In an original directed diffusion routing protocol, a sink requests sensing data from a source node by flooding interest messages to the network. Then, the source finds the sink by sending exploratory data messages to all nodes that generate incoming interest messages. This protocol signaling can cause heavy traffic in the network, an interference of the radio signal, collisions, great energy consumption of sensor nodes, etc. According to this research problem, this paper investigates the effect of sending interest and exploratory data messages on the performance of directed diffusion routing protocol. We demonstrate the research problem occurred from employing directed diffusion protocol in mobile wireless environments. For this purpose, we perform a set of experiments by using NS2 (network simulator 2). The radio propagation models; Two-ray ground reflection with and without shadow fading are included to investigate the effect of signaling. The simulation results show that the number of times of sent and received protocol signaling in the case of sending interest and exploratory data messages are larger than the case of sending other protocol signals, especially in the case of shadowing model. Additionally, the number of exploratory data message is largest in one round of the protocol procedure.
An enhanced ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing (E-AODV) protocol for control system applications in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) is proposed. Our routing algorithm is designed by considering both wireless network communication and the control system aspects. Control system error and network delay are the main selection criteria in our routing protocol. The control and communication performance is evaluated on multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 networks for building-temperature control systems. The Gilbert-Elliott error model is employed to simulate packet loss in wireless networks. The simulation results demonstrate that the E-AODV routing approach can significantly improve the communication performance better than an original AODV routing under various packet loss rates. However, the control performance result by our approach is not much improved compared with the AODV routing solution.