The dynamical contouring error is a critical element for the accuracy of machine tools. The contouring error is defined as the difference between the processing actual path and commanded path, which is implemented by following the command curves from feeding driving system in machine tools. The contouring error is resulted from various factors, such as the external loads, friction, inertia moment, feed rate, speed control, servo control, and etc. Thus, the study proposes a 2D compensating system for the contouring accuracy of machine tools. Optical method is adopted by using stable frequency laser diode and the high precision position sensor detector (PSD) to performno-contact measurement. Results show the related accuracy of position sensor detector (PSD) of 2D contouring accuracy compensating system was ±1.5 μm for a calculated range of ±3 mm, and improvement accuracy is over 80% at high-speed feed rate.
In this study, a simple 2-D measurement system based on optical design was developed to measure the motion errors of the linear guideway. Compared with the transitional methods about the linear guideway for measuring the motion errors, our proposed 2-D optical measurement system can simultaneously measure horizontal and vertical running straightness errors for the linear guideway.
The performance of the 2-D optical measurement system is verified by experimental results. The standard deviation of the 2-D optical measurement system is about 0.4μm in the measurement range of 100 mm. The maximum measuring speed of the proposed automatic measurement instrument is 1 m/sec.
Five-axis computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools (three linear and two rotary axes) are ideally suited to the fabrication of complex work pieces, such as dies, turbo blades, and cams. The locations of the axis average line and centerline of the rotary axes strongly influence the performance of these machines; however, techniques to compensate for eccentric error in the rotary axes remain weak. This paper proposes optical (Non-Bar) techniques capable of calibrating five-axis CNC machine tools and compensating for eccentric error in the rotary axes. This approach employs the measurement path in ISO/CD 10791-6 to determine the eccentric error in two rotary axes, for which compensatory measures can be implemented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed techniques can improve the performance of various five-axis CNC machine tools by more than 90%. Finally, a result of the cutting test using a B-type five-axis CNC machine tool confirmed to the usefulness of this proposed compensation technique.