revealed that cement replacement by any proportion of fly ash failed to achieve early strength. Replacement of 40% and 45% succeeded in achieving required flexural strength for M25 and M30 grade of concrete.
110
12428
Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Low Cost Adsorbents
Abstract:
This paper describes the use of by-products as adsorbents for removing heavy metals from aqueous effluent solutions. Products of almond skin, walnut shell, saw dust, rice bran and egg shell were evaluated as metal ion adsorbents in aqueous solutions. A comparative study was done with commercial adsorbents like ion exchange resins and activated carbon too. Batch experiments were investigated to determine the affinity of all of biomasses for, Cd(ΙΙ), Cr(ΙΙΙ), Ni(ΙΙ), and Pb(ΙΙ) metal ions at pH 5. The rate of metal ion removal in the synthetic wastewater by the biomass was evaluated by measuring final concentration of synthetic wastewater. At a concentration of metal ion (50 mg/L), egg shell adsorbed high levels (98.6 – 99.7%) of Pb(ΙΙ) and Cr(ΙΙΙ) and walnut shell adsorbed high levels (35.3 – 65.4%) of Ni(ΙΙ) and Cd(ΙΙ). In this study, it has been shown that by-products were excellent adsorbents for removal of toxic ions from wastewater with efficiency comparable to commercially available adsorbents, but at a reduced cost. Also statistical studies using Independent Sample t Test and ANOVA Oneway for statistical comparison between various elements adsorption showed that there isn’t a significant difference in some elements adsorption percentage by by-products and commercial adsorbents.
109
6687
The Design and Development of Foot Massage Plate from Coconut Shell
Abstract:
The objectives of this research were to design and develop foot massage plate from coconut shell. The research investigated on the satisfaction of the users on the developed foot massage plate on 4 aspects; usage, practical in use, safety, and materials & production process. The sample group included 64 people joining the service at Wat Paitan Health Center, Bangkok. The samples were randomly tried on the massage plate and evaluated according to the 4 aspects. The data were analyzed to find mean, percentage, and standard deviation. The result showed that the overall satisfaction was at good level (mean = 3.80). When considering in details, it was found that the subjects reported their highest satisfaction on the practical usage (mean = 4.16), followed by safety (mean = 3.82); then, materials and production process (mean = 3.78). The least satisfaction aspect was on function and usage (mean = 3.45) or moderate level.
108
77757
A Study to Evaluate Some Physical and Mechanical Properties, Relevant in Estimating Energy Requirements in Grinding the Palm Kernel and Coconut Shells
Abstract:
Based on the need to modify palm kernel shell (PKS) and coconut shell (CNS) for some engineering applications, the study evaluated some physical characteristics and fracture resistance, relevant in estimating energy requirements in comminution of the nutshells. The shells, obtained from local processing mills, were washed, sun-dried and sorted to remove kernels, nuts and other extraneous materials. Experiments were then conducted to determine the thickness, density, moisture content, and hardness of the shells. Fracture resistances were characterised by the average compressive load, stiffness and toughness at bio-yield point of specially prepared section of the shells, under quasi-static compression loading. The densities of the dried PKS at 7.12% and the CNS at 6.47% (wb) moisture contents were 1291.20 and 1247.40 kg/m3, respectively. The corresponding Brinnel Hardness Numbers were 58.40 ± 1.91 and 56.33 ± 4.33. Close shells thickness of both PKS and CNS exhibited identical physical properties although; CNS is relatively larger in physical dimensions than PKS. The findings further showed that both shell types exhibited higher resistance with compression along the longitudinal axes than the transverse axes. With compressions along the longitudinal axes, the fracture force were 1.41 ± 0.11 and 3.62 ± 0.09 kN; bio-stiffness; 934.70 ± 67.03 kN/m and 1980.74 ± 8.92 kN/m; and toughness, 2.17 ± 0.16 and 6.51 ± 0.15 KN mm for the PKS and CNS, respectively. With the estimated toughness of CNS higher than that of PKS, the study showed the requirement of higher comminution energy for CNS.
107
70256
Core-Shell Type Magnetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery
Abstract:
Magnetic nanoparticles such as those made of iron oxide have been widely explored as biocatalysts, contrast agents, and drug delivery systems. However, some of the challenges associated with these particles are agglomeration and biocompatibility, which lead to concern of toxicity of the particles, especially for drug delivery applications. Coating the particles with biocompatible materials such as lipids and peptides have shown to improve the mentioned issues. Thus, these core-shell type nanoparticles are emerging as the new class of nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery applications. In this study, various types of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are prepared and characterized using techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The heating ability of nanoparticles is tested under oscillating magnetic field. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as drug carrier is also investigated. The loading of an anticancer drug, Doxorubicin at 18 °C is measured up to 48 hours using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The drug release profile is obtained under thermal incubation condition at 37 °C and compared with that under the influence of oscillating field. The results suggest that the core-shell nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour, although, coating reduces the magnetic properties of the particles. Both the uncoated and coated particles show good heating ability, again it is observed that coating decreases the heating behaviour of the particles. However, coated particles show higher drug loading efficiency than the uncoated particles and the drug release is much more controlled under the oscillating magnetic field. Thus, the results strongly indicate the suitability of the prepared core-shell type nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles and their potential in magnetic hyperthermia applications and for hyperthermia cancer therapy.
106
3746
Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Biomass with Elevated Alkali Content: A Comparative Study between Two Alternative Bed Materials
Abstract:
Palm kernel shell is an important bioenergy resource in Thailand. However, due to elevated alkali content in biomass ash, this oil palm residue shows high tendency to bed agglomeration in a fluidized-bed combustion system using conventional bed material (silica sand). In this study, palm kernel shell was burned in the conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina and dolomite as alternative bed materials to prevent bed agglomeration. For each bed material, the combustion tests were performed at 45kg/h fuel feed rate with excess air within 20–80%. Experimental results revealed rather weak effects of the bed material type but substantial influence of excess air on the behaviour of temperature, O2, CO, CxHy, and NO inside the reactor, as well as on the combustion efficiency and major gaseous emissions of the conical FBC. The optimal level of excess air ensuring high combustion efficiency (about 98.5%) and acceptable level of the emissions was found to be about 40% when using alumina and 60% with dolomite. By using these alternative bed materials, bed agglomeration can be prevented when burning the shell in the proposed conical FBC. However, both bed materials exhibited significant changes in their morphological, physical and chemical properties in the course of the time.
105
77052
Study on Optimization Design of Pressure Hull for Underwater Vehicle
Abstract:
In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the pressure hull structure, optimization of underwater vehicle based on response surface methodology, a method for optimizing the design of pressure hull structure was studied. To determine the pressure shell of five dimensions as a design variable, the application of thin shell theory and the Chinese Classification Society (CCS) specification was carried on the preliminary design. In order to optimize variables of the feasible region, different methods were studied and implemented such as Opt LHD method (to determine the design test sample points in the feasible domain space), parametric ABAQUS solution for each sample point response, and the two-order polynomial response for the surface model of the limit load of structures. Based on the ultimate load of the structure and the quality of the shell, the two-generation genetic algorithm was used to solve the response surface, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. The final optimization result was 41.68% higher than that of the initial design, and the shell quality was reduced by about 27.26%. The parametric method can ensure the accuracy of the test and improve the efficiency of optimization.
104
7251
Effect of Saturation and Deformation Rate on Split Tensile Strength for Various Sedimentary Rocks
Authors:
Abstract:
A study of engineering properties of stones, i.e. compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, hardness were carried out to explore the possibility of optimum utilization of stone. The laboratory test results on equally dimensioned discs of the stone show a considerable variation in computed split tensile strength with varied rates of deformation. Hence, the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of a sand stone and lime stone under wet and dry conditions has been studied experimentally using the split tensile strength test technique. It has been observed that the tensile strength of these stone is very much dependent on the rate of deformation particularly in a dry state. On saturation the value of split tensile strength reduced considerably depending upon the structure of rock and amount of water absorption.
103
48998
Green Concrete for Sustainable Indonesia Structures: Lightweight Concrete Using Oil Palm Shell as Coarse Aggregate with Superplasticizer and Fly Ash
Abstract:
The development of Indonesia’s infrastructure in many islands is significantly increased through the years. Based on this condition, concrete materials which are extracted from natural resources are over exploited and slowly becoming rare, thus the demand for alternative materials becomes so urgently crucial. Oil Palm is one of the biggest commodities in Indonesia with the total amount of 31 million tons in the last 2014. The production of palm oil also generates lots of solid wastes in the form of Oil Palm Shell (OPS). Constructing more environmentally sustainable structures can be achieved by producing lightweight concrete using the Oil Palm Shell (OPS). This paper investigated the effects of OPS and combination of Superplasticizer and fly ash proportion of lightweight concrete mix design to the compressive strength, flexure strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage behavior, and water absorption. The Oil Palm Shell had undergone special treatment by washing it with hot water and soap to reduce the oil content. This experiment used four different proportions of Superplasticizer with fly ash and 30 % OPS proportion from the weight of total compositions mixture by the result of trial mix. The experiment result showed that using OPS coarse aggregates and Superplasticizer with fly ash, the average of 28-day compressive strength reached 30-35 MPa. The highest 28-day compressive strength comes from 1.2 % Superplasticizer with 5 % fly ash proportion samples with the strength by 33 MPa. The sample with proportion of 1 % Superplasticizer and 7.5 % fly ash has the highest shrinkage value compared to other proportions. The characteristic of OPS as coarse aggregates is in a standard range of natural coarse aggregates. In general, this lightweight concrete using OPS coarse aggregate and Superplasticizer has high potential to be green-structural lightweight concrete alternative in Indonesia.
102
47653
Comparison of Pbs/Zns Quantum Dots Synthesis Methods
Abstract:
Nanoparticles with PbS core of 12 nm and shell of approximately 3 nm were synthesized at PbS:ZnS ratios of 1.01:0.1 using Merca Ptopropionic Acid as stabilizing agent. PbS/ZnS nanoparticles present a dramatically increase of Photoluminescence intensity, confirming the confinement of the PbS core by increasing the Quantum Yield from 0.63 to 0.92 by the addition of the ZnS shell. In this case, the synthesis by microwave method allows obtaining nanoparticles with enhanced optical characteristics than those of nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal method.
101
91003
Suitability of Class F Flyash for Construction Industry: An Indian Scenario
Abstract:
The present study evaluates the properties of class F fly ash as a replacement of natural materials in civil engineering construction industry. The low-lime flash similar to class F is the prime variety generated in India, although it has significantly smaller volumes of high-lime fly ash as compared to class C. The chemical and physical characterization of the sample is carried out with the number of experimental approaches in order to investigate all relevant features present in the samples. For chemical analysis, elementary quantitative results from point analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to identify the element images of different fractions. The physical properties found very close to the range of common soils. Furthermore, the fly ash-based bricks were prepared by the same sample of class F fly ash and the results of compressive strength similar to that of Standard Clay Brick Grade 1 available in the local market of India.
100
76104
Analyzing the Effect of Design of Pipe in Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger by Measuring Its Heat Transfer Rate by Computation Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Approach
Authors:
Abstract:
Shell and tube type heat exchangers are predominantly used in heat exchange between two fluids and other applications. This paper projects the optimal design of the pipe used in the heat exchanger in such a way to minimize the vibration occurring in the pipe. Paper also consists of the comparison of the different design of the pipe to get the maximize the heat transfer rate by converting laminar flow into the turbulent flow. By the updated design the vibration in the pipe due to the flow is also decreased. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Heat Transfer analysis are done to justifying the result. Currently, the straight pipe is used in the shell and tube type of heat exchanger where as per the paper the pipe consists of the curvature along with the pipe. Hence, the heat transfer area is also increased and result in the increasing in heat transfer rate. Curvature type design is useful to create turbulence and minimizing the vibration, also. The result will give the output comparison of the effect of laminar flow and the turbulent flow in the heat exchange mechanism, as well as, inverse effect of the boundary layer in heat exchanger is also justified.
99
110163
Analytical Solution of the Boundary Value Problem of Delaminated Doubly-Curved Composite Shells
Abstract:
Delamination is one of the major failure modes in laminated composite structures. Delamination tips are mostly captured by spatial numerical models in order to predict crack growth. This paper presents some mechanical models of delaminated composite shells based on shallow shell theories. The mechanical fields are based on a third-order displacement field in terms of the through-thickness coordinate of the laminated shell. The undelaminated and delaminated parts are captured by separate models and the continuity and boundary conditions are also formulated in a general way providing a large size boundary value problem. The system of differential equations is solved by the state space method for an elliptic delaminated shell having simply supported edges. The comparison of the proposed and a numerical model indicates that the primary indicator of the model is the deflection, the secondary is the widthwise distribution of the energy release rate. The model is promising and suitable to determine accurately the J-integral distribution along the delamination front. Based on the proposed model it is also possible to develop finite elements which are able to replace the computationally expensive spatial models of delaminated structures.
98
91308
Simulation of Glass Breakage Using Voronoi Random Field Tessellations
Abstract:
Fragmentation analysis of tempered glass gives insight into the quality of the tempering process and defines a certain degree of safety as well. Different standard such as the European EN 12150-1 or the American ASTM C 1048/CPSC 16 CFR 1201 define a minimum number of fragments required for soda-lime safety glass on the basis of fragmentation test results for classification. This work presents an approach for the glass breakage pattern prediction using a Voronoi Tesselation over Random Fields. The random Voronoi tessellation is trained with and validated against data from several breakage patterns. The fragments in observation areas of 50 mm x 50 mm were used for training and validation. All glass specimen used in this study were commercially available soda-lime glasses at three different thicknesses levels of 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm. The results of this work form a Bayesian framework for the training and prediction of breakage patterns of tempered soda-lime glass using a Voronoi Random Field Tesselation. Uncertainties occurring in this process can be well quantified, and several statistical measures of the pattern can be preservation with this method. Within this work it was found, that different Random Fields as basis for the Voronoi Tesselation lead to differently well fitted statistical properties of the glass breakage patterns. As the methodology is derived and kept general, the framework could be also applied to other random tesselations and crack pattern modelling purposes.
97
17978
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in THTL Test Loop Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Abstract:
In this study, flow inside the shell side of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is simulated numerically for laminar and turbulent flows in both steady state and transient mode. Governing equations of fluid flow are discrete using finite volume method and central difference scheme and solved with simple algorithm which is staggered grid by using MATLAB programming language. The heat transfer coefficient is obtained using velocity field from equation Dittus-Bolter. In comparison with, heat exchanger is simulated with ANSYS CFX software and experimental data measured in the THTL test loop. Numerical results obtained from the study show good agreement with experimental data and ANSYS CFX results. In addition, by deliberation the effect of the baffle spacing and the baffle cut on the heat transfer rate for turbulent flow, it is illustrated that the heat transfer rate depends on the baffle spacing and the baffle cut directly. In other word in spied of large turbulence, if these two parameters are not selected properly in the heat exchanger, the heat transfer rate can reduce.
96
45623
Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste
Abstract:
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.
95
82031
Performance Analysis of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger in the Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant
Abstract:
In the 500 kW Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant in Indonesia, an AFT (according to the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association – TEMA) type shell and tube heat exchanger device is used as a pre-heating system for the ORC’s hot water circulation system. The pre-heating source is a waste heat recovery of the brine water, which is tapped from a geothermal power plant. The brine water itself has 5 MWₜₕ capacities, with average temperature of 170ᵒC, and 7 barg working pressure. The aim of this research is to examine the performance of the heat exchanger in the ORC system in a 500 kW ORC power plant. The data for this research were collected during the commissioning on the middle of December 2016. During the commissioning, the inlet temperature and working pressure of the brine water to the shell and tube type heat exchanger was 149ᵒC, and 4.4 barg respectively. Furthermore, the ΔT for the hot water circulation of the ORC system to the heat exchanger was 27ᵒC, with the inlet temperature of 140ᵒC. The pressure in the hot circulation system was dropped slightly from 7.4ᵒC to 7.1ᵒC. The flow rate of the hot water circulation was 80.5 m³/h. The presentation and discussion of a case study on the performance of the heat exchanger on the 500 kW ORC system is presented as follows: (1) the heat exchange duty is 2,572 kW; (2) log mean temperature of the heat exchanger is 13.2ᵒC; (3) the actual overall thermal conductivity is 1,020.6 W/m².K (4) the required overall thermal conductivity is 316.76 W/m².K; and (5) the over design for this heat exchange performance is 222.2%. An analysis of the heat exchanger detailed engineering design (DED) is briefly discussed. To sum up, this research concludes that the shell and tube heat exchangers technology demonstrated a good performance as pre-heating system for the ORC’s hot water circulation system. Further research need to be conducted to examine the performance of heat exchanger system on the ORC’s hot water circulation system.
94
98780
Investigation of Electrospun Composites Nanofiber of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Hazelnut Shell Powder/Zinc Oxide
Abstract:
In recent years, many researchers focused on nano-size fiber production. Nanofibers have been studied due to their different and superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), is a type of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester derived from renewable sources used in biomedical owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, zinc oxide is an antibacterial material and hazelnut shell powder is a filling material. In this study, nanofibers were obtained by adding of different ratio Zinc oxide, (ZnO) and hazelnut shell powder at different concentration into Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by using electrospinning method which is the most common method to obtain nanofibers. After dissolving the granulated polylactic acids in % 1,% 2,% 3 and% 4 with chloroform solvent, they are homogenized by adding tween and hazelnut shell powder at different ratios and then by electrospinning, nanofibers are obtained. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and physical analysis such as density, electrical conductivity, surface tension, viscosity measurement and antimicrobial test were carried out after production process. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial and antiseptic properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial, non toxic, self-cleaning and rigid properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications.
93
99997
Investigation of Electrospun Composites Nanofiber of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Hazelnut Shell Powder/Zinc Oxide
Abstract:
In recent years, many researchers focused on nano-size fiber production. Nanofibers have been studied due to their different and superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), is a type of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester derived from renewable sources used in biomedical owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, zinc oxide is an antibacterial material and hazelnut shell powder is a filling material. In this study, nanofibers were obtained by adding of different ratio Zinc oxide, (ZnO) and hazelnut shell powder at different concentration into Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by using electrospinning method which is the most common method to obtain nanofibers. After dissolving the granulated polylactic acids in % 1,% 2,% 3 and% 4 with chloroform solvent, they are homogenized by adding tween and hazelnut shell powder at different ratios and then by electrospinning, nanofibers are obtained. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and physical analysis such as density, electrical conductivity, surface tension, viscosity measurement and antimicrobial test were carried out after production process. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial and antiseptic properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial, non toxic, self-cleaning and rigid properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications.
92
96417
Investigation of Electrospun Composites Nanofiber of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Hazelnut Shell Powder/Zinc Oxide
Abstract:
In recent years, many researchers focused on nano-size fiber production. Nanofibers have been studied due to their different and superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), is a type of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester derived from renewable sources used in biomedical owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, zinc oxide is an antibacterial material and hazelnut shell powder is a filling material. In this study, nanofibers were obtained by adding of different ratio Zinc oxide, (ZnO) and hazelnut shell powder at different concentration into Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by using electrospinning method which is the most common method to obtain nanofibers. After dissolving the granulated polylactic acids in % 1,% 2,% 3 and% 4 with chloroform solvent, they are homogenized by adding tween and hazelnut shell powder at different ratios and then by electrospinning, nanofibers are obtained. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and physical analysis such as density, electrical conductivity, surface tension, viscosity measurement and antimicrobial test were carried out after production process. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial and antiseptic properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial, non toxic, self-cleaning and rigid properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications.
91
74782
Preparation of Core-Shell AgBr/Cationic Polymer Nanocomposite with Dual Biocidal Modes and Sustained Release of Ag+ Ions
Authors:
Abstract:
Research on designing nano-antibacterial agent with potent and long-lasting antibacterial property is demanding and provoking work. In this study, a core-shell AgBr/cationic polymer nanocomposite (AgBr/NPVP-H10) were synthesized and its structure confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the cationic polymer contents were determined with Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The morphology was directly observed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) which showed that the nanoparticle contains single core and organic shell and had an average diameter of 30.1 nm. The antibacterial test against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli illuminated that this nanocomposite had potent bactericidal activity, which can be attributed to the contact-killing of cationic polymers and releasing-killing of Ag+ ions. In addition, cationic polymer encapsulating AgBr cores gave the resin discs sustained release of Ag+ ions, which may result in long-lasting bactericidal activity. The AgBr/NPVP-H10 nanoparticle with the dual bactericidal capability and long term antimicrobial effect is a promising material aimed at preventing bacterial infection.
90
72385
Core-Shell Nanofibers for Prevention of Postsurgical Adhesion
Abstract:
In this study, we propose to use electrospinning to fabricate porous nanofibrous membranes as postsurgical anti-adhesion barriers and to improve the properties of current post-surgical anti-adhesion products. We propose to combine FDA-approved biomaterials with anti-adhesion properties, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyethylene glycol (PEG), hyaluronic acid (HA) with silver nanoparticles (Ag) and ibuprofen (IBU), to produce anti-adhesion barrier nanofibrous membranes. For this purpose, PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU core-shell nanofibers were prepared. The shell layer contains PEG + PCL to provide mechanical supports and Ag was added to the outer PEG-PCL shell layer during electrospinning to endow the nanofibrous membrane with anti-bacterial properties. The core contains HA to exert anti-adhesion and IBU to exert anti-inflammation effects, respectively. The nanofibrous structure of the membranes can reduce cell penetration while allowing nutrient and waste transports to prevent postsurgical adhesion. Nanofibers with different core/shell thickness ratio were prepared. The nanofibrous membranes were first characterized for their physico-chemical properties in detail, followed by in vitro cell culture studies for cell attachment and proliferation. The HA released from the core region showed extended release up to 21 days for prolonged anti-adhesion effects. The attachment of adhesion-forming fibroblasts is reduced using the nanofibrous membrane from DNA assays and confocal microscopic observation of adhesion protein vinculin expression. The Ag released from the shell showed burst release to prevent E Coli and S. aureus infection immediately and prevent bacterial resistance to Ag. Minimum cytotoxicity was observed from Ag and IBU when fibroblasts were culture with the extraction medium of the nanofibrous membranes. The peritendinous anti-adhesion model in rabbits and the peritoneal anti-adhesion model in rats were used to test the efficacy of the anti-adhesion barriers as determined by gross observation, histology, and biomechanical tests. Within all membranes, the PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU core-shell nanofibers showed the best reduction in cell attachment and proliferation when tested with fibroblasts in vitro. The PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU nanofibrous membranes also showed significant improvement in preventing both peritendinous and peritoneal adhesions when compared with other groups and a commercial adhesion barrier film.
89
76502
Economic Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Nanofluid
Abstract:
Economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) is presented in this paper. To increase the rate of heat transfer, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticle is added into the tube side fluid and their optimum results are compared with the case of without additive nanoparticle. Total annual cost (TAC) is selected as fitness function and nine decision variables related to the heat exchanger parameters as well as concentration of nanoparticle are considered. Optimization results reveal the noticeable improvement in the TAC and in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid (8.9%). Comparison of the results between two studied cases also reveal that the lower tube diameter, tube number, and baffle spacing are needed in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid.
88
82778
Improving Performance of K₂CO₃ Sorbent Using Core/Shell Alumina-Based Supports in a Multicycle CO₂ Capture Process
Abstract:
The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is expected to have great impacts on the climate. In order to reduce CO2 emission to the atmosphere, an efficient and cost-effective technique is required. Using regenerable solid sorbents, especially K2CO3 is a promising method for low-temperature CO2 capture. Pure K2CO3 is a delinquent substance that requires modifications before it can be used for cyclic operations. For this purpose, various types of additives and supports have been used to improve the structure of K2CO3. However, hydrophilicity and reactivity of the support materials with K2CO3 have a negative effect on the CO2 capture capacity of the sorbents. In this research, two kinds of alumina supports (γ-Alumina and Boehmite) were used. In order to decrease the supports' hydrophilicity and reactivity with K2CO3, nonreactive additives such as Titania, Zirconia and Silisium were incorporated into their structures. These materials provide a shell around the alumina to protect it from undesirable reactions and improve its properties. K2CO3-based core/shell-supported sorbents were fabricated using two preparation steps. The sol-gel method was applied for shelling the supports. Then the shelled supports were impregnated on K2CO3. The physicochemical properties of the sorbents were determined using SEM and BET analyses, and their CO2 capture capacity was quantified using a thermogravimetric analyzer. It was shown that type of the shell's material had an important effect on the water adsorption capacity of the sorbents. Supported K2CO3 modified by Titania shell showed the lowest hydrophilicity among the prepared samples. Based on the obtained results, incorporating nonreactive additives in Boehmite had an outstanding impact on the CO2 capture performance of the sorbent. Incorporation of Titania into the Boehmite-supported K2CO3 enhanced its CO2 capture capacity significantly. Therefore, further study of this novel fabrication technique is highly recommended. In the second phase of this research project, the CO2 capture performance of the sorbents in fixed and fluidized bed reactors will be investigated.
87
10273
Dynamic Response of Nano Spherical Shell Subjected to Termo-Mechanical Shock Using Nonlocal Elasticity Theory
Abstract:
In this paper, we present an analytical method for analysis of nano-scale spherical shell subjected to thermo-mechanical shocks based on nonlocal elasticity theory. Thermo-mechanical properties of nano shpere is assumed to be temperature dependent. Governing partial differential equation of motion is solved analytically by using Laplace transform for time domain and power series for spacial domain. The results in Laplace domain is transferred to time domain by employing the fast inverse Laplace transform (FLIT) method. Accuracy of present approach is assessed by comparing the the numerical results with the results of published work in literature. Furtheremore, the effects of non-local parameter and wall thickness on the dynamic characteristics of the nano-sphere are studied.
86
57419
Use of Coconut Shell as a Replacement of Normal Aggregates in Rigid Pavements
Abstract:
India ranks among third in the production of coconut besides Philippines and Indonesia. About 92% of the total production in the country is contributed from four southern states especially, Kerala (45.22%), Tamil Nadu (26.56%), Karnataka (10.85%), and Andhra Pradesh (8.93%). Other states, such as Goa, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal, and those in the northeast (Tripura and Assam) account for the remaining 8.44%. The use of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete has never been a usual practice in the industry, particularly in areas where light weight concrete is required for non-load bearing walls, non-structural floors, and strip footings. The high cost of conventional building materials is a major factor affecting construction delivery in India. In India, where abundant agricultural and industrial wastes are discharged, these wastes can be used as potential material or replacement material in the construction industry. This will have double the advantages viz., reduction in the cost of construction material and also as a means of disposal of wastes. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this study to utilize the coconut shell (CS) as coarse aggregate in rigid pavement. The present study was initiated with the characterization of materials by the basic material testing. The casted moulds are cured and tests are conducted for hardened concrete. The procedure is continued with determination of fck (Characteristic strength), E (Modulus of Elasticity) and µ (Poisson Value) by the test results obtained. For the analytical studies, rigid pavement was modeled by the KEN PAVE software, finite element software developed specially for road pavements and simultaneously design of rigid pavement was carried out with Indian standards. Results show that physical properties of CSAC (Coconut Shell Aggregate Concrete) with 10% replacement gives better results. The flexural strength of CSAC is found to increase by 4.25% as compared to control concrete. About 13 % reduction in pavement thickness is observed using optimum coconut shell.
85
23875
Effect of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Performance, Some Blood Parameters, and Intestine Morphology of Laying Hens
Abstract:
In this experiment, sixty Hy-Line (W-36) laying hens were selected in 40weeks of age. Experimental diets were consumed for 12 weeks duration by them. The experimental design was completely randomized block included four treatments and each of them with five replications and three sample in each replicate. Treatments were as follow: Basal diet+probiotic, basal diet + prebiotic and basal diet+probiotic+ prebiotic. Performance traits were measured such as: hen production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ,shell thickness, shell strength, shell weight, hough unit, yolk color, and yolk cholesterol. Blood parameters like; Ca, cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL and antibody titer and so morphological of intestine were determined. At the end of experimental period, after sampling from end of cecum, bacterial colony count was measured. Results showed; shell weight was significantly greater than other treatments in probiotic treatment.Yolk weight in prebiotic treatment was significantly greater than other treatments. The ratio of height of villi to dept of crypt cells in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and secum in prebiotic treatment were significantly greater. Results from the other traits were not significant between treatments, however there were totally good results in other traits with simultaneous usage of probiotic and prebiotic.
84
7717
Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production
Abstract:
In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).
83
7855
Strong Microcapsules with Macroporous Polymer Shells
Abstract:
Porous microcapsules have a broad range of applications that require a robust shell. We propose a new method to produce macroporous polymer capsules with controlled size, shell thickness, porosity and mechanical properties using co-flow flow-focusing glass capillary devices. The porous structure was investigated through SEM and the permeability through confocal microscopy. Compression tests on single capsules were performed. We obtained microcapsules with tailored permeability from open to close pores structures and able to withstand loads up to 150 g.
82
111608
Enhancing the Structural and Electrochemical Performance of Li-Rich Layered Metal Oxides Cathodes for Li-Ion Battery by Coating with the Active Material
Abstract:
The Li-rich layered metal oxides (LLO) are the most promising candidates for promising electrodes of high energy Li-ion battery (LIB). In literature, these electrode system has either been designed as a hetero-structure of the primary components (composite) or as a core-shell structure with improved electrochemistry reported for both configurations when compared with its primary components. With the on-going efforts to improve on the electrochemical performance of the LIB, it is important to investigate comparatively the structural and electrochemical characteristics of the core-shell like and ‘composite’ forms of these materials with the same compositions and synthesis conditions which could influence future engineering of these materials. Therefore, this study concerns the structural and electrochemical properties of the ‘composite’ and core-shell like LLO cathode materials with the same nominal composition of 0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.5LiNi₀.₅Mn₀.₃Co₀.₂O₂ (LiNi₀.₅Mn₀.₃Co₀.₂O₂ as core and Li₂MnO₃ as the shell). The results show that the core-shell sample (–CS) gave better electrochemical performance than the ‘composite’ sample (–C). Both samples gave the same initial charge capacity of ~300 mAh/g when cycled at 10 mA/g and comparable charge capacity (246 mAh/g for the –CS sample and 240 mAh/g for the –C sample) when cycled at 200 mA/g. However, the –CS sample gave a higher initial discharge capacity at both current densities. The discharge capacity of the –CS sample was 232 mAh/g and 164 mAh/g while the –C sample is 208 mAh/g and 143 mAh/g at the current densities of 10 mA/g and 200 mA/g, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the –CS sample generally exhibited a smaller resistance than the –C sample both for the uncycled and after 50th cycle. Detailed structural analysis is on-going, but preliminary results show that the –CS sample had bigger unit cell volume and a higher degree of cation mixing. The thermal stability of the –CS sample was higher than the –C sample. XPS investigation also showed that the pristine –C sample gave a more reactive surface (showing formation of carbonate species to a greater degree) which could result in the greater resistance seen in the EIS result. To reinforce the results obtained for the 0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.5LiNi₀.₅Mn₀.₃Co₀.₃O₂ composition, the same investigations were extended to another ‘composite’ and core-shell like LLO cathode materials also with the same nominal composition of 0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.5LiNi₀.₃Mn₀.₃Co₀.₃O₂. In this case, the aim was to determine the electrochemical performance of the material using a low Ni content (LiNi₀.₃Mn₀.₃Co₀.₃O₂) as the core to clarify the contributions of the core-shell configuration to the electrochemical performance of these materials. Ni-rich layered oxides show active catalytic surface leading to electrolyte oxidation resulting in poor thermal stability and cycle life. Here, the core-shell sample also gave better electrochemical performance than the ‘composite’ sample with 0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.5LiNi₀.₃Mn₀.₃Co₀.₃O₂ composition. Furthermore, superior electrochemical performance was also recorded for the core-shell like spinel modified LLO (0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.45LiNi₀.₅Mn₀.₃Co₀.₂O₂-0.05LiNi₀.₅Mn₁.₅O₄) when compared to the composite system. These results show that the core-shell configuration can generally be used to improve the structural and electrochemical properties of the LLO and spinel modified LLO materials.
81
74638
Comparative Effect of Microbial Phytase Supplementation on Layer Chickens Fed Diets with Required or Low Phosphorous Level
Abstract:
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of microbial phytase (Quantum Blue®) supplementation on layer chickens fed diets with required or low phosphorous level in corn-soybean based diets. One hundred and sixteen 23-week-old Lohman brown laying hens were used in 8-week feeding trial. Hens were randomly allotted into four treatments where the group (1) (control group) was fed basal diet without phytase, group (2) fed basal diet supplemented with phytase, group (3) fed diet supplemented with phytase as a replacement of 25% of monocalcium phosphate and group (4) fed diet supplemented with phytase as a replacement of 50% of monocalcium phosphate. Records on daily egg production, egg mass, egg weight and body weight of hens at the end of experimental period were recorded. Results revealed no significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences were observed among the other dietary treatments in BW, egg production, egg mass, feed intake or feed conversion when these parameters were evaluated over the duration of the experiment while egg weight showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in all phytase supplemented groups. There was no significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences in egg quality including egg length, egg width, egg shape index, yolk height, yolk width, yolk index, yolk weight and yolk albumin ratio while egg albumin was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in group (2) and group (3). Egg shell weight increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all phytase supplemented groups when compared with the control group also shell thickness increased significantly (p < 0.05) in both group (2 &3). No significant (P ≥ 0.05) difference was observed in serum Ca, P level while alkaline phosphatase was significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased in group (3). Egg shell analysis showed increase in egg shell ash% in all phytase supplemented groups when compared with the control group, egg shell calcium % was higher in group (3) and group (4) than the control group while group (2) showed lower egg shell calcium% than the other experimental groups, egg shell phosphorous% was higher in all phytase supplemented groups than the control group. Phosphorous digestability was significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased in all phytase supplemented groups than the control group and the highest p digestability was in group (4). Calcium digestability showed significant (P ˂ 0.05) increase in all phytase supplemented groups when compared with the control group and the highest digetability was in group (4).
80
60031
Effects of Stirring Time and Reinforcement Preheating on the Porosity of Particulate Periwinkle Shell-Aluminium 6063 Metal Matrix Composite (PPS-ALMMC) Produced by Two-Step Casting
Abstract:
The potential for the development of PPS-AlMMCs as light weight material for industrial applications was investigated. Periwinkle shells were milled and the density of the particles determined. Particulate periwinkle shell of particle size 75µm was used to reinforce aluminium 6063 alloy at 10wt% filler loading using two-step stir casting technique. The composite materials were stirred for five minutes in a semi-solid state and the stirring time varied as 3, 6 and 9 minutes at above the liquidus temperature. A specimen was also produced with pre-heated filler. The effect of variation in stirring time and reinforcement pre-heating on the porosity of the composite materials was investigated. The results of the analysis show that a composition of reinforcement pre-heating and stirring for 3 minutes produced a composite material with the lowest porosity of 1.05%.
79
26771
Efficacy of Coconut Shell Pyrolytic Oil Distillate in Protecting Wood Against Bio-Deterioration
Abstract:
Coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.) are grown in many parts of India and world because of its multiple utilities. During pyrolysis, coconut shells yield oil, which is a dark thick liquid. Upon simple distillation it produces a more or less colourless liquid, termed coconut shell pyrolytic oil distillate (CSPOD). This manuscript reports and discusses the use of coconut shell pyrolytic oil distillate as a potential wood protectant against bio-deterioration. Since botanical products as ecofriendly wood protectant is being tested worldwide, the utilization of CPSOD as wood protectant is of great importance. The efficacy of CSPOD as wood protectant was evaluated as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in terms of its antifungal, antiborer, and termiticidal activities. Specimens of Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) in six replicate each for two treatment methods namely spraying and dipping (48hrs) were employed. CSPOD was found to impart total protection against termites for six months compared to control under field conditions. For assessing the efficacy of CSPOD against fungi, the treated blocks were subjected to the attack of two white rot fungi Tyromyces versicolor (L.) Fr. and Polyporus sanguineus (L.) G. Mey and two brown rot fungi, Polyporus meliae (Undrew.) Murrill. and Oligoporus placenta (Fr.) Gilb. & Ryvarden. Results indicated that treatment with CSPOD significantly protected wood from the damage caused by the decay fungi. Efficacy of CSPOD against wood borer Lyctus africanus Lesne was carried out using six pairs of male and female beetles and it gave promising results in protecting the treated wood blocks when compared to control blocks. As far as the treatment methods were concerned, dip treatment was found to be more effective when compared to spraying. The results of the present investigation indicated that CSPOD is a promising botanical compound which has the potential to replace synthetic wood protectants. As coconut shell, pyrolytic oil is a waste byproduct of coconut shell charcoal industry, its utilization as a wood preservative will expand the economic returns from such industries.
78
72289
Effect of Addition Rate of Expansive Additive on Autogenous Shrinkage and Delayed Expansion of Ultra-High Strength Mortar
Abstract:
In this study, the effect of expansive additives on autogenous shrinkage and delayed expansion of ultra-high strength mortar was explored. The specimens made for the study were composed of ultra-high strength mortar, which was mixed with ettringite-lime composite type expansive additive. Two series of experiments were conducted with the specimens. The experimental results confirmed that the autogenous shrinkage of specimens was effectively decreased by increasing the proportion of the expansive additive. On the other hand, for the specimens, which had 7% expansive additive, and were cured for seven days at a constant temperature of 20&deg;C, and then cured for a long time in either in an underwater, moist (Relative humidity: 100%) or dry air (Relative humidity: 60%) environment, excessively large expansion strain occurred. Specifically, typical turtle shell-like swelling expansion cracks were confirmed in the specimens that underwent long-term curing in an underwater and moist environment. According to the result of hydration analysis, the formation of expansive substances, calcium hydroxide and alumina, ferric oxide, tri-sulfate contribute to the occurrence of delayed expansion.
77
1393
Antibacterial Activity of Noble Metal Functionalized Magnetic Core-Zeolitic Shell Nanostructures
Abstract:
Functionalized magnetic core-zeolitic shell nanostructures were prepared by the hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. The products were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The growth of mordenite nanoparticles on the surface of silica coated nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the presence of organic templates was well approved. The antibacterial activity of prepared samples was investigated by the inactivation of E.coli as a gram negative bacterium. A new mechanism was proposed to inactivate the bacterium over the prepared samples. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and reuse ability were studied too. TEM images of the destroyed microorganism after the treatment time were applied to illustrate the inactivation mechanism. The interaction of the noble metals with organic components on the surface of nanostructures studied theoretically and the results were used to interpret the experimental results.
76
102130
Assessment of Growth Variation and Phytoextraction Potential of Four Salix Varieties Grown in Zn Contaminated Soil Amended with Lime and Wood Ash
Abstract:
Soils contaminated with metals, e.g., copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) are one of the main global environmental problems. Zn is an important element for plant growth, but excess levels may become a threat to plant survival. Soils polluted with metals may also pose risks and hazards to human health. Afforestation based on short rotation Salix crops may be a good solution for the reduction of metals toxicity levels in the soil and in ecosystem restoration of severely polluted sites. In a greenhouse experiment, plant growth and zinc (Zn) uptake by four Salix cultivars grown in Zn contaminated soils collected from a mining area in Finland were tested to assess their suitability for phytoextraction. The sequential extraction technique and inductively coupled plasma‒mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) were used to determine the extractable metals and evaluate the fraction of metals in the soil that could be potentially available for plant uptake. The cultivars displayed resistance to heavily polluted soils throughout the whole experiment. After uptake, the total mean Zn concentrations ranged from 776 to 1823 mg kg⁻¹. The average uptake percentage of Zn across all cultivars and treatments ranged from 97 to 223%. Lime and wood ash addition showed a significant effect on plant dry biomass growth and metal uptake percentage of Zn in most of the cultivars. The results revealed that Salix cultivars have the potential to accumulate and take up significant amounts of Zn. Ecological restoration of polluted soils could be environmentally favorable in conjunction with economically profitable practices, such as forestry and bioenergy production. As such, the utilization of Salix for phytoextraction and bioenergy purposes is of considerable interest.
75
67250
Analysis of Bio-Oil Produced by Pyrolysis of Coconut Shell
Abstract:
The utilization of biomass as a source of new and renewable energy is being carried out. One of the technologies to convert biomass as an energy source is pyrolysis which is converting biomass into more valuable products, such as bio-oil. Bio-oil is a liquid which is produced by steam condensation process from the pyrolysis of coconut shells. The composition of a coconut shell e.g. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin will be oxidized to phenolic compounds as the main component of the bio-oil. The phenolic compounds in bio-oil are corrosive; they cause various difficulties in the combustion system because of a high viscosity, low calorific value, corrosiveness, and instability. Phenolic compounds are very valuable components which phenol has used as the main component for the manufacture of antiseptic, disinfectant (known as Lysol) and deodorizer. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a pyrolysis reactor at temperatures ranging from 300 oC to 350 oC with a heating rate of 10 oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the bio-oil components. The obtained bio-oil has the viscosity of 1.46 cP, the density of 1.50 g/cm3, the calorific value of 16.9 MJ/kg, and the molecular weight of 1996.64. By GC-MS, the analysis of bio-oil showed that it contained phenol (40.01%), ethyl ester (37.60%), 2-methoxy-phenol (7.02%), furfural (5.45%), formic acid (4.02%), 1-hydroxy-2-butanone (3.89%), and 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (2.01%).
74
14847
Conversion of Jatropha curcas Oil to Ester Biolubricant Using Solid Catalyst Derived from Saltwater Clam Shell Waste (SCSW)
Abstract:
The discarded clam shell waste, fossil and edible oil as biolubricant feedstocks create environmental impacts and food chain dilemma, thus this work aims to circumvent these issues by using activated saltwater clam shell waste (SCSW) as solid catalyst for conversion of Jatropha curcas oil as non-edible sources to ester biolubricant. The characterization of solid catalyst was done by Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (DTA-TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The calcined catalyst was used in the transesterification of Jatropha oil to methyl ester as the first step, and the second stage was involved the reaction of Jatropha methyl ester (JME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) based on the various process parameters. The formated biolubricant was analyzed using the capillary column (DB-5HT) equipped Gas Chromatography (GC). The conversion results of Jatropha oil to ester biolubricant can be found nearly 96.66%, and the maximum distribution composition mainly contains 72.3% of triester (TE).
73
97550
Enhancement of Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivity of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete Reinforced with High Performance Polypropylene Fibres
Abstract:
Oil palm shell (OPS) is the solid waste product from the palm oil sector of the agricultural industry and can be used as alternative coarse aggregates to substitute depleting conventional raw materials. This research aims to investigate the incorporation of various high-performance polypropylene (HPP) fibres with different geometry to enhance the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of OPS lightweight concrete. The effect of different volume fractions (Vf) (0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15%) were studied for each fibre. The results reveal that the effectiveness of HPP fibres to increase the compressive strength at later ages was more pronounced than at early age. It is found that the use of HPP fibres reinforced OPS lightweight concrete (LWC) induced the advantageous of improving mechanical properties (compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength) and thermal conductivity. Hence, this HPP fibres is a promising alternative solution to compensate lower mechanical properties as well as contribute to energy efficiency building material in the construction industry.
72
117026
Detailed Investigation of Thermal Degradation Mechanism and Product Characterization of Co-Pyrolysis of Indian Oil Shale with Rubber Seed Shell
Abstract:
This work presents a detailed study on the thermal degradation kinetics of co-pyrolysis of oil shale of Upper Assam, India with rubber seed shell, and lab-scale pyrolysis to investigate the influence of pyrolysis parameters on product yield and composition of products. The physicochemical characteristics of oil shale and rubber seed shell were studied by proximate analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The physicochemical study showed the mixture to be of low moisture, high ash, siliceous, sour with the presence of aliphatic, aromatic, and phenolic compounds. The thermal decomposition of the oil shale with rubber seed shell was studied using thermogravimetric analysis at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 °C/min. The kinetic study of the oil shale pyrolysis process was performed on the thermogravimetric (TGA) data using three model-free isoconversional methods viz. Friedman, Flynn Wall Ozawa (FWO), and Kissinger Akahira Sunnose (KAS). The reaction mechanisms were determined using the Criado master plot. The understanding of the composition of Indian oil shale and rubber seed shell and pyrolysis process kinetics can help to establish the experimental parameters for the extraction of valuable products from the mixture. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed usinf central composite design (CCD) model to setup the lab-scale experiment using TGA data, and optimization of process parameters viz. heating rate, temperature, and particle size. The samples were pre-dried at 115°C for 24 hours prior to pyrolysis. The pyrolysis temperatures were set from 450 to 650 °C, at heating rates of 2 to 20°C/min. The retention time was set between 2 to 8 hours. The optimum oil yield was observed at 5°C/min and 550°C with a retention time of 5 hours. The pyrolytic oil and gas obtained at optimum conditions were subjected to characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR).
71
22873
Morphometric Study of the Eggs of Pheasant Eggs Phasianus colchicus (Aves, Phasianidae)
Abstract:
Pheasant, is a bird of great ornamental value through the beauty of its form and colors, it is among the most popular birds. The present study was conducted in an experimental breeding. The objective of this work is to know the quality of the eggs of this bird. A total of 938 eggs were collected. To deepen the knowledge about the characteristics of external shell quality, biometric parameters were studied, among them we find the weight with a mean value of 29.2± 2, 24 g. Egg length (mm) and egg width (mm) mean value are respectively 43.01 ± 1,84 cm and 34.05 ± 1,44cm. The volume and shape index of eggs obtained are respectively 25,63±2,88cm3 and 79.00 ± 3%, shell index which recorded an average of 68%. Water loss recorded is 13%. Note that all these parameters and others may influence hatching. The analysis of variance applied for the comparison of egg weight shows that there is no significant difference in the same form factor (P> 0.05). Otherwise, the comparison test used shows a significant difference with P < 0.05 for length, width, volume, density, indices of shell and water loss of eggs between the different. Indeed, several factors may explain the difference as the absence of sorting eggs during incubation and other factors that will be exposing later.
70
42938
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core/Shell Microstructure and Its Electrochemical Performance
Abstract:
Electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because of their high potential as an efficient energy storage system. The combination of carbon-based material and transition metal oxides/sulfides are studied because they have long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon sphere/nickel cobalt sulfide (CS/Ni-Co-S) core/shell structure was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method without any further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. The CS/Ni-Co-S core/shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. After 2000 charge-discharge cycles, it retained 86.1% of its original capacitance, with high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9%. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 at an energy density of 1440 W kg−1, and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 at an energy density of 34.2 Wh kg−1. The successful synthesis was considered to be simple and cost-effective which supports the viability of this composite as an alternative activated material for high performance supercapacitors.
69
40049
Analytical Solution for Multi-Segmented Toroidal Shells under Uniform Pressure
Abstract:
The requirements for various toroidal shell forms are increasing due to new applications, available storage space and the consideration of appearance. Because of the complexity of some of these structural forms, the finite element method is nowadays mainly used for their analysis, even for simple static studies. This paper presents an easy-to-use analytical algorithm for pressurized multi-segmented toroidal shells of revolution. The membrane solution, which acts as a particular solution of the bending-theory equations, is developed based on membrane theory of shells, and a general approach is formulated for quantifying discontinuity effects at the shell junctions using the well-known Geckeler’s approximation. On superimposing these effects, and applying the ensuing solution to the problem of the pressurized toroid with four segments, closed-form stress results are obtained for the entire toroid. A numerical example is carried out using the developed method. The analytical results obtained show excellent agreement with those from the finite element method, indicating that the proposed method can be also used for complementing and verifying FEM results, and providing insights on other related problems.
68
58704
VISMA: A Method for System Analysis in Early Lifecycle Phases
Abstract:
The choice of applicable analysis methods in safety or systems engineering depends on the depth of knowledge about a system, and on the respective lifecycle phase. However, the analysis method chain still shows gaps as it should support system analysis during the lifecycle of a system from a rough concept in pre-project phase until end-of-life. This paper&rsquo;s goal is to discuss an analysis method, the VISSE Shell Model Analysis (VISMA) method, which aims at closing the gap in the early system lifecycle phases, like the conceptual or pre-project phase, or the project start phase. It was originally developed to aid in the definition of the system boundary of electronic system parts, like e.g. a control unit for a pump motor. Furthermore, it can be also applied to non-electronic system parts. The VISMA method is a graphical sketch-like method that stratifies a system and its parts in inner and outer shells, like the layers of an onion. It analyses a system in a two-step approach, from the innermost to the outermost components followed by the reverse direction. To ensure a complete view of a system and its environment, the VISMA should be performed by (multifunctional) development teams. To introduce the method, a set of rules and guidelines has been defined in order to enable a proper shell build-up. In the first step, the innermost system, named system under consideration (SUC), is selected, which is the focus of the subsequent analysis. Then, its directly adjacent components, responsible for providing input to and receiving output from the SUC, are identified. These components are the content of the first shell around the SUC. Next, the input and output components to the components in the first shell are identified and form the second shell around the first one. Continuing this way, shell by shell is added with its respective parts until the border of the complete system (external border) is reached. Last, two external shells are added to complete the system view, the environment and the use case shell. This system view is also stored for future use. In the second step, the shells are examined in the reverse direction (outside to inside) in order to remove superfluous components or subsystems. Input chains to the SUC, as well as output chains from the SUC are described graphically via arrows, to highlight functional chains through the system. As a result, this method offers a clear and graphical description and overview of a system, its main parts and environment; however, the focus still remains on a specific SUC. It helps to identify the interfaces and interfacing components of the SUC, as well as important external interfaces of the overall system. It supports the identification of the first internal and external hazard causes and causal chains. Additionally, the method promotes a holistic picture and cross-functional understanding of a system, its contributing parts, internal relationships and possible dangers within a multidisciplinary development team.
67
75448
Dry Reforming of Methane Using Metal Supported and Core Shell Based Catalyst
Abstract:
Syngas typically and intermediary gas product has a wide range of application of producing various chemical products, such as mixed alcohols, hydrogen, ammonia, Fischer-Tropsch products methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, alcohols, etc. There are several technologies available for the syngas production. An alternative to the conventional processes an attractive route of utilizing carbon dioxide and methane in equimolar ratio to generate syngas of ratio close to one has been developed which is also termed as Dry Reforming of Methane technology. It also gives the privilege to utilize the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. The dry reforming process is highly endothermic, and indeed, ΔG becomes negative if the temperature is higher than 900K and practically, the reaction occurs at 1000-1100K. At this temperature, the sintering of the metal particle is happening that deactivate the catalyst. However, by using this strategy, the methane is just partially oxidized, and some cokes deposition occurs that causing the catalyst deactivation. The current research work was focused to mitigate the main challenges of dry reforming process such coke deposition, and metal sintering at high temperature.To achieve these objectives, we employed three different strategies of catalyst development. 1) Use of bulk catalysts such as olivine and pyrochlore type materials. 2) Use of metal doped support materials, like spinel and clay type material. 3) Use of core-shell model catalyst. In this approach, a thin layer (shell) of redox metal oxide is deposited over the MgAl2O4 /Al2O3 based support material (core). For the core-shell approach, an active metal is been deposited on the surface of the shell. The shell structure formed is a doped metal oxide that can undergo reduction and oxidation reactions (redox), and the core is an alkaline earth aluminate having a high affinity towards carbon dioxide. In the case of metal-doped support catalyst, the enhanced redox properties of doped CeO2 oxide and CO2 affinity property of alkaline earth aluminates collectively helps to overcome coke formation. For all of the mentioned three strategies, a systematic screening of the metals is carried out to optimize the efficiency of the catalyst. To evaluate the performance of them, the activity and stability test were carried out under reaction conditions of temperature ranging from 650 to 850 ̊C and an operating pressure ranging from 1 to 20 bar. The result generated infers that the core-shell model catalyst showed high activity and better stable DR catalysts under atmospheric as well as high-pressure conditions. In this presentation, we will show the results related to the strategy.
66
102195
Odor-Color Association Stroop-Task and the Importance of an Odorant in an Odor-Imagery Task
Abstract:
There are consistently observed associations between certain odors and colors, and there is an association between the ability to imagine vivid visual objects and imagine vivid odors. However, little has been done to investigate how the associations between odors and visual information effect visual processes. This study seeks to understand the relationship between odor imaging, color associations, and visual attention by utilizing a Stroop-task based on common odor-color associations. This Stroop-task was designed using three fruits with distinct odors that are associated with the color of the fruit: lime with green, strawberry with red, and lemon with yellow. Each possible word-color combination was presented in the experimental trials. When the word matched the associated color (lime written in green) it was considered congruent; if it did not, it was considered incongruent (lime written in red or yellow). In experiment I (n = 34) participants were asked to both imagine the odor of the fruit on the screen and identify which fruit it was, and each word-color combination was presented 20 times (a total of 180 trials, with 60 congruent and 120 incongruent instances). Response time and error rate of the participant responses were recorded. There was no significant difference in either measure between the congruent and incongruent trials. In experiment II participants (n = 18) followed the identical procedure as in the previous experiment with the addition of an odorant in the room. The odorant (orange) was not the fruit or color used in the experimental trials. With a fruit-based odorant in the room, the response times (measured in milliseconds) between congruent and incongruent trials were significantly different, with incongruent trials (M = 755.919, SD = 239.854) having significantly longer response times than congruent trials (M = 690.626, SD = 198.822), t (1, 17) = 4.154, p < 0.01. This suggests that odor imagery does affect visual attention to colors, and the ability to inhibit odor-color associations; however, odor imagery is difficult and appears to be facilitated in the presence of a related odorant.
65
19181
Poly (N-Isopropyl Acrylamide-Co-Acrylic Acid)-Graft-Polyaspartate Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Molecular Imaging and Therapy
Abstract:
A series of pH- and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) were synthesized by radical polymerization and grafted on poly succinimide backbones. The poly succinimide derivatives synthesized were coated on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for potential applications in drug delivery systems with theranostic and molecular imaging. The structure of polymer shell was confirmed by FT-IR, H-NMR spectroscopies. Its thermal behavior was tested by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The particle size and its distribution are measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mean diameter of the core-shell structure is from 20 to 80 nm.
64
87526
Recycling, Reuse and Reintegration of Steel Plant Fines
Abstract:
Fines and micro create fundamental problems of respiration. From mines to mills steel plants generate lot of pollutants. Legislation & Government laws are stricter day by day & each plant has to think of recycling, reuse &reintegration of pollutants generated during the process of steel making. This paper deals with experiments conducted in Bhilai Steel Plant and Real Ispat and Power Limited for reuse, recycle & reintegrate some of the steel making process fines. Iron ore fines with binders have been agglomerated to be used as a part of the charge for small furnaces. This will improve yield at nominal cost. Rolling mill fines have been recycled to increase the yield of sinter making. This will solve the problems of fine disposal. Huge saving on account of recycling will be achieved. Lime fines after briquetting is used along with prime lime. Lime fines have also been used as a binding material during production of fly ash bricks. These fines serve as low-cost binder. Experiments have been conducted along with coke breeze & gas cleaning plant sludge. As a result, the anti-sloping compound has been developed for converter vessels. Dolo char and Char during Sponge Iron production have been successfully used in power generation and brick making. Pellets have been made with ventilation dust & flue dust. These samples have been tried as a coolant in the converter. Pellets have been made with Sinter Plant electrostatic precipitator micro fines with liquid binder. Trials have been conducted to reuse these pellets in sinter making. Coke breeze from coke-ovens fines and mill scale along with binders were agglomerated. This was used in furnace after attaining required screening and reactivity index. These actions will definitely bring social, economic and environment-friendly universe.
63
91451
Recycling, Reuse and Reintegration of Steel Plant Fines
Abstract:
Fines and micro create fundamental problems of respiration. From mines to mills steel plants generate lot of pollutants. Legislation & Government laws are stricter day by day & each plant has to think of recycling, reuse &reintegration of pollutants generated during the process of steel making. This paper deals with experiments conducted in Bhilai Steel Plant and Real Ispat and Power Limited for reuse, recycle & reintegrate some of the steel making process fines. Iron ore fines with binders have been agglomerated to be used as a part of the charge for small furnaces. This will improve yield at nominal cost. Rolling mill fines have been recycled to increase the yield of sinter making. This will solve the problems of fine disposal. Huge saving on account of recycling will be achieved. Lime fines after briquetting is used along with prime lime. Lime fines have also been used as a binding material during production of fly ash bricks. These fines serve as low-cost binder. Experiments have been conducted along with coke breeze & gas cleaning plant sludge. As a result, the anti-sloping compound has been developed for converter vessels. Dolo char and Char during Sponge Iron production have been successfully used in power generation and brick making. Pellets have been made with ventilation dust & flue dust. These samples have been tried as a coolant in the converter. Pellets have been made with Sinter Plant electrostatic precipitator micro fines with liquid binder. Trials have been conducted to reuse these pellets in sinter making. Coke breeze from coke-ovens fines and mill scale along with binders were agglomerated. This was used in furnace after attaining required screening and reactivity index. These actions will definitely bring social, economic and environment-friendly universe.
62
99792
Exchange Bias in Ceramics: From Polyol Made CoFe₂O₄[email protected] NPs to Nanostructured Ceramics
Abstract:
Tailoring bulk materials keeping their nanoscale properties is the daydream of material scientists. But especially in magnetism, this single desire can revolutionize our everyday life. Now, thanks to the methods of synthesis, based on the combination of colloidal chemistry (CC) to flash sintering (FS), customizing magnets becomes each time more 'easy', 'cheap' and 'clean'. Although by CC we can obtain straightway nanopowders with good magnetic featuring, like exchange bias (EB) phenomenon, it does not result so attractive for applications. Since a solid material is simple to manipulate and integrate in a device, many consolidation methods have been tested aiming to keep the nanopowders characteristics after consolidation. Unfortunately, the lack of structural crystalline arrangement and the grain growth worsen the magnetic properties. In this work, we exhibit, for the first-time author’s best knowledge, the EB in sintered ceramics, starting from CoFe₂O₄[email protected] NPs obtained by CC. Despite the fact that EB field is about 28 mT in ceramics and it is not yet considered for applications, this work opens an alternative in the permanent magnets fabrication through a FS method, the spark plasma sintering, starting from CC synthesized nanopowders.
61
49146
Acoustic Absorption of Hemp Walls with Ground Granulated Blast Slag
Abstract:
Unwanted sound reflection can create acoustic discomfort and lead to problems of speech comprehensibility. Contemporary building techniques enable highly finished internal walls resulting in sound reflective surfaces. In contrast, sustainable construction materials using natural and vegetal materials, are often more porous and absorptive. Hemp shiv is used as an aggregate and when mixed with lime binder creates a low-embodied-energy concrete. Cement replacements such as ground granulated blast slag (GGBS), a byproduct of other industrial processes, are viewed as more sustainable alternatives to high-embodied-energy cement. Hemp concretes exhibit good hygrothermal performance. This has focused much research attention on them as natural and sustainable low-energy alternatives to standard concretes. A less explored benefit is the acoustic absorption capability of hemp-based concretes. This work investigates hemp-lime-GGBS concrete specifically, and shows that it exhibits high levels of sound absorption.
60
43153
Development of PCL/Chitosan Core-Shell Electrospun Structures
Abstract:
Skin tissue engineering is a promising field for the treatment of skin defects using scaffolds. This approach involves the use of living cells and biomaterials to restore, maintain, or regenerate tissues and organs in the body by providing; (i) larger surface area for cell attachment, (ii) proper porosity for cell colonization and cell to cell interaction, and (iii) 3-dimensionality at macroscopic scale. Recent studies on this area mainly focus on fabrication of scaffolds that can closely mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) for creation of tissue specific niche-like environment at the subcellular scale. Scaffolds designed as ECM-like architectures incorporating into the host with minimal scarring/pain and facilitate angiogenesis. This study is related to combining of synthetic PCL and natural chitosan polymers to form 3D PCL/Chitosan core-shell structures for skin tissue engineering applications. Amongst the polymers used in tissue engineering, natural polymer chitosan and synthetic polymer poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are widely preferred in the literature. Chitosan has been among researchers for a very long time because of its superior biocompatibility and structural resemblance to the glycosaminoglycan of bone tissue. However, the low mechanical flexibility and limited biodegradability properties reveals the necessity of using this polymer in a composite structure. On the other hand, PCL is a versatile polymer due to its low melting point (60°C), ease of processability, degradability with non-enzymatic processes (hydrolysis) and good mechanical properties. Nevertheless, there are also several disadvantages of PCL such as its hydrophobic structure, limited bio-interaction and susceptibility to bacterial biodegradation. Therefore, it became crucial to use both of these polymers together as a hybrid material in order to overcome the disadvantages of both polymers and combine advantages of those. The scaffolds here were fabricated by using electrospinning technique and the characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, gas permeability test, mechanical test, thickness measurement and PBS absorption and shrinkage tests were performed for all type of scaffolds (PCL, chitosan and PCL/chitosan core-shell). By using ImageJ launcher software program (USA) from SEM photographs the average inter-fiber diameter values were calculated as 0.717±0.198 µm for PCL, 0.660±0.070 µm for chitosan and 0.412±0.339 µm for PCL/chitosan core-shell structures. Additionally, the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decrease of 66.91% and 61.90% for the PCL and chitosan structures respectively, compare to PCL/chitosan core-shell structures. TEM images proved that homogenous and continuous bead free core-shell fibers were obtained. XPS analysis of the PCL/chitosan core-shell structures exhibited the characteristic peaks of PCL and chitosan polymers. Measured average gas permeability value of produced PCL/chitosan core-shell structure was determined 2315±3.4 g.m-2.day-1. In the future, cell-material interactions of those developed PCL/chitosan core-shell structures will be carried out with L929 ATCC CCL-1 mouse fibroblast cell line. Standard MTT assay and microscopic imaging methods will be used for the investigation of the cell attachment, proliferation and growth capacities of the developed materials.
59
5706
Behavior of Oil Palm Shell Reinforced Concrete Beams Added with Kenaf Fibres
Abstract:
The present article reports the findings of a study into the behavior of oil palm shell reinforced concrete (OPSRC) beams with the addition of kenaf fibres. The work aim is to examine the potential of using kenaf fibres to improve the strength and ductility of the OPSRC beams and also observe its potential in serving as part of shear reinforcement in the beams. Two different arrangements of the shear links in OPSRC beams with a selection of kenaf fibres (amount of [10kg/m] ^3 and [20kg/m] ^3) content are tested under monotonic loading. In the first arrangement, the kenaf fibres are added to the beam which has full shear reinforcement to study the structural behavior of OPSRC beams with fibres. In the second arrangement, the spacing between the shear links in the OPSRC beams are increased by 50% and experimental work is carried out to study the effect of kenaf fibres without compromising the beams strength and ductility. The results show that the addition of kenaf fibres enhanced the load carrying capacity, ductility and also altered the failure mode of the beams from a brittle shear mode to a flexural ductile one. Furthermore, the study depicts that kenaf fibres are compatible with OPSRC and suggest prospective results.
58
35186
Investigation of Heat Transfer Mechanism Inside Shell and Tube Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems
Abstract:
The main objective of this research is to study the heat transfer processes and phase change behaviour of a phase change material (PCM) in shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. The thermal behaviour in a vertical and horizontal shell-and-tube heat energy storage system using a pure thermal conduction model and a combined conduction-convection heat transfer model is compared in this paper. The model is first validated using published experimental data available in literature and then used to study the temperature variation, solid-liquid interface, phase distribution, total melting and solidification time during melting and solidification processes of PCMs. The simulated results show that the combined convection and conduction model can better describe the energy transfer in PCMs during melting process. In contrast, heat transfer by conduction is more significant during the solidification process since the two models show little difference. Also, it was concluded that during the charging process for the horizontal orientation, convective heat transfer has a strong effect on melting of the upper part of the solid PCM and is less significant during melting of the lower half of the solid PCM. However, in the vertical orientation, convective heat transfer is the same active during the entire charging process. In the solidification process, the thermal behavior does not show any difference between horizontal and vertical systems.
57
113339
Development of Catalyst from Waste Egg Shell for Biodiesel Production by Using Waste Vegetable Oil
Abstract:
The main objective of this research is to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using activated eggshell waste as solid catalysts. A transesterification reaction was performed for the conversion to biodiesel. Waste eggshells were calcined at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for a time period of 3hrs for the preparation of the renewable catalyst. The calcined waste eggshell catalyst was characterized using X-Ray Florescence (XRF) Spectroscopy, which revealed CaO as the major constituent (90.86%); this was further confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses. The prepared catalyst was used for transesterification reaction and the effects of calcination temperature (700 to 900°C), Deep Eutectic Solvent DES loading (3 to 18 wt. %), Waste Egg Shell (WES) catalyst loading (6 to 14 wt. %) on the conversion to biodiesel were studied. The yield of biodiesel using a waste eggshell catalyst (91%) is comparable to conventional catalyst like sodium hydroxide with a yield of 80-90%. The maximum biodiesel production yield was obtained at a specific oil-to methanol molar ratio of 1:10, a temperature of 65°C and a catalyst loading of 14g-wt%. The biodiesel produced was characterized as being composed of methyl Tetradecanoate (C₁₄H₂₈O₂) 30.92% using the Gas Chromatographic (GC-MS) analysis. The fuel properties of the biodiesel (Flashpoint 138ᵒC) were comparable to commercial diesel, and hence it can be used in compression-ignition engines. The results indicated that the catalysts derived from waste eggshell had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of waste vegetable oil with the advantage of reusability and also not requiring water washing steps.
56
2818
The Porsche Pavilion in Wolfsburg, Germany
Abstract:
The Porsche Pavilion is an innovative stainless steel construction using the principle, often used in ship and car design, as an advantage for building a light but stiff structure. The Pavilion is a one of a kind and outstanding construction that you can find. It fits right in the existing parts of the Autostadt within the lagoon landscape and was built in only eight months. With its curving lines and exiting bends the structure is an extraordinary work which was designed by Henn architects, Munich. The monocoque has a good balance between material and support structure. The stiffness is achieved by the upper and lower side sheathing plates and the intermediate formers. Also the roof shell has no joints and a smooth surface. The assembling of the structure requires a large time and effort cost due to many welds which are necessary to connect all section to one large shell.
55
29175
Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Compressed Earth Blocks Stabilized with Ca(OH)2 on Sub-Humid Warm Weather
Abstract:
The compressed earth blocks (CEBs) constitute an alternative as a constructive element for building homes in regions with high levels of poverty and marginalization. Such is the case of Southeastern Mexico, where the population, predominantly indigene, build their houses with feeble materials like wood and palm, vulnerable to extreme weather in the area, because they do not have the financial resources to acquire concrete blocks. There are several advantages that can provide BTCs compared to traditional vibro-compressed concrete blocks, such as the availability of materials, low manufacturing cost and reduced CO2 emissions to the atmosphere for not be subjected to a burning process. However, to improve its mechanical properties and resistance to adverse weather conditions in terms of humidity and temperature of the sub-humid climate zones, it requires the use of a chemical stabilizer; in this case we chose Ca(OH)2. The stabilization method Eades-Grim was employed, according to ASTM C977-03. This method measures the optimum amount of lime required to stabilize the soil, increasing the pH to 12.4 or higher. The minimum amount of lime required in this experiment was 1% and the maximum was 10%. The employed material was clay unconsolidated low to medium plasticity (CL type according to the Unified Soil Classification System). Based on these results, the CEBs manufacturing process was determined. The obtained blocks were from 10x15x30 cm using a mixture of soil, water and lime in different proportions. Later these blocks were put to dry outdoors and subjected to several physical and mechanical tests, such as compressive strength, absorption and drying shrinkage. The results were compared with the limits established by the Mexican Standard NMX-C-404-ONNCCE-2005 for the construction of housing walls. In this manner an alternative and sustainable material was obtained for the construction of rural households in the region, with better security conditions, comfort and cost.
54
42922
Mesoporous Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core-Shell Microspheres for Supercapacitor Electrode Material
Abstract:
The depletion of non-renewable sources had led to the continuous development of various energy storage systems in order to cope with the world’s demand in energy. Supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because they can store more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The combination of carbon-based material and metal chalcogenides are now being considered in response to the search for active electrode materials exhibiting high electrochemical performance. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon [email protected] cobalt sulfide ([email protected]) core-shell was synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method. The [email protected] core-shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724.4 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Good specific retention of 86.1% and high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9% was obtained after 2000 charge-discharge cycles. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 (1440 W kg−1) and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 (34.2 Wh kg−1). The reaction involved green synthesis without further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. Through this study, a cost-effective and facile synthesis of [email protected] as an active electrode showed favorable electrochemical performance.
53
40473
Catalytic Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes over Metal/SiO2 Core-Shell Catalyst from Plastic Wastes Gasification
Abstract:
Nowadays, plastic product and utilization are extensive and have greatly improved our life. Yet, plastic wastes are stable and non-biodegradable challenging issues to the environment. Waste-to-energy strategies emerge a promising way for waste management. This work investigated the co-production of hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from the syngas which was from the gasification of polypropylene. A nickel-silica core-shell catalyst was applied for syngas reaction from plastic waste gasification in a fixed-bed reactor. SiO2 were prepared through various synthesis solvents by Stöber process. Ni plays a role as modified SiO2 support, which were synthesized by deposition-precipitation method. Core-shell catalysts have strong interaction between active phase and support, in order to avoid catalyst sintering. Moreover, Fe or Co metal acts as promoter to enhance catalytic activity. The effects of calcined atmosphere, second metal addition, and reaction temperature on hydrogen production and carbon yield were examined. In this study, the catalytic activity and carbon yield results revealed that the Ni/SiO2 catalyst calcined under H2 atmosphere exhibited the best performance. Furthermore, Co promoted Ni/SiO2 catalyst produced 3 times more than Ni/SiO2 on carbon yield at long-term operation. The structure and morphological nature of the calcined and spent catalysts were examined using different characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction. In addition, the quality and thermal stability of the nano-carbon materials were also evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.
52
96143
Self-Assembly of [email protected] Core-Shell-Like Nanocomposite Film via Solid-State Dewetting: Toward Superior Wear and Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:
The improvement of comprehensive properties including hardness, toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance in the transition metal carbides/nitrides TMCN films, especially avoiding the trade-off between hardness and toughness, is strongly required to adapt to various applications. Although incorporating ductile metal DM phase into the TMCN via thermally-induced phase separation has been emerged as an effective approach to toughen TMCN-based films, the DM is just limited to some soft ductile metal (i.e. Cu, Ag, Au immiscibility with the TMCN. Moreover, hardness is highly sensitive to soft DM content and can be significantly worsened. Hence, a novel preparation method should be attempted to broaden the DM selection and assemble much more ordered nanocomposite structure for improving the comprehensive properties. Here, we provide a new strategy, by activating solid-state dewetting during layered deposition, to accomplish the self-assembly of ordered [email protected] core-shell-like nanocomposite film consisting of TaC nanocrystalline encapsulated with thin pseudocrystal Ta tissue. That results in the superhard (~45.1 GPa) dominated by Orowan strengthening mechanism and high toughness attributed to indenter-induced phase transformation from the pseudocrystal to body-centered cubic Ta, together with the drastically enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, very thin pseudocrystal Ta encapsulated layer (~1.5 nm) in the [email protected] core-shell-like structure helps for promoting the formation of lubricious TaOₓ Magnéli phase during sliding, thereby further dropping the coefficient of friction. Apparently, solid-state dewetting may provide a new route to construct ordered TMC(N)@TM core-shell-like nanocomposite capable of combining superhard, high toughness, low friction, superior wear with corrosion resistance.
51
101204
A Study on the Stabilization of the Swell Behavior of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag by Using Geopolymer Technology
Abstract:
Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Slag is a by-product of iron making. It has great engineering properties, such as, high hardness and density, high compressive strength, low abrasion ratio, and can replace natural aggregate for building materials. However, the main problem for BOF slag is expansion, due to it contains free lime or free magnesium. The purpose of this study was to stabilize the BOF slag by using geopolymeric technology, hoping can prevent BOF slag expansion. Geopolymer processes contain a large amount of free silicon. These free silicon can react with free-lime or free magnesium oxide in BOF slag, and thus to form stable compound, therefore inhibit the expansion of the BOF slag. In this study for the successful preparation of geopolymer mortar with BOF slag, and their main properties are analyzed with regard to their use as building materials. Autoclave is used to study the volume stability of these geopolymer mortar. Finally, the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar with BOF slag can be reached 33MPa in 28 days. After autoclave testing, the volume expansion does not exceed 0.2%. Even after the autoclave test, the compressive strength can increase to 35MPa. According to the research results can be proved that using geopolymer technology for stabilizing BOF slag is very effective.
50
80232
Iron Extraction from Bog Iron Ore in Early French Colonial America
Abstract:
This study explores the first bog iron ore extraction activities which took place in colonial New France. Archaeological excavations carried on the founding site of Montreal in the last ten years have revealed the remains of Fort Ville-Marie erected in 1642. In a level related to the fort occupation between 1660 and 1680, kilos of scories, a dozen of half-finished iron artefacts and a light yellow clayey ore material have recovered that point to extractive metallurgy activities at the fort. Examples of scories, artefacts and of a possible bog iron ore were submitted to SEM-EDS analysis. The results clearly indicate that iron was extracted from local limonite ores in a bloomery. We discovered that the gangue material could be traced from the ore to the scories. However, some lime silicates and some accessory minerals found in the scories, like barite and celestine for example, were absent from the ore but present in dolomite fragments found in the same archaeological context. The tracing of accessory minerals suggests that the ironmaster introduced a lime flux in the bloomery charge to maximize the separation of the iron ore. Before the introduction of the blast furnace in Western Europe during the first half of the 18th Century, the use of fluxes in iron bloomery was not a common practice.
49
25532
Technological Properties and Characterization of Ceramic Slurries Based on Yttrium Iii Oxide for Shell Moulds Preparation
Abstract:
The goal of this study was to analyze the technological properties of ceramic slurries based on Ytttria (Y2O3) for fabrication “prime coat” in ceramic shell moulds for investment casting process. The Yttria with two different granulation of (200# and 325#) in ratio-65%-35% by weight were used for preparation the ceramic slurries. Solid phase was 77 wt.%. The experiment was carried out for 96h. Main technological properties like: viscosity, pH, plate weight test, and density were measured every 24h. Additionally, dynamic viscosity was performed after 96h of test. For further material characterization SEM observations, Zeta potential, XRD measurements were done. Those research showed that Yttria ceramic slurries had very promising properties and there are perspective for future fabrication.
48
16401
Numerical Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression Using Asymmetric Meshing Technique (AMT)
Abstract:
This paper presents the details of a numerical study of buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shell under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT) by ABAQUS. AMT is considered to be a new perturbation method to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects both predicted buckling load and buckling mode shapes. Cylindrical shell having lay-up orientation [0°/+45°/-45°/0°] with radius to thickness ratio (R/t) equal to 265 and length to radius ratio (L/R) equal to 1.5 is analysed numerically. A series of numerical simulations (experiments) are carried out with symmetric and asymmetric meshing to study the effect of asymmetric meshing on predicted buckling behaviour. Asymmetric meshing technique is employed in both axial direction and circumferential direction separately using two different methods, first by changing the shell element size and varying the total number elements, and second by varying the shell element size and keeping total number of elements constant. The results of linear analysis (Eigenvalue analysis) and non-linear analysis (Riks analysis) using symmetric meshing agree well with analytical results. The results of numerical analysis are presented in form of non-dimensional load factor, which is the ratio of buckling load using asymmetric meshing technique to buckling load using symmetric meshing technique. Using AMT, load factor has about 2% variation for linear eigenvalue analysis and about 2% variation for non-linear Riks analysis. The behaviour of load end-shortening curve for pre-buckling is same for both symmetric and asymmetric meshing but for asymmetric meshing curve behaviour in post-buckling becomes extraordinarily complex. The major conclusions are: different methods of AMT have small influence on predicted buckling load and significant influence on load displacement curve behaviour in post buckling; AMT in axial direction and AMT in circumferential direction have different influence on buckling load and load displacement curve in post-buckling.
47
50758
Analysis of Residual Stresses and Angular Distortion in Stiffened Cylindrical Shell Fillet Welds Using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
In this paper, a two-dimensional method is developed to simulate the fillet welds in a stiffened cylindrical shell, using finite element method. The stiffener material is aluminum 2519. The thermo-elasto-plastic analysis is used to analyze the thermo-mechanical behavior. Due to the high heat flux rate of the welding process, two uncouple thermal and mechanical analysis are carried out instead of performing a single couple thermo-mechanical simulation. In order to investigate the effects of the welding procedures, two different welding techniques are examined. The resulted residual stresses and distortions due to different welding procedures are obtained. Furthermore, this study employed the technique of element birth and death to simulate the weld filler variation with time in fillet welds. The obtained results are in good agreement with the published experimental and three-dimensional numerical simulation results. Therefore, the proposed 2D modeling technique can effectively give the corresponding results of 3D models. Furthermore, by inspection of the obtained residual hoop and transverse stresses and angular distortions, proper welding procedure is suggested.
46
48408
Applying Napoleoni's 'Shell-State' Concept to Jihadist Organisations's Rise in Mali, Nigeria and Syria/Iraq, 2011-2015
Abstract:
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant / Syria (ISIL/S), Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad, also known as ‘Boko Haram’ (BH), have fought successfully against Syria and Iraq, Mali, Nigeria’s government, respectively. According to Napoleoni, the ‘shell-state’ concept can explain the economic dimension and the financing model of the ISIL insurgency. However, she argues that AQIM and BH did not properly plan their financial model. Consequently, her idea would not be suitable to these groups. Nevertheless, AQIM and BH’s economic performances and their (short) territorialisation suggest that their financing models respond to a well-defined strategy, which they were able to adapt to new circumstances. Therefore, Napoleoni’s idea of ‘shell-state’ can be applied to the three jihadist armed groups. In the last five years, together with other similar entities, ISIL/S, AQIM and BH have been fighting against governments with insurgent tactics and terrorism acts, conquering and ruling a quasi-state; a physical space they presented as legitimate territorial entity, thanks to a puritan version of the Islamic law. In these territories, they have exploited the traditional local economic networks. In addition, they have contributed to the development of legal and illegal transnational business activities. They have also established a justice system and created an administrative structure to supply services. Napoleoni’s ‘shell-state’ can describe the evolution of ISIL/S, AQIM and BH, which has switched from an insurgency to a proto or a quasi-state entity, enjoying a significant share of power over territories and populations. Napoleoni first developed and applied the ‘Shell-state’ concept to describe the nature of groups such as the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), before using it to explain the expansion of ISIL. However, her original conceptualisation emphasises on the economic dimension of the rise of the insurgency, focusing on the ‘business’ model and the insurgents’ financing management skills, which permits them to turn into an organisation. However, the idea of groups which use, coordinate and grab some territorial economic activities (at the same time, encouraging new criminal ones), can also be applied to administrative, social, infrastructural, legal and military levels of their insurgency, since they contribute to transform the insurgency to the same extent the economic dimension does. In addition, according to Napoleoni’s view, the ‘shell-state’ prism is valid to understand the ISIL/S phenomenon, because the group has carefully planned their financial steps. Napoleoni affirmed that ISIL/S carries out activities in order to promote their conversion from a group relying on external sponsors to an entity that can penetrate and condition local economies. On the contrary, ‘shell-state’ could not be applied to AQIM or BH, which are acting more like smugglers. Nevertheless, despite its failure to control territories, as ISIL has been able to do, AQIM and BH have responded strategically to their economic circumstances and have defined specific dynamics to ensure a flow of stable funds. Therefore, Napoleoni’s theory is applicable.
45
35883
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Surface Hydrophobisation and Properties of Composite Based on Lime Binder with Flax Fillers
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of applying modified lime binder together with natural flax fibers and straw to the production of wall blocks to the usage in energy-efficient construction industry and the development of proposals for technological solutions. The following laboratory tests were performed: the analysis of the physical characteristics of the tested materials (bulk density, total porosity, and thermal conductivity), compressive strength, a water droplet absorption test, water absorption of samples, diffusion of water vapor, and analysis of the structure by using SEM. In addition, the process of surface hydrophobisation was analyzed. In the paper, there was examined the effectiveness of two formulations differing in the degree of hydrolytic polycondensation, viscosity and concentration, as these are the factors that determine the final impregnation effect. Four composites, differing in composition, were executed. Composites, as a result of the presence of flax straw and fibers showed low bulk density in the range from 0.44 to 1.29 kg/m3 and thermal conductivity between 0.13 W/mK and 0.22 W/mK. Compressive strength changed in the range from 0,45 MPa to 0,65 MPa. The analysis of results allowed observing the relationship between the formulas and the physical properties of the composites. The results of the effectiveness of hydrophobisation of composites after 2 days showed a decrease in water absorption. Depending on the formulation, after 2 days, the water absorption ratio WH of composites was from 15 to 92% (effectiveness of hydrophobization was suitably from 8 to 85%). In practice, preparations based on organic solvents often cause sealing of surface, hindering the diffusion of water vapor from materials but studies have shown good water vapor permeability by the hydrophobic silicone coating. The conducted pilot study demonstrated the possibility of applying flax composites. The article shows that the reduction of CO2 which is produced in the building process can be affected by using natural materials for the building components whose quality is not inferior as compared to the materials which are commonly used.
44
116197
Nacre Deposition Rate in Japanese and Hybrid Mother Oysters, Pinctada Fucata, and Its Relationship with Their Respective Pearls
Abstract:
Pinctada fucata has been the most important pearl culture species in Japan and known as Japanese Akoya Pearl Oyster. However, during summer 1994, mass mortality devastated pearl culture in most parts of Japan. Therefore, pearl farmers started to import Chinese Pearl Oysters from Hainan Island that came from the same species because they are believed to be more resistant towards high water temperature, despite their lack of ability in producing high-quality pearls. The local farmers were then hybridized Japanese and Chinese pearl oysters and currently known as Hybrid pearl oysters, as an attempt to produce a new oyster's strain which is more resistant towards high temperature but also able to produce higher quality pearls. However, despite both strains were implanted by mantle tissues from the same group of donors, the thickness of pearl nacre produced by both strains was different, even though tablet thickness shows a rather similar pattern. Hence, this leads to a question of whether mother oysters play a major role in both nacre deposition rate and tablet thickness of pearls or not. This study first describes the nacre deposition rate of the shells of Japanese and Hybrid mother oysters towards the water temperature condition in Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Later, a comparative study was conducted among 4 shell positions that had been chosen according to the mantle tissue location and shell growth directions. A correlative study was then taken between shells and pearls nacre deposition rate to know whether mother oyster ability in depositing nacre on their shells is related to that of pearls. All the four shell positions were significantly different in shell nacre growth rate (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.05), and the third position have faster nacre growth among the other three both in Japanese and Hybrid strains, especially in warm temperature. The ability to deposit nacre between Japanese and Hybrid during warm water conditions (August and September) is also significantly different in almost all positions (Mann Whitney U, p-value < 0.01), Japanese oyster growth faster than Hybrid in all four positions. This leads to a different total growth among the two strains and a higher possibility of thicker nacre thickness in Japanese shell nacre. Tablet thickness is significantly different among all positions of shells (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.01), the 2nd position deposited rather thinner tablet thickness than the other three, including on the 6th month of culture which is more desirable in producing pearls with good luster. This result gives us new information that pearl growth rate is highly affected by the mother oysters; however, nacre tablet thickness might be the result of the shell matrix expressed by different mantle position from donor oysters.
43
6191
Creep Compliance Characteristics of Cement Dust Asphalt Concrete Mixtures
Abstract:
The current research is directed towards studying the creep compliance characteristics of asphalt concrete mixtures modified with cement dust. This study can aid in assessing the permanent deformation potential of asphalt concrete mixtures. Cement dust was added to the mixture as mineral filler and compared with regular lime stone filler. A power law model was used to characterize the creep compliance behavior of the studied mixtures. Creep testing results have revealed that the creep compliance power law parameters have a strong relationship with mixture type. Testing results of the studied mixtures, as indicated by the creep compliance parameters revealed an enhancement in the creep resistance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength for cement dust mixtures as compared to mixtures with traditional lime stone filler. It is concluded that cement dust can be successfully used to decrease the potential of asphalt concrete mixture to permanent deformation and improve its mechanical properties. This is in addition to the environmental benefits that can be gained when using cement dust in asphalt paving technology.
42
68955
Cryptic Diversity: Identifying Two Morphologically Similar Species of Invasive Apple Snails in Peninsular Malaysia
Abstract:
Invasive snails in the genus Pomacea have spread across Southeast Asia including Peninsular Malaysia. Apart from significant economic costs to wetland crops, very little is known about the snails’ effects on native species, and wetland function through their alteration of macrophyte communities. This study was conducted to establish diagnostic characteristics of Pomacea species in the Malaysian environment using genetic and morphological criteria. Snails were collected from eight localities in northern and central regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The mitochondrial COI gene of 52 adult snails was amplified and sequenced. Maximum likelihood analysis was used to analyse species identity and assess phylogenetic relationships among snails from different geographic locations. Shells of the two species were compared using geometric morphometric analysis and covariance analyses. Shell height accounted for most of the observed variation between P. canaliculata and P. maculata, with the latter possessing a smaller mean ratio of shell height: aperture height (p < 0.0001) and shell height to shell width (give p < 0.0001). Genomic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of two monophyletic taxa, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in Peninsular Malaysia samples. P. maculata co-occurred with P. canaliculata in 5 localities, but samples from 3 localities contained only P. canaliculata. This study is the first to confirm the presence of two of the most invasive species of Pomacea in Peninsular Malaysia using a genomic approach. P. canaliculata appears to be the more widespread species. Despite statistical differences, both quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics demonstrate much interspecific overlap and intraspecific variability; thus morphology alone cannot reliably verify species identity. Molecular techniques for distinguishing between these two highly invasive Pomacea species are needed to understand their specific ecological niches and develop effective protocols for their management.
41
65224
Vibrational Behavior of Cylindrical Shells in Axial Magnetic Field
Abstract:
The investigation of the vibrational character of magnetic cylindrical shells placed in an axial magnetic field has important practical applications. In this work, we study the vibrational behaviour of such a cylindrical shell by making use of the so-called exact space treatment, which does not assume any hypothesis. We discuss the effects of several practically important boundary conditions on the vibrations of the described setup. We find that, for some cases of boundary conditions, e.g. clamped, simply supported or peripherally earthed, as well as for some values of the wave numbers, the vibrational frequencies of the shell are approximately zero. The theoretical and numerical exploration of this fact confirms that the vibrations are absent or attenuate very rapidly. For all the considered cases, the imaginary part of the frequencies is negative, which implies stability for the vibrational process.
40
48936
Changes in Fish and Shellfish in Thondamanaru Lagoon, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Current study was conducted for one year from June 2014 to May 2015, with an objective of identification of fish and shellfish diversity in the Thondamanaru lagoon ecosystem. In this study, 11 species were identified from Thondamanaru lagoon, Jaffna, Sri Lanka. There are four fishes, Chanos chanos, Hemirhamphus sp., Nematalosa sp. and Mugil cephalus and seven shell fishes, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus latisulcatus, Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros, Portunus pelagicus and Scylla serrata. Species composition of Mugil cephalus, Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros was high during rainy seasons. However, lagoon is being subjected to adverse environmental conditions that threaten its fish and shellfish biodiversity due to lack of saline water availability and changes in rainfall pattern.
39
36809
Electrochemical Properties of Bimetallic Silver-Platinum Core-Shell Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Silver-platinum (Ag-Pt) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with varying mole fractions (1:1, 1:3 and 3:1) were prepared by co-reduction of hexachloroplatinate and silver nitrate with sodium citrate. Upon successful formation of both monometallic and bimetallic (BM) core shell nanoparticles, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the NPs. The drop coated nanofilms on the GC substrate showed characteristic peaks of monometallic Ag NPs; Ag+/Ag0 redox couple as well as the Pt NPs; hydrogen adsorption and desorption peaks. These characteristic peaks were confirmed in the bimetallic NPs voltammograms. The following varying current trends were observed in the BM NPs ratios; GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 > GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 > GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1. Fundamental electrochemical properties which directly or indirectly affects the applicability of films such as; diffusion coefficient (D), electroactive surface coverage, electrochemical band gap, electron transfer coefficient (α) and charge (Q) were assessed using Randles - Sevcik plot and Laviron’s equations . High charge and surface coverage was observed in GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 which supports its enhanced current. GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 showed high diffusion coefficient while GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1 possessed high electron transfer coefficient that is facilitated by its high apparent heterogeneous rate constant relative to other BM NPs ratios. Surface redox reaction was determined as adsorption controlled in all modified GCEs. Surface coverage is inversely proportional to size; therefore the surface coverage data suggests that Ag-Pt 1:1 NPs have a small particle size. Generally, GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 depicts the best electrochemical properties.
38
13497
Ground State Properties of Neutron Magic Isotones
Abstract:
In the present investigation, we have employed RMF+BCS (relativistic mean-field plus BCS) approach to carry out a systematic study for the ground state properties of the entire chains of even-even neutron magic nuclei represented by isotones of traditional neutron magic numbers N = 8, 20, 40, 50, 82, and 126. The main body of the results of our calculations includes the binding energy, deformation, two proton separation energies, rms radii of the proton and neutron distributions as well as the proton and neutron density profiles etc. Several of these results have been given in the form of a series of graphs for a ready reference. In addition, the possible locations of the proton and neutron drip-lines as well as the (Z,N) values for the shell closures as suggested by the detailed analyzes of the single particle spectra, and the two proton and two-neutron separation energies for the different isotonic chains are also discussed in detail.
37
45440
Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets Based on Transmission Holographic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Abstract:
To provide the conditions for nuclear fusion by high energy and powerful laser beams, it is required to have a high degree of symmetry and surface uniformity of the spherical capsules to reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities. In this paper, we have used the digital microscopic holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer to study the quality of targets for inertial fusion. The interferometric pattern of the target has been registered by a CCD camera and analyzed by Holovision software. The uniformity of the surface and shell thickness are investigated and measured in reconstructed image. We measured shell thickness in different zone where obtained non uniformity 22.82 percent. &nbsp;
36
24642
Heavy Metals (Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn) Level in Shellfish (Etheria elliptica), Water, and Sediments of River Ogbese, Ondo State, Nigeria
Abstract:
Investigations on the accumulation of heavy metals in water and sediments of River Ogbese were carried out between December 2010 and February 2011 using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Etheria elliptica a sessile organism was also used to determine the concentration of heavy metal in the aquatic environmental. In water, Cu had the highest concentration (0.55–0.13 mg/l ±0.1) while in sediments, the highest value obtained was in Fe (1.46-3.89mg/l±0.27). The minimum concentrations recorded were in Pb; which was below detectable level. The result also revealed that the shell accumulated more heavy metals than the flesh of the mussel with Cu in the shell exhibiting a negative correlation with all the metals in the flesh. However, the condition factor (K) value is 6.44, an indication of good health. The length-weight relationship is expressed as W=-0.48xL 1.94 (r2=0.29) showing the growth pattern to be negatively allometric.
35
73425
Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Pyrrole-Based Polymer and Electric and Magnetic Performance of Their Composites
Abstract:
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a unique type of materials consisting of two components, magnetic filler, and elastomeric matrix. Their properties can be tailored upon application of an external magnetic field strength. In this case, the change of the viscoelastic properties (viscoelastic moduli, complex viscosity) are influenced by two crucial factors. The first one is magnetic performance of the particles and the second one is off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. The former factor strongly depends on the intended applications; however general rule is that higher magnetic performance of the particles provides higher MR performance of the MRE. Since magnetic particles possess low stability properties against temperature and acidic environment, several methods how to improve these drawbacks have been developed. In the most cases, the preparation of the core-shell structures was employed as a suitable method for preservation of the magnetic particles against thermal and chemical oxidations. However, if the shell material is not single-layer substance, but polymer material, the magnetic performance is significantly suppressed, due to the in situ polymerization technique, when it is very difficult to control the polymerization rate and the polymer shell is too thick. The second factor is the off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. Since the MR effectivity is calculated as the relative value of the elastic modulus upon magnetic field application divided by elastic modulus in the absence of the external field, also the tuneability of the cross-linking reaction is highly desired. Therefore, this study is focused on the controllable modification of magnetic particles using a novel monomeric system based on 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)ethyl methacrylate. In this case, the short polymer chains of different chain lengths and low polydispersity index will be prepared, and thus tailorable stability properties can be achieved. Since the relatively thin polymer chains will be grafted on the surface of magnetic particles, their magnetic performance will be affected only slightly. Furthermore, also the cross-linking density will be affected, due to the presence of the short polymer chains. From the application point of view, such MREs can be utilized for, magneto-resistors, piezoresistors or pressure sensors especially, when the conducting shell on the magnetic particles will be created. Therefore, the selection of the pyrrole-based monomer is very crucial and controllably thin layer of conducting polymer can be prepared. Finally, such composite particle consisting of magnetic core and conducting shell dispersed in elastomeric matrix can find also the utilization in shielding application of electromagnetic waves.
34
45928
Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)/Graphene Microparticles Having a Core/Shell Structure Prepared with Carboxylated Graphene as a Pickering Stabilizer
Abstract:
Two kinds of carboxylated thermally reduced graphenes (C-TRGs) having different lateral sizes are examined as a Pickering stabilizer in the suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate. The size and the shape of the prepared composite particles are irregular due to agglomeration, more evidently when the larger C-TRG is used. In addition, C-TRG is distributed not only on the surface but also inside the composite particles. It indicates that the C-TRG alone is not a stable Pickering agent. However, a very small dosage of acrylic acid remedies all these issues, because acrylic acid interacts with C-TRG and synergizes the stabilizing effect. The compression molded composite of the core/shell poly(methyl methacrylate)/C-TRG particles exhibits a very low percolation threshold of electrical conductivity of 0.03 vol%. It demonstrates that the C-TRG shells of the composite particles effectively form a segregated conductive network throughout the composite.
33
17395
Surface Modified Core–Shell Type Lipid–Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles of Trans-Resveratrol, an Anticancer Agent, for Long Circulation and Improved Efficacy against MCF-7 Cells
Abstract:
Trans resveratrol (RES) is a non-flavonoid poly-phenolic compound proved for its therapeutic and preventive effect against various types of cancer. However, the practical application of RES in cancer treatment is limited because of its higher dose (up to 7.5 g/day in humans), low biological half life, rapid metabolism and faster elimination in mammals. PEGylated core-shell type lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles are the novel drug delivery systems for long circulation and improved anti cancer effect of its therapeutic payloads. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to extend the biological half life (long circulation) and improve the therapeutic efficacy of RES through core shell type of nanoparticles. D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS), a novel surfactant is applied for the preparation of PEGylated lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated by various state of the art techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique for particle size and zeta potential, TEM for shape, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for interaction analysis and XRD for crystalline changes of drug. Entrapment efficiency and invitro drug release were determined by ultracentrifugation method and dialysis bag method, respectively. Cancer cell viability studies were performed by MTT assay, respectively. Pharmacokinetic studies after i.v administration were performed in sprague dawley rats. The prepared NPs were found to be spherical in shape with smooth surfaces. Particle size and zeta potential of prepared NPs were found to be in the range of 179.2±7.45 to 266.8±9.61 nm and -0.63 to -48.35 mV, respectively. DSC revealed absence of potential interaction. XRD study revealed presence of amorphous form in nanoparticles. Entrapment efficiency was found to be 83.7 % and drug release was found to be in controlled manner. MTT assay showed low MEC and pharmacokinetic studies showed higher AUC of nanoformulaition than its pristine drug. All these studies revealed that the RES loaded PEG modified core-shell type lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles can be an alternative tool for chemopreventive and therapeutic application of RES in cancer.
32
31060
Determining Factors of Suspended Glass Systems with Pre-Stress Cable Truss
Abstract:
The use of glass as an envelope of a building has been increasing in the twentieth century. For more transparency and dematerialization new glass facade types have emerged in the past two decades which depends on point fixed glazing system (PFGS). The aim of this study is to analyze of the PFGS systems which are used on the glass curtain wall according to their types, degree, architectural and structural effects. This new system is desired because it enhances the transparency of the façade and it minimizes the component of the frames or of the profiles. This PFGS led to new structural elements which use cables, rods, trusses when designing a glass building facades, this structural element called the suspended glass system with pre-stressed cable truss (SGSPCT) which has been used for the first time in 1980 in Serres building. The twenty glass buildings which are designed in different systems have been analyzed during this study. After these analyses five selected SGSPCT building analyzed deeply and one skeletal frame building selected from Lefkosa redesigned according to the analysis results. These selected buildings have been included of various cable-truss system typologies and degree. The methodology of this study is building analysis method and literature survey with the help of books, articles, magazines, drawings, internet sources and applied connection details of the glass buildings. The selected five glass buildings and case building have been detailed analyzed with their architectural drawings, photographs and details. A gridshell structure can be compared with a shell structure; it consists of discrete members connecting nodal points. As these nodal points lie on the surface of an imaginary shell, their shapes function almost identically. Difference between shell and gridshell structures can be found in the fact that, due to their free-form and thus, due to the presence of bending forces, gridshells are required to resist loading through their cross-section. This research is divided into parts. A general study about the glass building and cable-glass and grid shell system will be done in the first chapters. Structural analyses and detailed analyses with schematic drawings with the plans, sections of the selected buildings will be explained in the second part. The third part it consists of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of the SGSPCT and Grid Shell in architecture. The study consists of four chapters including the introduction chapter. The general information of the SGSPCT and glazing system has been mentioned in the first chapter. Structural features, typologies, transparency principle and analytical information on systems have been explained of the selected buildings in the second chapter. The detailed analyses of case building have been done according to their schematic drawings with the plans, sections in the third chapter. After third chapter SGSPCT discussed on to the case building and selected buildings. SGSPCT systems have been compared with their advantages and disadvantages to the other systems. Advantages of cable-truss systems and SGSPCT have been concluded that the use of glass substrates in the last chapter.
31
61791
Active Control of Multiferroic Composite Shells Using 1-3 Piezoelectric Composites
Abstract:
This article deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart multiferroic or magneto-electro-elastic doubly curved shells. The kinematics of deformations of the multiferroic doubly curved shell is described by a layer-wise shear deformation theory. A three-dimensional finite element model of multiferroic shells has been developed taking into account the electro-elastic and magneto-elastic couplings. A simple velocity feedback control law is employed to incorporate the active damping. Influence of layer stacking sequence and boundary conditions on the response of the multiferroic doubly curved shell has been studied. In addition, for the different orientation of the fibers of the constraining layer, the performance of the ACLD treatment has been studied.
30
35495
Phosphate Bonded Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Fibre Composites
Abstract:
The properties of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) in phosphate bonded composites were investigated in this research. Hemp hurds were collected from the Hemporium institute for research, South Africa. The hurds were air-dried and shredded using a hammer mill. The shives were screened into different particle sizes and were treated separately with 5% solution of acetic anhydride and sodium hydroxide. The binding matrix was prepared using a reactive magnesia, phosphoric acid, class S fly ash and unslaked lime. The treated and untreated hemp fibers were mixed thoroughly in different ratios with the inorganic matrix. Boric acid and excess water were used to retard and control the rate of the reaction and the setting of the binder. The Hemp composite was formed in a rectangular mold and compressed at room temperature at a pressure of 100KPa. After de-molding the composites, they were cured in a conditioning room for 96 h. Physical and mechanical tests were conducted to evaluate the properties of the composites. A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the best conditions to optimize the performance of the composites. Thereafter, these combinations were applied in the production of the composites, and the properties were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to carry out the advance examination of the behavior of the composites while X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to analyze the reaction pathway in the composites. The results revealed that all properties of phosphate bonded Hemp composites exceeded the LD-1 grade classification of particle boards. The proposed product can be used for ceiling, partitioning, wall claddings and underlayment.
29
29341
Study of Chemical and Physical - Mechanical Properties Lime Mortar with Addition of Natural Resins
Abstract:
Mexico has remarkable archaeological remains mainly in the Maya area, which are critical to the preservation of our cultural heritage, so the authorities have an interest in preserving and restoring these vestiges of the most original way, by employing techniques traditional, which has advantages such as compatibility, durability, strength, uniformity and chemical composition. Recent studies have confirmed the addition of natural resins extracted from the bark of trees, of which Brosium alicastrum (Ramon) has been the most evaluated, besides being one of the most abundant species in the vicinity of the archaeological sites, like that Manilkara Zapota (Chicozapote). Therefore, the objective is to determine if these resins are capable of being employed in archaeological restoration. This study shows the results of the chemical composition and physical-mechanical behavior of mortar mixtures eight made with commercial lime and off by hand, calcium sand, resins added with Brosium alicastrum (Ramon) and Manilkara zapota (Chicozapote), where determined and quantified properties and chemical composition of the resins by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), the pH of the material was determined, indicating that both resins are acidic (3.78 and 4.02), and the addition rate maximum was obtained from resins in water by means of ultrasonic baths pulses, being in the case of 10% Manilkara zapota, because it contains up to 40% rubber and for 40% alicastrum Brosium contain less rubber. Through quantitative methodology, the compressive strength 96 specimens of 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm of mortar binding, 72 with partial substitution of water mixed with natural resins in proportions 5 to 10% in the case was evaluated of Manilkara Zapota, for Brosium alicastrum 20 and 40%, and 12 artificial resin and 12 without additive (mortars witnesses). 24 specimens likewise glued brick with mortar, for testing shear adhesion was found where, then the microstructure more conducive additions was determined by SEM analysis were prepared sweep. The test results indicate that the addition Manilkara zapota resin in the proportion of 10% 1.5% increase in compressive strength and 1% with respect to adhesion, compared to the control without addition mortar; In the case of Brosium alicastrum results show that compressive strengths and adhesion were insignificant compared to those made with registered by Manilkara zapota mixtures. Mortars containing the natural resins have improvements in physical properties and increase the mechanical strength and adhesion, compared to those who do not, in addition to the components are chemically compatible, therefore have considered that can be employed in Archaeological restoration.
28
35962
An Analysis on Thermal Energy Storage in Paraffin-Wax Using Tube Array on a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of latent and sensible thermal energy storage within a paraffin wax media by an array of cylindrical tubes arranged both in in-line and staggered layouts. An analytical and experimental study was carried out in a horizontal shell-and-tube type system during the melting process. Pertamina paraffin-wax was used as a phase change material (PCM), where as the tubes are embedded in the PCM. From analytical study we can obtain the useful information in designing a thermal energy storage such as : the motion of interface, amount of material melted at any time in the process, and the heat storage characteristic during melting. The use of staggered tubes is proposed as superior to in-line layout for thermal storage. The experimental study was used to verify the validity of the analytical predictions. From the comparisons, the analytical and experimental data are in a good agreement.
27
73560
Submodeling of Mega-Shell Reinforced Concrete Solar Chimneys
Abstract:
Solar updraft power plants (SUPPs) made from reinforced concrete (RC) are an innovative technology to generate solar electricity. An up to 1000 m high chimney represents the major part of each SUPP ensuring the updraft of the warmed air from the ground. Numerical simulation of nonlinear behavior of such large mega shell concrete structures is a challenging task, and computationally expensive. A general finite element approach to simulate reinforced concrete bearing behavior is presented and verified on a simply supported beam, as well as the technique of submodeling. The verified numerical approach is extended and consecutively transferred to a more complex chimney structure of a SUPP. The obtained results proved the reliability of submodeling technique in analyzing critical regions of simple and complex mega concrete structures with high accuracy and dramatic decrease in the computation time.
26
95946
A Fast Method for Graphene-Supported Pd-Co Nanostructures as Catalyst toward Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media
Abstract:
Nowadays, fuel cells as a promising alternative for power source have been widely studied owing to their security, high energy density, low operation temperatures, renewable capability and low environmental pollutant emission. The nanoparticles of core-shell type could be widely described in a combination of a shell (outer layer material) and a core (inner material), and their characteristics are greatly conditional on dimensions and composition of the core and shell. In addition, the change in the constituting materials or the ratio of core to the shell can create their special noble characteristics. In this study, a fast technique for the fabrication of a Pd-Co/G/GCE modified electrode is offered. Thermal decomposition reaction of cobalt (II) formate salt over the surface of graphene/glassy carbon electrode (G/GCE) is utilized for the synthesis of Co nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of Pd-Co decorated on the graphene are created based on the following method: (1) Thermal decomposition reaction of cobalt (II) formate salt and (2) the galvanic replacement process Co by Pd2+. The physical and electrochemical performances of the as-prepared Pd-Co/G electrocatalyst are studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Chronoamperometry (CHA). Galvanic replacement method is utilized as a facile and spontaneous approach for growth of Pd nanostructures. The Pd-Co/G is used as an anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The Pd-Co/G not only delivered much higher current density (262.3 mAcm-2) compared to the Pd/C (32.1 mAcm-2) catalyst, but also demonstrated a negative shift of the onset oxidation potential (-0.480 vs -0.460 mV) in the forward sweep. Moreover, the novel Pd-Co/G electrocatalyst represents large electrochemically active surface area (ECSA), lower apparent activation energy (Ea), higher levels of durability and poisoning tolerance compared to the Pd/C catalyst. The paper demonstrates that the catalytic activity and stability of Pd-Co/G electrocatalyst are higher than those of the Pd/C electrocatalyst toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media.
25
58614
The Effect of Extruded Full-Fat Rapeseed on Productivity and Eggs Quality of Isa Brown Laying Hens
Abstract:
The eight-week feeding trial was conducted involving 27-wk-old Isa brown laying hens to study the effect of dry extrusion processing on partial reduction in total glucosinolates content of locally produced rapeseed and on productivity and eggs quality parameters of laying hens. Thirty-six hens were randomly assigned one of three treatments (CONTR, AERS and HERS), each comprising 12, individual caged layers. The main composition of the diets was the same, but extruded soya bean seed were replaced with 2.5% of the extruded rapeseed in the AERS group and 4.5 % in the HERS group. Rapeseed was extruded together with faba beans. Due to extrusion process the glucosinolates content was reduced by 7.83 µmol/g of rapeseed. The results of conducted trial shows, that during all experimental period egg production parameters, such as the average feed intake (6529.17 vs. 6257 g/hen/14 day; P < 0.05) and laying intensity (94.35% vs. 89.29; P < 0.05) were statistically different for HERS and CONTR laying hens respectively. Only the feed conversion ratio to produce 1 kg of eggs, kg in AERS group was by 11 % lower compared to CONTR group (P < 0.05). By analysing the effect of extruded rapeseed on egg mass, the statistical differences between treatments were no determined. The dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, albumen height, haugh units, albumen and yolk pH. However, in the HERS group were get eggs with the more intensive yolk color, higher redness (a) and yellowness (b) values. The inclusion of full-fat extruded rapeseed had no effect on egg shell quality parameters, i.e. shell breaking strength, shell weight with and without coat and shell index, but in the experimental groups were get eggs with the thinner shell (P < 0.05). The internal egg quality analysis showed that with higher content of extruded rapeseed (4.5 %) level in the diet, the total cholesterol in the eggs yolk decreased by 1.92 mg/g in comparison with CONTR group (P < 0.05). Eggs laid by hens fed the diet containing 2.5% and 4.5% had increasing ∑PNRR/∑SRR ratio and decreasing ∑(n-6)/∑(n-3) ratio values of eggs yolk fatty acids than in CONTR group. Eggs of hens fed different amount of extruded rapeseed presented an n-6 : n-3 ratio changed from 5.17 to 4.71. The analysis of the relationship between hypocholesteremia/ hypercholesterolemia fatty acids (H/H), which is based on the functional properties of fatty acids, found that the value of it ratio is significant higher in laying hens fed diets supplemented with 4.5% extruded rapeseed than the CONTR group, demonstrating the positive effects of extruded rapeseed on egg quality. The results of trial confirmed that extruded full fat rapeseed to the 4.5% are suitable to replace soyabean in the compound feed of laying hens.
24
26781
Promissing Antifungal Chitinase from Marine Strain of Bacillus
Abstract:
Seventy two bacterial strains with ability to degrade chitin were isolated during a screening program. One of the most potent isolates (strain R2) was identified as Bacillus sp. using conventional methods as well as 16S rRNA technique and submitted in the Gen Bank sequence database as Bacillus sp. R2 with a given accession number DQ 923161. This strain was able to produce high levels of extracellular chitinase. The chitinase of Bacillus sp. R2 hydrolyzed several chitinous substrates preferentially and showed a maximum activity toward the β chitin such as Calmar pen and squid bone chitins with the folds 1.47 and 1.23 respectively. The enzyme also exhibited a substrate binding capacity of more than 70% for squid chitin, shrimp shell colloidal chitin, chitosan and prawn shell chitin. The chitinase showed a moderate antifungal activity against many phytopathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium degitatum and Fusarium calmorum.This strain could be a suitable candidate for chitinase production on an industrial scale for using as promising antifungal biopestecide.
23
43841
Persian Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.) Dehydration in Natural and Industrial Conditions
Abstract:
In this study, the effect of various drying methods (sun drying, shade drying and industrial drying) on final moisture content, shell splitting degree, shrinkage and color change were studied. Sun drying resulted higher degree of pistachio nuts shell splitting on pistachio nuts relative other drying methods. The ANOVA results showed that the different drying methods did not significantly effects on color change of dried pistachio nut. The results illustrated that pistachio nut dried by industrial drying had the lowest moisture content. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted with five famous drying models namely Newton, Page, Silva et al., Peleg and Henderson and Pabis. The results indicated that Peleg and Page models gave better results compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio’s pistachio nut in industrial drying and open sun (or shade drying) methods, respectively.
22
96718
Non-Linear Load-Deflection Response of Shape Memory Alloys-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Uniform Radial Load
Abstract:
Shape memory alloys (SMA) are often implemented in smart structures as the active components. Their ability to recover large displacements has been used in many applications, including structural stability/response enhancement and active structural acoustic control. SMA wires or fibers can be embedded with composite cylinders to increase their critical buckling load, improve their load-deflection behavior, and reduce the radial deflections under various thermo-mechanical loadings. This paper presents a semi-analytical investigation on the non-linear load-deflection response of SMA-reinforced composite circular cylindrical shells. The cylinder shells are under uniform external pressure load. Based on first-order shear deformation shell theory (FSDT), the equilibrium equations of the structure are derived. One-dimensional simplified Brinson&rsquo;s model is used for determining the SMA recovery force due to its simplicity and accuracy. Airy stress function and Galerkin technique are used to obtain non-linear load-deflection curves. The results are verified by comparing them with those in the literature. Several parametric studies are conducted in order to investigate the effect of SMA volume fraction, SMA pre-strain value, and SMA activation temperature on the response of the structure. It is shown that suitable usage of SMA wires results in a considerable enhancement in the load-deflection response of the shell due to the generation of the SMA tensile recovery force.
21
71655
Crab Shell Waste Chitosan-Based Thin Film for Acoustic Sensor Applications
Abstract:
Industrial waste of crustacean shells, such as shrimp and crab, has been considered as one of the major issues contributing to environmental pollution. The waste processing mechanisms to form new, practical substances with added value have been developed. Chitosan, a derived matter from chitin, which is obtained from crab and shrimp shells, performs prodigiously in broad range applications. A chitosan composite-based diaphragm is a new inspiration in fiber optic acoustic sensor advancement. Elastic modulus, dynamic response, and sensitivity to acoustic wave of chitosan-based composite film contribute great potentials of organic-based sound-detecting material. The objective of this research was to develop chitosan diaphragm application in fiber optic microphone system. The formulation was conducted by blending 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution with dissolved chitosan at 0%, 1% and 2% in 1:1 ratio, respectively. Composite diaphragms were characterized for the morphological and mechanical properties to predict the desired acoustic sensor sensitivity. The composite with 2% chitosan indicated optimum performance with 242.55 µm thickness, 67.9% relative humidity, and 29-76% light transmittance. The Young’s modulus of 2%-chitosan composite material was 4.89×104 N/m2, which generated the voltage amplitude of 0.013V and performed sensitivity of 3.28 mV/Pa at 1 kHz. Based on the results above, chitosan from crustacean shell waste can be considered as a viable alternative material for fiber optic acoustic sensor sensing pad development. Further, the research in chitosan utilisation is proposed as novel optical microphone development in anthropogenic noise controlling effort for environmental and biodiversity conservation.
20
24451
Influence of Water Hardness on Column Adsorption of Paracetamol by Biomass of Babassu Coconut Shell
Abstract:
This study was the adsorption of paracetamol from aqueous solutions on fixed beds of activated carbon from babassy coconut shell. Several operation conditions on the shape of breakthrough curves were investigated and proposed model is successfully validated with the literature data and obtained experimental data. The initial paracetamol concentration increases from 20 to 50 mg.L-1, and the break point time decreases, tb, from 18.00 to 10.50 hours. The fraction of unused bed length, HUNB, at break-through point is obtained in the range of 1.62 to 2.81 for 20 to 50 mg.L-1 of initial paracetamol concentration. The presence of Ca+2 and Mg+2 are responsible for increasing the hardness of the water, affects significantly the adsorption kinetics, and lower removal efficiency by adsorption of paracetamol on activated carbons. The axial dispersion coefficients, DL, was constants for concentrated feed solution, but this parameter has different values for deionized and hardness water. The mass transfer coefficient, Ks, was increasing with concentrated feed solution.
19
42134
M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López
Abstract:
Many organic solid wastes are produced in the world. Poultry manure (PM), municipal organic wastes (MOW) and sugar beet lime sludge (LS) are produced in large quantities in Morocco. The co-composting of these organic wastes was investigated. The recycling and the valorization of such wastes is environmentally and economically beneficial especially for PM which is known source of bacterial pathogens. The aerobic biodegradation process was carried out by using three windrows of variable compositions: C1 prepared without LS (only MOW were composted with PM), C2 prepared from MOW plus PM and10% LS; and the last one C3 from MOW plus PM and 20% LS. The main process physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) and microbiological populations (mesophilic and thermophilic flora, total coliform, fecal coliform, Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic fungi) were monitored over three months to ascertain the compost maturity and to ensure the compost hygienic aspect. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 10.6-10.9. The organic matter degradation was reached approximately 59% for C2 and C3. In addition, the monitoring of the microbial population showed that the produced composts are mature and hygienic. The agronomic valorization of the final composts was tested on radish plant with tree level of composts and poultry manure without composting. The primary results of field trial showed a growth of radish plant biomass and root development without any phytotoxicity detected which reflects the quality of the composts produced. As for poultry manure it allowed to have a better results than other composts because of its readily available nitrogen.
18
48416
Determination of the Some IGF and IGFBP2 Polymorphisms and Their Association with Growth and Egg Traits in Atak-S Chickens
Abstract:
Atak-S laying hens are a high-performance strain obtained by crossing of the Rhode Island Red (RIR) X the Barred Plymouth Rock (BR) and are being produced in the Ankara Poultry Research Institute since 1997. Phenotypic and genetic improving studies are continued for this strain. In this study, 2 from IGF and 1 from IGFBP2, totally 3 different SNP polymorphisms were examined in 200 Atak-S chickens. Genotypes of SNPs were compared using ANOVA to body weight and egg number thorough 32 weeks of age, body weight at sexual maturity, age at sexual maturity and also egg quality traits such as egg shell breaking strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index, shape index. Only IGF(a) locus was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while, the other loci were not. As a result of the performance comparisons to the 3 SNP loci, it was determined that there has a significant association (P< 0.05) between only TC genotypes of the IGF(b) locus and body weight at 32 weeks of age, but there was not any association to the other traits.
17
25649
Production of Composite Materials by Mixing Chromium-Rich Ash and Soda-Lime Glass Powder: Mechanical Properties and Microstructure
Abstract:
A chromium-loaded ash originating from incineration of tannery sludge under anoxic conditions was mixed with low grade soda-lime glass powder coming from commercial glass bottles. The relative weight proportions of ash over glass powder tested were 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50. The solid mixtures, formed in green state compacts, were sintered at the temperature range of 800oC up to 1200oC. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and micro-indentation. The above methods were employed to characterize the various phases, microstructure and hardness of the produced materials. Thermal treatment at 800oC and 1000oC produced opaque ceramic products composed of a variety of chromium-containing and chromium-free crystalline phases. Thermal treatment at 1200oC gave rise to composite products, where only chromium-containing crystalline phases were detected. Hardness results suggest that specific products are serious candidates for structural applications. Acknowledgement: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) – Research Funding Program: THALES “WasteVal”: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/or inter-institutional research and innovation.
16
42733
Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Glass Cylindrical Shell with Hinged Free Boundary Conditions
Abstract:
Laminated glass is a kind of safety glass, which is made by 'sandwiching' two glass sheets and a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer in between them. When the glass is broken, the interlayer in between the glass sheets can stick them together. Because of this property, the hazards of sharp projectiles during natural and man-made disasters reduces. They can be widely applied in building, architecture, automotive, transport industries. Laminated glass can easily undergo large displacements even under their own weight. In order to explain their true behavior, they should be analyzed by using large deflection theory to represent nonlinear behavior. In this study, a nonlinear mathematical model is developed for the analysis of laminated glass cylindrical shell which is free in radial directions and restrained in axial directions. The results will be verified by using the results of the experiment, carried out on laminated glass cylindrical shells. The behavior of laminated composite cylindrical shell can be represented by five partial differential equations. Four of the five equations are used to represent axial displacements and radial displacements and the fifth one for the transverse deflection of the unit. Governing partial differential equations are derived by employing variational principles and minimum potential energy concept. Finite difference method is employed to solve the coupled differential equations. First, they are converted into a system of matrix equations and then iterative procedure is employed. Iterative procedure is necessary since equations are coupled. Problems occurred in getting convergent sequence generated by the employed procedure are overcome by employing variable underrelaxation factor. The procedure developed to solve the differential equations provides not only less storage but also less calculation time, which is a substantial advantage in computational mechanics problems.
15
70117
Study and Solving Partial Differential Equation of Danel Equation in the Vibration Shells
Abstract:
This paper we deal with an analysis of the free vibrations of the governing partial differential equation that it is Danel equation in the shells. The problem considered represents the governing equation of the nonlinear, large amplitude free vibrations of the hinged shell. A new implementation of the new method is presented to obtain natural frequency and corresponding displacement on the shell. Our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve the mentioned complicated partial differential equation (PDE) with a simple and innovative approach. The results reveal that this new method to solve Danel equation is very effective and simple, and can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations. It is necessary to mention that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving nonlinear differential equations and also most of the sets of partial differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they have not had acceptable solutions up to now. We can solve equation(s), and consequently, there is no need to utilize similarity solutions which make the solution procedure a time-consuming task.
14
66849
Study and Solving Partial Differential Equation of Danel Equation in the Vibration Shells
Abstract:
This paper we deal with an analysis of the free vibrations of the governing partial differential equation that it is Danel equation in the shells. The problem considered represents the governing equation of the nonlinear, large amplitude free vibrations of the hinged shell. A new implementation of the new method is presented to obtain natural frequency and corresponding displacement on the shell. Our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve the mentioned complicated partial differential equation (PDE) with a simple and innovative approach. The results reveal that this new method to solve Danel equation is very effective and simple, and can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations. It is necessary to mention that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving nonlinear differential equations and also most of the sets of partial differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they have not had acceptable solutions up to now. We can solve equation(s), and consequently, there is no need to utilize similarity solutions which make the solution procedure a time-consuming task.
13
97439
Evaluation of Computed Tomographic Anatomy of Respiratory System in Caspian Pond Turtle (Mauremys caspica)
Abstract:
In recent decades, keeping exotic species as pet animals has become widespread. Turtles are exotic species from chelonians, which are interested by many people. Caspian pond and European pond turtles from Emydidea family are commonly kept as pets in Iran. Presence of the shell in turtles makes achievement to a comprehensive clinical examination impossible. Respiratory system is one of the most important structures to be examined completely. Presence of the air in the respiratory system makes radiography the first modality to think of; however, image quality would be affected by the shell. Computed tomography (CT) as a radiography-based and non-invasive technique provides cross-sectional scans with little superimposition. The aim of this study was to depict normal computed tomographic anatomy of the respiratory system in Caspian Pond Turtle. Five adult Caspian pond turtle were scanned using a 16-detector CT machine. Our results showed that computed tomography is able to well illustrated different parts of respiratory system in turtle and can be used for detecting abnormalities and disorders.
12
90565
High Physical Properties of Biochar Issued from Cashew Nut Shell to Adsorb Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins and Ochratoxine A) and Its Effects on Toxigenic Molds
Abstract:
Biochar is a microporous and adsorbent solid carbon product obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic materials (biomass, agricultural waste). Biochar is distinguished from vegetable charcoal by its manufacture methods. Biochar is used as the amendment in soils to give them favorable characteristics under certain conditions, i.e., absorption of water and its release at low speed. Cashew nuts shell from Mali is usually discarded on land by local processors or burnt as a mean for waste management. The burning of this biomass poses serious socio-environmental problems including greenhouse gas emission and accumulation of tars and soot on houses closed to factories, leading to neighbor complaints. Some mycotoxins as aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds resulting from the secondary metabolism of molds that develop on plants in the field and during their conservation. They are found at high level on some seeds and nuts in Africa. Ochratoxin A, member of mycotoxins, is produced by various species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Human exposure to Ochratoxin A can occur through consumption of contaminated food products, particularly contaminated grain, as well as coffee, wine grapes. We showed that cashew shell biochars produced at 400, 600 and 800°C adsorbed aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) at 100% by filtration (rapid contact) as well as by stirring (long contact). The average percentage of adsorption of Ochratoxin A was 35% by filtration and 80% by stirring. The duration of the biochar-mycotoxin contact was a significant parameter. The effect of biochar was also tested on two strains of toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus (producers of Aflatoxins) and Aspergillus carbonarius (producers of Ochratoxins). The growth of the strain Aspergillus carbonarius was inhibited at up to 60% by the biochar at 600°C. An opposite effect to the inhibition was observed on Aspergillus parasiticus using the same biochar. In conclusion, we observed that biochar adsorbs mycotoxins: Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A to different degrees; 100% adsorption of aflatoxins under all conditions (filtration and stirring) and adsorption of Ochratoxin A varied depending on the type of biochar and the experiment conditions (35% by filtration and 85% by stirring). The effects of biochar at 600 °C on the toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus carbonarius, varied according to the experimental conditions and the strains. We observed an opposite effect on the growth with an inhibition of Aspergillus carbonarius up to 60% and a stimulated growth of Aspergillus parasiticus.
11
67521
Core-Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment
Abstract:
Conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to be a powerful, non-invasive technique for biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia, drug release, disease treatment and remote control of single cell functions, but poor conversion efficiencies have hindered practical applications so far. In this paper, an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs. To increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs, one can take advantage of the exchange coupling between a magnetically hard core and magnetically soft shell to tune the magnetic properties of the NP and maximize the specific absorption rate, which is the gauge of conversion efficiency. In order to examine the tunability of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetic heating power, a representative magnetically hard material (CoFe₂O₄) has been coupled to a soft material (Ni₀.₅Zn₀.₅Fe₂O₄). The synthesized NPs show specific absorption rates that are of an order of magnitude larger than the conventional one.
10
85666
Control Strategy for a Solar Vehicle Race
Abstract:
Electrical vehicles are a solution for reducing the pollution using green energy. The shell Eco-Marathon provides rules in order to minimize the battery use for the race. The use of solar panel combined with efficient motor control and race strategy allow driving a 60kg vehicle with one pilot using only the solar energy in the best case. This paper presents a complete modelization of a solar vehicle used for the shell eco-marathon. This project called Helios is cooperation between non-graduated students, academic institutes, and industrials. The prototype is an ultra-energy-efficient vehicle based on one-meter square solar panel and an own-made brushless controller to optimize the electrical part. The vehicle is equipped with sensors and embedded system to provide all the data in real time in order to evaluate the best strategy for the course. A complete modelization with Matlab/Simulink is used to test the optimal strategy to increase the global endurance. Experimental results are presented to validate the different parts of the model: mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, solar panel. The major finding of this study is to provide solutions to identify the model parameters (Rolling Resistance Coefficient, drag coefficient, motor torque coefficient, etc.) by means of experimental results combined with identification techniques. One time the coefficients are validated, the strategy to optimize the consumption and the average speed can be tested first in simulation before to be implanted for the race. The paper describes all the simulation and experimental parts and provides results in order to optimize the global efficiency of the vehicle. This works have been started four years ago and evolved many students for the experimental and theoretical parts and allow to increase the knowledge on electrical self-efficient vehicle.
9
74132
Single Ion Transport with a Single-Layer Graphene Nanopore
Abstract:
Graphene material has found tremendous applications in water desalination, DNA sequencing and energy storage. Multiple nanopores are etched to create opening for water desalination and energy storage applications. The nanopores created are of the order of 3-5 nm allowing multiple ions to transport through the pore. In this paper, we present for the first time, molecular dynamics study of single ion transport, where only one ion passes through the graphene nanopore. The diameter of the graphene nanopore is of the same order as the hydration layers formed around each ion. Analogous to single electron transport resulting from ionic transport is observed for the first time. The current-voltage characteristics of such a device are similar to single electron transport in quantum dots. The current is blocked until a critical voltage, as the ions are trapped inside a hydration shell. The trapped ions have a high energy barrier compared to the applied input electrical voltage, preventing the ion to break free from the hydration shell. This region is called "Coulomb blockade region". In this region, we observe zero transport of ions inside the nanopore. However, when the electrical voltage is beyond the critical voltage, the ion has sufficient energy to break free from the energy barrier created by the hydration shell to enter into the pore. Thus, the input voltage can control the transport of the ion inside the nanopore. The device therefore acts as a binary storage unit, storing 0 when no ion passes through the pore and storing 1 when a single ion passes through the pore. We therefore postulate that the device can be used for fluidic computing applications in chemistry and biology, mimicking a computer. Furthermore, the trapped ion stores a finite charge in the Coulomb blockade region; hence the device also acts a super capacitor.
8
56074
Poly (Acrylonitrile-Co-Methylacrylate)/Poly N-Methyl Pyrrole and Pyrrole Nanocomposites
Abstract:
In this study, Poly (acrylonitrile-co-methylacrylate)/N-Methyl Pyrrole and Pyrrole ([P(AN-co-MA)]-NMPy and [P(AN-co-MA)]-PPy) core–shell nanoparticles were obtained by in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDBS and SDS) by using ammonium per sulphate in the aqueous medium. The spectroscopic characterizations during the formation of nanocomposites were studied using Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer (Uv-Vis). Electrical conductivity of the emulsion solution was measured by Conductivity Meter from aqueous sample solution. Also, yield of the powder nanocomposites was measured. SDBS and SDS used for investigation of surfactant effect on yield, electrical conductivity and polymerization process. Determination of polymerization yield, (FTIR-ATR) and (Uv-Vis) prove that the SDBS surfactant become more incorporated into the conducting polymers and there is strong interaction between the [P(AN-co-MA)]-PPy derivatives which prepared by these surfactants. The similar inclusion of SDS into conducting polymers was not observed, there is a remarkable difference at nanocomposites which prepared with SDS.
7
41421
Mechanical Behavior of a Pipe Subject to Buckling
Abstract:
The thin shell structures like metal are particularly susceptible to buckling or geometric instability. Their sizing is performed by resorting to simplified rules, this approach is generally conservative. Indeed, these structures are very sensitive to the slightest imperfection shape (initial geometrical defects). The design is usually based on the knowledge of the real or perceived initial state. Now this configuration evolves over time, there is usually the addition of new deformities due to operation (accidental loads, creep), but also to loss of material located in the corroded areas. Taking into account these various damage generally led to a loss of bearing capacity. In order to preserve the charge potential of the structure, it is then necessary to find a different material. In our study, we plan to replace the material used for reservoirs found in the company Sonatrach with a composite material made from carbon fiber or glass. 6 to 12 layers of composite are simply stuck. Research is devoted to the study of the buckling of multilayer shells subjected to an imposed displacement, allowed us to identify the key parameters and those whose effect is less. For all results, we find that the carbon epoxy T700E is the strongest, increasing the number of layers increases the strength of the shell.
6
41396
Buckling a Reservoir Composite Provided with Notches
Abstract:
The thin shell structures like metal are particularly susceptible to buckling or geometric instability. Their sizing is performed by resorting to simplified rules, this approach is generally conservative. Indeed, these structures are very sensitive to the slightest imperfection shape (initial geometrical defects). The design is usually based on the knowledge of the real or perceived initial state. Now this configuration evolves over time, there is usually the addition of new deformities due to operation (accidental loads, creep), but also to loss of material located in the corroded areas. Taking into account these various damage generally led to a loss of bearing capacity. In order to preserve the charge potential of the structure, it is then necessary to find a different material. In our study we plan to replace the material used for reservoirs found in the company Sonatrach with a composite material made from carbon fiber or glass. 6 to 12 layers of composite are simply stuck. Research is devoted to the study of the buckling of multilayer shells subjected to an imposed displacement, allowed us to identify the key parameters and those whose effect is less. For all results, we find that the carbon epoxy T700E is the strongest, increasing the number of layers increases the strength of the shell.
5
103464
Synthesis and Characterization of Capric-Stearic Acid/ Graphene Oxide-TiO₂ Microcapsules for Solar Energy Storage and Photocatalytic Efficiency
Abstract:
This study deals with a bifunctional micro-encapsulated phase change (MCP) material, capric-stearic acid/graphene oxide-TiO2, which has been successfully developed by in situ hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetrabutyl titanate and modification of graphene oxide (GO) on the TiO2 doped shell. The use of graphene and doped TiO2 is a promising approach to provide photocatalytic activity under visible light and improve the microcapsules physicochemical properties. The morphology and chemical structure of the resulting microcapsule samples were determined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) methods. The ultraviolet, visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis), the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to investigate the absorption of visible and ultraviolet (UV), the thermal properties, and thermal stabilities of the microcapsules. Note that, the visible light photocatalytic activity was assessed for the toluene and benzene gaseous removal in a suitable test room. The microcapsules exhibit an interesting spherical morphology and an average diameter of 15 to 25 μm. The addition of graphene can enhance the rigidity of the shell and improve the microcapsules thermal reliability. At the same time, the thermal analysis tests showed that the synthesized microcapsules had a high solar thermal energy-storage and better thermal stability. In addition, the capric-stearic acid microcapsules exhibited high solar photocatalytic activity with respect to atmospheric pollutants under natural sunlight. The fatty acid samples obtained with the GO/TiO2 shell showed great potential for applications of solar energy storage, solar photocatalytic degradation of air pollutants and buildings energy conservation.
4
107110
Developing a Self-Healing Concrete Filler Using Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Based Two-Part Adhesive
Abstract:
Concrete is an essential building material used in the majority of structures. Degradation of concrete over time increases the life-cycle cost of an asset with an estimated annual cost of billions of dollars to national economies. Most of the concrete failure occurs due to cracks, which propagate through a structure and cause weakening leading to failure. Stopping crack propagation is thus the key to protecting concrete structures from failure and is the best way to prevent inconveniences and catastrophes. Furthermore, the majority of cracks occur deep within the concrete in inaccessible areas and are invisible to normal inspection. Few materials intrinsically possess self-healing ability, but one that does is concrete. However, self-healing in concrete is limited to small dormant cracks in a moist environment and is difficult to control. In this project, we developed a method for self-healing of nascent fractures in concrete components through the automatic release of self-curing healing agents encapsulated in breakable nano- and micro-structures. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based two-part adhesive is encapsulated in core-shell structures with brittle/weak inert shell, synthesized via miniemulsion/solvent evaporation polymerization. Stress fields associated with propagating cracks can break these capsules releasing the healing agents at the point where they are needed. The shell thickness is playing an important role in preserving the content until the final setting of concrete. The capsules can also be surface functionalized with carboxyl groups to overcome the homogenous mixing issues. Currently, this formulated self-healing system can replace up to 1% of cement in a concrete formulation. Increasing this amount to 5-7% in the concrete formulation without compromising compression strength and shrinkage properties, is still under investigation. This self-healing system will not only increase the durability of structures by stopping crack propagation but also allow the use of less cement in concrete construction, thereby adding to the global effort for CO2 emission reduction.
3
95122
Searching for Forensic Evidence in a Compromised Virtual Web Server against SQL Injection Attacks and PHP Web Shell
Abstract:
SQL injection is one of the most common types of attacks and has a very critical impact on web servers. In the worst case, an attacker can perform post-exploitation after a successful SQL injection attack. In the case of forensics web servers, web server analysis is closely related to log file analysis. But sometimes large file sizes and different log types make it difficult for investigators to look for traces of attackers on the server. The purpose of this paper is to help investigator take appropriate steps to investigate when the web server gets attacked. We use attack scenarios using SQL injection attacks including PHP backdoor injection as post-exploitation. We perform post-mortem analysis of web server logs based on Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) POST and HTTP GET method approaches that are characteristic of SQL injection attacks. In addition, we also propose structured analysis method between the web server application log file, database application, and other additional logs that exist on the webserver. This method makes the investigator more structured to analyze the log file so as to produce evidence of attack with acceptable time. There is also the possibility that other attack techniques can be detected with this method. On the other side, it can help web administrators to prepare their systems for the forensic readiness.
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49593
Dynamic Response of Doubly Curved Composite Shell with Embedded Shape Memory Alloys Wires
Abstract:
In this paper, dynamic response of thin smart composite panel subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Shape memory wires are used to reinforced curved composite panel in a smart way. One-dimensional thermodynamic constitutive model by Liang and Rogers is used for estimating the structural recovery stress. The two degrees-of-freedom mass-spring model is used for evaluation of the contact force between the curved composite panel and the impactor. This work is benefited from the Hertzian linear contact model which is linearized for the impact analysis of curved composite panel. The governing equations of curved panel are provided by first-order shear theory and solved by Fourier series related to simply supported boundary condition. For this purpose, the equation of doubly curved panel motion included the uniform in-plane forces is obtained. By the present analysis, the curved panel behavior under low-velocity impact, and also the effect of the impact parameters, the shape memory wire and the curved panel dimensions are studied.
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41460
Effect of Whey Protein-Rice Bran Oil Incorporated Zataria multiflora Extract Edible Coating on Chemical, Physical and Microbial Quality of Chicken Egg
Abstract:
In this study, the effects of coating with whey protein concentrate (7.5% w/v) alone and/or in combination with rice bran oil (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 g in 100 ml coating solution) and Zataria multiflora extract (1 and 2 μL in 100 ml coating solution) on the quality attributes and egg shelf life were carefully observed and analyzed. Weight loss, Haugh index, yolk index, pH, air cell depth, shell strength and the impact of this coating on the microbial load of the eggs surface were studied at the end of each week (during the 4 weeks of storage in a room environment temperature and humidity). After 4 weeks of storage, it was observed that the weight loss in all of the treated eggs with whey protein concentrate and 0.2 gr of rice bran oil (experimental group) was significantly lower than that of the control group(P < 0/05). With regard to Haugh index and yolk index, egg shelf life increased about 4 weeks compared with the control samples. Haugh Index changes revealed that the coated samples remained at grade A after 3 weeks of storage, while the control samples were relegated from grade AA to B after one week. Haugh and yolk Indices in all coated eggs were more than those of the control group. In the coated groups, Haugh and yolk indices of the coated samples with whey protein concentrate and 0.2 g rice bran oil and with whey protein concentrate and 0.2g of rice bran oil and 1 micro liter of Zataria multiflora extract were more than those of the other coated eggs and the control group eggs. PH values of the control group were higher than those of the coated groups during the storage of the eggs. The shell strength of the coated group was more than that of the control group (uncoated) and in coated samples, whey protein concentrate and 0.2 gr of rice bran oil coated samples had high shell strength. In the other treatments, no significant differences were observed. The depth of the air cell of the coated groups was determined to be less than that of the control group during the storage period. The minimum inhibitory concentration was 1 μL of Zataria multiflora extract. The results showed that 1 μL concentration of Zataria multiflora extract reduces the microbial load of the egg shell surface to 87% and 2 μL reduced total bacterial load to zero. In sensory evaluation, from evaluator point of view, the coated eggs had more overall acceptance than the uncoated group (control), and in the treatment group coated eggs, those containing a low percentage of rice bran oil had higher overall acceptability. In conclusion, coating as a practical and cost effective method can maintain the quality parameters of eggs and lead to durability of supply conditions in addition to the product marketability.