2D Bar Codes Reading: Solutions for Camera Phones
Two-dimensional (2D) bar codes were designed to
carry significantly more data with higher information density and
robustness than its 1D counterpart. Thanks to the popular
combination of cameras and mobile phones, it will naturally bring
great commercial value to use the camera phone for 2D bar code
reading. This paper addresses the problem of specific 2D bar code
design for mobile phones and introduces a low-level encoding
method of matrix codes. At the same time, we propose an efficient
scheme for 2D bar codes decoding, of which the effort is put on
solutions of the difficulties introduced by low image quality that is
very common in bar code images taken by a phone camera.
2D bar code reading, camera phone, low-level
encoding, mixed model
An Algebra for Protein Structure Data
This paper presents an algebraic approach to optimize
queries in domain-specific database management system
for protein structure data. The approach involves the introduction of
several protein structure specific algebraic operators to query the
complex data stored in an object-oriented database system. The
Protein Algebra provides an extensible set of high-level Genomic
Data Types and Protein Data Types along with a comprehensive
collection of appropriate genomic and protein functions. The paper
also presents a query translator that converts high-level query
specifications in algebra into low-level query specifications in
Protein-QL, a query language designed to query protein structure
data. The query transformation process uses a Protein Ontology that
serves the purpose of a dictionary.
Domain-Specific Data Management, Protein
Algebra, Protein Ontology, Protein Structure Data.
One-DOF Precision Position Control using the Combined Piezo-VCM Actuator
This paper presents the control performance of a high-precision positioning device using the hybrid actuator composed of a piezoelectric (PZT) actuator and a voice-coil motor (VCM). The combined piezo-VCM actuator features two main characteristics: a large operation range due to long stroke of the VCM, and high precision and heavy load positioning ability due to PZT impact force. A one-degree-of-freedom (DOF) experimental setup was configured to examine the fundamental characteristics, and the control performance was effectively demonstrated by using a switching controller. In rough positioning state, an integral variable structure controller (IVSC) was used for the VCM to conduct long range of operation; in precision positioning state, an impact force controller (IFC) for the PZT actuator coupled with presliding states of the sliding table was used to obtain high-precision position control and achieve both forward and backward actuations. The experimental results showed that the sliding table having a mass of 881g and with a preload of 10 N was successfully positioned within the positioning accuracy of 10 nm in both forward and backward position controls.
Integral variable structure controller (IVSC), impact force, precision positioning, presliding, PZT actuator, voice-coil motor (VCM).
Existence and Stability Analysis of Discrete-time Fuzzy BAM Neural Networks with Delays and Impulses
In this paper, the discrete-time fuzzy BAM neural network with delays and impulses is studied. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and global stability of a unique equilibrium of this class of fuzzy BAM neural networks with Lipschitzian activation functions without assuming their boundedness, monotonicity or differentiability and subjected to impulsive state displacements at fixed instants of time. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.
Discrete-time fuzzy BAM neural networks, ımpulses, global exponential stability, global asymptotical stability, equilibrium point.
The Lower and Upper Approximations in a Group
In this paper, we generalize some propositions in [C.Z. Wang, D.G. Chen, A short note on some properties of rough groups, Comput. Math. Appl. 59(2010)431-436.] and we give some equivalent conditions for rough subgroups. The notion of minimal upper rough subgroups is introduced and a equivalent characterization is given, which implies the rough version of Lagranges Theorem.
Lower approximations, Upper approximations, Rough sets, Rough groups, Lagrange
Discrete Wavelet Transform Decomposition Level Determination Exploiting Sparseness Measurement
Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been widely adopted in biomedical signal processing for denoising, compression
and so on. Choosing a suitable decomposition level (DL) in DWT is of paramount importance to its performance. In this paper, we propose to exploit sparseness of the transformed signals to determine the appropriate DL. Simulation results have shown that the sparseness of transformed signals after DWT increases with the increasing DLs. Additional Monte-Carlo simulation results have verified the effectiveness of sparseness measure in determining the DL.
Sparseness, DWT, decomposition level, ECG.
Bi-linear Complementarity Problem
In this paper, we propose a new linear complementarity problem named as bi-linear complementarity problem (BLCP) and the method for solving BLCP. In addition, the algorithm for error estimation of BLCP is also given. Numerical experiments show that the algorithm is efficient.
Bi-linear complementarity problem, Linear complementarity
problem, Extended linear complementarity problem, Error
estimation, P-matrix, M-matrix.
A Simplified Higher-Order Markov Chain Model
In this paper, we present a simplified higher-order Markov chain model for multiple categorical data sequences also called as simplified higher-order multivariate Markov chain model.
Higher-order multivariate Markov chain model, Categorical data sequences, Multivariate Markov chain.
Open Educational Resource in Online Mathematics Learning
Technology, multimedia in Open Educational
Resources, can contribute positively to student performance in an
online instructional environment. Student performance data of past
four years were obtained from an online course entitled Applied
Calculus (MA139). This paper examined the data to determine
whether multimedia (independent variable) had any impact on
student performance (dependent variable) in online math learning,
and how students felt about the value of the technology. Two groups
of student data were analyzed, group 1 (control) from the online
applied calculus course that did not use multimedia instructional
materials, and group 2 (treatment) of the same online applied calculus
course that used multimedia instructional materials. For the MA139
class, results indicate a statistically significant difference (p = .001)
between the two groups, where group 1 had a final score mean of
56.36 (out of 100), group 2 of 70.68. Additionally, student
testimonials were discussed in which students shared their experience
in learning applied calculus online with multimedia instructional
Online learning, Open Educational Resources,
Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields
The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.
Supersonic gas jet, Large Eddy Simulation(LES), acoustic noise, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equations, nozzle size.
A Damage Level Assessment Model for Extra High Voltage Transmission Towers
Power failure resulting from tower collapse due to violent seismic events might bring enormous and inestimable losses. The Chi-Chi earthquake, for example, strongly struck Taiwan and caused huge damage to the power system on September 21, 1999. Nearly 10% of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission towers were damaged in the earthquake. Therefore, seismic hazards of EHV transmission towers should be monitored and evaluated. The ultimate goal of this study is to establish a damage level assessment model for EHV transmission towers. The data of earthquakes provided by Taiwan Central Weather Bureau serve as a reference and then lay the foundation for earthquake simulations and analyses afterward. Some parameters related to the damage level of each point of an EHV tower are simulated and analyzed by the data from monitoring stations once an earthquake occurs. Through the Fourier transform, the seismic wave is then analyzed and transformed into different wave frequencies, and the data would be shown through a response spectrum. With this method, the seismic frequency which damages EHV towers the most is clearly identified. An estimation model is built to determine the damage level caused by a future seismic event. Finally, instead of relying on visual observation done by inspectors, the proposed model can provide a power company with the damage information of a transmission tower. Using the model, manpower required by visual observation can be reduced, and the accuracy of the damage level estimation can be substantially improved. Such a model is greatly useful for health and construction monitoring because of the advantages of long-term evaluation of structural characteristics and long-term damage detection.
Smart grid, EHV transmission tower, response spectrum, damage level monitoring.
An Internet of Things-Based Weight Monitoring System for Honey
Bees play a vital role in pollination. This paper focuses on the weighing process of honey. Honey is usually stored at the comb in a hive. Bee farmers brush bees away from the comb and then collect honey, and the collected honey is weighed afterward. However, such a process brings strong negative influences on bees and even leads to the death of bees. This paper therefore presents an Internet of Things-based weight monitoring system which uses weight sensors to measure the weight of honey and simplifies the whole weighing procedure. To verify the system, the weight measured by the system is compared to the weight of standard weights used for calibration by employing a linear regression model. The R2 of the regression model is 0.9788, which suggests that the weighing system is highly reliable and is able to be applied to obtain actual weight of honey. In the future, the weight data of honey can be used to find the relationship between honey production and different ecological parameters, such as bees’ foraging behavior and weather conditions. It is expected that the findings can serve as critical information for honey production improvement.
Internet of Things, weight, honey, bee.
Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed
In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS)
for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling
method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The
dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum
flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook
(BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas
phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved.
The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the
acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is
tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles
with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.
Gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme,
momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization.
Investigating the Fiber Content, Fiber Length, and Curing Characteristics of 3D Printed Recycled Carbon Fiber
As composite materials continue to gain popularity in the aerospace industry; large airframe sections made out of composite materials are becoming the standard for aerospace manufacturers. However, the heavy utilization of these composite materials also increases the importance of the recycling of these composite materials. A team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students have partnered to investigate the characteristics of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber. A prototype of a 3D printed recycled carbon fiber part was provided by an industry partner and different sections of the prototype were used to create specimens. A furnace was utilized in order to remove the polymer from the specimens and the specimen’s fiber content and fiber length was calculated from the remaining fibers. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test was also conducted on the 3D printed recycled carbon fiber prototype in order to determine the prototype’s degree of cure at different locations. The data collected from this study provided valuable information in the process improvement and understanding of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber.
3D printed, carbon fiber, fiber content, recycling.
Investigating the Effectiveness of a 3D Printed Composite Mold
In composite manufacturing, the fabrication of tooling and tooling maintenance contributes to a large portion of the total cost. However, as the applications of composite materials continue to increase, there is also a growing demand for more tooling. The demand for more tooling places heavy emphasis on the industry’s ability to fabricate high quality tools while maintaining the tool’s cost effectiveness. One of the popular techniques of tool fabrication currently being developed utilizes additive manufacturing technology known as 3D printing. The popularity of 3D printing is due to 3D printing’s ability to maintain low material waste, low cost, and quick fabrication time. In this study, a team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students investigated the effectiveness of a 3D printed composite mold. A steel valve cover from an aircraft reciprocating engine was modeled utilizing 3D scanning and computer-aided design (CAD) to create a 3D printed composite mold. The mold was used to fabricate carbon fiber versions of the aircraft reciprocating engine valve cover. The carbon fiber valve covers were evaluated for dimensional accuracy and quality while the 3D printed composite mold was evaluated for durability and dimensional stability. The data collected from this study provided valuable information in the understanding of 3D printed composite molds, potential improvements for the molds, and considerations for future tooling design.
Additive manufacturing, carbon fiber, composite tooling, molds.
Construction of Large Scale UAVs Using Homebuilt Composite Techniques
The unmanned aerial system (UAS) industry is growing at a rapid pace. This growth has increased the demand for low cost, custom made and high strength unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The area of most growth is in the area of 25 kg to 200 kg vehicles. Vehicles this size are beyond the size and scope of simple wood and fabric designs commonly found in hobbyist aircraft. These high end vehicles require stronger materials to complete their mission. Traditional aircraft construction materials such as aluminum are difficult to use without machining or advanced computer controlled tooling. However, by using general aviation composite aircraft homebuilding techniques and materials, a large scale UAV can be constructed cheaply and easily. Furthermore, these techniques could be used to easily manufacture cost made composite shapes and airfoils that would be cost prohibitive when using metals. These homebuilt aircraft techniques are being demonstrated by the researchers in the construction of a 75 kg aircraft.
Composite aircraft, homebuilding, unmanned aerial system, unmanned aerial vehicles.