Opportunistic Routing with Secure Coded Wireless Multicast Using MAS Approach
Many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications necessitate secure multicast services for the purpose of broadcasting delay sensitive data like video files and live telecast at fixed time-slot. This work provides a novel method to deal with end-to-end delay and drop rate of packets. Opportunistic Routing chooses a link based on the maximum probability of packet delivery ratio. Null Key Generation helps in authenticating packets to the receiver. Markov Decision Process based Adaptive Scheduling algorithm determines the time slot for packet transmission. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed protocol ensures better performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and normalized routing overhead.
Delay-sensitive data, Markovian Decision Process based Adaptive Scheduling, Opportunistic Routing, Digital Signature authentication.
A Novel Approach to Allocate Channels Dynamically in Wireless Mesh Networks
Wireless mesh networking is rapidly gaining in
popularity with a variety of users: from municipalities to enterprises,
from telecom service providers to public safety and military
organizations. This increasing popularity is based on two basic facts:
ease of deployment and increase in network capacity expressed in
bandwidth per footage; WMNs do not rely on any fixed
infrastructure. Many efforts have been used to maximizing
throughput of the network in a multi-channel multi-radio wireless
mesh network. Current approaches are purely based on either static or
dynamic channel allocation approaches. In this paper, we use a
hybrid multichannel multi radio wireless mesh networking
architecture, where static and dynamic interfaces are built in the
nodes. Dynamic Adaptive Channel Allocation protocol (DACA), it
considers optimization for both throughput and delay in the channel
allocation. The assignment of the channel has been allocated to be codependent
with the routing problem in the wireless mesh network and
that should be based on passage flow on every link. Temporal and
spatial relationship rises to re compute the channel assignment every
time when the pattern changes in mesh network, channel assignment
algorithms assign channels in network. In this paper a computing
path which captures the available path bandwidth is the proposed
information and the proficient routing protocol based on the new path
which provides both static and dynamic links. The consistency
property guarantees that each node makes an appropriate packet
forwarding decision and balancing the control usage of the network,
so that a data packet will traverse through the right path.
Wireless mesh network, spatial time division
multiple access, hybrid topology, timeslot allocation.
Discrete and Stationary Adaptive Sub-Band Threshold Method for Improving Image Resolution
Image Processing is a structure of Signal Processing
for which the input is the image and the output is also an image or
parameter of the image. Image Resolution has been frequently
referred as an important aspect of an image. In Image Resolution
Enhancement, images are being processed in order to obtain more
enhanced resolution. To generate highly resoluted image for a low
resoluted input image with high PSNR value. Stationary Wavelet
Transform is used for Edge Detection and minimize the loss occurs
during Downsampling. Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform is to get
highly resoluted image. Highly resoluted output is generated from the
Low resolution input with high quality. Noisy input will generate
output with low PSNR value. So Noisy resolution enhancement
technique has been used for adaptive sub-band thresholding is used.
Downsampling in each of the DWT subbands causes information loss
in the respective subbands. SWT is employed to minimize this loss.
Inverse Discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) is to convert the object
which is downsampled using DWT into a highly resoluted object.
Used Image denoising and resolution enhancement techniques will
generate image with high PSNR value. Our Proposed method will
improve Image Resolution and reached the optimized threshold.
Image Processing, Inverse Discrete wavelet
Trustworthy Link Failure Recovery Algorithm for Highly Dynamic Mobile Adhoc Networks
The Trustworthy link failure recovery algorithm is
introduced in this paper, to provide the forwarding continuity even
with compound link failures. The ephemeral failures are common in
IP networks and it also has some proposals based on local rerouting.
To ensure forwarding continuity, we are introducing the compound
link failure recovery algorithm, even with compound link failures.
For forwarding the information, each packet carries a blacklist, which
is a min set of failed links encountered along its path, and the next
hop is chosen by excluding the blacklisted links. Our proposed
method describes how it can be applied to ensure forwarding to all
reachable destinations in case of any two or more link or node
failures in the network. After simulating with NS2 contains lot of
samples proved that the proposed protocol achieves exceptional
concert even under elevated node mobility using Trustworthy link
Failure Recovery Algorithm.
Wireless Sensor Networks, Predistribution Scheme,
Evolutionary Program Based Approach for Manipulator Grasping Color Objects
Image segmentation and color identification is an
important process used in various emerging fields like intelligent
robotics. A method is proposed for the manipulator to grasp and place
the color object into correct location. The existing methods such as
PSO, has problems like accelerating the convergence speed and
converging to a local minimum leading to sub optimal performance.
To improve the performance, we are using watershed algorithm and
for color identification, we are using EPSO. EPSO method is used to
reduce the probability of being stuck in the local minimum. The
proposed method offers the particles a more powerful global
exploration capability. EPSO methods can determine the particles
stuck in the local minimum and can also enhance learning speed as
the particle movement will be faster.
Color information, EPSO, hue, saturation, value
(HSV), image segmentation, particle swarm optimization (PSO).
Active Contour, GMM.
Establishing Pairwise Keys Using Key Predistribution Schemes for Sensor Networks
Designing cost-efficient, secure network protocols for
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a challenging problem because
sensors are resource-limited wireless devices. Security services such
as authentication and improved pairwise key establishment are
critical to high efficient networks with sensor nodes. For sensor
nodes to correspond securely with each other efficiently, usage of
cryptographic techniques is necessary. In this paper, two key
predistribution schemes that enable a mobile sink to establish a
secure data-communication link, on the fly, with any sensor nodes.
The intermediate nodes along the path to the sink are able to verify
the authenticity and integrity of the incoming packets using a
predicted value of the key generated by the sender’s essential power.
The proposed schemes are based on the pairwise key with the mobile
sink, our analytical results clearly show that our schemes perform
better in terms of network resilience to node capture than existing
schemes if used in wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks.
Wireless Sensor Networks, predistribution scheme,
Dominating Set Algorithm and Trust Evaluation Scheme for Secured Cluster Formation and Data Transferring
This paper describes the proficient way of choosing the cluster head based on dominating set algorithm in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The algorithm overcomes the energy deterioration problems by this selection process of cluster heads. Clustering algorithms such as LEACH, EEHC and HEED enhance scalability in WSNs. Dominating set algorithm keeps the first node alive longer than the other protocols previously used. As the dominating set of cluster heads are directly connected to each node, the energy of the network is saved by eliminating the intermediate nodes in WSN. Security and trust is pivotal in network messaging. Cluster head is secured with a unique key. The member can only connect with the cluster head if and only if they are secured too. The secured trust model provides security for data transmission in the dominated set network with the group key. The concept can be extended to add a mobile sink for each or for no of clusters to transmit data or messages between cluster heads and to base station. Data security id preferably high and data loss can be prevented. The simulation demonstrates the concept of choosing cluster heads by dominating set algorithm and trust evaluation using DSTE. The research done is rationalized.
Wireless Sensor Networks, LEECH, EEHC, HEED, DSTE.
Detection of Black Holes in MANET Using Collaborative Watchdog with Fuzzy Logic
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring network of mobile node connected without wires. A Fuzzy Logic Based Collaborative watchdog approach is used to reduce the detection time of misbehaved nodes and increase the overall truthfulness. This methodology will increase the secure efficient routing by detecting the Black Holes attacks. The simulation results proved that this method improved the energy, reduced the delay and also improved the overall performance of the detecting black hole attacks in MANET.
MANET, collaborative watchdog, fuzzy logic, AODV.
Manipulation of Image Segmentation Using Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony Approach
Image segmentation is the concept of splitting the images into several images. Image Segmentation algorithm is used to manipulate the process of image segmentation. The advantage of ABC is that it conducts every worldwide exploration and inhabitant exploration for iteration. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) encompass a number of search problems. Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony algorithm has been imposed to increase the performance of a neighborhood search. The simulation results clearly show that the presented ABC methods outperform the existing methods. The result shows that the algorithms can be used to implement the manipulator for grasping of colored objects. The efficiency of the presented method is improved a lot by comparing to other methods.
Color information, EPSO, ABC, image segmentation, particle swarm optimization, active contour, GMM.
TBOR: Tree Based Opportunistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless communication network where nodes that are not within direct transmission range establish their communication via the help of other nodes to forward data. Routing protocols in MANETs are usually categorized as proactive. Tree Based Opportunistic Routing (TBOR) finds a multipath link based on maximum probability of the throughput. The simulation results show that the presented method is performed very well compared to the existing methods in terms of throughput, delay and routing overhead.
Mobile ad hoc networks, opportunistic data forwarding, proactive Source routing, BFS.
Tree Based Data Fusion Clustering Routing Algorithm for Illimitable Network Administration in Wireless Sensor Network
In wireless sensor networks, locality and positioning information can be captured using Global Positioning System (GPS). This message can be congregated initially from spot to identify the system. Users can retrieve information of interest from a wireless sensor network (WSN) by injecting queries and gathering results from the mobile sink nodes. Routing is the progression of choosing optimal path in a mobile network. Intermediate node employs permutation of device nodes into teams and generating cluster heads that gather the data from entity cluster’s node and encourage the collective data to base station. WSNs are widely used for gathering data. Since sensors are power-constrained devices, it is quite vital for them to reduce the power utilization. A tree-based data fusion clustering routing algorithm (TBDFC) is used to reduce energy consumption in wireless device networks. Here, the nodes in a tree use the cluster formation, whereas the elevation of the tree is decided based on the distance of the member nodes to the cluster-head. Network simulation shows that this scheme improves the power utilization by the nodes, and thus considerably improves the lifetime.
WSN, TBDFC, LEACH, PEGASIS, TREEPSI.
A Hypercube Social Feature Extraction and Multipath Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks
Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) which have sufficient state information include trajectory and contact information, to protect routing efficiency. However, state information is dynamic and hard to obtain without a global and/or long-term collection process. To deal with these problems, the internal social features of each node are introduced in the network to perform the routing process. This type of application is motivated from several human contact networks where people contact each other more frequently if they have more social features in common. Two unique processes were developed for this process; social feature extraction and multipath routing. The routing method then becomes a hypercube–based feature matching process. Furthermore, the effectiveness of multipath routing is evaluated and compared to that of single-path routing.
Delay tolerant networks, entropy, human contact networks, hyper cubes, multipath Routing, social features.
Fuzzy Based Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Technique for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Network lifetime improvement and uncertainty in multiple systems are the issues of wireless sensor network routing. This paper presents fuzzy based particle swarm optimization routing technique to improve the network scalability. Significantly, in the cluster formation procedure, fuzzy based system is used to solve the uncertainty and network balancing. Cluster heads play an important role to reduce the energy consumption using particle swarm optimization algorithm, the cluster head sends its information along data packets to the heads with link. The simulation results show that the presented routing protocol can perform load balancing effectively and reduce the energy consumption of cluster heads.
Wireless sensor networks, fuzzy logic, PSO, LEACH.
Bandwidth and Delay Aware Routing Protocol with Scheduling Algorithm for Multi Hop Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
The scheduling based routing scheme is presented in this paper to avoid link failure. The main objective of this system is to introduce a cross-layer protocol framework that integrates routing with priority-based traffic management and distributed transmission scheduling. The reservation scheme is based on ID. The presented scheme guarantees that bandwidth reserved time slot is used by another packet in which end-to-end reservation is achieved. The Bandwidth and Delay Aware Routing Protocol with Scheduling Algorithm is presented to allocate channels efficiently. The experimental results show that the presented schemes performed well in various parameters compared to existing methods.
Integrated routing, scheduling, MAC layer, IEEE 802.11.
Evaluation of Context Information for Intermittent Networks
The context aware adaptive routing protocol is presented for unicast communication in intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The selection of the node is done by the Kalman filter prediction theory and it also makes use of utility functions. The context aware adaptive routing is defined by spray and wait technique, but the time consumption in delivering the message is too high and also the resource wastage is more. In this paper, we describe the spray and focus routing scheme for avoiding the existing problems.
Context aware adaptive routing, Kalman filter prediction, spray and wait, spray and focus, intermittent networks.
A Comparative Study on Fuzzy and Neuro-Fuzzy Enabled Cluster Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
Dynamic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has played a significant task in research for the recent years. Energy consumption and data delivery in time are the major parameters with the usage of sensor nodes that are significant criteria for these networks. The location of sensor nodes must not be prearranged. Clustering in WSN is a key methodology which is used to enlarge the life-time of a sensor network. It consists of numerous real-time applications. The features of WSNs are minimized the consumption of energy. Soft computing techniques can be included to accomplish improved performance. This paper surveys the modern trends in routing enclose fuzzy logic and Neuro-fuzzy logic based on the clustering techniques and implements a comparative study of the numerous related methodologies.
Wireless sensor networks, clustering, fuzzy logic, neuro-fuzzy logic, energy efficiency.