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A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate
This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding (FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.
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[1] W. M. Thomas, K. I. Johnson and C. S. Wiesner, "Friction Stir Welding – Recent Developments in Tool and Process Technologies”, Adv. Eng. Mater., 2003, 5, (7), pp. 485-490.
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[3] M. Posada and S. Roush, "Friction stir welding- a promising new technique for joining metals”, Seaframe, 2005, 1, (Issue 2), pp. 17-18.
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[5] A. Simar, Y. Bréchet, B. De Meester, A. Denquin and T Pardoen, "Microstructure, local and global mechanical properties of friction stir welds in aluminium alloy 6005A-T6”, Mater. Sci. & Eng., 2008, A486, pp. 85-95.
[6] V. Balasubramanian, "Relationship between base metal properties and friction stir welding process parameters”, Mater. Sci. and Eng., 2008, A480, pp. 397-403.
[7] H. K .D. H. Bhadeshia and T. DebRoy, "Critical assessment: friction stir welding of steels”, Sci. and Technol. of Welding and Joining, 2009, 14, (3), pp. 193-196.
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[9] R. Rai, A. De, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia and T. Debroy, "Review: friction stir welding tools”, Sci. and Technol. of Welding and Joining, 2011, 16, (4), pp. 325-342.
[10] J. Perrett, J. Martin, J. Peterson, R. Steel and S. Packer, "Friction Stir welding of industrial steels”, TMS annual meeting, 27thFebruary – 3rd March 2011, San Diego, CA, USA.
[11] C. D. Sorensen, "Evaluation of PCBN pin tool wear during FSW of Structural steel”, Friction Stir Sci. and Technol. (ONR), Book of abstracts, PI Review Meeting, York, PA, USA, Oct 2009, pp. 30.
[12] K. H. Song, H. Fujii and K. Kakata, "Effect of welding speed on microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Inconel 600”, Mater. and Design, 2009, 30, pp. 3972-3978.
[13] H. Fujii, L. Cui, N. Tsuji, M. Maeda, K. Nakata and K. Nogi, "Friction stir welding of carbon steels”, Mater. Sci. and Eng., 2006, A 429, pp.50-57.
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[15] H.J. Liu, H.J. Zhang and L. Yu, "Effect of welding speed on microstructures and mechanical properties of underwater friction stir welded 2219 aluminium alloy”, Mater. and Design., 2011, 32, pp. 1548-1553.
[16] A.M. Galloway, J. Wood,N.A. McPherson and S.R. Cater, "A comparison between friction stir welded and submerged arc welded DH36 steel thin plate”, Trends in Welding Research, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference, 4-8th June 2012, Chicago, IL, USA.
[17] T. J. Lienert, W. L. Stellwag. Jr and L. R. Lehman, "Comparison of Heat Inputs: Friction Stir Welding vs. Arc Welding”, Edison Welding Institute Columbus, OH 43221.
[18] NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods,
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