Open Science Research Excellence

S Li

Publications

51

Publications

51
902
Straight Line Defect Detection with Feed Forward Neural Network
Abstract:

Nowadays, hard disk is one of the most popular storage components. In hard disk industry, the hard disk drive must pass various complex processes and tested systems. In each step, there are some failures. To reduce waste from these failures, we must find the root cause of those failures. Conventionall data analysis method is not effective enough to analyze the large capacity of data. In this paper, we proposed the Hough method for straight line detection that helps to detect straight line defect patterns that occurs in hard disk drive. The proposed method will help to increase more speed and accuracy in failure analysis.

Keywords:
Hough Transform, Failure Analysis, Media, Hard Disk Drive
50
1572
The Effection of Different Culturing Proportion of Deep Sea Water(DSW) to Surface Sea Water(SSW) in Reductive Ability and Phenolic Compositions of Sargassum Cristaefolium
Abstract:
Characterized as rich mineral substances, low temperature, few bacteria, and stability with numerous implementation aspects on aquaculture, food, drinking, and leisure, the deep sea water (DSW) development has become a new industry in the world. It has been report that marine algae contain various biologically active compounds. This research focued on the affections in cultivating Sagrassum cristaefolium with different concentration of deep sea water(DSW) and surface sea water(SSW). After two and four weeks, the total phenolic contents were compared in Sagrassum cristaefolium culturing with different ways, and the reductive activity of them was also be tried with potassium ferricyanide. Those fresh seaweeds were dried with oven and were ground to powder. Progressively, the marine algae we cultured was extracted by water under the condition with heating them at 90Ôäâ for 1hr.The total phenolic contents were be executed using Folin–Ciocalteu method. The results were explaining as follows: the highest total phenolic contents and the best reductive ability of all could be observed on the 1/4 proportion of DSW to SSW culturing in two weeks. Furthermore, the 1/2 proportion of DSW to SSW also showed good reductive ability and plentiful phenolic compositions. Finally, we confirmed that difference proportion of DSW and SSW is the major point relating to ether the total phenolic components or the reductive ability in the Sagrassum cristaefolium. In the future, we will use this way to mass production the marine algae or other micro algae on industry applications.
Keywords:
deep sea water(DSW), surface sea water(SSW), phenolic contents, reductive ability.
49
2445
Design of High Gain, High Bandwidth Op-Amp for Reduction of Mismatch Currents in Charge Pump PLL in 180 nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
The designing of charge pump with high gain Op- Amp is a challenging task for getting faithful response .Design of high performance phase locked loop require ,a design of high performance charge pump .We have designed a operational amplifier for reducing the error caused by high speed glitch in a transistor and mismatch currents . A separate Op-Amp has designed in 180 nm CMOS technology by CADENCE VIRTUOSO tool. This paper describes the design of high performance charge pump for GHz CMOS PLL targeting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) application. A high speed low power consumption Op-Amp with more than 500 MHz bandwidth has designed for increasing the speed of charge pump in Phase locked loop.
Keywords:
Charge pump (CP) Orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM),Phase locked loop (PLL), Phase frequencydetector (PFD), Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO),
48
2689
Energy Consumption Analysis of Design Patterns
Abstract:
The importance of low power consumption is widely acknowledged due to the increasing use of portable devices, which require minimizing the consumption of energy. Energy dissipation is heavily dependent on the software used in the system. Applying design patterns in object-oriented designs is a common practice nowadays. In this paper we analyze six design patterns and explore the effect of them on energy consumption and performance.
Keywords:
Design Patterns, Embedded Systems, Energy Consumption, Performance Evaluation, Software Design and Development, Software Engineering.
47
3093
Automatic 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Centerlines from Monoplane X-ray Angiogram Images
Abstract:
We present a new method for the fully automatic 3D reconstruction of the coronary artery centerlines, using two X-ray angiogram projection images from a single rotating monoplane acquisition system. During the first stage, the input images are smoothed using curve evolution techniques. Next, a simple yet efficient multiscale method, based on the information of the Hessian matrix, for the enhancement of the vascular structure is introduced. Hysteresis thresholding using different image quantiles, is used to threshold the arteries. This stage is followed by a thinning procedure to extract the centerlines. The resulting skeleton image is then pruned using morphological and pattern recognition techniques to remove non-vessel like structures. Finally, edge-based stereo correspondence is solved using a parallel evolutionary optimization method based on f symbiosis. The detected 2D centerlines combined with disparity map information allow the reconstruction of the 3D vessel centerlines. The proposed method has been evaluated on patient data sets for evaluation purposes.
Keywords:
Vessel enhancement, centerline extraction, symbiotic reconstruction.
46
3276
Effective Sonar Target Classification via Parallel Structure of Minimal Resource Allocation Network
Abstract:
In this paper, the processing of sonar signals has been carried out using Minimal Resource Allocation Network (MRAN) and a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) in differentiation of commonly encountered features in indoor environments. The stability-plasticity behaviors of both networks have been investigated. The experimental result shows that MRAN possesses lower network complexity but experiences higher plasticity than PNN. An enhanced version called parallel MRAN (pMRAN) is proposed to solve this problem and is proven to be stable in prediction and also outperformed the original MRAN.
Keywords:
Ultrasonic sensing, target classification, minimalresource allocation network (MRAN), probabilistic neural network(PNN), stability-plasticity dilemma.
45
3487
Obstacles as Switches between Different Cardiac Arrhythmias
Abstract:
Ventricular fibrillation is a very important health problem as is the cause of most of the sudden deaths in the world. Waves of electrical activity are sent by the SA node, propagate through the cardiac tissue and activate the mechanisms of cell contraction, and therefore are responsible to pump blood to the body harmonically. A spiral wave is an abnormal auto sustainable wave that is responsible of certain types of arrhythmias. When these waves break up, give rise to the fibrillation regime, in which there is a complete loss in the coordination of the contraction of the heart muscle. Interaction of spiral waves and obstacles is also of great importance as it is believed that the attachment of a spiral wave to an obstacle can provide with a transition of two different arrhythmias. An obstacle can be partially excitable or non excitable. In this talk, we present a numerical study of the interaction of meandering spiral waves with partially and non excitable obstacles and focus on the problem where the obstacle plays a fundamental role in the switch between different spiral regimes, which represent different arrhythmic regimes. Particularly, we study the phenomenon of destabilization of spiral waves due to the presence of obstacles, a phenomenon not completely understood (This work will appear as a Chapter in a Book named Cardiac Arrhytmias by INTECH under the name "Spiral Waves, Obstacles and Cardiac Arrhythmias", ISBN 979-953-307-050-5.).
Keywords:
Arrhythmias, Cardiac tissue, Obstacles, Spiral waves
44
4876
Empirical Analyses of Determinants of D.J.S.I.US Mean Returns
Abstract:
This study investigates the relationship between 10 year bond value, Yen/U.S dollar exchange rate, non-farm payrolls (all employs) and crude oil to U.S. Dow Jones Sustainability Index. A GARCH model is used to test these relationships for the period January 1st 1999 to January 31st 2008 using monthly data. Results show that an increase of the 10 year bond and non farm payrolls (all employs) lead to an increase of the D.J.S.I returns. On the contrary the volatility of the Yen/U.S dollar exchange rates as well as the increase of crude oil returns has negative effects on the U.S D.J.S.I returns. This study aims at assisting investors to understand the influences certain macroeconomic indicators have on the companies- stock returns as reported by the D.J.S.I.
Keywords:
Bond value, Corporate Social Responsibility, Crudeoil, D.J.S.I United States, Exchange rate, GARCH, Non-farmpayrolls.
43
5004
Model of Controled Six Phase Induction Motor
Abstract:
In this paper, the authors take a look at advantages of multiphase induction motors comparing them with three phase ones and present the applications where six-phase induction motors are used. They elaborate the mathematical model of six-phase induction motor with two similar stator three phase winding, shifted by 30 degrees in space and three phase winding in rotor, in synchronous reference frame for soft starting and scalar control. The authors simulate and discuss results of speed and torque starting transients.
Keywords:
Model, scalar control, six-phase induction motor.
42
6427
The Weight of Corporate Social Responsibility Indicators in Measurement Procedure
Abstract:

The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) performance has garnered significant interest during the last two decades as numerous methodologies are proposed by Social Responsible Investment (SRI) indexes. The weight of each indicator is a crucial component of the CSR measurement procedures. Based on a previous study, the appropriate weight of each proposed indicator for the Greek telecommunication sector is specified using the rank reciprocal weighting. The Kendall-s Coefficient of Concordance and Spearman Correlation Coefficient non-parametric tests are adopted to determine the level of consensus among the experts concerning the importance rank of indicators. The results show that there is no consensus regarding the rank of indicators in most of stakeholders- domains. The equal weight for all indicators could be proposed as a solution for the lack of consensus among the experts. The study recommends three different equations concerning the adopted weight approach.

Keywords:
Corporate Social Responsibility, Indicator, Weight.
41
8225
Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Pollution in Red Deer Meat in Latvia and Determination the Compatibility of VT1, VT2, eae A Genes in their Isolate
Abstract:
Tasks of the work were study the possible E.coli contamination in red deer meat, identify pathogenic strains from isolated E.coli, determine their incidence in red deer meat and determine the presence of VT1, VT2 and eaeA genes for the pathogenic E.coli. 8 (10%) samples were randomly selected from 80 analysed isolates of E.coli and PCR reaction was performed on them. PCR was done both on initial materials – samples of red deer meat - and for already isolated liqueurs. Two of analysed venison samples contain verotoxin-producing strains of E. coli. It means that this meat is not safe to consumer. It was proven by the sequestration reaction of E. coli and by comparison of the obtained results with the database of microorganism genome available on the internet that the isolated culture corresponds to region 16S rDNS of E. coli thus presenting correctness of the microbiological methods.
Keywords:
Deer meat, pathogenic Escherichia coli
40
8245
Simulation of Online Communities Using MAS Social and Spatial Organisations
Abstract:
Online Communities are an example of sociallyaware, self-organising, complex adaptive computing systems. The multi-agent systems (MAS) paradigm coordinated by self-organisation mechanisms has been used as an effective way for the simulation and modeling of such systems. In this paper, we propose a model for simulating an online health community using a situated multi-agent system approach, governed by the co-evolution of the social and spatial organisations of the agents.
Keywords:
multi-agent systems, organizations, online communities.
39
9999389
Consumption Habits of Low-Fat Plant Sterol-Enriched Yoghurt Enriched with Phytosterols
Abstract:

The increasing interest in plant sterol enriched foods is due to the fact that they reduce blood cholesterol concentrations without adverse side effects. In this context, enriched foods with phytosterols may be helpful in protecting population against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate in a population of Viseu, Portugal, the consumption habits low-fat, plant sterol-enriched yoghurt. For this study, 577 inquiries were made and the sample was randomly selected for people shopping in various supermarkets. The preliminary results showed that the biggest consumers of these products were women aged 45 to 65 years old. Most of the people who claimed to buy these products consumed them once a day. Also, most of the consumers under antidyslipidemic therapeutics noticed positive effects on hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords:
Consumption habits, fermented milk, functional foods, low fat, phytosterols.
38
16345
Evaluation of Eating Habits among Portuguese University Students: A Preliminary Study
Abstract:

Portuguese diet has been gradually diverging from the basic principles of healthy eating, leading to an unbalanced dietary pattern which, associated with increasing sedentary lifestyle, has a negative impact on public health. The main objective of this work was to characterize the dietary habits of university students in Viseu, Portugal. The study consisted of a sample of 80 university students, aged between 18 and 28 years. Anthropometric data (weight (kg) and height (m)) were collected and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The dietary habits were assessed through a three-day food record and the software Medpoint was used to convert food into energy and nutrients. The results showed that students present a normal body mass index. Female university students made a higher number of daily meals than male students, and these last skipped breakfast more frequently. The values of average daily intake of energy, macronutrients and calcium were higher in males. The food pattern was characterized by a predominant consumption of meat, cereal, fats and sugar. Dietary intake of dairy products, fruits, vegetables and legumes does not meet the recommendations, revealing inadequate food habits such as hypoglycemic, hyperprotein and hyperlipidemic diet. Our findings suggest that preventive interventions should be focus in promoting healthy eating habits and physical activity in adulthood.

Keywords:
Food habits, BMI, fortified foods, nutritional deficiencies, university students.
37
9627
Hydrolysis Characteristics of Polycrystalline Lithium Hydride Powders and Sintered Bulk
Abstract:
Ambient hydrolysis products in moist air and hydrolysis kinetics in argon with humidity of RH1.5% for polycrystalline LiH powders and sintered bulks were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and gravimetry. The results showed that the hydrolysis products made up a layered structure of LiOH•H2O/LiOH/Li2O from surface of the sample to inside. In low humid argon atmosphere, the primary hydrolysis product was Li2O rather than LiOH. The hydrolysis kinetic curves of LiH bulks present a paralinear shape, which could be explained by the “Layer Diffusion Control" model. While a three-stage hydrolysis kinetic profile was observed for LiH powders under the same experimental conditions. The first two sections were similar to that of the bulk samples, and the third section also presents a linear reaction kinetics but with a smaller reaction rate compared to the second section because of a larger exothermic effect for the hydrolysis reaction of LiH powder.
Keywords:
Hydrolysis, lithium compound, polycrystallinelithium hydride
36
9846
Increasing the Efficiency of Rake Receivers for Ultra-Wideband Applications
Abstract:
In diversity rich environments, such as in Ultra- Wideband (UWB) applications, the a priori determination of the number of strong diversity branches is difficult, because of the considerably large number of diversity paths, which are characterized by a variety of power delay profiles (PDPs). Several Rake implementations have been proposed in the past, in order to reduce the number of the estimated and combined paths. To this aim, we introduce two adaptive Rake receivers, which combine a subset of the resolvable paths considering simultaneously the quality of both the total combining output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the individual SNR of each path. These schemes achieve better adaptation to channel conditions compared to other known receivers, without further increasing the complexity. Their performance is evaluated in different practical UWB channels, whose models are based on extensive propagation measurements. The proposed receivers compromise between the power consumption, complexity and performance gain for the additional paths, resulting in important savings in power and computational resources.
Keywords:
Adaptive Rake receivers, diversity techniques, fading channels, UWB channel.
35
10463
Precipitation Change and its Implication in the Change of Winter Wheat drought and Production in North China Region from 2000 to 2010
Abstract:
Understanding how precipitation inter-annually changes and its implication in agricultural drought and production change in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth season is critical for crop production in China. MODIS Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and daily mean precipitation time series for the main growth season(Feb. to May) of winter wheat from 2000 to 2010 were used to analyze the distribution of trends of precipitation, agricultural drought and winter wheat yield change respectively, and relationships between them in North China region(Huang-huai-hai region, HHH region), China. The results indicated that the trend of precipitation in HHH region past 11 years was increasing, which had induced generally corresponding decreasing trend of agricultural drought and increasing trend of wheat yield, while the trend of drought was spatially diverse. The study could provide a basis for agricultural drought research during winter wheat season in HHH region under the ground of climate change.
Keywords:
drought, MODIS, precipitation change, TVDI, winter wheat production
34
10854
Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Controller for a 3-DOF Stabilized Platform with Adaptive Decoupling Scheme
Abstract:

This paper presents a fuzzy control system for a three degree of freedom (3-DOF) stabilized platform with explicit decoupling scheme. The system under consideration is a system with strong interactions between three channels. By using the concept of decentralized control, a control structure is developed that is composed of three control loops, each of which is associated with a single-variable fuzzy controller and a decoupling unit. Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy control algorithm is used to implement the fuzzy controller. The decoupling units design is based on the adaptive theory reasoning. Simulation tests were established using Simulink of Matlab. The obtained results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Simulation results are represented in this paper.

Keywords:
3-DOF platform of a ship carried antenna, the concept of decentralized control, Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy control algorithm, Simulink.
33
16326
Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity Determination in Broccoli and Lamb’s Lettuce
Abstract:

Broccoli has been widely recognized as a wealthy vegetable which contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties. Lamb’s lettuce has been used as food for many centuries but only recently became commercially available and literature is therefore exiguous concerning these vegetables. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the extraction conditions on the yield of phenolic compounds and the corresponding antioxidant capacity of broccoli and lamb’s lettuce. The results indicate that lamb’s lettuce, compared to broccoli, contains simultaneously a large amount of total polyphenols as well as high antioxidant activity. It is clearly demonstrated that extraction solvent significantly influences the antioxidant activity. Methanol is the solvent that can globally maximize the antioxidant extraction yield. The results presented herein prove lamb’s lettuce as a very interesting source of polyphenols, and thus a potential health-promoting food.

Keywords:
Broccoli, lamb’s lettuce, extraction, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds.
32
11399
Arterial CO2 Pressure Drives Ventilation with a Time Delay during Recovery from an Impulse-like Exercise without Metabolic Acidosis
Abstract:

We investigated this hypothesis that arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) drives ventilation (V.E) with a time delay duringrecovery from short impulse-like exercise (10 s) with work load of 200 watts. V.E and end tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) were measured continuously during rest, warming up, exercise and recovery periods. PaCO2 was predicted (PaCO2 pre) from PETCO2 and tidal volume (VT). PETCO2 and PaCO2 pre peaked at 20 s of recovery. V.E increased and peaked at the end of exercise and then decreased during recovery; however, it peaked again at 30 s of recovery, which was 10 s later than the peak of PaCO2 pre. The relationship between V. E and PaCO2pre was not significant by using data of them obtained at the same time but was significant by using data of V.E obtained 10 s later for data of PaCO2 pre. The results support our hypothesis that PaCO2 drives V.E with a time delay.

Keywords:
Arterial CO2 pressure, impulse-like exercise, time delay, ventilation.
31
13698
Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility Concept in Greece
Abstract:

This study attempts to clarify major perspectives of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Greek market related to companies that have sufficient CSR. An empirical analysis was undertaken, based on literature review and previous observations and surveys, in order to provide a general analysis of the CSR concept in Greece. The results of Accountability Rating institution were used in order to identify companies that adopt an integrated social responsibility approach. Companies that responded to the survey are both regional and international and belong to different industrial fields. Some of the main survey results reveal: multiple aspects for the CSR concept, weak consensus as regards the importance of stakeholders and benefits from the CSR implementation, the important role of CSR in the decision procedure and CSR practices concerning social issues that affect mostly company-s competitiveness. Sharing companies- experience could address common social issues through CSR best practices and develop new knowledge.

Keywords:
Corporate Social Responsibility, Greece, Kendall's co-efficient of concordance.
30
14523
Characteristics of Corporate Social Responsibility Indicators
Abstract:

The aim of the study is to investigate a number of characteristics of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) indicators that should be adopted by CSR assessment methodologies. For the purpose of this paper, a survey among the Greek companies that belong to FTSE 20 in Athens Exchange (FTSE/Athex-20) has been conducted, as these companies are expected to pioneer in the field of CSR. The results show consensus as regards the characteristics of indicators such as the need for the adoption of general and specific sector indicators, financial and non-financial indicators, the origin and the weight rate. However, the results are contradictory concerning the appropriate number of indicators for the assessment of CSR and the unit of measurement. Finally, the company-s sector is a more important dimension of CSR than the size and the country where the company operates. The purpose of this paper is to standardize the main characteristics of CSR indicators.

Keywords:
Corporate social responsibility, Greece, Indicators
29
15515
Optimal Estimation of Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM Visible and Mid Infrared Data over Penang Island
Abstract:
Retrieval of the surface reflectance is important in the remotely sensed data analysis to obtain the atmospheric reflectance or atmospheric correction. The relationship between visible and mid infrared reflectance over land was investigated and developed in this study. The surface reflectances of the two visible bands were measured using a handheld spectroradiometer collected around Penang Island. In this study, we use the assumption that the 2.1 μm band is not affected by aerosol and it is transparent to most aerosol types (except dust). Therefore the satellite observed signal is the same as the surface signal in 2.1 μm band. The correlation between the surface reflectance measured by the spectroradiometer in the blue and red region and the 2.1 μm observed by the satellite has been established. We investigate five dates of Landsat TM scenes in this study. The finding obtained by this study indicates that the surface reflectance can be retrieved from the 2.1 μm band.
Keywords:
Surface Reflectance, Landsat TM, Aerosol,Spectroradiometer.
28
15598
Bioceramic Scaffolds Fabrication by Rapid Prototyping Technology
Abstract:
This paper describes a rapid prototyping (RP) technology for forming a hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold model. The HA powder and a silica sol are mixed into bioceramic slurry form under a suitable viscosity. The HA particles are embedded in the solidified silica matrix to form green parts via a wide range of process parameters after processing by selective laser sintering (SLS). The results indicate that the proposed process was possible to fabricate multilayers and hollow shell structure with brittle property but sufficient integrity for handling prior to post-processing. The fabricated bone scaffold models had a surface finish of 25
Keywords:
bioceramic, bone scaffold, rapid prototyping,selective laser sintering
27
16938
Novel NMR-Technology to Assess Food Quality and Safety
Abstract:

High Resolution NMR Spectroscopy offers unique screening capabilities for food quality and safety by combining non-targeted and targeted screening in one analysis.

The objective is to demonstrate, that due to its extreme reproducibility NMR can detect smallest changes in concentrations of many components in a mixture, which is best monitored by statistical evaluation however also delivers reliable quantification results.

The methodology typically uses a 400 MHz high resolution instrument under full automation after minimized sample preparation.

For example one fruit juice analysis in a push button operation takes at maximum 15 minutes and delivers a multitude of results, which are automatically summarized in a PDF report.

The method has been proven on fruit juices, where so far unknown frauds could be detected. In addition conventional targeted parameters are obtained in the same analysis. This technology has the advantage that NMR is completely quantitative and concentration calibration only has to be done once for all compounds. Since NMR is so reproducible, it is also transferable between different instruments (with same field strength) and laboratories. Based on strict SOP`s, statistical models developed once can be used on multiple instruments and strategies for compound identification and quantification are applicable as well across labs.

Keywords:
Automated solution, NMR, non-targeted screening, targeted screening.
26
9996950
Evaluation of Stormwater Quantity and Quality Control through Constructed Mini Wet Pond: A Case Study
Abstract:

One of the Best Management Practices (BMPs) promoted in Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) published by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) in 2001 is through the construction of wet ponds in new development projects for water quantity and quality control. Therefore, this paper aims to demonstrate a case study on evaluation of a constructed mini wet pond located at Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Seksyen 2, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia in both stormwater quantity and quality aspect particularly to reduce the peak discharge by temporary storing and gradual release of stormwater runoff from an outlet structure or other release mechanism. The evaluation technique will be using InfoWorks Collection System (CS) as the numerical modeling approach for water quantity aspect. Statistical test by comparing the correlation coefficient (R2), mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the model in simulating the peak discharge changes. Results demonstrated that there will be a reduction in peak flow at 11 % to 15% and time to peak flow is slower by 5 minutes through a wet pond. For water quality aspect, a survey on biological indicator of water quality carried out depicts that the pond is within the range of rather clean to clean water with the score of 5.3. This study indicates that a constructed wet pond with wetland facilities is able to help in managing water quantity and stormwater generated pollution at source, towards achieving ecologically sustainable development in urban areas.

Keywords:
Wet pond, Retention Facilities, Best Management Practices (BMP), Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA).
25
9998263
Morphology Feature of Nanostructure Bainitic Steel after Tempering Treatment
Abstract:

The microstructure characterization of tempered nanocrystalline bainitic steel is investigated in the present study. It is found that two types of plastic relaxation, dislocation debris and nanotwin, occurs in the displacive transformation due to relatively low transformation temperature and high carbon content. Because most carbon atoms trap in the dislocation, high dislocation density can be sustained during the tempering process. More carbides only can be found in the high tempered temperature due to intense recovery progression.

Keywords:
Nanostructure Bainitic Steel, Tempered, TEM, Nano-Twin, Dislocation Debris, Accommodation.
24
9999261
The Coexistence of Dual Form of Malnutrition among Portuguese Institutionalized Elderly People
Abstract:

In the present study we evaluated the nutritional status of 214 institutionalized elderly residents of both genders, aged 65 years and older of 11 care homes located in the district of Viseu (center of Portugal). The evaluation was based on anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score.

The mean age of the subjects was 82.3 ± 6.1 years-old. Most of the elderly residents were female (72.0%). The majority had 4 years of formal education (51.9%) and was widowed (74.3%) or married (14.0%).

Men presented a mean age of 81.2±8.5 years-old, weight 69.3±14.5 kg and BMI 25.33±6.5 kg/m2. In women, the mean age was 84.5±8.2 years-old, weight 61.2±14.7 kg and BMI 27.43±5.6 kg/m2.

The evaluation of the nutritional status using the MNA score showed that 24.0% of the residents show a risk of undernutrition and 76.0% of them were well nourished.

There was a high prevalence of obese (24.8%) and overweight residents (33.2%) according to the BMI. 7.5% were considered underweight.

We also found that according to their waist circumference measurements 88.3% of the residents were at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 64.0% of them presented very high risk for CVD (WC≥88 cm for women and WC ≥102 cm for men).

The present study revealed the coexistence of a dual form of malnutrition (undernourished and overweight) among the institutionalized Portuguese concomitantly with an excess of abdominal adiposity. The high prevalence of residents at high risk for CVD should not be overlooked.

Given the vulnerability of the group of institutionalized elderly, our study highlights the importance of the classification of nutritional status based on both instruments: the BMI and the MNA.

Keywords:
Nutritional status, MNA, BMI, elderly.
23
10001276
The TiO2 Refraction Film for CsI Scintillator
Abstract:

Cesium iodide (CsI) melt was injected into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and was solidified to CsI column. The controllable AAO channel size (10~500 nm) can makes CsI column size from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. In order to have a shorter light irradiate from each singe CsI column top to bottom the AAO template was coated a TiO2 nano-film. The TiO2 film acts a refraction film and makes X-ray has a shorter irradiation path in the CsI crystal making a stronger the photo-electron signal. When the incidence light irradiate from air (R=1.0) to CsI’s first surface (R=1.84) the first refraction happen, the first refraction continue into TiO2 film (R=2.88) and produces the low angle of the second refraction. Then the second refraction continue into AAO wall (R=1.78) and produces the third refraction after refractions between CsI and AAO wall (R=1.78) produce the fourth refraction. The incidence light through TiO2 filmand the first surface of CsI then arrive to the second surface of CsI. Therefore, the TiO2 film can has shorter refraction path of incidence light and increase the photo-electron conversion efficiency.

Keywords:
Cesium iodide, AAO, TiO2, Refraction, X-ray.
22
10001872
Steady State and Accelerated Decay Rate Evaluations of Membrane Electrode Assembly of PEM Fuel Cells
Abstract:
Durability of Membrane Electrode Assembly for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells was evaluated in both steady state and accelerated decay modes. Steady state mode was carried out at constant current of 800mA/cm2 for 2500 hours using air as cathode feed and pure hydrogen as anode feed. The degradation of the cell voltage was 0.015V after such 2500 hrs operation. The degradation rate was therefore calculated to be 6uV/hr. Continuously Vigorous fluctuation of the cell voltage, which was switched between OCV and 0.2V, was employed for the accelerated decay mode. No obvious change in performance of the MEA was observed after 10000 cycles of such operation.
Keywords:
Durability, lifetime, membrane electrode assembly, proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
21
10001931
ORR Activity and Stability of Pt-Based Electrocatalysts in PEM Fuel Cell
Abstract:
A comparison of activity and stability of the as-formed Pt/C, Pt-Co and Pt-Pd/C electrocatalysts, prepared by a combined approach of impregnation and seeding, was performed. According to the activity test in a single Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) activity of the Pt-M/C electrocatalyst was slightly lower than that of Pt/C. The j0.9 V and E10 mA/cm2 of the as-prepared electrocatalysts increased in the order of Pt/C > Pt-Co/C > Pt-Pd/C. However, in the medium-to-high current density region, Pt-Pd/C exhibited the best performance. With regard to their stability in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution, the electrochemical surface area decreased as the number of rounds of repetitive potential cycling increased due to the dissolution of the metals within the catalyst structure. For long-term measurement, Pt- Pd/C was the most stable than the other three electrocatalysts.
Keywords:
ORR activity, Stability, Pt-based electrocatalysts, PEM fuel cell.
20
10002339
Advanced Technologies and Algorithms for Efficient Portfolio Selection
Abstract:

In this paper we present a classification of the various technologies applied for the solution of the portfolio selection problem according to the discipline and the methodological framework followed. We provide a concise presentation of the emerged categories and we are trying to identify which methods considered obsolete and which lie at the heart of the debate. On top of that, we provide a comparative study of the different technologies applied for efficient portfolio construction and we suggest potential paths for future work that lie at the intersection of the presented techniques.

Keywords:
Portfolio selection, optimization techniques, financial models, stochastics, heuristics.
19
10002604
Tomato Lycopene: Functional Proprieties and Health Benefits
Abstract:
The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand, the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.
Keywords:
Tomato, lycopene, bioavailability, functional foods, carotenoids, cancer and antioxidants.
18
10002762
Sorption of Charged Organic Dyes from Anionic Hydrogels
Abstract:
Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks composed of homopolymers or copolymers and are insoluble in water due to the presence of chemical or physical cross-links. When hydrogels come in contact with aqueous solutions, they can effectively sorb and retain the dissolved substances, depending on the nature of the monomeric units comprising the hydrogel. For this reason, hydrogels have been proposed in several studies as water purification agents. At the present work anionic hydrogels bearing negatively charged –COO- groups were prepared and investigated. These gels are based on sodium acrylate (ANa), either homopolymerized (poly(sodiumacrylate), PANa) or copolymerized (P(DMAM-co-ANa)) with N,N Dimethylacrylamide (DMAM). The hydrogels were used to extract some model organic dyes from water. It is found that cationic dyes are strongly sorbed and retained by the hydrogels, while sorption of anionic dyes was negligible. In all cases it was found that both maximum sorption capacity and equilibrium binding constant varied from one dye to the other depending on the chemical structure of the dye, the presence of functional chemical groups and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. Finally, the nonionic hydrogel of the homopolymer poly(N,Ndimethylacrylamide), PDMAM, was also used for reasons of comparison.
Keywords:
Anionic organic hydrogels, sorption, organic dyes, water purification agents.
17
10002831
Systolic Blood Pressure and Its Determinants: Study in a Population Attending Pharmacies in a Portuguese Coastal City
Abstract:
Hypertension is a common condition causing cardio and cerebrovascular complications. Portugal has one of the highest mortality rates from stroke and a high prevalence of hypertension. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and premature mortality, particularly in the elderly population. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in a Portuguese population living in a coastal city and to identify some of its determinants (namely gender, age, the body mass index and physical activity frequency). A total of 91 adults who attended three pharmacies of a coastal city in the center of Portugal, between May and August of 2013 were evaluated. Attendants who reported to have diabetes or taking antihypertensive drugs in the 2 previous weeks were excluded from the study. Sociodemographic factors, BMI, habits of exercise and BP were assessed. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg. The majority of the studied population was constituted by women (75.8%), with a mean age of 54.2±1.6 years old, married or living in civil union and that had completed secondary school or had higher education (40%). They presented a mean BMI of 26.2±4.76 Kg/m2., and were sedentary. The mean BP was 127.0±17.77mmHg- 74.69 ± 9.53. In this population we found 4.3% of people with hypertension and 16.1% with normal high blood pressure. Men exhibit a tendency to present higher systolic blood pressure values than women. Of all the factors considered, SBP values also tended to be higher with age and higher BMI values. Despite the fact that the mean values of SBP did not present values higher than 140 mmHg we must be concerned because the studied population is undiagnosed for hypertension. Although this is a preliminary study, it might be a prelude to the upcoming research about the underlying factors responsible for the occurrence of SBP.
Keywords:
Hypertension, age, exercise, obesity, gender.
16
10003035
Cooling-Rate Induced Fiber Birefringence Variation in Regenerated High Birefringent Fiber
Abstract:
In this paper, we have reported birefringence manipulation in regenerated high birefringent fiber Bragg grating (RPMG) by using CO2 laser annealing method. The results indicate that the birefringence of RPMG remains unchanged after CO2 laser annealing followed by slow cooling process, but reduced after fast cooling process (~5.6×10-5). After a series of annealing procedures with different cooling rates, the obtained results show that slower the cooling rate, higher the birefringence of RPMG. The volume, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and glass transition temperature (Tg) change of stress applying part in RPMG during cooling process are responsible for the birefringence change. Therefore, these findings are important to the RPMG sensor in high and dynamic temperature environment. The measuring accuracy, range and sensitivity of RPMG sensor is greatly affected by its birefringence value. This work also opens up a new application of CO2 laser for fiber annealing and birefringence modification.
Keywords:
Birefringence, CO2 laser annealing, regenerated gratings, thermal stress.
15
10003225
Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Modified Epoxy Resin for Pipeline Repair
Abstract:
This experimental study consists of a characterization of epoxy grout where an amount of 2% of graphene nanoplatelets particles were added to commercial epoxy resin to evaluate their behavior regarding neat epoxy resin. Compressive tests, tensile tests and flexural tests were conducted to study the effect of graphene nanoplatelets on neat epoxy resin. By comparing graphene-based and neat epoxy grout, there is no significant increase of strength due to weak interface in the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy composites. From this experiment, the tension and flexural strength of graphenebased epoxy grouts is slightly lower than ones of neat epoxy grout. Nevertheless, the addition of graphene has produced more consistent results according to a smaller standard deviation of strength. Furthermore, the graphene has also improved the ductility of the grout, hence reducing its brittle behaviour. This shows that the performance of graphene-based grout is reliably predictable and able to minimise sudden rupture. This is important since repair design of damaged pipeline is of deterministic nature.
Keywords:
Composite, epoxy resin, graphene nanoplatelets.
14
10003226
An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials
Abstract:
Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building, bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners. Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various techniques used in repairing corroded pipes, focusing on a wide range of composite repair systems. These systems including pre-cured layered, flexible wet lay-up, pre-impregnated, split composite sleeve and flexible tape systems. Both advantages and limitations of these repair systems were highlighted. Critical technical aspects have been discussed through the current standards and practices. Research gaps and future study scopes in achieving more effective design philosophy are also presented.
Keywords:
Composite materials, pipeline, repair technique, polymers.
13
10004785
Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials
Abstract:
This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.
Keywords:
Diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior.
12
10006049
A Minimum Spanning Tree-Based Method for Initializing the K-Means Clustering Algorithm
Abstract:

The traditional k-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the algorithm often converges to local minima for the reason that it is sensitive to the initial cluster centers. In this paper, an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers on the basis of minimum spanning tree (MST) is presented. The set of vertices in MST with same degree are regarded as a whole which is used to find the skeleton data points. Furthermore, a distance measure between the skeleton data points with consideration of degree and Euclidean distance is presented. Finally, MST-based initialization method for the k-means algorithm is presented, and the corresponding time complexity is analyzed as well. The presented algorithm is tested on five data sets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm compared to three existing initialization methods.

Keywords:
Degree, initial cluster center, k-means, minimum spanning tree.
11
10006386
Factors Determining Selection of Essential Nutrition Supplements
Abstract:
There are numerous nutritional supplements, such as multivitamins and nutrition drinks, in the market today. Many of these supplements are expensive and tend to be driven commercially by business decisions and big marketing budgets. Many of the costs are ultimately borne by the end user in the quest for keeping to a healthy lifestyle. This paper proposes a system with a list of ten determinants to gauge how to decide the value of various supplements. It suggests variables such as composition, safety, efficacy and bioavailability, as well as several other considerations. These guidelines can help to tackle many of the issues that people of all ages face in the way that they receive essential nutrients. The system also aims to promote and improve the safety and choice of foods and supplements. In so doing, the system aims to promote the individual’s or population’s control over their own health and reduce the growing health care burden on the society.
Keywords:
Nutritional supplements, vitamins and minerals, bioavailability, supplementation determinants, nutrition guidelines.
10
10006387
Nutrition and Food Safety as Strategic Assets
Abstract:

The world is facing a growing food crisis. The concerns of food nutritional value, food safety and food security are becoming increasingly real. There is also a direct relationship to the risk of diseases, particularly chronic diseases, to the food we consume. So, there are increasing concerns about the modern day food ecosystem creating foods that can provide the nutritional components for organ function sustenance, as well as, taking a serious view on diet-related diseases. This paper addresses some of the above concerns and gives an overview of the current global situation relating to food nutrition and safety. The paper reviews nutritional aspects of food today compared to those of the last century, compares whole foods found in supermarkets versus those organically grown, as well as population behaviour towards food choices. It provides scientific insights into the effects of some of the global trends such as climate change and other changes environmental changes, and presents what individuals and corporations are doing to use the latest nutritional technologies as strategic assets. Finally, it briefly highlights some of the innovative solutions that are being applied to address several of the above concerns.

Keywords:
Food crisis, food safety, nutritional aspects of food today compared to those of the last century, global trends.
9
10006428
Numerical Analysis and Design of Dielectric to Plasmonic Waveguides Couplers
Abstract:
In this work, efficient directional coupler composed of dielectric waveguides and metallic film has been analyzed in details by simulations using finite element method (FEM). The structure consists of a step-index fiber with dielectric core, silica cladding, and a metal nanowire parallel to the core. The results show that an efficient conversion of optical dielectric modes to long range plasmonic is possible. Low insertion losses in conjunction with short coupling length and a broadband operation can be achieved under certain conditions. This kind of couplers has potential applications for the design of photonic integrated circuits for signal routing between dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, sensing, lithography, and optical storage systems. A high efficient focusing of light in a very small region can be obtained.
Keywords:
Directional coupler, finite element method, metallic nanowire, plasmonic, surface plasmon polariton.
8
10006471
Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability
Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords:
Bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, combinative nutrition, nutrient synergy.
7
10006779
A Safety Analysis Method for Multi-Agent Systems
Abstract:
Safety analysis for multi-agent systems is complicated by the, potentially nonlinear, interactions between agents. This paper proposes a method for analyzing the safety of multi-agent systems by explicitly focusing on interactions and the accident data of systems that are similar in structure and function to the system being analyzed. The method creates a Bayesian network using the accident data from similar systems. A feature of our method is that the events in accident data are labeled with HAZOP guide words. Our method uses an Ontology to abstract away from the details of a multi-agent implementation. Using the ontology, our methods then constructs an “Interaction Map,” a graphical representation of the patterns of interactions between agents and other artifacts. Interaction maps combined with statistical data from accidents and the HAZOP classifications of events can be converted into a Bayesian Network. Bayesian networks allow designers to explore “what it” scenarios and make design trade-offs that maintain safety. We show how to use the Bayesian networks, and the interaction maps to improve multi-agent system designs.
Keywords:
Multi-agent system, safety analysis, safety model.
6
10006973
MAGNI Dynamics: A Vision-Based Kinematic and Dynamic Upper-Limb Model for Intelligent Robotic Rehabilitation
Abstract:
This paper presents a home-based robot-rehabilitation instrument, called ”MAGNI Dynamics”, that utilized a vision-based kinematic/dynamic module and an adaptive haptic feedback controller. The system is expected to provide personalized rehabilitation by adjusting its resistive and supportive behavior according to a fuzzy intelligence controller that acts as an inference system, which correlates the user’s performance to different stiffness factors. The vision module uses the Kinect’s skeletal tracking to monitor the user’s effort in an unobtrusive and safe way, by estimating the torque that affects the user’s arm. The system’s torque estimations are justified by capturing electromyographic data from primitive hand motions (Shoulder Abduction and Shoulder Forward Flexion). Moreover, we present and analyze how the Barrett WAM generates a force-field with a haptic controller to support or challenge the users. Experiments show that by shifting the proportional value, that corresponds to different stiffness factors of the haptic path, can potentially help the user to improve his/her motor skills. Finally, potential areas for future research are discussed, that address how a rehabilitation robotic framework may include multisensing data, to improve the user’s recovery process.
Keywords:
Human-robot interaction, kinect, kinematics, dynamics, haptic control, rehabilitation robotics, artificial intelligence.
5
10007189
Examining the Performance of Three Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Based on Benchmarking Problems
Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the performance of three well-known multiobjective evolutionary algorithms for solving optimization problems. The first algorithm is the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), the second one is the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA-2), and the third one is the Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms based on decomposition (MOEA/D). The examined multiobjective algorithms are analyzed and tested on the ZDT set of test functions by three performance metrics. The results indicate that the NSGA-II performs better than the other two algorithms based on three performance metrics.

Keywords:
MOEAs, Multiobjective optimization, ZDT test functions, performance metrics.
4
10007191
Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members
Abstract:

Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

Keywords:
PSC members, shear failure mode, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, shear behavior.
3
10007627
Experimental Study on the Effects of Water-in-Oil Emulsions to the Pressure Drop in Pipeline Flow
Abstract:
Emulsion formation is unavoidable and can be detrimental to an oil field production. The presence of stable emulsions also reduces the quality of crude oil and causes more problems in the downstream refinery operations, such as corrosion and pipeline pressure drop. Hence, it is important to know the effects of emulsions in the pipeline. Light crude oil was used for the continuous phase in the W/O emulsions where the emulsions pass through a flow loop to test the pressure drop across the pipeline. The results obtained shows that pressure drop increases as water cut is increased until it peaks at the phase inversion of the W/O emulsion between 30% to 40% water cut. Emulsions produced by gradual constrictions show a lower stability as compared to sudden constrictions. Lower stability of emulsions in gradual constriction has the higher influence of pressure drop compared to a sudden sharp decrease in diameter in sudden constriction. Generally, sudden constriction experiences pressure drop of 0.013% to 0.067% higher than gradual constriction of the same ratio. Lower constriction ratio cases cause larger pressure drop ranging from 0.061% to 0.241%. Considering the higher profitability in lower emulsion stability and lower pressure drop at the developed flow region of different constrictions, an optimum design of constriction is found to be gradual constriction with a ratio of 0.5.
Keywords:
Constriction, pressure drop, turbulence, water cut, water-in-oil emulsions.
2
10009862
Compressible Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Jet Flow Simulations
Abstract:

In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.

Keywords:
Compressible lattice Boltzmann metho-, large eddy simulation, turbulent jet flows.
1
10011029
Nano-Texturing of Single Crystalline Silicon via Cu-Catalyzed Chemical Etching
Abstract:

We have discovered an important technical solution that could make new approaches in the processing of wet silicon etching, especially in the production of photovoltaic cells. During its inferior light-trapping and structural properties, the inverted pyramid structure outperforms the conventional pyramid textures and black silicone. The traditional pyramid textures and black silicon can only be accomplished with more advanced lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate the feasibility of an inverted pyramidal structure of silicon via one-step Cu-catalyzed chemical etching (CCCE) in Cu (NO3)2/HF/H2O2/H2O solutions. The effects of etching time and reaction temperature on surface geometry and light trapping were systematically investigated. The conclusion shows that the inverted pyramid structure has ultra-low reflectivity of ~4.2% in the wavelength of 300~1000 nm; introduce of Cu particles can significantly accelerate the dissolution of the silicon wafer. The etching and the inverted pyramid structure formation mechanism are discussed. Inverted pyramid structure with outstanding anti-reflectivity includes useful applications throughout the manufacture of semi-conductive industry-compatible solar cells, and can have significant impacts on industry colleagues and populations.

Keywords:
Cu-catalyzed chemical etching, inverted pyramid nanostructured, reflection, solar cells.