In this study, the theoretical relationship between pressure and density was investigated on cylindrical hollow fuel briquettes produced of a mixture of fibrous biomass material using a screw press without any chemical binder. The fuel briquettes were made of biomass and other waste material such as spent coffee beans, mielie husks, saw dust and coal fines under pressures of 0.878-2.2 Mega Pascals (MPa). The material was densified into briquettes of outer diameter of 100mm, inner diameter of 35mm and 50mm long. It was observed that manual screw compression action produces briquettes of relatively low density as compared to the ones made using hydraulic compression action. The pressure and density relationship was obtained in the form of power law and compare well with other cylindrical solid briquettes made using hydraulic compression action. The produced briquettes have a dry density of 989 kg/m3 and contain 26.30% fixed carbon, 39.34% volatile matter, 10.9% moisture and 10.46% ash as per dry proximate analysis. The bomb calorimeter tests have shown the briquettes yielding a gross calorific value of 18.9MJ/kg.
This study evaluates the benefits of advanced waste management practices in unlocking waste-to-energy opportunities within the solid waste industry. The key drivers of sustainable waste management practices, specifically with respect to packaging waste-to-energy technology options are discussed. The success of a waste-to-energy system depends significantly on the appropriateness of available technologies, including those that are well established as well as those that are less so. There are hard and soft interventions to be considered when packaging an integrated waste treatment solution. Technology compatibility with variation in feedstock (waste) quality and quantities remains a key factor. These factors influence the technology reliability in terms of production efficiencies and product consistency, which in turn, drives the supply and demand network. Waste treatment technologies rely on the waste material as feedstock; the feedstock varies in quality and quantities depending on several factors; hence, the technology fails, as a result. It is critical to design an advanced waste treatment technology in an integrated approach to minimize the possibility of technology failure due to unpredictable feedstock quality, quantities, conversion efficiencies, and inconsistent product yield or quality. An integrated waste-to-energy approach offers a secure system design that considers sustainable waste management practices.