Modeling and Simulation of Robotic Arm Movement using Soft Computing
In this research paper we have presented control
architecture for robotic arm movement and trajectory planning using
Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). This architecture is
used to compensate the uncertainties like; movement, friction and
settling time in robotic arm movement. The genetic algorithms and
fuzzy logic is used to meet the objective of optimal control
movement of robotic arm. This proposed technique represents a
general model for redundant structures and may extend to other
structures. Results show optimal angular movement of joints as result
of evolutionary process. This technique has edge over the other
techniques as minimum mathematics complexity used.
Kinematics, Genetic algorithms (GAs), Fuzzy logic(FL), Optimal control.
Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are wireless
networks consisting of number of tiny, low cost and low power
sensor nodes to monitor various physical phenomena like
temperature, pressure, vibration, landslide detection, presence of any
object, etc. The major limitation in these networks is the use of nonrechargeable
battery having limited power supply. The main cause of
energy consumption WSN is communication subsystem. This paper
presents an efficient grid formation/clustering strategy known as Grid
based level Clustering and Aggregation of Data (GCAD). The
proposed clustering strategy is simple and scalable that uses low duty
cycle approach to keep non-CH nodes into sleep mode thus reducing
energy consumption. Simulation results demonstrate that our
proposed GCAD protocol performs better in various performance
Ad hoc network, Cluster, Grid base clustering,
Wireless sensor network.
Impact of MAC Layer on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Mobile Ad hoc Networks is an autonomous system of
mobile nodes connected by multi-hop wireless links without
centralized infrastructure support. As mobile communication gains
popularity, the need for suitable ad hoc routing protocols will
continue to grow. Efficient dynamic routing is an important research
challenge in such a network. Bandwidth constrained mobile devices
use on-demand approach in their routing protocols because of its
effectiveness and efficiency. Many researchers have conducted
numerous simulations for comparing the performance of these
protocols under varying conditions and constraints. Most of them are
not aware of MAC Protocols, which will impact the relative
performance of routing protocols considered in different network
scenarios. In this paper we investigate the choice of MAC protocols
affects the relative performance of ad hoc routing protocols under
different scenarios. We have evaluated the performance of these
protocols using NS2 simulations. Our results show that the
performance of routing protocols of ad hoc networks will suffer when
run over different MAC Layer protocols.
AODV, DSR, DSDV, MAC, MANETs, relativeperformance
Hydrogen and Diesel Combustion on a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine in Dual Fuel mode with Varying Injection Strategies
The present energy situation and the concerns
about global warming has stimulated active research interest
in non-petroleum, carbon free compounds and non-polluting
fuels, particularly for transportation, power generation, and
agricultural sectors. Environmental concerns and limited
amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the
development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC)
engines. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining
and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the
developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe
shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced
in the second half of this century. Recently more and more
stringent environmental regulations being enacted in the USA
and Europe have led to the research and development
activities on clean alternative fuels. Among the gaseous fuels
hydrogen is considered to be one of the clean alternative fuel.
Hydrogen is an interesting candidate for future internal
combustion engine based power trains. In this experimental
investigation, the performance and combustion analysis were
carried out on a direct injection (DI) diesel engine using
hydrogen with diesel following the TMI(Time Manifold
Injection) technique at different injection timings of 10
degree,45 degree and 80 degree ATDC using an electronic
control unit (ECU) and injection durations were controlled.
Further, the tests have been carried out at a constant speed of
1500rpm at different load conditions and it can be observed
that brake thermal efficiency increases with increase in load
conditions with a maximum gain of 15% at full load
conditions during all injection strategies of hydrogen. It was
also observed that with the increase in hydrogen energy share
BSEC started reducing and it reduced to a maximum of 9% as
compared to baseline diesel at 10deg ATDC injection during
maximum injection proving the exceptional combustion
properties of hydrogen.
Hydrogen, performance, combustion, alternative
Hubs as Catalysts for Geospatial Communication in Kinship Networks
Earlier studies in kinship networks have primarily
focused on observing the social relationships existing between family
relatives. In this study, we pre-identified hubs in the network to
investigate if they could play a catalyst role in the transfer of physical
information. We conducted a case study of a ceremony performed in
one of the families of a small Hindu community – the Uttar Rarhi
Kayasthas. Individuals (n = 168) who resided in 11 geographically
dispersed regions were contacted through our hub-based
representation. We found that using this representation, over 98% of
the individuals were successfully contacted within the stipulated
period. The network also demonstrated a small-world property, with
an average geodesic distance of 3.56.
Social Networks, Kinship Networks, Social Network
Analysis, Geospatial Communication, Hubs
Fuzzy-Genetic Optimal Control for Four Degreeof Freedom Robotic Arm Movement
In this paper, we present optimal control for
movement and trajectory planning for four degrees-of-freedom robot
using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). We have
evaluated using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs)
for four degree-of-freedom (4 DOF) robotics arm, Uncertainties like;
Movement, Friction and Settling Time in robotic arm movement
have been compensated using Fuzzy logic and Genetic Algorithms.
The development of a fuzzy genetic optimization algorithm is
presented and discussed. The result are compared only GA and
Fuzzy GA. This paper describes genetic algorithms, which is
designed to optimize robot movement and trajectory. Though the
model represents is a general model for redundant structures and
could represent any n-link structures. The result is a complete
trajectory planning with Fuzzy logic and Genetic algorithms
demonstrating the flexibility of this technique of artificial
Inverse kinematics, Genetic algorithms (GAs),Fuzzy logic (FL), Trajectory planning.
Modeling and Design of MPPT Controller Using Stepped P&O Algorithm in Solar Photovoltaic System
This paper presents modeling and simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) system by using improved mathematical model. The model is used to study different parameter variations and effects on the PV array including operating temperature and solar irradiation level. In this paper stepped P&O algorithm is proposed for MPPT control. This algorithm will identify the suitable duty ratio in which the DC-DC converter should be operated to maximize the power output. Photo voltaic array with proposed stepped P&O-MPPT controller can operate in the maximum power point for the whole range of solar data (irradiance and temperature).
Photovoltaic (PV), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Boost converter, Stepped Perturb & Observe method (Stepped P&O).
Simulation of Robotic Arm using Genetic Algorithm and AHP
In this paper, we have proposed a low cost optimized solution for the movement of a three-arm manipulator using Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). A scheme is given for optimizing the movement of robotic arm with the help of Genetic Algorithm so that the minimum energy consumption criteria can be achieved. As compared to Direct Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics evolved two solutions out of which the best-fit solution is selected with the help of Genetic Algorithm and is kept in search space for future use. The Inverse Kinematics, Fitness Value evaluation and Binary Encoding like tasks are simulated and tested. Although, three factors viz. Movement, Friction and Least Settling Time (or Min. Vibration) are used for finding the Fitness Function / Fitness Values, however some more factors can also be considered.
Inverse Kinematics, Genetic Algorithm (GA),Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Fitness Value, Fitness Function.
Prediction of Tool and Nozzle Flow Behavior in Ultrasonic Machining Process
The use of hard and brittle material has become
increasingly more extensive in recent years. Therefore processing of
these materials for the parts fabrication has become a challenging
problem. However, it is time-consuming to machine the hard brittle
materials with the traditional metal-cutting technique that uses
abrasive wheels. In addition, the tool would suffer excessive wear as
well. However, if ultrasonic energy is applied to the machining
process and coupled with the use of hard abrasive grits, hard and
brittle materials can be effectively machined. Ultrasonic machining
process is mostly used for the brittle materials. The present research
work has developed models using finite element approach to predict
the mechanical stresses sand strains produced in the tool during
ultrasonic machining process. Also the flow behavior of abrasive
slurry coming out of the nozzle has been studied for simulation using
ANSYS CFX module. The different abrasives of different grit sizes
have been used for the experimentation work.
Stress, MRR, Flow, Ultrasonic Machining
Object-Oriented Cognitive-Spatial Complexity Measures
Software maintenance and mainly software
comprehension pose the largest costs in the software lifecycle. In
order to assess the cost of software comprehension, various
complexity measures have been proposed in the literature. This paper
proposes new cognitive-spatial complexity measures, which combine
the impact of spatial as well as architectural aspect of the software to
compute the software complexity. The spatial aspect of the software
complexity is taken into account using the lexical distances (in
number of lines of code) between different program elements and the
architectural aspect of the software complexity is taken into
consideration using the cognitive weights of control structures
present in control flow of the program. The proposed measures are
evaluated using standard axiomatic frameworks and then, the
proposed measures are compared with the corresponding existing
cognitive complexity measures as well as the spatial complexity
measures for object-oriented software. This study establishes that the
proposed measures are better indicators of the cognitive effort
required for software comprehension than the other existing
complexity measures for object-oriented software.
cognitive complexity, software comprehension,
software metrics, spatial complexity, Object-oriented software
Effects of Double Delta Doping on Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Wave Response of Two-Dimensional Hot Electrons in GaAs Nanostructures
Carrier mobility has become the most important
characteristic of high speed low dimensional devices. Due to
development of very fast switching semiconductor devices, speed of
computer and communication equipment has been increasing day by
day and will continue to do so in future. As the response of any
device depends on the carrier motion within the devices, extensive
studies of carrier mobility in the devices has been established
essential for the growth in the field of low dimensional devices.
Small-signal ac transport of degenerate two-dimensional hot
electrons in GaAs quantum wells is studied here incorporating
deformation potential acoustic, polar optic and ionized impurity
scattering in the framework of heated drifted Fermi-Dirac carrier
distribution. Delta doping is considered in the calculations to
investigate the effects of double delta doping on millimeter and submillimeter
wave response of two dimensional hot electrons in GaAs
nanostructures. The inclusion of delta doping is found to enhance
considerably the two dimensional electron density which in turn
improves the carrier mobility (both ac and dc) values in the GaAs
quantum wells thereby providing scope of getting higher speed
devices in future.
Carrier mobility, Delta doping, Hot carriers,Quantum wells.
Energy Map Construction using Adaptive Alpha Grey Prediction Model in WSNs
Wireless Sensor Networks can be used to monitor the
physical phenomenon in such areas where human approach is nearly
impossible. Hence the limited power supply is the major constraint of
the WSNs due to the use of non-rechargeable batteries in sensor
nodes. A lot of researches are going on to reduce the energy
consumption of sensor nodes. Energy map can be used with
clustering, data dissemination and routing techniques to reduce the
power consumption of WSNs. Energy map can also be used to know
which part of the network is going to fail in near future. In this paper,
Energy map is constructed using the prediction based approach.
Adaptive alpha GM(1,1) model is used as the prediction model.
GM(1,1) is being used worldwide in many applications for predicting
future values of time series using some past values due to its high
computational efficiency and accuracy.
Adaptive Alpha GM(1,1) Model, Energy Map,
Prediction Based Data Reduction, Wireless Sensor Networks
Evaluating the Tool Wear Rate in Ultrasonic Machining of Titanium using Design of Experiments Approach
Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a non-traditional
machining process being widely used for commercial machining of
brittle and fragile materials such as glass, ceramics and
semiconductor materials. However, USM could be a viable
alternative for machining a tough material such as titanium; and this
aspect needs to be explored through experimental research. This
investigation is focused on exploring the use of ultrasonic machining
for commercial machining of pure titanium (ASTM Grade-I) and
evaluation of tool wear rate (TWR) under controlled experimental
conditions. The optimal settings of parameters are determined
through experiments planned, conducted and analyzed using Taguchi
method. In all, the paper focuses on parametric optimization of
ultrasonic machining of pure titanium metal with TWR as response,
and validation of the optimized value of TWR by conducting
Ultrasonic machining, titanium, tool wear rate
Traveling Wave Solutions for Shallow Water Wave Equation by (G'/G)-Expansion Method
This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solution of a non-linear equation and calls it the (G'/G)-expansion method. The shallow water wave equation is reduced to a non linear ordinary differential equation by using a simple transformation. As a result the traveling wave solutions of shallow water wave equation are expressed in three forms: hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions.
Shallow water wave equation, Exact solutions, (G'/G) expansion method.
Study of Flow Behavior of Aqueous Solution of Rhodamine B in Annular Reactor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
The present study deals with the modeling and simulation of flow through an annular reactor at different hydrodynamic conditions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the flow behavior. CFD modeling was utilized to predict velocity distribution and average velocity in the annular geometry. The results of CFD simulations were compared with the mathematically derived equations and already developed correlations for validation purposes. CFD modeling was found suitable for predicting the flow characteristics in annular geometry under laminar flow conditions. It was observed that CFD also provides local values of the parameters of interest in addition to the average values for the simulated geometry.
Annular reactor, computational fluid dynamics
(CFD), hydrodynamics, Rhodamine B
On the Steady-State Performance Characteristics of Finite Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing under Micro-Polar Lubrication with Turbulent Effect
The objective of the present paper is to theoretically investigate the steady-state performance characteristics of journal bearing of finite width, operating with micropolar lubricant in a turbulent regime. In this analysis, the turbulent shear stress coefficients are used based on the Constantinescu’s turbulent model suggested by Taylor and Dowson with the assumption of parallel and inertia-less flow. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation has yielded the distribution of film pressure which determines the static performance characteristics in terms of load capacity, attitude angle, end flow rate and frictional parameter at various values of eccentricity ratio, non-dimensional characteristics length, coupling number and Reynolds number.
Hydrodynamic lubrication, steady-state, micropolar lubricant, turbulent.
Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices
In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) Impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.
Available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model.
Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations
An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 oC temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5- 4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000 -24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.
Hot-Surface, Jet Impingement, Quenching, Stagnation Point.
Effect of adding Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (Bay Leaf) on Nutraceutical Property of Tofu
Supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (bay) leaves obtained at 55°C, 512 bar was found to have appreciable nutraceutical properties and was successfully employed as value-added ingredients in preparation of tofu. The bay leaf formulated tofu sample was evaluated for physicochemical properties (pH, texture analysis and lipid peroxidation), proximate analysis, phytochemical properties (total phenol content, antioxidant properties and total reducing sugar), microbial load and sensory profile analysis for a storage period of ten days, vis-à-vis an experimental control sample. These assays established the superiority of the tofu sample formulated with supercritical carbon dioxide extract of bay leaf over the control sample. Bay leaf extract formulated tofu is a new green functional food with promising nutraceutical benefits.
Cinnamomum tamala, Physicochemical properties Phytochemical properties, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Tofu.
Potential and Challenges for Better Life in Rural Communities
Public health informatics (PHI) which has seen successful implementation in the developed world, become the buzzword in the developing countries in providing improved healthcare with enhanced access. In rural areas especially, where a huge gap exists between demand and supply of healthcare facilities, PHI is being seen as a major solution. There are factors such as growing network infrastructure and the technological adoption by the health fraternity which provide support to these claims. Public health informatics has opportunities in healthcare by providing opportunities to diagnose patients, provide intra-operative assistance and consultation from a remote site. It also has certain barriers in the awareness, adaptation, network infrastructure, funding and policy related areas. There are certain medico-legal aspects involving all the stakeholders which need to be standardized to enable a working system. This paper aims to analyze the potential and challenges of Public health informatics services in rural communities.
PHI, e-health, Public health.
Conceptual Design of Experimental Helium Cooling Loop for Indian TBM R&D Experiments
This paper deals with the conceptual design of Experimental Helium Cooling Loop (EHCL) for Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) and its related thermal hydraulic experiments. Indian TBM team is developing Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (IN-LLCB) TBM to be tested in ITER. The TBM box structure is cooled by high pressure (8 MPa) and high temperature (300-500C) helium gas.
The first wall of TBM made of complex channel geometry having several parallel channels carrying helium gas for efficient heat extraction. Several mock-ups of these channels need to be tested before finalizing the TBM first wall design and fabrication. Besides the individual testing of such mock-ups of breeding blanket, the testing of Pb-Li to helium heat exchanger, the operational experience of helium loop and understanding of the behavior of high pressure and high temperature system components are very essential for final development of Helium Cooling System for LLCB TBM in ITER. The main requirements and characteristics of the EHCL and its conceptual design are presented in this paper.
DEMO, EHCL, ITER, LLCB TBM.
Analysis of Motor Cycle Helmet under Static and Dynamic Loading
Each year nearly nine hundred persons die in head injuries and over fifty thousand persons are severely injured due to non wearing of helmets. In motor cycle accidents, the human head is exposed to heavy impact loading against natural protection. In this work, an attempt has been made for analyzing the helmet with all the standard data. The simulation software ‘ANSYS’ is used to analyze the helmet with different conditions such as bottom fixed-load on top surface, bottom fixed -load on top line, side fixed –load on opposite surface, side fixed-load on opposite line and dynamic analysis. The maximum force of 19.5 kN is applied on the helmet to study the model in static and dynamic conditions. The simulation has been carried out for the static condition for the parameters like total deformation, strain energy, von-Mises stress for different cases. The dynamic analysis has been performed for the parameter like total deformation and equivalent elastic strain. The result shows that these values are concentrated in the retention portion of the helmet. These results have been compared with the standard experimental data proposed by the BIS and well within the acceptable limit.
Helmet, Deformation, Strain energy, Equivalent elastic strain.
Rapid Prototyping Applications in Various Field of Engineering and Technology
In the product design and development process, the prototyping or model making is one of the important step to finalize a product which helps in conceptualization of a design. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is layer-by-layer material deposition started during early 1980s with the enormous growth in Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technologies. The edges and surfaces of a complex solid model and their information are used for defining a product which is further manufactured as a finished product by CNC machining. This paper provides a better platform for researchers, new learners and product manufacturers for various applications of RP models. Subsequently it creates awareness among the peoples of recently developing RP method of manufacturing in product design, developments and its applications.
Prototyping, layer-by-layer, CAD/CAM, product design.
An Aerodynamic Design and Analysis of Motor Cycle Helmet with Anti-Glare Visor
Motor cycle accidents have been increased for the past two decades. Helmet can protect the vehicle riders from severe injuries during road accident to certain extent. To design a functional helmet, it is important to analyze the shape of the helmet and visor portion. Hence, an attempt has been made for design and analysis of new helmet by considering the drag pressure and anti-glare visor. The drag pressure resistance presses the helmet against the neck portion of the rider. The shape of an aerodynamic helmet can be able to reduce the drag pressure. The spherical shape and a new aerodynamic shape helmets are designed with help of Pro-E software and the drag pressures were calculated and comparison has been made on the basis of drag pressure.
Helmet, drag pressure, aero-dynamic, refractive index, Pro-E.
Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite
This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts grey relational analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole.
Metal matrix composite, Drilling, Optimization, step drill, Surface roughness, burr height, hole diameter error.
Some Properties of IF Rough Relational Algebraic Operators in Medical Databases
Some properties of Intuitionistic Fuzzy (IF) rough relational algebraic operators under an IF rough relational data model are investigated and illustrated using diabetes and heart disease databases. These properties are important and desirable for processing queries in an effective and efficient manner.
IF Set, Rough Set, IF Rough Relational Database, IF rough Relational Operators.
Measurement of Operational and Environmental Performance of the Coal-Fired Power Plants in India by Using Data Envelopment Analysis
In this study, the performance analyses of the twenty
five Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs) used for electricity generation
are carried out through various Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
models. Three efficiency indices are defined and pursued. During the
calculation of the operational performance, energy and non-energy
variables are used as input, and net electricity produced is used as
desired output (Model-1). CO2 emitted to the environment is used as
the undesired output (Model-2) in the computation of the pure
environmental performance while in Model-3 CO2 emissions is
considered as detrimental input in the calculation of operational and
environmental performance. Empirical results show that most of the
plants are operating in increasing returns to scale region and Mettur
plant is efficient one with regards to energy use and environment.
The result also indicates that the undesirable output effect is
insignificant in the research sample. The present study will provide
clues to plant operators towards raising the operational and
environmental performance of CFPPs.
Coal fired power plants, environmental performance,
data envelopment analysis, operational performance.
Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film
A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully
electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution
and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates
the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The
sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and
average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph
indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the
surface. Annealing increases the average grain size by 20%. The EDS
spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed
film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film
reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The
bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.
Electrodeposition, Non-aqueous medium, SEM,
Stature Prediction Model Based On Hand Anthropometry
The arm length, hand length, hand breadth and middle
finger length of 1540 right-handed industrial workers of Haryana
state was used to assess the relationship between the upper limb
dimensions and stature. Initially, the data were analyzed using basic
univariate analysis and independent t-tests; then simple and multiple
linear regression models were used to estimate stature using SPSS
(version 17). There was a positive correlation between upper limb
measurements (hand length, hand breadth, arm length and middle
finger length) and stature (p < 0.01), which was highest for hand
length. The accuracy of stature prediction ranged from ± 54.897 mm
to ± 58.307 mm. The use of multiple regression equations gave better
results than simple regression equations. This study provides new
forensic standards for stature estimation from the upper limb
measurements of male industrial workers of Haryana (India). The
results of this research indicate that stature can be determined using
hand dimensions with accuracy, when only upper limb is available
due to any reasons likewise explosions, train/plane crashes, mutilated
bodies, etc. The regression formula derived in this study will be
useful for anatomists, archaeologists, anthropologists, design
engineers and forensic scientists for fairly prediction of stature using
Anthropometric dimensions, Forensic identification,
Industrial workers, Stature prediction.
Simulation and Analysis of Control System for a Solar Desalination System
Fresh water is one of the resources which is getting
depleted day by day. A wise method to address this issue is by the
application of renewable energy-sun irradiation and by means of
decentralized, cheap, energetically self-sufficient, robust and simple
to operate plants, distillates can be obtained from sea, river or even
sewage. Solar desalination is a technique used to desalinate water
using solar energy. The present work deals with the comprehensive
design and simulation of solar tracking system using LabVIEW,
temperature and mass flow rate control of the solar desalination plant
using LabVIEW and also analysis of single phase inverter circuit
with LC filters for solar pumping system in MATLAB. The main
objective of this work is to improve the performance of solar
desalination system using automatic tracking system, output control
using temperature and mass flow rate control system and also to
reduce the harmonic distortion in the solar pumping system by means
of LC filters. The simulation of single phase inverter was carried out
using MATLAB and the output waveforms were analyzed.
Simulations were performed for optimum output temperature control,
which in turn controls the mass flow rate of water in the thermal
collectors. Solar tracking system was accomplished using LABVIEW
and was tested successfully. The thermal collectors are tracked in
accordance with the sun’s irradiance levels, thereby increasing the
efficiency of the thermal collectors.
Desalination, Electro dialysis, LabVIEW,
MATLAB, PWM inverter, Reverse osmosis.
Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Early Stage Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death
In present scenario, cardiovascular problems are growing challenge for researchers and physiologists. As heart disease have no geographic, gender or socioeconomic specific reasons; detecting cardiac irregularities at early stage followed by quick and correct treatment is very important. Electrocardiogram is the finest tool for continuous monitoring of heart activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) is used to measure naturally occurring oscillations between consecutive cardiac cycles. Analysis of this variability is carried out using time domain, frequency domain and non-linear parameters. This paper presents HRV analysis of the online dataset for normal sinus rhythm (taken as healthy subject) and sudden cardiac death (SCD subject) using all three methods computing values for parameters like standard deviation of node to node intervals (SDNN), square root of mean of the sequences of difference between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), mean of R to R intervals (mean RR) in time domain, very low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ratio of low to high frequency (LF/HF ratio) in frequency domain and Poincare plot for non linear analysis. To differentiate HRV of healthy subject from subject died with SCD, k –nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been used because of its high accuracy. Results show highly reduced values for all stated parameters for SCD subjects as compared to healthy ones. As the dataset used for SCD patients is recording of their ECG signal one hour prior to their death, it is therefore, verified with an accuracy of 95% that proposed algorithm can identify mortality risk of a patient one hour before its death. The identification of a patient’s mortality risk at such an early stage may prevent him/her meeting sudden death if in-time and right treatment is given by the doctor.
Early stage prediction, heart rate variability, linear and non linear analysis, sudden cardiac death.
Experimental Investigation on Over-Cut in Ultrasonic Machining of WC-Co Composite
Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard, and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. Present article has been targeted at investigating the impact of different experimental conditions (power rating, cobalt content, tool material, thickness of work piece, tool geometry, and abrasive grit size) on over cut in ultrasonic drilling of WC-Co composite material. Taguchi’s L-36 orthogonal array has been employed for conducting the experiments. Significant factors have been identified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The experimental results revealed that abrasive grit size and tool material are most significant factors for over cut.
ANOVA, Abrasive grit size, Taguchi, WC-Co, ultrasonic machining.
Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation Methodology for Aircraft Load Prediction
The paper demonstrates a methodology that can be used at an early design stage of any conventional aircraft. This research activity assesses the feasibility derivation of methodology for aircraft loads estimation during the various phases of design for a transport category aircraft by utilizing potential of using commercial finite element analysis software, which may drive significant time saving. Early Design phase have limited data and quick changing configuration results in handling of large number of load cases. It is useful to idealize the aircraft as a connection of beams, which can be very accurately modelled using finite element analysis (beam elements). This research explores the correct approach towards idealizing an aircraft using beam elements. FEM Techniques like inertia relief were studied for implementation during course of work. The correct boundary condition technique envisaged for generation of shear force, bending moment and torque diagrams for the aircraft. The possible applications of this approach are the aircraft design process, which have been investigated.
Multi-disciplinary optimization, aircraft load, finite element analysis, Stick Model.
Optimization of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding of Cast Alloy AA7075 by Taguchi Method
This investigation proposes Friction stir welding technique to solve the fusion welding problems. Objectives of this investigation are fabrication of AA7075-10%wt. Silicon carbide (SiC) aluminum metal matrix composite and optimization of optimal process parameters of friction stir welded AA7075-10%wt. SiC Composites. Composites were prepared by the mechanical stir casting process. Experiments were performed with four process parameters such as tool rotational speed, weld speed, axial force and tool geometry considering three levels of each. The quality characteristics considered is joint efficiency (JE). The welding experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. An orthogonal array and design of experiments were used to give best possible welding parameters that give optimal JE. The fabricated welded joints using rotational speed of 1500 rpm, welding speed (1.3 mm/sec), axial force (7 k/n) of and tool geometry (square) give best possible results. Experimental result reveals that the tool rotation speed, welding speed and axial force are the significant process parameters affecting the welding performance. The predicted optimal value of percentage JE is 95.621. The confirmation tests also have been done for verifying the results.
Metal matrix composite, axial force, joint efficiency, rotational speed, traverse speed, tool geometry.