Staling and Quality of Iranian Flat Bread Stored at Modified Atmosphere in Different Packaging
This study investigated the use of modified
atmosphere packaging (MAP) and different packaging to extend the
shelf life of Barbari flat bread. Three atmospheres including 70%CO2
and 30%N2, 50% CO2 and 50%N2 and a normal air as control were
used. The bread samples were packaged in three type pouches. The
shelf life was determined by appearance of mold and yeast (M +Y) in
Barbari bread samples stored at 25 ± 1°C and 38 ± 2% relative
humidity. The results showed that it is possible to prolong the shelf
life of Barbari bread from four days to about 21 days by using
modified atmosphere packaging with high carbon dioxide
concentration and high-barrier laminated and vacuum bags packages.
However, the hardness of samples kept in MAP increase significantly
by increase of carbon dioxide concentration. The correlation
coefficient (r) between headspace CO2 concentration and hardness
was 0.997, 0.997 and 0.599 for A, B and C packaging respectively.
High negative correlation coefficients were found between the crumb
moisture and the hardness values in various packaging. There were
significant negative correlation coefficients between sensory
parameters and hardness of texture.
modified atmosphere packaging, flat bread, Iranian bread, staling, correlation.
Convective Heat Transfer of Viscoelastic Flow in a Curved Duct
In this paper, fully developed flow and heat transfer of
viscoelastic materials in curved ducts with square cross section under
constant heat flux have been investigated. Here, staggered mesh is
used as computational grids and flow and heat transfer parameters
have been allocated in this mesh with marker and cell method.
Numerical solution of governing equations has being performed with
FTCS finite difference method. Furthermore, Criminale-Eriksen-
Filbey (CEF) constitutive equation has being used as viscoelastic
model. CEF constitutive equation is a suitable model for studying
steady shear flow of viscoelastic materials which is able to model
both effects of the first and second normal stress differences. Here, it
is shown that the first and second normal stresses differences have
noticeable and inverse effect on secondary flows intensity and mean
Nusselt number which is the main novelty of current research.
Viscoelastic, fluid flow, heat convection, CEF
model, curved duct, square cross section.
Analyzing of Noise inside a Simple Vehicle Cabin using Boundary Element Method
In this paper, modeling of an acoustic enclosed
vehicle cabin has been carried out by using boundary element
method. Also, the second purpose of this study is analyzing of linear
wave equation in an acoustic field. The resultants of this modeling
consist of natural frequencies that have been compared with
resultants derived from finite element method. By using numerical
method (boundary element method) and after solution of wave
equation inside an acoustic enclosed cabin, this method has been
progressed to simulate noise inside a simple vehicle cabin.
Boundary element method, natural frequency, noise,