Open Science Research Excellence

D B Murray

Publications

2

Publications

2
10003482
Localized and Time-Resolved Velocity Measurements of Pulsatile Flow in a Rectangular Channel
Abstract:
The exploitation of flow pulsation in micro- and mini-channels is a potentially useful technique for enhancing cooling of high-end photonics and electronics systems. It is thought that pulsation alters the thickness of the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers, and hence affects the overall thermal resistance of the heat sink. Although the fluid mechanics and heat transfer are inextricably linked, it can be useful to decouple the parameters to better understand the mechanisms underlying any heat transfer enhancement. Using two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry, the current work intends to characterize the heat transfer mechanisms in pulsating flow with a mean Reynolds number of 48 by experimentally quantifying the hydrodynamics of a generic liquid-cooled channel geometry. Flows circulated through the test section by a gear pump are modulated using a controller to achieve sinusoidal flow pulsations with Womersley numbers of 7.45 and 2.36 and an amplitude ratio of 0.75. It is found that the transient characteristics of the measured velocity profiles are dependent on the speed of oscillation, in accordance with the analytical solution for flow in a rectangular channel. A large velocity overshoot is observed close to the wall at high frequencies, resulting from the interaction of near-wall viscous stresses and inertial effects of the main fluid body. The steep velocity gradients at the wall are indicative of augmented heat transfer, although the local flow reversal may reduce the upstream temperature difference in heat transfer applications. While unsteady effects remain evident at the lower frequency, the annular effect subsides and retreats from the wall. The shear rate at the wall is increased during the accelerating half-cycle and decreased during deceleration compared to steady flow, suggesting that the flow may experience both enhanced and diminished heat transfer during a single period. Hence, the thickness of the hydrodynamic boundary layer is reduced for positively moving flow during one half of the pulsation cycle at the investigated frequencies. It is expected that the size of the thermal boundary layer is similarly reduced during the cycle, leading to intervals of heat transfer enhancement.
Keywords:
Heat transfer enhancement, particle image velocimetry, localized and time-resolved velocity, photonics and electronics cooling, pulsating flow, Richardson’s annular effect.
1
10003659
Streamwise Vorticity in the Wake of a Sliding Bubble
Abstract:
In many practical situations, bubbles are dispersed in a liquid phase. Understanding these complex bubbly flows is therefore a key issue for applications such as shell and tube heat exchangers, mineral flotation and oxidation in water treatment. Although a large body of work exists for bubbles rising in an unbounded medium, that of bubbles rising in constricted geometries has received less attention. The particular case of a bubble sliding underneath an inclined surface is common to two-phase flow systems. The current study intends to expand this knowledge by performing experiments to quantify the streamwise flow structures associated with a single sliding air bubble under an inclined surface in quiescent water. This is achieved by means of two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV), performed with a continuous wave laser and high-speed camera. PIV vorticity fields obtained in a plane perpendicular to the sliding surface show that there is significant bulk fluid motion away from the surface. The associated momentum of the bubble means that this wake motion persists for a significant time before viscous dissipation. The magnitude and direction of the flow structures in the streamwise measurement plane are found to depend on the point on its path through which the bubble enters the plane. This entry point, represented by a phase angle, affects the nature and strength of the vortical structures. This study reconstructs the vorticity field in the wake of the bubble, converting the field at different instances in time to slices of a large-scale wake structure. This is, in essence, Taylor’s ”frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Applying this to the vorticity fields provides a pseudo three-dimensional representation from 2-D data, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of the bubble wake. This study provides insights into the complex dynamics of a situation common to many engineering applications, particularly shell and tube heat exchangers in the nucleate boiling regime.
Keywords:
Bubbly flow, particle image velocimetry, two-phase flow, wake structures.