Improvement of Durability of Wood by Maleic Anhydride
Wood as a natural renewable material is vulnerable to
degradation by microorganisms and susceptible to change in
dimension by water. In order to effectively improve the durability of
wood, an active reagent, maleic anhydride (Man) was selected for
wood modification. Man was first dissolved into a solvent, and then
penetrated into wood porous structure under a vacuum/pressure
condition. After a final catalyst-thermal treatment, wood modification
was finished. The test results indicate that acetone is a good solvent for
transporting Man into wood matrix. SEM observation proved that
wood samples treated by Man kept a good cellular structure, indicating
a well penetration of Man into wood cell walls. FTIR analysis
suggested that Man reacted with hydroxyl groups on wood cell walls
by its ring-ether group, resulting in reduction of amount of hydroxyl
groups and resultant good dimensional stability as well as fine decay
resistance. Consequently, Man modifying wood to improve its
durability is an effective method.
Wood, porous structure, durability improvement,maleic anhydride
The Effects of Misspecification of Stochastic Processes on Investment Appraisal
For decades financial economists have been attempted to determine the optimal investment policy by recognizing the option value embedded in irreversible investment whose project value evolves as a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). This paper aims to examine the effects of the optimal investment trigger and of the misspecification of stochastic processes on investment in real options applications. Specifically, the former explores the consequence of adopting optimal investment rules on the distributions of corporate value under the correct assumption of stochastic process while the latter analyzes the influence on the distributions of corporate value as a result of the misspecification of stochastic processes, i.e., mistaking an alternative process as a GBM. It is found that adopting the correct optimal investment policy may increase corporate value by shifting the value distribution rightward, and the misspecification effect may decrease corporate value by shifting the value distribution leftward. The adoption of the optimal investment trigger has a major impact on investment to such an extent that the downside risk of investment is truncated at the project value of zero, thereby moving the value distributions rightward. The analytical framework is also extended to situations where collection lags are in place, and the result indicates that collection lags reduce the effects of investment trigger and misspecification on investment in an opposite way.
GBM, real options, investment trigger,misspecification, collection lags
Evaluating the Australian Defense Force Environmental Awareness Training at Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia
This paper contributes to the field of Environmental
Awareness Training (EAT) evaluation in terms of military activities.
Environmental management of military activities is a growing concern
for defence forces worldwide and the importance of EAT is becoming
widely recognized. As one of Australia-s largest landowners, the
Australian Defence Force (ADF) is extremely mindful of its duty as a
joint environmental manager. It has an integrated Environmental
Management System (EMS) to assist environmental management and
EAT is an essential part of the ADF EMS model. This paper examines
how EAT was conducted during the exercise Talisman Saber in 2009
(TS09) and evaluates its effectiveness, using Shoalwater Bay Training
Area (SWBTA), one of the most significant military training areas and
a significant protected area in Australia, as a case study. A
questionnaire survey conducted showed, overall, that EAT was
effective from the perspective of a sample of participants.
Recommendations are made for the ADF to refine EAT for future
Australian Defence Force, effectiveness evaluation,
Environmental Awareness Training, Shoalwater Bay Training Area
The Application of Real Options to Capital Budgeting
Real options theory suggests that managerial flexibility embedded within irreversible investments can account for a significant value in project valuation. Although the argument has become the dominant focus of capital investment theory over decades, yet recent survey literature in capital budgeting indicates that corporate practitioners still do not explicitly apply real options in investment decisions. In this paper, we explore how real options decision criteria can be transformed into equivalent capital budgeting criteria under the consideration of uncertainty, assuming that underlying stochastic process follows a geometric Brownian motion (GBM), a mixed diffusion-jump (MX), or a mean-reverting process (MR). These equivalent valuation techniques can be readily decomposed into conventional investment rules and “option impacts", the latter of which describe the impacts on optimal investment rules with the option value considered. Based on numerical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, three major findings are derived. First, it is shown that real options could be successfully integrated into the mindset of conventional capital budgeting. Second, the inclusion of option impacts tends to delay investment. It is indicated that the delay effect is the most significant under a GBM process and the least significant under a MR process. Third, it is optimal to adopt the new capital budgeting criteria in investment decision-making and adopting a suboptimal investment rule without considering real options could lead to a substantial loss in value.
real options, capital budgeting, geometric Brownianmotion, mixed diffusion-jump, mean-reverting process
Analysis of Highway Slope Failure by an Application of the Stereographic Projection
The mountain road slope failures triggered by
earthquake activities and torrential rain namely to create the disaster.
Province Road No. 24 is a main route to the Wutai Township. The area
of the study is located at the mileages between 46K and 47K along the
road. However, the road has been suffered frequent damages as a result
of landslide and slope failures during typhoon seasons. An
understanding of the sliding behaviors in the area appears to be
necessary. Slope failures triggered by earthquake activities and heavy
rainfalls occur frequently. The study is to understand the mechanism
of slope failures and to look for the way to deal with the situation. In
order to achieve these objectives, this paper is based on theoretical and
structural geology data interpretation program to assess the potential
slope sliding behavior. The study showed an intimate relationship
between the landslide behavior of the slopes and the stratum materials,
based on structural geology analysis method to analysis slope stability
and finds the slope safety coefficient to predict the sites of destroyed
layer. According to the case study and parameter analyses results, the
slope mainly slips direction compared to the site located in the
southeast area. Find rainfall to result in the rise of groundwater level is
main reason of the landslide mechanism. Future need to set up
effective horizontal drain at corrective location, that can effective
restrain mountain road slope failures and increase stability of slope.
slope stability analysis, Stereographic Projection,wedge Failure.
Simulation of Sloshing-Shear Mixed Shallow Water Waves (II) Numerical Solutions
This is the second part of the paper. It, aside from the
core subroutine test reported previously, focuses on the simulation of
turbulence governed by the full STF Navier-Stokes equations on a
large scale. Law of the wall is found plausible in this study as a model
of the boundary layer dynamics. Model validations proceed to
include velocity profiles of a stationary turbulent Couette flow, pure
sloshing flow simulations, and the identification of water-surface
inclination due to fluid accelerations. Errors resulting from the
irrotational and hydrostatic assumptions are explored when studying
a wind-driven water circulation with no shakings. Illustrative
examples show that this numerical strategy works for the simulation
of sloshing-shear mixed flow in a 3-D rigid rectangular base tank.
potential flow theory, sloshing flow, space-timefiltering, order of accuracy.
Influence of Slope Shape and Surface Roughness on the Moving Paths of a Single Rockfall
Rockfall is a kind of irregular geological disaster. Its
destruction time, space and movements are highly random. The impact
force is determined by the way and velocity rocks move. The
movement velocity of a rockfall depends on slope gradient of its
moving paths, height, slope surface roughness and rock shapes. For
effectively mitigate and prevent disasters brought by rockfalls, it is
required to precisely calculate the moving paths of a rockfall so as to
provide the best protective design. This paper applies Colorado
Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) as our study tool to discuss the
impact of slope shape and surface roughness on the moving paths of a
single rockfall. The analytical results showed that the slope, m=1:1,
acted as the threshold for rockfall bounce height on a monoclinal slight
slope. When JRC ´╝£ 1.2, movement velocity reduced and bounce
height increased as JCR increased. If slope fixed and JRC increased,
the bounce height of rocks increased gradually with reducing
movement velocity. Therefore, the analysis on the moving paths of
rockfalls with CRSP could simulate bouncing of falling rocks. By
analyzing moving paths, velocity, and bounce height of falling rocks,
we could effectively locate impact points of falling rocks on a slope.
Such analysis can be served as a reference for future disaster
prevention and control.
Rockfall, Slope Shape, Moving Path, SurfaceRoughness.
A Framework of Monte Carlo Simulation for Examining the Uncertainty-Investment Relationship
This paper argues that increased uncertainty, in certain
situations, may actually encourage investment. Since earlier studies
mostly base their arguments on the assumption of geometric Brownian
motion, the study extends the assumption to alternative stochastic
processes, such as mixed diffusion-jump, mean-reverting process, and
jump amplitude process. A general approach of Monte Carlo
simulation is developed to derive optimal investment trigger for the
situation that the closed-form solution could not be readily obtained
under the assumption of alternative process. The main finding is that
the overall effect of uncertainty on investment is interpreted by the
probability of investing, and the relationship appears to be an invested
U-shaped curve between uncertainty and investment. The implication
is that uncertainty does not always discourage investment even under
several sources of uncertainty. Furthermore, high-risk projects are not
always dominated by low-risk projects because the high-risk projects
may have a positive realization effect on encouraging investment.
real options, geometric Brownian motion, mixeddiffusion-jump process, mean- reverting process, jump amplitudeprocess
Inverse Dynamic Active Ground Motion Acceleration Inputs Estimation of the Retaining Structure
The innovative fuzzy estimator is used to estimate the
ground motion acceleration of the retaining structure in this study. The
Kalman filter without the input term and the fuzzy weighting recursive
least square estimator are two main portions of this method. The
innovation vector can be produced by the Kalman filter, and be
applied to the fuzzy weighting recursive least square estimator to
estimate the acceleration input over time. The excellent performance
of this estimator is demonstrated by comparing it with the use of
difference weighting function, the distinct levels of the measurement
noise covariance and the initial process noise covariance. The
availability and the precision of the proposed method proposed in this
study can be verified by comparing the actual value and the one
obtained by numerical simulation.
Earthquake, Fuzzy Estimator, Kalman Filter,Recursive Least Square Estimator.
Simulation and Statistical Analysis of Motion Behavior of a Single Rockfall
The impact force of a rockfall is mainly determined by
its moving behavior and velocity, which are contingent on the rock
shape, slope gradient, height, and surface roughness of the moving
path. It is essential to precisely calculate the moving path of the
rockfall in order to effectively minimize and prevent damages caused
by the rockfall. By applying the Colorado Rockfall Simulation
Program (CRSP) program as the analysis tool, this research studies the
influence of three shapes of rock (spherical, cylindrical and discoidal)
and surface roughness on the moving path of a single rockfall. As
revealed in the analysis, in addition to the slope gradient, the geometry
of the falling rock and joint roughness coefficient ( JRC ) of the slope
are the main factors affecting the moving behavior of a rockfall. On a
single flat slope, both the rock-s bounce height and moving velocity
increase as the surface gradient increases, with a critical gradient value
of 1:m = 1 . Bouncing behavior and faster moving velocity occur more
easily when the rock geometry is more oval. A flat piece tends to cause
sliding behavior and is easily influenced by the change of surface
undulation. When JRC
rock shape, surface roughness, moving path.
A Security Module for Car Appliances
In this paper we discuss on the security module for the
car appliances to prevent stealing and illegal use on other cars. We
proposed an open structure including authentication and encryption by
embed a security module in each to protect car appliances. Illegal
moving and use a car appliance with the security module without
permission will lead the appliance to useless. This paper also presents
the component identification and deal with relevant procedures. It is at
low cost to recover from destroys by the burglar. Expect this paper to
offer the new business opportunity to the automotive and technology
Automotive, component identification, electronic
immobilizer, key management.
Analysis of Cost Estimation and Payment Systems for Consultant Contracts in the US, Japan, China and the UK
Determining reasonable fees is the main objective of designing the cost estimation and payment systems for consultant contracts. However, project clients utilize different cost estimation and payment systems because of their varying views on the reasonableness of consultant fees. This study reviews the cost estimation and payment systems of consultant contracts for five countries, including the US (Washington State Department of Transportation), Japan (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), China (Engineering Design Charging Standard) and UK (Her Majesty's Treasure). Specifically, this work investigates the budgeting process, contractor selection method, contractual price negotiation process, cost review, and cost-control concept of the systems used in these countries. The main finding indicates that that project client-s view on whether the fee is high will affect the way he controls it. In the US, the fee is commonly considered to be high. As a result, stringent auditing system (low flexibility given to the consultant) is then applied. In the UK, the fee is viewed to be low by comparing it to the total life-cycle project cost. Thus, a system that has high flexibility in budgeting and cost reviewing is given to the consultant. In terms of the flexibility allowed for the consultant, the systems applied in Japan and China fall between those of the US and UK. Both the US and UK systems are helpful in determining a reasonable fee. However, in the US system, rigid auditing standards must be established and additional cost-audit manpower is required. In the UK system, sufficient historical cost data should be needed to evaluate the reasonableness of the consultant-s proposed fee
Consultant Services, Cost Estimation and Payment System, Payment Flexibility, Cost-control Concept
Phase-Averaged Analysis of Three-Dimensional Vorticity in the Wake of Two Yawed Side-By-Side Circular Cylinders
Thewake flow behind two yawed side-by-sidecircular
cylinders is investigated using athree-dimensional vorticity probe.
Four yaw angles (α), namely, 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° and twocylinder
spacing ratios T*
of 1.7 and 3.0 were tested. For T*
= 3.0, there exist
two vortex streets and the cylinders behave as independent and
isolated ones. The maximum contour value of the coherent streamwise
vorticity ~* ωx
is only about 10% of that of the spanwise vorticity ~* ωz
With the increase of α,
increases whereas ~* ωz
decreases. At α =
45°, ~* ωx
is about 67% of ~* ωz
.For T* = 1.7, only a single peak is
detected in the energy spectrum. The spanwise vorticity contours have
an organized pattern only at α = 0°. The maximum coherent vorticity
contours of ~* ω x
and ~* ωz
= 1.7 are about 30% and 7% of those
= 3.0.The independence principle (IP)in terms of Strouhal
numbers is applicable in both wakes when α< 40°.
Circular cylinder wake, vorticity, vortex shedding.
An Intelligent WSN-Based Parking Guidance System
This paper designs an intelligent guidance system, based on wireless sensor networks, for efficient parking in parking lots. The proposed system consists of a parking space allocation subsystem, a parking space monitoring subsystem, a driving guidance subsystem, and a vehicle detection subsystem. In the system, we propose a novel and effective virtual coordinate system for sensing and displaying devices to determine the proper vacant parking space and provide the precise guidance to the driver. This study constructs a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network on Arduino platform and implements the prototype of the proposed system using Arduino-based complements. Experimental results confirm that the proposed prototype can not only work well, but also provide drivers the correct parking information.
Arduino, Parking guidance, Wireless sensor network, ZigBee.
Optical Properties of WO3-NiO Complementary Electrochromic Devices
In this study, we developed a complementary electrochromic device consisting of WO3 and NiO films fabricated by rf-magnetron sputtered. The electrochromic properties of WO3 and NiO films were investigated using cyclic voltammograms (CV), performed on WO3 and NiO films immersed in an electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC). Optical and electrochemical of the films, as a function of coloration–bleaching cycle, were characterized using an UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and cyclic voltammetry (CV). After investigating the properties of WO3 film, NiO film, and complementary electrochromic devices, we concluded that this device provides good reversibility, low power consumption of -2.5 V in color state, high variation of transmittance of 58.96%, changes in optical density of 0.81 and good memory effect under open-circuit conditions. In addition, electrochromic component penetration rate can be retained below 20% within 24h, showing preferred memory features; however, component coloring and bleaching response time are about 33s.
Complementary electrochromic device, Rf-magnetron sputtered, Transmittance, Memory effect, Optical density change
A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal
In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution
refractive index sensor based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal (MPC)
composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si
matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole
in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic
materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the
resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite
difference time domain method under different ambient conditions
having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results
show that a tiny change in refractive index of Δn = 0.0001 is
distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is
studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show
that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.
Magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor,
SAP: A Smart Amusement Park System for Tourist Services
Many existing amusement parks have been operated
with assistance of a variety of information and communications
technologies to design friendly and efficient service systems for
tourists. However, these systems leave various levels of decisions to
tourists to make by themselves. This incurs pressure on tourists and
thereby bringing negative experience in their tour. This paper
proposes a smart amusement park system to offer each tourist the
GPS-based customized plan without tourists making decisions by
themselves. The proposed system consists of the mobile app
subsystem, the central subsystem, and the detecting/counting
subsystem. The mobile app subsystem interacts with the central
subsystem. The central subsystem performs the necessary computing
and database management of the proposed system. The
detecting/counting subsystem aims to detect and compute the number
of visitors to an attraction. Experimental results show that the
proposed system can not only work well, but also provide an
innovative business operating model for owners of amusement parks.
Amusement park, location-based service (LBS),
mobile app, tourist service.
3-D Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Slab Heating Characteristics in a Reheating Furnace in Hot Strip Mills
The reheating furnace is used to reheat the steel slabs
before the hot-rolling process. The supported system includes the
stationary/moving beams, and the skid buttons which block some
thermal radiation transmitted to the bottom of the slabs. Therefore, it is
important to analyze the steel slab temperature distribution during the
heating period. A three-dimensional mathematical transient heat
transfer model for the prediction of temperature distribution within the
slab has been developed. The effects of different skid button height
(H=60mm, 90mm, and 120mm) and different gap distance between
two slabs (S=50mm, 75mm, and 100mm) on the slab skid mark
formation and temperature profiles are investigated. Comparison with
the in-situ experimental data from Steel Company in Taiwan shows
that the present heat transfer model works well for the prediction of
thermal behavior of the slab in the reheating furnace. It is found that
the skid mark severity decreases with an increase in the skid button
height. The effect of gap distance is important only for the slab edge
planes, while it is insignificant for the slab central planes.
3-D, slab, transient heat conduction, reheating
furnace, thermal radiation.
Applying Theory of Inventive Problem Solving to Develop Innovative Solutions: A Case Study
Good service design can increase organization revenue and consumer satisfaction while reducing labor and time costs. The problems facing consumers in the original serve model for eyewear and optical industry includes the following issues: 1. Insufficient information on eyewear products 2. Passively dependent on recommendations, insufficient selection 3. Incomplete records on progression of vision conditions 4. Lack of complete customer records. This study investigates the case of Kobayashi Optical, applying the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) to develop innovative solutions for eyewear and optical industry. Analysis results raise the following conclusions and management implications: In order to provide customers with improved professional information and recommendations, Kobayashi Optical is suggested to establish customer purchasing records. Overall service efficiency can be enhanced by applying data mining techniques to analyze past consumer preferences and purchase histories. Furthermore, Kobayashi Optical should continue to develop a 3D virtual trial service which can allow customers for easy browsing of different frame styles and colors. This 3D virtual trial service will save customer waiting times in during peak service times at stores.
Theory of inventive problem solving, service design, augmented reality, eyewear and optical industry.
A Route Guidance System for Car Finding in Indoor Parking Garages
This paper presents a route guidance system for car owners to find their cars in parking garages. The presents system comprises a positioning-assisting subsystem and a car-finding mobile app. The positioning-assisting subsystem mainly uses the iBeacon technology for indoor positioning. The car-finding mobile app guides car owners to their cars based on a non-map navigation strategy. This study also designs a virtual coordinate system to support identifying the locations of parking spaces and iBeacon devices. We use Arduino and Android as the platforms to implement the proposed positioning-assisting subsystem and car-finding mobile app, respectively. We have also deployed the system in a parking garage in our campus for testing. Experimental results verify that our system can efficiently and correctly guide car owners to the parking spaces of their cars.
Guidance, iBeacon, mobile app, navigation.