Multipurpose Three Dimensional Finite Element Procedure for Thermal Analysis in Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of AZ 31B Magnesium Alloy Sheets
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at
establishing the temperature distribution during the welding of
magnesium alloy sheets by Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc
Welding (PCGTAW) and Constant Current Gas Tungsten Arc
Welding (CCGTAW) processes. Pulsing of the GTAW welding
current influences the dimensions and solidification rate of the fused
zone, it also reduces the weld pool volume hence a narrower bead. In
this investigation, the base material considered was 2mm thin AZ 31
B magnesium alloy, which is finding use in aircraft, automobile and
high-speed train components. A finite element analysis was carried
out using ANSYS, and the results of the FEA were compared with
the experimental results. It is evident from this study that the finite
element analysis using ANSYS can be effectively used to model
PCGTAW process for finding temperature distribution.
gas tungsten arc welding, pulsed current, finiteelement analysis, thermal analysis, magnesium alloy.
Prevalence of Psychological Resistance to Voluntary Counselling and Testing of HIV/AIDS among Students of Tertiary Institutions in Kano State, Nigeria
The incessant discomfort for Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) exhibited by students in some tertiary institutions in Kano State, Nigeria is capable of causing Psychological Resistance as well as jeopardizing the purpose of HIV intervention. This study investigated the Prevalence of Psychological Resistance to VCT of HIV/AIDS among students of tertiary institutions in the state. Two null hypotheses were postulated and tested. Cross- Sectional Survey Design was employed in which 1512 sample was selected from a student population of 104,841 following Stratified Random Sampling technique. A self-developed 20-item scale whose reliability coefficient is 0.83 was used for data collection. Data analyzed via Chi-square and t-test reveals a prevalence of 38% with males (Mean=0.34; SD=0.475) constituting 60% and females (Mean=0.45; SD=0.498) 40%. Also, the calculated chi-square and ttest were not significant at 0.05 as such the null hypotheses were upheld. Recommendation offered suggests the use of reinforcement and social support for students who patronize HIV/AIDS counselling.
HIV/AIDS, Prevalence rate, Psychological Resistance, VCT.
Fluidity of A713 Cast Alloy with and without Scrap Addition using Double Spiral Fluidity Test: A Comparison
Recycling of aluminum alloys often decrease fluidity,
consequently influence the castability of the alloy. In this study, the
fluidity of Al-Zn alloys, such as the standard A713 alloy with and
without scrap addition has been investigated. The scrap added was
comprised of contaminated alloy turning chips. Fluidity
measurements were performed with double spiral fluidity test
consisting of gravity casting of double spirals in green sand moulds
with good reproducibility. The influence of recycled alloy on fluidity
has been compared with that of the virgin alloy and the results
showed that the fluidity decreased with the increase in recycled alloy
at minimum pouring temperatures. Interestingly, an appreciable
improvement in the fluidity was observed at maximum pouring
temperature, especially for coated spirals.
A713 alloy, Fluidity, Hexachloroethane, Pouring
Magnetic Field Based Near Surface Haptic and Pointing Interface
In this paper, we are presenting a new type of pointing interface for computers which provides mouse functionalities with near surface haptic feedback. Further, it can be configured as a haptic display where users may feel the basic geometrical shapes in the GUI by moving the finger on top of the device surface. These functionalities are achieved by tracking three dimensional positions of the neodymium magnet using Hall Effect sensors grid and generating like polarity haptic feedback using an electromagnet array. This interface brings the haptic sensations to the 3D space where previously it is felt only on top of the buttons of the haptic mouse implementations.
Pointing interface, near surface haptic feedback,
tactile display, tangible user interface.
Motion Prediction and Motion Vector Cost Reduction during Fast Block Motion Estimation in MCTF
In 3D-wavelet video coding framework temporal
filtering is done along the trajectory of motion using Motion
Compensated Temporal Filtering (MCTF). Hence computationally
efficient motion estimation technique is the need of MCTF. In this
paper a predictive technique is proposed in order to reduce the
computational complexity of the MCTF framework, by exploiting
the high correlation among the frames in a Group Of Picture (GOP).
The proposed technique applies coarse and fine searches of any fast
block based motion estimation, only to the first pair of frames in a
GOP. The generated motion vectors are supplied to the next
consecutive frames, even to subsequent temporal levels and only fine
search is carried out around those predicted motion vectors. Hence
coarse search is skipped for all the motion estimation in a GOP
except for the first pair of frames. The technique has been tested for
different fast block based motion estimation algorithms over different
standard test sequences using MC-EZBC, a state-of-the-art scalable
video coder. The simulation result reveals substantial reduction (i.e.
20.75% to 38.24%) in the number of search points during motion
estimation, without compromising the quality of the reconstructed
video compared to non-predictive techniques. Since the motion
vectors of all the pair of frames in a GOP except the first pair will
have value ±1 around the motion vectors of the previous pair of
frames, the number of bits required for motion vectors is also
reduced by 50%.
Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering, predictivemotion estimation, lifted wavelet transform, motion vector
Piezomechanical Systems for Algae Cell Ultrasonication
Nowadays for algae cell ultrasonication the
longitudinal ultrasonic piezosystems are used. In this paper a
possibility of creating unique ultrasonic piezoelectric system, which
would allow reducing energy losses and concentrating this energy to
a small closed volume are proposed. The current vibrating systems
whose ultrasonic energy is concentrated inside of hollow cylinder in
which water-algae mixture is flowing. Two, three or multiply
ultrasonic composite systems to concentrate total energy into a
hollow cylinder to creating strong algae cell ultrasonication are used.
The experiments and numerical FEM analysis results using diskshaped
transducer and the first biological test results on algae cell
disruption by ultrasonication are presented as well.
Algae, piezomechanical system, ultrasonication.
Design Optimization of Cutting Parameters when Turning Inconel 718 with Cermet Inserts
Inconel 718, a nickel based super-alloy is an
extensively used alloy, accounting for about 50% by weight of
materials used in an aerospace engine, mainly in the gas turbine
compartment. This is owing to their outstanding strength and
oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures in excess of 5500 C.
Machining is a requisite operation in the aircraft industries for the
manufacture of the components especially for gas turbines. This
paper is concerned with optimization of the surface roughness when
turning Inconel 718 with cermet inserts. Optimization of turning
operation is very useful to reduce cost and time for machining. The
approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM). In this work,
second-order quadratic models are developed for surface roughness,
considering the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as the cutting
parameters, using central composite design. The developed models
are used to determine the optimum machining parameters. These
optimized machining parameters are validated experimentally, and it
is observed that the response values are in reasonable agreement with
the predicted values.
Inconel 718, Optimization, Response Surface
Methodology (RSM), Surface roughness
Preparation and Bioevaluation of DOTA-Cyclic RGD Peptide Dimer Labeled with 68Ga
Radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides targeting integrin αvβ3 are reported as promising agents for the early diagnosis of metastatic tumors. With an aim to improve tumor uptake and retention of the peptide, cyclic RGD peptide dimer E[c (RGDfK)] 2 (E = Glutamic acid, f = phenyl alanine, K = lysine) coupled to the bifunctional chelator DOTA was custom synthesized and radiolabelled with 68Ga. Radiolabelling of cyclic RGD peptide dimer with 68Ga was carried out using HEPES buffer and biological evaluation of the complex was done in nude mice bearing HT29 tumors.
68Ga peptides, Angiogenesis imaging, Cyclic RGD peptides, PET Imaging.
Optimization of Growth of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Using Mixed Volatile Fatty Acidsby Response Surface Methodology
A combination of photosynthetic bacteria along with
anaerobic acidogenic bacteria is an ideal option for efficient
hydrogen production. In the present study, the optimum
concentration of substrates for the growth of Rhodobacter
sphaeroides was found by response surface methodology. The
optimum combination of three individual fatty acids was determined
by Box Behnken design. Increase of volatile fatty acid concentration
decreased the growth. Combination of sodium acetate and sodium
propionate was most significant for the growth of the organism. The
results showed that a maximum biomass concentration of 0.916 g/l
was obtained when the concentrations of acetate, propionate and
butyrate were 0.73g/l,0.99g/l and 0.799g/l, respectively. The growth
was studied under an optimum concentration of volatile fatty acids
and at a light intensity of 3000 lux, initial pH of 7 and a temperature
of 35°C.The maximum biomass concentration of 0.92g/l was
obtained which verified the practicability of this optimization.
Biohydrogen, Response Surface Methodology,Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Volatile fatty acid
CO-OFDM DSP Channel Estimation
This paper solves the Non Linear Schrodinger
Equation using the Split Step Fourier method for modeling an optical
fiber. The model generates a complex wave of optical pulses and
using the results obtained two graphs namely Loss versus
Wavelength and Dispersion versus Wavelength are generated. Taking
Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion losses into
account, the graphs generated are compared with the graphs
formulated by JDS Uniphase Corporation which uses standard values
of dispersion for optical fibers. The graphs generated when compared
with the JDS Uniphase Corporation plots were found to be more or
less similar thus verifying that the model proposed is right.
MATLAB software was used for doing the modeling.
Modulation, Non Linear Schrodinger Equation,
Optical fiber, Split Step Fourier Method.
DIFFER: A Propositionalization approach for Learning from Structured Data
Logic based methods for learning from structured data
is limited w.r.t. handling large search spaces, preventing large-sized
substructures from being considered by the resulting classifiers. A
novel approach to learning from structured data is introduced that
employs a structure transformation method, called finger printing, for
addressing these limitations. The method, which generates features
corresponding to arbitrarily complex substructures, is implemented in
a system, called DIFFER. The method is demonstrated to perform
comparably to an existing state-of-art method on some benchmark
data sets without requiring restrictions on the search space.
Furthermore, learning from the union of features generated by finger
printing and the previous method outperforms learning from each
individual set of features on all benchmark data sets, demonstrating
the benefit of developing complementary, rather than competing,
methods for structure classification.
Machine learning, Structure classification,
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Incubator and Economic Development: A Case Study
The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) discuss and
analyze the successful case studies worldwide, and (2) identify the
similarities and differences of case studies worldwide. Design
methodology/approach: The nature of this research is mainly method
qualitative (multi-case studies, literature review). This investigation
uses ten case studies, and the data was mainly collected and
organizational documents from the international countries. Finding:
The finding of this research can help incubator manager, policy
maker and government parties for successful implementation.
Originality/value: This paper contributes to the current literate review
on the best practices worldwide. Additionally, it presents future
perspective for academicians and practitioners.
Incubators, Economic Development, Entrepreneurship, Innovation.
Mechanical Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Cement Composites
Emphasis on the advancement of new materials and technology has been there for the past few decades. The global development towards using cheap and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. An experimental investigation of mechanical behaviour of sisal fibre-reinforced concrete is reported for making a suitable building material in terms of reinforcement. Fibre reinforced Composite is one such material, which has reformed the concept of high strength. Sisal fibres are abundantly available in the hot areas. Sisal fibre has emerged as a reinforcing material for concretes, used in civil structures. In this work, properties such as hardness and tensile strength of sisal fibre reinforced cement composites with 6, 12, 18 and 24% by weight of sisal fibres were assessed. Sisal fibre reinforced cement composite slabs with long sisal fibres were manufactured using a cast hand lay up technique. Mechanical response was measured under tension. The high energy absorption capacity of the developed composite system was reflected in high toughness values under tension respectively.
Sisal fibre, fibre-reinforced concrete, mechanical behaviour.
Optimization of Energy Conservation Potential for VAV Air Conditioning System using Fuzzy based Genetic Algorithm
The objective of this study is to present the test
results of variable air volume (VAV) air conditioning system
optimized by two objective genetic algorithm (GA). The objective
functions are energy savings and thermal comfort. The optimal set
points for fuzzy logic controller (FLC) are the supply air temperature
(Ts), the supply duct static pressure (Ps), the chilled water
temperature (Tw), and zone temperature (Tz) that is taken as the
problem variables. Supply airflow rate and chilled water flow rate are
considered to be the constraints. The optimal set point values are
obtained from GA process and assigned into fuzzy logic controller
(FLC) in order to conserve energy and maintain thermal comfort in
real time VAV air conditioning system. A VAV air conditioning
system with FLC installed in a software laboratory has been taken for
the purpose of energy analysis. The total energy saving obtained in
VAV GA optimization system with FLC compared with constant air
volume (CAV) system is expected to achieve 31.5%. The optimal
duct static pressure obtained through Genetic fuzzy methodology
attributes to better air distribution by delivering the optimal quantity
of supply air to the conditioned space. This combination enhanced
the advantages of uniform air distribution, thermal comfort and
improved energy savings potential.
Energy savings, fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithm,Thermal Comfort
Design of Walking Beam Pendle Axle Suspension System
This paper deals with design of walking beam pendel
axle suspension system. This axles and suspension systems are
mainly required for transportation of heavy duty and Over Dimension
Consignment (ODC) cargo, which is exceeding legal limit in terms of
length, width and height. Presently, in Indian transportation industry,
ODC movement growth rate has increased in transportation of bridge
sections (pre-cast beams), transformers, heavy machineries, boilers,
gas turbines, windmill blades etc. However, current Indian standard
road transport vehicles are facing lot of service and maintenance
issues due to non availability of suitable axle and suspension to carry
the ODC cargoes. This in turn will lead to increased number of road
accidents, bridge collapse and delayed deliveries, which finally result
in higher operating cost. Understanding these requirements, this work
was carried out. These axles and suspensions are designed for
optimum self – weight with maximum payload carrying capacity with
better road stability.
Heavy duty trailer, Off–highway trucks, Over
dimension cargo, Walking beam pendel axle suspension.
Transient Three Dimensional FE Modeling for Thermal Analysis of Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Aluminum Alloy
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at establishing the temperature distribution during the welding of aluminum alloy plates by Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) and Constant Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (CCGTAW) processes. Pulsing of the GTA welding current influences the dimensions and solidification rate of the fused zone, it also reduces the weld pool volume hence a narrower bead. In this investigation, the base material considered was aluminum alloy AA 6351 T6, which is finding use in aircraft, automobile and high-speed train components. A finite element analysis was carried out using ANSYS, and the results of the FEA were compared with the experimental results. It is evident from the study that the finite element analysis using ANSYS can be effectively used to model PCGTAW process for finding temperature distribution.
Gas tungsten arc welding, pulsed current, finite element analysis, thermal analysis, aluminum alloy.
Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method
This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.
Physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction.
Correlates of Peer Influence and Resistance to HIV/AIDS Counselling and Testing among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Kano State, Nigeria
The psychological impact of peer influence on its
individual group members, can make them resist HIV/AIDS
counselling and testing. This study investigated the correlate of peer
influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS counselling and testing among
students in tertiary institutions in Kano state, Nigeria. To achieve
this, three null hypotheses were postulated and tested. Cross-
Sectional Survey Design was employed in which 1512 sample was
selected from a student population of 104,841.Simple Random
Sampling was used in the selection. A self-developed 20-item scale
called Peer Influence and Psychological Resistance Inventory
(PIPRI) was used for data collection. Pearson Product Moment
Correlation (PPMCC) via test-retest method was applied to estimate a
reliability coefficient of 0.86 for the scale. Data obtained was
analyzed using t-test and PPMCC at 0.05 level of confidence. Results
reveal 26.3% (397) of the respondents being influenced by their peer
group, while 39.8% showed resistance. Also, the t-tests and PPMCC
statistics were greater than their respective critical values. This shows
that there was a significant gender difference in peer influence and a
difference between peer influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS
counselling and testing. However, a positive relationship between
peer influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS counselling and testing
was shown. A major recommendation offered suggests the use of
reinforcement and social support for positive attitudes and
maintenance of safe behaviour among students who patronize
Peer influence, HIV/AIDS counselling and testing,
Conversion of Mechanical Water Pump to Electric Water Pump for a CI Engine
Presently, engine cooling pump is driven by toothed
belt. Therefore, the pump speed is dependent on engine speed which
varies their output. At normal engine operating conditions (Higher
RPM and low load, Higher RPM and high load), mechanical water
pumps in existing engines are inevitably oversized and so the use of
an electric water pump together with state-of-the-art thermal
management of the combustion engine has measurable advantages.
Demand-driven cooling, particularly in the cold-start phase, saves
fuel (approx 3 percent) and leads to a corresponding reduction in
emissions. The lack of dependence on a mechanical drive also results
in considerable flexibility in component packaging within the engine
compartment. This paper describes the testing and comparison of
existing mechanical water pump with that of the electric water pump.
When the existing mechanical water pump is replaced with the new
electric water pump the percentage gain in system efficiency is also
Cooling system, Electric water pump, Mechanical
Design of Reconfigurable Parasitic Antenna for Single RF Chain MIMO Systems
In recent years parasitic antenna play major role in
MIMO systems because of their gain and spectral efficiency. In this
paper, single RF chain MIMO transmitter is designed using
reconfigurable parasitic antenna. The Spatial Modulation (SM) is a
recently proposed scheme in MIMO scenario which activates only
one antenna at a time. The SM entirely avoids ICI and IAS, and only
requires a single RF chain at the transmitter. This would switch ON a
single transmit-antenna for data transmission while all the other
antennas are kept silent. The purpose of the parasitic elements is to
change the radiation pattern of the radio waves which is emitted from
the driven element and directing them in one direction and hence
introduces transmit diversity. Diode is connect between the patch and
ground by changing its state (ON and OFF) the parasitic element act
as reflector and director and also capable of steering azimuth and
elevation angle. This can be achieved by changing the input
impedance of each parasitic element through single RF chain. The
switching of diode would select the single parasitic antenna for
spatial modulation. This antenna is expected to achieve maximum
gain with desired efficiency.
MIMO system, single RF chain, Parasitic Antenna.
Influence of Single and Multiple Skin-Core Debonding on Free Vibration Characteristics of Innovative GFRP Sandwich Panels
An Australian manufacturer has fabricated an
innovative GFRP sandwich panel made from E-glass fiber skin and a
modified phenolic core for structural applications. Debonding, which
refers to separation of skin from the core material in composite
sandwiches, is one of the most common types of damage in
composites. The presence of debonding is of great concern because it
not only severely affects the stiffness but also modifies the dynamic
behaviour of the structure. Generally it is seen that the majority of
research carried out has been concerned about the delamination of
laminated structures whereas skin-core debonding has received
relatively minor attention. Furthermore it is observed that research
done on composite slabs having multiple skin-core debonding is very
limited. To address this gap, a comprehensive research investigating
dynamic behaviour of composite panels with single and multiple
debonding is presented. The study uses finite-element modelling and
analyses for investigating the influence of debonding on free
vibration behaviour of single and multilayer composite sandwich
panels. A broad parametric investigation has been carried out by
varying debonding locations, debonding sizes and support conditions
of the panels in view of both single and multiple debonding.
Numerical models were developed with Strand7 finite element
package by innovatively selecting the suitable elements to diligently
represent their actual behavior. Three-dimensional finite element
models were employed to simulate the physically real situation as
close as possible, with the use of an experimentally and numerically
validated finite element model. Comparative results and conclusions
based on the analyses are presented. For similar extents and locations
of debonding, the effect of debonding on natural frequencies appears
greatly dependent on the end conditions of the panel, giving greater
decrease in natural frequency when the panels are more restrained.
Some modes are more sensitive to debonding and this sensitivity
seems to be related to their vibration mode shapes. The fundamental
mode seems generally the least sensitive mode to debonding with
respect to the variation in free vibration characteristics. The results
indicate the effectiveness of the developed three dimensional finite
element models in assessing debonding damage in composite
Debonding, free vibration behaviour, GFRP
sandwich panels, three dimensional finite element modelling.
ICT for Smart Appliances: Current Technology and Identification of Future ICT Trend
Smart metering and demand response are gaining
ground in industrial and residential applications. Smart Appliances
have been given concern towards achieving Smart home. The success
of Smart grid development relies on the successful implementation of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in power sector.
Smart Appliances have been the technology under development and
many new contributions to its realization have been reported in the
last few years. The role of ICT here is to capture data in real time,
thereby allowing bi-directional flow of information/data between
producing and utilization point; that lead a way for the attainment of
Smart appliances where home appliances can communicate between
themselves and provide a self-control (switch on and off) using the
signal (information) obtained from the grid. This paper depicts the
background on ICT for smart appliances paying a particular attention
to the current technology and identifying the future ICT trends for
load monitoring through which smart appliances can be achieved to
facilitate an efficient smart home system which promote demand
response program. This paper grouped and reviewed the recent
contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and
trends of the technology, so that the reader can be provided with a
comprehensive and insightful review of where ICT for smart
appliances stands and is heading to. The paper also presents a brief
overview of communication types, and then narrowed the discussion
to the load monitoring (Non-intrusive Appliances Load Monitoring
‘NALM’). Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further
development of the ICT framework are discussed to motivate future
contributions that address open problems and explore new
Communication technology between appliances,
demand response, load monitoring, smart appliances and smart grid.
Survey on Handover Security Issues in WiMAX Networks
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a broadband technology, which can effectively transmit a data across a group of users using Multicast and Broadcast Service. WiMAX belongs to a family of (IEEE 802.16) standards and is evolving as a fourth generation technology. WiMAX is the next generation technology that offers wireless access over long distances. MBS zone, which is a group of base stations that are broadcasting the same multicast packets which defines Multicast and Broadcast services. Handover is a process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel. The handover causes authentication, delay, packet loss, jitter that mainly affects the communication. In this paper, we present a survey on handover security issues in WiMAX.
WiMAX, Handover, Multicast and Broadcast Security.
Quantitative Assessment of Different Formulations of Antimalarials in Sentinel Sites of India
Substandard and counterfeit antimalarials is a major problem in malaria endemic areas. The availability of counterfeit/ substandard medicines is not only decreasing the efficacy in patients, but it is also one of the contributing factors for developing antimalarial drug resistance. Owing to this, a pilot study was conducted to survey quality of drugs collected from different malaria endemic areas of India. Artesunate+Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS+SP), Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL), Chloroquine (CQ) tablets were randomly picked from public health facilities in selected states of India. The quality of antimalarial drugs from these areas was assessed by using Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab test kit. This includes physical/visual inspection and disintegration test. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out for semi-quantitative assessment of active pharmaceutical ingredients. A total of 45 brands, out of which 21 were for CQ, 14 for AL and 10 for AS+SP were tested from Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), Mizoram, Meghalaya and Gujrat states. One out of 45 samples showed variable disintegration and retension factor. The variable disintegration and retention factor which would have been due to substandard quality or other factors including storage. However, HPLC analysis confirms standard active pharmaceutical ingredient, but may be due to humid temperature and moisture in storage may account for the observed result.
Antimalarial medicines, counterfeit, substandard, thin layer chromatography.
Machine Learning Approach for Identifying Dementia from MRI Images
This research paper presents a framework for classifying Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images for Dementia. Dementia, an age-related cognitive decline is indicated by degeneration of cortical and sub-cortical structures. Characterizing morphological changes helps understand disease development and contributes to early prediction and prevention of the disease. Modelling, that captures the brain’s structural variability and which is valid in disease classification and interpretation is very challenging. Features are extracted using Gabor filter with 0, 30, 60, 90 orientations and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). It is proposed to normalize and fuse the features. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) selects features. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with different kernels is evaluated, for efficiency to classify dementia. This study evaluates the presented framework using MRI images from OASIS dataset for identifying dementia. Results showed that the proposed feature fusion classifier achieves higher classification accuracy.
Magnetic resonance imaging, dementia, Gabor filter, gray level co-occurrence matrix, support vector machine.
Beijerinckia indica Extracellular Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Clinical Pathogens
This work investigated the use of Beijerinckia indica extracellular extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by different methods, such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, and TEM analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by the change in color from light yellow to dark brown. The absorbance peak obtained at 430 nm confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The XRD analysis showed the cubic crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR revealed the presence of groups that acts as stabilizing and reducing agents for silver nanoparticles formation. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by TEM analysis. These nanoparticles were found to inhibit pathogenic bacterial strains. This work proved that the bacterial extract is a potential eco-friendly candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with promising antibacterial and antioxidant properties.
Antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, Beijerinckia indica, characterisation, extracellular extracts, silver nanoparticles.
Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.
Catalase, fertilizer, iron oxide nanoparticles, Linum usitatissimum L., nano-nutrient, peroxidase.
Status and Management of Grape Stem Borer, Celosterna scrabrator with Soil Application of Chlorantraniliprole 0.4 gr
Grape stem borer, Celosterna scrabrator is an important production constraint in grapes in India. Hitherto this pest was a severe menace only on the aged and unmanaged fields but during the recent past it has also started damaging the newly established fields. In India, since Karnataka, Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra are the major grape production states, the incidence of stem borer is also restricted and severe in these states. The grubs of the beetle bore in to the main stem and even the branches, which affect the translocation of nutrients to the areal parts of the plant. Since, the grubs bore inside the stem, the chewed material along with its excreta is discharged outside the holes and the frass is found on the ground just below the bored holes. The portion of vines above the damaged part has a sticky appearance. The leaves become pale yellow which looks like a deficiency of micronutrients. The leaves ultimately dry and drop down. The status of the incidence of the grape stem borer in different grape growing districts of Northern Karnataka was carried out during three years. In each taluka five locations were surveyed for the incidence of grape stem borer. Further, the experiment on management of stem borer was carried out in the grape gardens of Vijayapur districts under farmers field during three years. Stem borer infested plants that show live holes were selected per treatments and it was replicated three times. Live and dead holes observed during pre-treatment were closely monitored and only plants with live holes were selected and tagged. Different doses of chlorantraniliprole 0.4% GR were incorporated into the soil around the vine basins near root zone surrounded to trunk region by removing soils up to 5-10 cm with a peripheral distance of 1 to 1.5 feet from the main trunk where feeder roots are present. Irrigation was followed after application of insecticide for proper incorporation of the test chemical. The results indicated that there was sever to moderate incidence of the stem borer in all the grape growing districts of northern Karnataka. Maximum incidence was recorded in Belagavi (11 holes per vine) and minimum was in Gadag district (8.5 holes per vine). The investigations carried out to study the efficacy of chlorantraniliprole on grape stem borer for successive three years under farmers field indicated that chlorantraniliprole @ 15g/vine applied just near the active root zone of the plant followed by irrigation has successfully managed the pest. The insecticide has translocated to all the parts of the plants and thereby stopped the activity of the pest which has resulted in to better growth of the plant and higher berry yield compared to other treatments under investigation. Thus, chlorantraniliprole 0.4 GR @ 15g/vine can be effective means in managing the stem borer.
Chlorantraniliprole, grape stem borer, Celosterna scrabrator, management.
Development of AA2024 Matrix Composites Reinforced with Micro Yttrium through Cold Compaction with Superior Mechanical Properties
In this present work, five different composite samples with AA2024 as matrix and varying amounts of yttrium (0.1-0.5 wt.%) as reinforcement are developed through cold compaction. The microstructures of the developed composite samples revealed that the yttrium reinforcement caused grain refinement up to 0.3 wt.% and beyond which the refinement is not effective. The microstructure revealed Al2Cu precipitation which strengthened the composite up to 0.3 wt.% yttrium reinforcement. Upon further increase in yttrium reinforcement, the intermetallics and the precipitation coarsen and their corresponding strengthening effect decreases. The mechanical characterization revealed that the composite sample reinforced with 0.3 wt.% yttrium showed highest mechanical properties like 82 HV of hardness, 276 MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), 229 MPa Yield Strength (YS) and an elongation (EL) of 18.9% respectively. However, the relative density of the developed composites decreased with the increase in yttrium reinforcement.
Mechanical properties, AA 2024 matrix, yttrium reinforcement, cold compaction, precipitation.
Improving the Safety Performance of Workers by Assessing the Impact of Safety Culture on Workers’ Safety Behaviour in Nigeria Oil and Gas Industry: A Pilot Study in the Niger Delta Region
Interest in the development of appropriate safety culture in the oil and gas industry has taken centre stage among stakeholders in the industry. Human behaviour has been identified as a major contributor to occupational accidents, where abnormal activities associated with safety management are taken as normal behaviour. Poor safety culture is one of the major factors that influence employee’s safety behaviour at work, which may consequently result in injuries and accidents and strengthening such a culture can improve workers safety performance. Nigeria oil and gas industry has contributed to the growth and development of the country in diverse ways. However, in terms of safety and health of workers, this industry is a dangerous place to work as workers are often exposed to occupational safety and health hazard. To ascertain the impact of employees’ safety and how it impacts health and safety compliance within the local industry, online safety culture survey targeting frontline workers within the industry was administered covering major subjects that include; perception of management commitment and style of leadership; safety communication method and its resultant impact on employees’ behaviour; employee safety commitment and training needs. The preliminary result revealed that 54% of the participants feel that there is a lack of motivation from the management to work safely. In addition, 55% of participants revealed that employers place more emphasis on work delivery over employee’s safety on the installation. It is expected that the study outcome will provide measures aimed at strengthening and sustaining safety culture in the Nigerian oil and gas industry.
Oil and gas safety, safety behaviour, safety culture, safety compliance.