Effect of Endplate Shape on Performance and Stability of Wings-in Ground (WIG) Craft
Numerical analysis for the aerodynamic characteristics
of the WIG (wing-in ground effect) craft with highly cambered and
aspect ratio of one is performed to predict the ground effect for the
case of with- and without- lower-extension endplate. The analysis is
included varying angles of attack from 0 to10 deg. and ground
clearances from 5% of chord to 50%. Due to the ground effect, the lift
by rising in pressure on the lower surface is increased and the
influence of wing-tip vortices is decreased. These two significant
effects improve the lift-drag ratio. On the other hand, the endplate
prevents the high-pressure air escaping from the air cushion at the
wing tip and causes to increase the lift and lift-drag ratio further. It is
found from the visualization of computation results that two wing-tip
vortices are generated from each surface of the wing tip and their
strength are weak and diminished rapidly. Irodov-s criteria are also
evaluated to investigate the static height stability. The comparison of
Irodov-s criteria shows that the endplate improves the deviation of the
static height stability with respect to pitch angles and heights. As the
results, the endplate can improve the aerodynamic characteristics and
static height stability of wings in ground effect, simultaneously.
WIG craft, Endplate, Ground Effect, Aerodynamics,
CFD, Lift-drag ratio, Static height stability.
The Effect of Cyclone Shape and Dust Collector on Gas-Solid Flow and Performance
Numerical analysis of flow characteristics and
separation efficiency in a high-efficiency cyclone has been performed.
Several models based on the experimental observation for a design
purpose were proposed. However, the model is only estimated the
cyclone's performance under the limited environments; it is difficult to
obtain a general model for all types of cyclones. The purpose of this
study is to find out the flow characteristics and separation efficiency
numerically. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) was employed instead
of a standard k-ε or a k-ω model which was suitable for isotropic
turbulence and it could predict the pressure drop and the Rankine
vortex very well. For small particles, there were three significant
components (entrance of vortex finder, cone, and dust collector) for
the particle separation. In the present work, the particle re-entraining
phenomenon from the dust collector to the cyclone body was observed
after considerable time. This re-entrainment degraded the separation
efficiency and was one of the significant factors for the separation
efficiency of the cyclone.
CFD, High-efficiency cyclone, Pressure drop,
Rankine vortex, Reynolds stress model (RSM), Separation efficiency.
Numerical Predictionon the Influence of Mixer on the Performance of Urea-SCR System
Diesel vehicle should be equipped with emission after-treatment devices as NOx reduction catalyst and particulate filtersin order to meet more stringer diesel emission standard. Urea-SCR is being developed as the most efficient method of reducing NOx emissions in the after-treatment devices of diesel engines, and recent studies have begun to mount the Urea-SCR device for diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles. In the present study, the effects of the mixer on the efficiency of urea-SCR System (i.e., NH3uni- formityindex (NH3 UI) is investigated by predicting the transport phenomena in the urea-SCR system. The three dimensional Eulerian-Lagrangian CFD simulationfor internal flow and spray characteristics in front of SCR is carried out by using STAR-CCM+ 7.06 code. In addition, the paper proposes a method to minimize the wall-wetting around the urea injector in order to prevent injector blocks caused by solid urea loading.
Computational fluid dynamics, Multi-phase flow, NH3 uniformity index, Urea-SCR system, Urea-water-solution.