Open Science Research Excellence

Naoto Suzuki

Publications

4

Publications

4
9171
Basic Research for Distinguishing Small Retinal Hemorrhages from Dust Artifact by using Hue, Lightness, and Saturation Color Space
Authors:
Abstract:
To distinguish small retinal hemorrhages in early diabetic retinopathy from dust artifacts, we analyzed hue, lightness, and saturation (HLS) color spaces. The fundus of 5 patients with diabetic retinopathy was photographed. For the initial experiment, we placed 4 different colored papers on the ceiling of a darkroom. Using each color, 10 fragments of house dust particles on a magnifier were photographed. The colored papers were removed, and 3 different colored light bulbs were suspended from the ceiling. Ten fragments of house dust particles on the camera-s object lens were photographed. We then constructed an experimental device that can photograph artificial eyes. Five fragments of house dust particles under the ocher fundus of the artificial eye were photographed. On analyzing HLS color space of the dust artifact, lightness and saturation were found to be highly sensitive. However, hue was not highly sensitive.
Keywords:
Dust artifact, HLS color space, Retinal hemorrhage,and Diabetic retinopathy
3
10005546
Distinction between Manifestations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Dust Artifacts Using Three-Dimensional HSV Color Space
Authors:
Abstract:
Many ophthalmologists find it difficult to distinguish between small retinal hemorrhages and dust artifacts when using fundus photography for the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Six patients with diabetic retinopathy underwent fundus photography, which revealed dust artifacts in the photographs of some patients. We constructed an experimental device similar to the optical system of the fundus camera and colored the fundi of the artificial eyes with khaki, sunset, rose and sunflower colors. Using the experimental device, we photographed dust artifacts using each artificial eyes. We used Scilab 5.4.0 and SIVP 0.5.3 softwares to convert the red, green, and blue (RGB) color space to the hue, saturation, and value (HSV) color space. We calculated the differences between the areas of manifestations and perimanifestations and the areas of dust artifacts and periartifacts using average HSVs. The V values in HSV for the manifestations were as follows: hemorrhages, 0.06 ± 0.03; hard exudates, −0.12 ± 0.06; and photocoagulation marks, 0.07 ± 0.02. For dust artifacts, visualized in the human and artificial eyes, the V values were as follows: human eye, 0.19 ± 0.03; khaki, 0.41 ± 0.02; sunset, 0.43 ± 0.04; rose, 0.47 ± 0.11; and sunflower, 0.59 ± 0.07. For the human and artificial eyes, we calculated two sensitivity values of dust artifacts compared to manifestation areas. V values of the HSV color space enabled the differentiation of small hemorrhages, hard exudates, and photocoagulation marks from dust artifacts.
Keywords:
Diabetic retinopathy, HSV color space, small hemorrhages, hard exudates, photocoagulation marks.
2
10008865
Basic Research for Electroretinogram Moving the Center of the Multifocal Hexagonal Stimulus Array
Authors:
Abstract:

Many ophthalmologists can examine declines in visual sensitivity at arbitrary points on the retina using a precise perimetry device with a fundus camera function. However, the retinal layer causing the decline in visual sensitivity cannot be identified by this method. We studied an electroretinogram (ERG) function that can move the center of the multifocal hexagonal stimulus array in order to investigate cryptogenic diseases, such as macular dystrophy, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, and multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. An electroretinographic optical system, specifically a perimetric optical system, was added to an experimental device carrying the same optical system as a fundus camera. We also added an infrared camera, a cold mirror, a halogen lamp, and a monitor. The software was generated to show the multifocal hexagonal stimulus array on the monitor using C++Builder XE8 and to move the center of the array up and down as well as back and forth. We used a multifunction I/O device and its design platform LabVIEW for data retrieval. The plate electrodes were used to measure electrodermal activities around the eyes. We used a multifocal hexagonal stimulus array with 37 elements in the software. The center of the multifocal hexagonal stimulus array could be adjusted to the same position as the examination target of the precise perimetry. We successfully added the moving ERG function to the experimental ophthalmologic device.

Keywords:
Moving ERG, precise perimetry, retinal layers, visual sensitivity.
1
10010908
Development of Moving Multifocal Electroretinogram with a Precise Perimetry Apparatus
Authors:
Abstract:

A decline in visual sensitivity at arbitrary points on the retina can be measured using a precise perimetry apparatus along with a fundus camera. However, the retinal layer associated with this decline cannot be identified accurately with current medical technology. To investigate cryptogenic diseases, such as macular dystrophy, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), and multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), we evaluated an electroretinogram (ERG) function that allows moving the center of the multifocal hexagonal stimulus array to a chosen position. Macular dystrophy is a generalized term used for a variety of functional disorders of the macula lutea, and the ERG shows a diminution of the b-wave in these disorders. AZOOR causes an acute functional disorder to an outer layer of the retina, and the ERG shows a-wave and b-wave amplitude reduction as well as delayed 30 Hz flicker responses. MEWDS causes acute visual loss and the ERG shows a decrease in a-wave amplitude. We combined an electroretinographic optical system and a perimetric optical system into an experimental apparatus that has the same optical system as that of a fundus camera. We also deployed an EO-50231 Edmund infrared camera, a 45-degree cold mirror, a lens with a 25-mm focal length, a halogen lamp, and an 8-inch monitor. Then, we also employed a differential amplifier with gain 10, a 50 Hz notch filter, a high-pass filter with a 21.2 Hz cut-off frequency, and two non-inverting amplifiers with gains 1001 and 11. In addition, we used a USB-6216 National Instruments I/O device, a NE-113A Nihon Kohden plate electrode, a SCB-68A shielded connector block, and LabVIEW 2017 software for data retrieval. The software was used to generate the multifocal hexagonal stimulus array on the computer monitor with C++Builder 10.2 and to move the center of the array toward the left and right and up and down. Cone and bright flash ERG results were observed using the moving ERG function. The a-wave, b-wave, c-wave, and the photopic negative response were identified with cone ERG. The moving ERG function allowed the identification of the retinal layer causing visual alterations.

Keywords:
Moving ERG, multifocal ERG, precise perimetry, retinal layers, visual sensitivity